WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural-gas engine exhaust

  1. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  2. Comparison of primary and secondary particle formation from natural gas engine exhaust and of their volatility characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas usage in the traffic and energy production sectors is a growing trend worldwide; thus, an assessment of its effects on air quality, human health and climate is required. Engine exhaust is a source of primary particulate emissions and secondary aerosol precursors, which both contribute to air quality and can cause adverse health effects. Technologies, such as cleaner engines or fuels, that produce less primary and secondary aerosols could potentially significantly decrease atmospheric particle concentrations and their adverse effects. In this study, we used a potential aerosol mass (PAM chamber to investigate the secondary aerosol formation potential of natural gas engine exhaust. The PAM chamber was used with a constant UV-light voltage, which resulted in relatively long equivalent atmospheric ages of 11 days at most. The studied retro-fitted natural gas engine exhaust was observed to form secondary aerosol. The mass of the total aged particles, i.e., particle mass measured downstream of the PAM chamber, was 6–268 times as high as the mass of the emitted primary exhaust particles. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation potential was measured to be 9–20 mg kgfuel−1. The total aged particles mainly consisted of organic matter, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium, with the fractions depending on exhaust after-treatment and the engine parameters used. Also, the volatility, composition and concentration of the total aged particles were found to depend on the engine operating mode, catalyst temperature and catalyst type. For example, a high catalyst temperature promoted the formation of sulfate particles, whereas a low catalyst temperature promoted nitrate formation. However, in particular, the concentration of nitrate needed a long time to stabilize – more than half an hour – which complicated the conclusions but also indicates the sensitivity of nitrate measurements on experimental parameters such as emission

  3. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  4. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  5. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  6. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  7. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  8. Spark ignition natural gas engines-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Haeng Muk; He, Bang-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the operating envelope, fuel economy, emissions, cycle-to-cycle variations in indicated mean effective pressure and strategies to achieve stable combustion of lean burn natural gas engines are highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines are briefly reviewed. To keep the output power and torque of natural gas engines comparable to those of their gasoline or Diesel counterparts, high boost pressure should be used. High activity catalyst for methane oxidation and lean deNOx system or three way catalyst with precise air-fuel ratio control strategies should be developed to meet future stringent emission standards

  9. Ceramic-coated components for the combustion zone of natural gas engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, L.; Levy, A. V.

    1992-03-01

    The use of ceramic coatings on the combustion zone surfaces of large,natural gas-fueled,internal com-bustion engines is discussed. Unique handling and quality control systems are required for plasma spray-ing thin (0.25 mm,0.0010) in.coatings on up to 48.25(cm19)-in.diameter piston crowns and cylinder heads weighing up to(1200 lb).The in-service performance characteristics of two types of natural gas-fu-eled combustion engines powering natural gas compressors that had thin zirconia ceramic coatings ap-plied to their combustion zone surfaces are presented. Their performance was measured in the field be-fore and after coating. It was determined that the durability,power output,fuel consumption,exhaust emissions,and other operating characteristics all improved due to ceramic coating of the flame side sur-faces of cylinder heads,power pistons,and valves.

  10. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  11. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  12. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  13. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  14. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  15. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus

  16. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  17. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  18. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  19. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  20. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  1. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  2. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T. et al.

    2010-10-15

    The overall aim of the project has been to assess to which extent it is possible to reduce the emissions by adjusting the different engines examined and to determine the cost of the damage caused by emissions from natural gas combustion. However, only health and climate effects are included. The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean-burn natural-gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units were chosen to be representative of the natural gas fired engine-based power production in Denmark. The measurements showed that NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n) at 5 % O{sub 2}) the UHC emission was increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 percentage point. Externalities in relation to power production are defined as the costs, which are not directly included in the price of the produced power. Health effects related to air pollution from power plants fall under this definition and usually dominate the results on external costs. For determination of these effects the exposure of the population, the impact of the exposure and the societal costs accompanying the impacts have been evaluated. As expected, it was found that when the engines are adjusted in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the emission of UHC increases and vice versa. It was found that at high NO{sub x} emission levels (500 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the external costs related to the NO{sub x} emissions are 15 to 25 times the costs related to UHC emissions. At low NO{sub x} emission levels (200 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the costs related to NO{sub x} are 5 to 8 times the costs related to UHC emissions. Apparently, the harmfulness

  3. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  4. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  5. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  6. Analysis of Modifications on a Spark Ignition Engine for Operation with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the key contributors to petroleum usage and emissions to the atmosphere. According to researchers, there are many ways to use transport by using renewable energy sources. Of these solutions, the immediate solution which requires less modification to current engine technology is by using gaseous fuels. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for minor modification to current engines. As it can be derived from anaerobic digestion process, the potential as a renewable energy source is tremendous, especially for an agricultural country such a Malaysia. The aim in the future will be operating an engine with natural gas only with pipelines straight to houses for easy filling. The fuel is light and can be easily carried in vehicles when in compressed form. As such, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is currently used in bi-fuel engines, but is mostly not optimized in term of their performance. The focus of the paper is to optimize a model of natural gas engine by one dimensional flow modeling for operation with natural gas. The model is analyzed for performance and emission characteristics produced by a gasoline engine and later compared with natural gas. The average performance drop is about 15% from its gasoline counterpart. The 4% benchmark indicates that the modification to ignition timing and compression ratio does improve engine performance using natural gas as fuel.

  7. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer

  8. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  9. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  10. Lean burn versus stoichiometric operation with EGR and 3-way catalyst of an engine fueled with natural gas and hydrogen enriched natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Saanum, Inge; Bysveen, Marie; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Engine tests have been performed on a 9.6 liter spark-ignited engine fueled by natural gas and a mixture of 25/75 hydrogen/natural gas by volume. The scope of the work was to test two strategies for low emissions of harmful gases; lean burn operation and stoichiometric operation with EGR and a three-way catalyst. Most gas engines today, used in city buses, utilize the lean burn approach to achieve low NOx formation and high thermal efficiency. However, the lean burn appro...

  11. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Measurement on four different engines. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2010-10-15

    The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean burn natural gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units have been chosen to be representative for the natural gas engine based on power production in Denmark. The NO{sub x} emissions were varied from around 200 to 500 mg/m3(n) by varying the ignition timing and the excess of air. For each of the examined engines measurements were conducted at different combinations of ignition timing and excess of air. The measurements showed the NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n)) the UHC emission were increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0,5 to 1,0 % point. (Author)

  12. CHOOSING OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF LIGHT-DUTY ENGINE RUNNING ON NATURAL GAS AND HYDROGEN MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dube

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of light-duty gas engine running on natural gas and hydrogen mixture has been given. The mathematical model of combustion process with variable Vibe combus-tion factor for this engine type has been specified.

  13. Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-17

    The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas. Adding natural gas at wide open throttle helps to reduce knock mitigating measures and increases the efficiency and power density compared to the other gasoline type fuels with lower knock resistance. The used methods, knock intensity and number of pressure waves, do not show significant differences in knock behavior for the natural gas - gasoline blends compared to the gasoline type fuels. A knock integral was used to describe the knock onset location of the fuels tested. Two different approaches were used to determine the experimental knock onset and were compared to the knock onset delivered by the knock integral (chemical knock onset). The gasoline type fuels show good agreement between chemical and experimental knock onset. However, the natural gas -gasoline blends show higher discrepancies comparing chemical and experimental knock onset.

  14. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  15. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  16. Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-12

    The primary objective of this cooperative research is to develop and verify models of internal combustion engine spark ignition devices in order to improve combustion chamber fuel ignition characteristics and to improve spark plug durability. As a direct result of this joint research, a novel spark plug design was improved. A theory of spark arc motion was developed that explains experimentally observed effects not explained by other published theories. The knowledge developed by this research will be used to further improve spark plugs as well as improve the ignition process in a combustion chamber. The predictive models developed here are compared with experimental measurements, including high-speed photographs, of the spark as it translates across the gap. Two different spark plug configurations were investigated: the conventional or J-gap plug, and a novel spark ignition device (the FANG plug) invented by Cummins, Inc., the CRADA partner. A description of the physics of arc dynamic motion in a spark plug gap, including the effects of an imposed transverse magnetic field, appears here in Appendix A as a result of the analytical effort. The theory proposed here does explain experimentally observed effects not completely explained by other research publications appearing in the scientific literature. These effects are due to pressure and ion, electron, and electrode interactions. A dominant mechanism for electrode erosion is presented for both spark plug configurations. Reversing the polarity of both types of spark plugs has verified this proposed erosion mechanism, according to data collected at Cummins. An extensive series of experiments measured the arc position, voltage, and current as a function of time during the approximately 2 millisecond spark discharge. FANG plug data, obtained with the fast-framing camera experimental apparatus operating at 200,000 frames per second, are presented that show the transverse arc velocity varying directly as the inverse

  17. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  18. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  19. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  20. Palladium based catalysts for exhaust aftertreatment of natural gas powered vehicles and biofuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingstedt, F.; Neyestanaki, A.K.; Byggningsbacka, R.; Lindfors, L.-E.; Lunden, M.; Petersson, M.; Tengstroem, P.; Ollonqvist, T.; Vaeyrynen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrothermally aged (1000/850C, 12/16h) Pd-Ce-supported alumina catalysts with high and low Ce content were prepared and tested in conversion of gas mixtures simulating the emissions from natural gas (NG) driven vehicles and biofuel combustion. The test procedure contained lean and rich light-off activity tests, stationary and oscillating lambda sweeps, space velocity tests as well as runs with sulphur poisoning. The catalysts exhibited high conversion of the model pollutants. In the oscillating lambda sweep experiments, the Pd-Ce/Al 2 O 3 with high Ce loading showed high activities in conversion of CH 4 and CO at lean λ values up to 1.04. Ageing under the reactants flow as well as hydrothermal treatment of the catalysts resulted in improved catalytic activities in terms of light-off temperatures of the model pollutants. This activation was believed to be a result of both Cl-release from the surface as well as restructuring of the Pd-particles. Interaction of Pd-Ce or Al-Ce induced at high temperature was also believed to affect the activation. Addition of 5ppm of SO 2 into the gas mixture of simulated emissions from biofuel combustion raised the T 50% of CH 4 by approximately 100C. SO 2 -TPD experiments were used to correlate the catalytic activity to S-poisoning. The catalysts were characterised by H 2 -adsorption, XPS, FTIR, SO 2 -/NO-/O 2 -TPD, XRD, XRF and N 2 -physisorption

  1. Hot surface assisted compression ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aesoey, Vilmar

    1996-12-31

    This study investigates the problem of ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine. Due to poor auto-ignition properties of natural gas compared to regular diesel engine fuels, a special arrangement to assist and secure ignition is required. The objective was to investigate the feasibility of using a hot surface as ignition assistance, primarily for application in medium and large size engines, and further study the main mechanisms involved in the ignition process. A constant volume combustion bomb and a test engine are used for experiments, supported by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Variable composition of natural gas depending on the gas source and over time, is a important problem causing significant variation in ignition properties. It is shown that even small quantities of non-methane components, which are normally present in natural gases, strongly influence ignition. Actions to handle the ignition problem caused by variable natural composition, are also discussed. In order to estimate the ignition properties of natural gas, a simple correlation to gas composition is proposed, showing good correlation to the experimental data. Mathematical models for simulation of the processes are developed based on fundamental physical relations and experimental results. They are mainly used in this study to support and analyze the physical experiments, but can also be useful in future design and optimization processes. 71 refs., 80 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Natural gas, partner of plastic engineers; Le gaz naturel, partenaire des plasturgistes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    Gaz de France company wishes to develop natural gas-fueled processes in plastic engineering thanks to the transfer of some of its technologies. The processes in concern are: infrared thermo-forming, polymers drying, cold production and moulds thermoregulation. Short note. (J.S.)

  3. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  4. Fuel savings in hot water heating plants by application of heat pumps operated with natural gas (natural gas heat pump). Project: gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, K.

    1980-12-01

    Energy consumption in residential heating using a heat pump driven by an internal combustion engine is discussed. A natural gas rotary engine was developed as a drive unit for a heat pump with 120 to 150 kW heating capacity. The engine was derived from an automotive prototype engine; it had an output of 50 kW at 6000 rpm. The efficiency was improved by an increased compression ratio and a rotor recess suitable for natural gas operation. The engine used specially developed spark plugs and high performance lubrication oil. To obtain longevity, the trochoid surface and the side housing surface were coated with a plasma spray wear coating, ceramic apex seals were used and the accessories were redesigned.

  5. Mechanical, thermo dynamical and environmental comparison of engines using natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo S, John R; Bedoya C, Ivan D; Moreno S, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows experimental results of a Toyota Hilux 2400-swept volume, compression ratio 9:1 engine, operating with La Guajira natural gas and petrol. Also shows a thermodynamic study of those fuels in a normalized, variable compression ratio ASTM-CFR monocylinder engine. When using natural gas, Hilux engine increases its fuel consumption around 20% for the same power. Volumetric efficiency increases 10% and co emissions de- crease around 40%. When comparing thermodynamic parameters in CFR engine operating at a compression ratio of 9:1, it was found a 12,5% decrease in indicated power and 17% in maximum combustion pressure, which is proportional to temperature diminish of around 20%. Convective heat transfer coefficient decreases around 28% respect to petrol. First laminar combustion phase is duplicated when using the same spark advance as petrol; nevertheless this is maintained almost constant when spark is advancing 15 degrades over petrol spark advance

  6. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  7. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  8. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  9. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  10. Design considerations for an engine-integral reciprocating natural gas compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakoutirad, Mohammad; Bradley, Thomas H.; Hagen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An engine-integral natural gas compressor was developed under contract to ARPA-E. • System is novel in that an engine powers its 6th cylinder as a multi-stage compressor. • A structural and functional description of the system is presented. • Dynamic and thermal characteristics of the system dictate the design. - Abstract: Conventionally, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are refueled using a high-cost, centralized, and sparse network of CNG fueling stations that has primarily been developed for the use of fleet customers. An engine-integral reciprocating natural gas (NG) compressor has the capability to disrupt the incumbent CNG market by enabling the use of NG for personal transportation, fueled at home, from the preexisting low-pressure NG infrastructure, at low parts count, using conventional components, and therefore at low incremental costs. The principal objective of this paper is therefore to describe and analyze the dynamic and thermal design considerations for an automotive engine-integral reciprocating NG compressor. The purpose of this compressor is to pressurize storage tanks in NG vehicles from a low-pressure NG source by using one of the engine cylinders as a multi-stage reciprocating compressor. The engine-integral compressor is developed by making changes to a 5.9 l displacement diesel-cycle automotive engine. In this novel design and implementation, a small tank and its requisite valving are added to the engine as an intermediate gas storage system to enable a single compressor cylinder to perform two-stage compression. The resulting maximum pressure in the storage tank is 250 MPa, equivalent to the storage and delivery pressure of conventional CNG delivery systems. Dynamic simulation results show that the high cylinder pressures required for the compression process create reaction torques on the crankshaft, but do not generate abnormal rotational speed oscillations. Thermal simulation results show that the temperature of

  11. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aljamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane. The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds.

  12. Final report on 9 kW Stirling Engine for biogas and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell

    2001-01-01

    The need for a simple and robust engine for natural gas and low quality gas has resulted in the design of a single cylinder, hermetic Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 9 kW. Two engines have been built. One engine is intended for natural gas as fuel and the other is intended...... eliminates guiding forces on the pistons and the need for X-heads. Grease lubricated needle and ball bearings are used in the kinematic crank mechanism in order to avoid oil penetrating into the cylinder volumes. Working gas is Helium at 8 MPa mean pressure. The engine produce up to 11 kW of shaft power...... corresponding to approximately 10 kW of electric power. The design target was an efficiency of 26 % based on lower heat content of the gas to electricity, but only 24% were obtained. The decrease of efficiency is caused by inhomogeneous capacity flows in the air preheater and insufficient insulation...

  13. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  14. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  15. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  16. Characterization of Erosion and Failure Processes of Spark Plugs After Field Service in Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Richards, Roger K [ORNL; Layton, David [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural and optical spectroscopic analyses were carried out on as-received and used spark plugs after field service in natural gas (NG) reciprocating engines. The objective of this work was to examine the corrosion and erosion mechanisms of natural gas engine spark plug as well as identify the primary life limiting processes during field operation. The optical emission spectroscopic analysis showed a strong Ca signal in the exposed spark plugs and scanning electron microscopy showed substantial formation of Ca-enriched glassy oxide phase(s) on the electrode surfaces. In addition, intergranular cracking was observed in the subsurface region of both iridium (Ir) and platinum-tungsten (Pt-W) alloy electrode insert tips. The coalescence and subsequent growth of these cracks would accelerate the wear of the electrodes and shorten the lifetime of the spark plugs. Also, extensive internal oxidation and subsequent crack generation occurred along the interface between Ni-base alloy electrode and Pt-W alloy tip insert during field service, which would result in substantial degradation in the ignitability and performance of the electrodes, and thus spark plug failure.

  17. Numerical investigation of natural gas direct injection properties and mixture formation in a spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollahi Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical model has been developed in AVL FIRE software to perform investigation of Direct Natural Gas Injection into the cylinder of Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. In this regard two main parts have been taken into consideration, aiming to convert an MPFI gasoline engine to direct injection NG engine. In the first part of study multi-dimensional numerical simulation of transient injection process, mixing and flow field have been performed via three different validation cases in order to assure the numerical model validity of results. Adaption of such a modeling was found to be a challenging task because of required computational effort and numerical instabilities. In all cases present results were found to have excellent agreement with experimental and numerical results from literature. In the second part, using the moving mesh capability the validated model has been applied to methane Injection into the cylinder of a Direct Injection engine. Five different piston head shapes along with two injector types have been taken into consideration in investigations. A centrally mounted injector location has been adapted to all cases. The effects of injection parameters, combustion chamber geometry, injector type and engine RPM have been studied on mixing of air-fuel inside cylinder. Based on the results, suitable geometrical configuration for a NG DI Engine has been discussed.

  18. Experimental and modeling study of hydrogen/syngas production and particulate emissions from a natural gas-fueled partial oxidation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, Michael H.; Lawson, Seth A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a combustion model was first applied to conditions representing varying compression ratios and equivalence ratios to investigate engine exhaust composition from partial oxidation (POX) of natural gas in reciprocating engines. The model was experimentally validated over a range of equivalence ratios from 1.3 to 1.6 with a spark-ignited single cylinder engine fueled by natural gas. The modeling results matched well with engine gaseous emission data over the experimental range. The model was also extended to higher equivalence ratios to predict H 2 and CO production at engine conditions and stoichiometries representative of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Secondly, over the same experimental range of equivalence ratios, particulate samples were taken to determine both total particulate mass production (g/hph) via gravimetric measurement as well as particle size distribution and loading via a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). While experiments indicate hydrogen yields up to 11% using spark ignition (SI), modeling results indicate that greater than 20% H 2 yield may be possible in HCCI operation. Over the experimental range, rich-burn particulate matter (PM) production is no greater than that from typical lean-burn operation. Finally, an energy balance was performed over the range of engine experimental operation. (author)

  19. Effect of intake manifold water injection on a natural gas spark ignition engine: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, H.; Scholl, F.; Kettner, M.; Amad, O. I.; Klaissle, M.; Giménez, B.

    2017-10-01

    Design and development of gas CHP (combined heat and power) engines are strongly influenced by the progressively more severe European NOx emissions normative. Water injection represents a promising approach to reduce these emissions while attaining high engine efficiency. In this work, the effect of intake manifold water injection on combustion parameters and performance of a single-cylinder naturally aspirated natural gas spark ignition engine is presented. First, the most appropriate injector was selected, using a spray test bed. Subsequently, engine experiments at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and engine speed were conducted with water-fuel ratios of 0.1 to 0.3. IMEP was kept constant at about 6.3 bar by adjusting both air-fuel ratio and spark timing. A NOx reduction of 0.2 g/kWhi (15 %) for a constant ISFC of about 204 g/kWhi was achieved. In the low NOx regime, water injection allows for an improvement of the NOx-ISFC trade-off, while leading to poor fuel consumption at same NOx in the high efficiency regime. Furthermore, water injection implies a reduction of intake mixture temperature, lengthened burning delay and combustion duration and a moderate increase of combustion instability.

  20. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  1. Conversion of low BMEP 4-cylinder to high BMEP 2-cylinder large bore natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, John

    There are more than 6,000 integral compressor engines in use on US natural gas pipelines, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of these engines have operated continuously for more than 50 years, with little to no modifications. Due to recent emission regulations at the local, state and federal levels much of the aging infrastructure requires retrofit technology to remain within compliance. The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was founded to test these retrofit technologies on its large bore engine testbed (LBET). The LBET is a low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) Cooper Bessemer GMVTF-4. Newer GMV models, constructed in 1980's, utilize turbocharging to increase the output power, achieving BMEP's nearly double that of the LBET. To expand the lab's testing capability and to reduce the LBET's running cost: material testing, in-depth modeling, and on engine testing was completed to evaluate the feasibility of uprating the LBET to a high BMEP two cylinder engine. Due to the LBET's age, the crankcase material properties were not known. Material samples were removed from engine to conduct an in-depth material analysis. It was found that the crankcase was cast out of a specific grade of gray iron, class 25 meehanite. A complete three dimensional model of the LBET's crankcase and power cylinders was created. Using historical engine data, the force inputs were created for a finite element analysis model of the LBET, to determine the regions of high stress. The areas of high stress were instrumented with strain gauges to iterate and validate the model's findings. Several test cases were run at the high and intermediate BMEP engine conditions. The model found, at high BMEP conditions the LBET would operate at the fatigue limit of the class 25 meehanite, operating with no factor of safety but the intermediate case were deemed acceptable.

  2. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS...

  4. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  5. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Miers, Scott [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the best

  6. Evaluation of the Predictive Capabilities of a Phenomenological Combustion Model for Natural Gas SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toman Rastislav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the predictive capabilities of a new phenomenological combustion model, available as a part of the GT-Suite software package. It is comprised of two main sub-models: 0D model of in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and turbulent SI combustion model. The 0D in-cylinder flow model (EngCylFlow uses a combined K-k-ε kinetic energy cascade approach to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence, where K and k are the mean and turbulent kinetic energies, and ε is the turbulent dissipation rate. The subsequent turbulent combustion model (EngCylCombSITurb gives the in-cylinder burn rate; based on the calculation of flame speeds and flame kernel development. This phenomenological approach reduces significantly the overall computational effort compared to the 3D-CFD, thus allowing the computation of full engine operating map and the vehicle driving cycles. Model was calibrated using a full map measurement from a turbocharged natural gas SI engine, with swirl intake ports. Sensitivity studies on different calibration methods, and laminar flame speed sub-models were conducted. Validation process for both the calibration and sensitivity studies was concerning the in-cylinder pressure traces and burn rates for several engine operation points achieving good overall results.

  7. Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a stationary natural gas engine family. To do this, a computational model is verified in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust systems are used. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the inlet and exhaust systems on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: valve timing, valve diameter, valve lift profiles, diameter of the exhaust manifold, inlet and exhaust pipe lengths, and geometry of pipe junctions. Proper sizing of the inlet and exhaust pipe systems is achieved very precisely by these investigations. Also, valve timing is tuned by using the results obtained in this study. In general, a very high improvement potential for the engines studied here is presented

  8. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  9. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  10. Performance of a diesel engine transformed to spark ignition using natural gas; Desempenho de um motor diesel convertido para utilizacao de gas natural como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Ricardo H.R. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LEDAV/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Dinamicos e Analise de Vibracao; Belchior, Carlos R.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LMT/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Maquinas Termicas; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC/Minas), MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model for a diesel engine converted for dedicated use of natural gas was developed in this work. The computational model covers from the time of closing the inlet valve to the time of opening the exhaust valve and it was divided into three stages (compression, combustion and expansion). A model based on the first law of thermodynamics for closed cycle has been developed to study the performance of the engine. The combustion process was modeled using the equation of Wiebe. It was taken into consideration the convective heat transfer through the walls of the cylinder and the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by the Eichelberg correlation. It was also considered that the thermodynamic properties vary with temperature. To represent the gas mixture behavior inside the cylinder two approaches (Ideal Gas Equation and Van Der Waals's Real Gas Equation) were used and results compared. The computational model was validated with experimental tests. (author)

  11. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  12. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  13. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, D. L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2007-05-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling

  14. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  15. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  16. Toxicity and mutagenicity of exhaust from compressed natural gas: Could this be a clean solution for megacities with mixed-traffic conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Avinash K; Ateeq, Bushra; Gupta, Tarun; Singh, Akhilendra P; Pandey, Swaroop K; Sharma, Nikhil; Agarwal, Rashmi A; Gupta, Neeraj K; Sharma, Hemant; Jain, Ayush; Shukla, Pravesh C

    2018-04-20

    Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine. Physical, chemical and biological characterizations of particulates were performed to assess the particulate toxicity. The mutagenic potential of particulate samples was investigated at different concentrations using two different Salmonella strains, TA98 and TA100 in presence and absence of liver S9 metabolic enzyme fraction. Particulates emitted from diesel and gasoline engines showed higher mutagenicity, while those from CNG engine showed negligible mutagenicity compared to other test fuels and engine configurations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed onto CNG engine particulates were also relatively fewer compared to those from equivalent diesel and gasoline engines. Taken together, our findings indicate that CNG is comparatively safer fuel compared to diesel and gasoline and can offer a cleaner transport energy solution for mega-cities with mixed-traffic conditions, especially in developing countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  18. Quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic detection of methane emitted from natural gas powered engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M. V.; Sthel, M. S.; Silva, M. G.; Paiva, L. B.; Pinheiro, F. W.; Miklòs, A.; Vargas, H.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we present a laser photoacoustic arrangement for the detection of the important greenhouse gas methane. A quantum-cascade laser and a differential photoacoustic cell were employed. A detection limit of 45 ppbv in nitrogen was achieved as well as a great selectivity. The same methodology was also tested in the detection of methane issued from natural gas powered vehicles (VNG) in Brazil, which demonstrates the excellent potential of this arrangement for greenhouse gas detection emitted from real sources.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number... specify speed and torque points, measure pressure while the engine produces maximum power. Use an exhaust... separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the...

  20. Quantitative imaging of equivalence ratios in a natural gas SI engine flow bench using acetone fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, L.; Charnay, G.; Bazile, R.; Ferret, B.

    2007-07-01

    Although compressed natural gas (CNG) is a gaseous fuel, the mixing process is quite different from air-liquid fuel mixing. The aim of this work is to understand the effect of the fuel feeding system on mixture homogeneity. Planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to produce quantitative equivalence ratio maps in the intake manifold. Fluorescence results from excitation of doped acetone in natural gas. Its emission is proportional to the fuel mass. Collected images were post processed to obtain the equivalence ratio. This work shows the difference between continuous injection at low speed and sequential injection. In the first part, we present the behaviour of the injection jet in the intake manifold. The second part displays a smaller section of the duct upstream of the intake valve. The study shows clearly the stratification effect obtained with continuous injection at low speed. A very homogenous mixture is observed for sequential injection with fuel trapped for a cycle and aspirated in the next cycle.

  1. Large-scale application of natural gas as an engine fuel in public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstegen, P.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Van Schagen, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Options and bottlenecks for the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in public transportation have been inventorized and discussed. Based on interviews with representatives of transportation businesses and their umbrella organizations the demands and wishes are listed in chapter one. In chapter two several types of natural gas storage cylinders, focusing on the weight and the costs of the cylinders and the consequences for the road tax. In chapter three attention is paid to the delivery possibilities of the bus manufacturers DAF, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and MAN. Technical specifications and data on the energy consumption, emission and other aspects are presented. In chapter three the characteristics of fastfill stations and slowfill stations are assessed for implementing problems, costs and reliability. The costs for the use of CNG in buses, as discussed in chapter five, consist of additional costs for the bus, maintenance, road tax, filling station, safety provisions, and reduced costs for the fuel. In chapter six the regulations and legislation for the use of CNG in vehicles, filling stations and storage cylinders is dealt with. In the final chapters seven and eight the necessity of introductory courses and training is briefly discussed, and an overview of current projects in the Netherlands is given. 13 figs., 14 tabs., refs

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  3. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  4. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  5. Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S. R.; inivasan, K. K.

    2010-09-14

    Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx). Further, the 60° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NOx trends, which showed the lowest NOx emissions for the 60°, 20°, and 40° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to

  6. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  8. Application of the Stirling engine driven with cryogenic exergy of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczygieł, Ireneusz; Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    LNG (liquefied natural gas) delivered by means of sea-ships is pressurized and then regasified before its introduction to the system of pipelines. The utilization of cryogenic exergy of LNG for electricity production without combustion of any its portion is analyzed. For the conversion of LNG cryogenic exergy into electricity, the Stirling engine is proposed to be applied. The theoretical thermodynamic model of Stirling engine has been applied. This model is used to investigate the influence of pinch temperature in heat exchangers, engine compression ratio and dead volumes ratios on the thermodynamic parameters of the Stirling engine. The results of simulation represent the input data for investigations of thermodynamic performance of the proposed system. In order to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the proposed process, an exergy analysis has been applied. The exergy efficiency and influence of design and operational parameters on exergy losses are determined for each of the proposed system configurations. The obtained results represent the background for advanced exergy-based analyses, including thermo-ecological cost. - Highlights: • Application of Stirling engine in LNG regasification. • Thermodynamic model of Stirling engine for cryogenic exergy recovery is applied. • Sensitivity analysis of operational parameters on system behaviour is applied. • Exergy analysis is conducted.

  9. Installation and testing of a cummins Qsk19 lean burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Franklin H.

    The goal for a more efficient engine will never disappear. Over the years many different techniques have been explored within the common goal of higher efficiency. Lean combustion has proven to be effective at increasing efficiencies as well as reducing emissions. The purpose of this thesis is to install a modern Cummins QSK19G and perform certain test that will explore the lean combustion limits and other methods that could possibly increase efficiency even more. The entire installation and instrumentation process is documented within this thesis. The engine was installed in the Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory at Colorado State University. The engine was installed with the hopes of instilling the desire for endless future tests from Cummins as well as other companies seeking this type of research engine. The lean limit was explored in the most detail. Cummins supplied a test plan that satisfied their desired stopping at a lean limit when the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure reached 5%. For the curiosity of others involved and this thesis, the lean limit was explored further until the engine could no longer ignite the ultra-lean combustion mixture. Friction accounts for a significant loss in a modern internal combustion engine. One role of the engine oil is to reduce these frictional losses as much as possible without causing increased wear. A test was conducted on the QSK19G to explore the effects of varying the engine oil viscosity. Frictional losses of two different viscosity oils were compared to the stock engine oil losses. The fact that reducing oil viscosity reduces frictional losses was proven in the test.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermouni, Mohamed; Ouadha, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI based system has been carried out. • A thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process. • The specific heat of the working fluid is temperature dependent. - Abstract: This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine

  11. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  12. Effect of diesel pre-injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignited natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Min; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Hongfei; An, Tao; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-injection timing on combustion and emission of CING engine are studied. • Closely pre-injection operations leads to increase of combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection operations leads to lower combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection modes provide better NO x emission. - Abstract: Pre-injection strategy is considered to be one of the most important ways to improve diesel engine performance, emission and combustion. It is the same important factor in pilot diesel compression ignition natural gas (CING) engine. In this study, effects of pre-injection timing on combustion and emission performances were experimentally studied in a CING engine which was modified from a turbocharged six-cylinder diesel engine. The experiments were conducted at constant speed of 1400 rpm and different engine loads with a constant fuel injection pressure of 1100 bar. Main injection timing was fixed at 10 °CA BTDC in the advance process of pre-injection timing. The cylinder pressure, heart release rate (HRR), pressure rise rate (PRR), start of combustion (SOC) and coefficient of variation (COV IMEP ), as well as NO x , HC and CO emissions were analyzed. The results indicated that closely pre-injection operations lead to the advance of SOC which intensified combustion of in-cylinder mixture, thereby resulting in higher cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR, as well higher NO x emissions and lower HC and CO emissions. However, early pre-injection operations lead to lower cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR due to decreasing in combustion intensity. Pre-injection timing of 70 °CA BTDC is a conversion point in which influence of pre-injection fuel on ignition and combustion of natural gas nearly disappeared and lowest NO x emission could be obtained. Compared with single injection ignition mode, NO x emissions at the conversion point were reduced by 33%, 38% and 7% at engine load of 38%, 60% and 80% respectively. This is important for the conditions that ignition fuel

  13. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  15. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines - calculation of health externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohn, L.M.; Becker, T.; Christensen, Jesper; Hertel, O.; Silver, J.D.; Villadsen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)); Soees Hansen, M. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The measured emissions of WP1 of the project has been applied as input for model calculations with the EVA model system. The DEHM model which calculates the regional scale delta-concentrations has been further developed to handle the low signal to noise ratio of the delta-concentrations related to the small sources that the gas fired engines constitute. All combinations of engine settings and locations have been run as scenarios with the EVA system, however the results have been grouped into themes to investigate changes related to location as well as changes related to engine settings. New exposure-response relations have been implemented in the system related to the chemical components nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, ethene and propene. The choice of high-exposure location in the calculations has unfortunately turned out to be less optimal. The location at Store Valby has previously been applied in studies with the EVA system as a high-exposure site, however in previous applications, the emission sources have been large power plants with stack heights of around 150 meters. The height of the stack of the gas fired engines is only around 30 meters, and the consequence is that the emitted components reach the surface closer to the stack, thereby giving high exposure in an area located further to the southwest, where the population density is not as high as in central Copenhagen. In general the marginal health costs (in Euro pr kg) of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde emissions are very small. The emissions of formaldehyde are also small and the resulting costs for this component is therefore very small. The emission of carbon monoxide is much larger, however the small marginal cost makes the contribution to the total costs small, also for this component. The marginal health costs of nitrogen oxides and ethene emissions show little variation with engine scenario. However the general picture is that as the NO{sub x} emissions increase (either by increasing ignition

  16. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... malfunctions) upon the aerodynamic control of the airplane may not result in any condition that would require..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval is...

  17. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  18. Cogeneration with natural gas fired internal combustion engines: Italian utility's 10 years operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montermini, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experience that AGAC, an Italian gas and water utility, has acquired in the operation of a 116 Km long district heating network serving about 40,000 inhabitants. The network is powered by a mix of methane fuelled Otto and diesel cycle engines, coal fired fluidized bed boilers, and methane fired boilers producing annually about 153,000 kW of thermal energy, 2,300 kW of cooling energy, and 28.8 million kWh of electric power. This paper reports on the performance of this system in terms of production and sales trends, equipment efficiency and compatibility with new European Communities air pollution standards

  19. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  20. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  1. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalava Pasi I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM. We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590 and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214 and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC. A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were

  2. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  3. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  4. Development of a Cummins ISL Natural Gas Engine at 1.4g/bhp-hr NOx + NMHC Using PLUS Technology: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, M. M.

    2005-07-01

    NREL subcontractor report describes Cummins Westport, Inc.'s development of an 8.9 L natural gas engine (320 hp, 1,000 ft-lb peak torque) with CARB emissions certification of 1.4 g/bhp-hr NOx + NMHC.

  5. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  6. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  7. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  8. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Electromagnetic Exhaust Valve Event Optimization for Enhancing Gasoline Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable exhaust valve events have the potential to further improve the engine power output, fuel economy and decrease the NOX emissions. Based on the moving coil electromagnetic valve train applied to engine exhaust system, effects of variable exhaust valve events are analyzed in detail and the optimization approaches are carried out. Also with the fully variable intake and exhaust valve train, different internal EGR strategies can be achieved and the contrastive analyses are carried out between combustion chamber recirculation and exhaust port recirculation strategies at same operational condition. Results show that, the optimal exhaust valve opening motion can strengthen both power performance and fuel economy at engine part loads. And two principal EGR strategies are applied in a good combination under variable engine loads. At the engine speed of 2000 r/min, BMEP is about 0.3 MPa and with 30%~35% exhaust port recirculation rate, the BSFC and NOX emissions have decrease over 10% and 85% respectively compare with initial condition.

  10. Natural gas passenger vehicles: challenges and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, B. B.; Hamouda, A. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas vehicles have been used in the world for many years: at present, there are about 3 million vehicles running on natural gas and many governments and vehicle manufactures are involved in programs for further developing the market for natural gas vehicles. In comparison to other forms of energy for vehicles, natural gas (NG) engenders low pressures on the environment. At the same time, because of its technical characteristics, NG is very suitable for motor use. The economic advantage of converting a vehicles (NGVs) would be expected to attract the interest of a great number of people, and achieve rapid and widespread diffusion. On the contrary, traditional fuels still dominate the scene, and show no sign of going out of fashion. The use of natural gas as automotive fuel has become of national and worldwide interests particularly so with the recent increase in petrol price, depleting petrol reserves and stringent control of exhaust emission levels. For automotive applications, shifting from petrol to gas needs technological research and development. Within the framework of the reciprocating piston based engine this development is very challenging with technological issues of low range, refueling infrastructure, heavy fuel storage, safety, emissions control and gas operating pressures. Other issues include available expertise and experience in research management. This paper describes the advances being made with passenger vehicles natural gas engines worldwide and in Malaysia more specific. The significant milestones in the development of NGV in Malaysia and the rationale behind the choice of NGV industry including the NGV vehicle population growth, the development of service station as well as the expansion of the sales volume will be illustrated. The presentation presents also development stages and advances in development, fabrication and testing a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection vehicle and NGV refueling station. This presentation discuses the

  11. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  12. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  13. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  14. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  17. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  18. Cost comparison of natural-gas reciprocating engines and electric motors in variable-load industrial applications. Topical report Dec 84-Mar 85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report compares natural gas-fired reciprocating engines and electrical motors, with and without variable-frequency speed controller, for one such industrial application. Two types of engines, with and without heat recovery, and three types of motors, standard, high efficiency, and high efficiency with variable-frequency speed controller, are considered. The total life-cycle costs of these five prime movers are compared for three scenarios with varying extent of part-load operations. The relative importance of each cost component is evaluated based on this comparison. The effect of engine heat utilization is addressed parametrically to demonstrate this additional benefit from gas prime movers.

  19. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  20. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  1. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  2. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  3. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  4. Increase in the thermodynamic efficiency of the working process of spark-ignited engines on natural gas with the addition of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovna Smolenskaya, Natalia; Vladimirovich Smolenskii, Victor; Vladimirovich Korneev, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    The work is devoted to the substantiation and practical implementation of a new approach for estimating the change in internal energy by pressure and volume. The pressure is measured with a calibrated sensor. The change in volume inside the cylinder is determined by changing the position of the piston. The position of the piston is precisely determined by the angle of rotation of the crankshaft. On the basis of the proposed approach, the thermodynamic efficiency of the working process of spark ignition engines on natural gas with the addition of hydrogen was estimated. Experimental studies were carried out on a single-cylinder unit UIT-85. Their analysis showed an increase in the thermodynamic efficiency of the working process with the addition of hydrogen in a compressed natural gas (CNG).The results obtained make it possible to determine the characteristic of heat release from the analysis of experimental data. The effect of hydrogen addition on the CNG combustion process is estimated.

  5. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  6. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  7. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A reduced mechanism for predicting the ignition timing of a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane in HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlouli, Keyvan; Atikol, Ugur; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms. • The mechanisms are combined to develop a reaction mechanism for a fuel blend. • The genetic algorithm is used for optimization of reaction constants. • The developed reduced mechanism can be used to predict the ignition timing in HCCI engine for a fuel blend. - Abstract: One of the main challenges associated with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine application is the lack of direct control on ignition timing. One of the solutions to this problem is mixing two fuels with various properties at a variety of ratios on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In the current study, a reduced mechanism for a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane is proposed. The approach is validated for the prediction of ignition timing in the HCCI combustion engine. A single-zone combustion model is used to simulate the HCCI engine. A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms of existing semi-detailed GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism that contains 53 species and 325 reactions and Golovichev’s mechanism consisting of 57 species and 290 reactions for natural gas and n-heptane fuels, respectively. Firstly, the unimportant species and related reactions are identified by employing the directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP) reduction method and then, to extend reduction, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is utilized. To evaluate the validity of the reduced mechanism, representative engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, maximum heat release, and CA50 are used. The reduced mechanism of GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism, containing 19 species and 39 reactions, and the reduced mechanism of Golovichev’s mechanism, consisting of 40 species and 95 reactions, provide good prediction for the mentioned parameters in comparison with those of detailed mechanisms. The combination of the generated reduced mechanisms is used to develop a

  9. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  10. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  11. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  12. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  13. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  14. Has the natural gas fueled bus any future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Helsinki City Transport has decided to operate public transport in the center of the city with tramways and gas-fuelled busses. The decision is that there will be about 100 natural gas fueled busses in Helsinki by the year 2003. European exhaust gas emission (NO x and particulates) regulations have tightened strongly during the past few years. The regulations have forced to search for new fuels by the side of development of diesel engines. Alcohols, in spite of favourable fuel properties, are too expensive, so the use of them needs large subsidies for transportation sector. Gaseous fuels, both LPG and natural gas are suitable fuels for Otto cycle-cycle engines. After the previous oil crisis the interest in gas-fuelled engines has steadily decreased, but at present it is increasing again because of the objectives to decrease emissions of heavy vehicles at the level of gasoline-fuelled vehicles, equipped with three-way catalyst. From the point of view of emissions natural gas and LPG are seen as equivalent alternatives. The price of LPG varies on the basis of demand and on the basis of the prices of other oil products. Refuelling of a vehicle and storage of LPG in liquid form in the tank of the vehicle is easier than refuelling and fuel storage of natural gas. Investments to refuelling equipment of LPG are only 20% of those of the natural gas refuelling systems. The problem of natural gas is also the fact that is not easy to carry in the vehicle. Even if natural gas is compressed to pressure of 200 bars, it requires six times larger tanks if the refuelling intervals are the same. Liquefaction of natural gas reduces the volume significantly, but this is complicated and hence expensive. The tank of a vehicle should be vacuum insulated because the temperature of the LNG is about 160 deg C. Tank volume of LPG is only about twice that of diesel oil. Safety of natural gas is high, because it is lighter than the air, nearly a half of the density of the air. Octane ratings

  15. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  16. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  17. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, J.N.; Miller, S.K.; Jay, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  18. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  19. Natural gas vehicles: Technical assessment and overview of world situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    In evaluating commercialization prospects for natural gas fuelled vehicles, this paper compares the performance and emission quality of these innovative vehicles with those using conventional fuels - gasoline and diesel fuels. Assessments are made of the state-of-the-art of current technology relative to fuel storage, air/fuel mixture preparation, in cylinder combustion processes and pollution control. The analysis evidences that while natural gas is an excellent fuel for spark ignition engines, in transport applications its use is hampered by large storage volume requirements and weight. Moreover, the air/fuel mixture preparation, combustion process and exhaust-gas cleaning require a greater research and development effort to make this alternative fuel economically and environmentally competitive with conventional fuels

  20. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  1. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  2. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  3. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  4. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  5. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  6. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  7. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  8. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  9. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  10. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  11. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  12. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  13. THE EFFECT OF ADDING HYDROGEN ON THE PERFORMANCE AND THE CYCLIC VARIABILITY OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Chríbik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of blending hydrogen (from 0 to 50% vol. on the parameters and the cyclic variability of a Lombardini LGW702 combustion engine powered by natural gas. The experimental measurements were carried out at various air excess ratios and at various angles of spark advance, at an operating speed of 1500 min−1. An analysis of the combustion pressure showed that as the proportion of hydrogen in the mixture increases, the maximum pressure value also increases. However, at the same time the cyclic variability decreases. Both the ignition-delay period and the period of combustion of the mixture become shorter, which requires optimization of the spark advance angle for various proportions of hydrogen in the fuel. The increasing proportion of hydrogen extends the flammability limit to the area of lean-burn mixtures and, at the same time, the coefficient of cyclic variability of the mean indicated pressure decreases.

  14. The impact of the weather conditions on the cooling performance of the heat pump driven by an internal natural gas combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janovcová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market with sources of heat and cold offers unlimited choice of different power these devices, design technology, efficiency and price categories. New progressive technologies are constantly discovering, about which is still little information, which include heat pumps powered by a combustion engine running on natural gas. A few pieces of these installations are in Slovakia, but no studies about their work and effectiveness under real conditions. This article deals with experimental measurements of gas heat pump efficiency in cooling mode. Since the gas heat pump works only in system air – water, air is the primary low – energy source, it is necessary to monitor the impact of the climate conditions for the gas heat pump performance.

  15. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  16. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  17. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  18. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  19. The prospects of natural gas vehicles in France and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the availability and environmental advantages of natural gas, several countries soon felt that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) were a logical way to respond to transportation needs while meeting up to the standards of sustainable development. Natural gas is now a genuine alternative to petroleum products, and NGVs are capable of using the current engine technology. (author)

  20. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  1. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate......Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... Filter (DPF) which filters PM, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst which removes NO and NO2 through reaction with NH3, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) which removes excess ammonia (NH3) before the gases are released to the atmosphere. SCR is a widely used technology to reduce NOx to N2...

  2. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...... is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop...... system adequately in engine loading transients so alternative methods are needed. This paper presents the design, convergence proofs and experimental validation of an adaptive feedforward controller that significantly improves the performance in loading transients. First the control concept...

  3. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  4. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it passes... discharge terminating in a transom must be located as far outboard as practicable so that exhaust gases...

  6. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs

  7. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  8. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  9. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooraj Rehan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of high levels of EGR has been well documented to decrease fuel consumption and reduce emissions of spark ignition engines. But there are also many limitations associated with this technology like EGR control and tolerance, which can reduce the potential efficiency improvements. A new concept called D-EGR has been presented in which the exhaust from a sub group of power cylinders is channeled back to the intake of all the cylinders. In this literature review both experimental and numerical analysis of this technology is shown. In the former case experiments were performed on 2.0 L PFI engine with gasoline as a fuel in part and high load conditions and the results show that at part loads the D-EGR engine can lead to lower Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, lower HC and CO emissions and higher brake thermal efficiency. At high load operations the results show improved combustion stability and superior knock tolerance. In the numerical studies it shows comparable thermal efficiency with conventional SI engines and reduction in NOX emissions.

  13. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  14. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  15. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  16. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. What drives natural gas prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P. A.; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  20. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessment of Component-level Emission Measurements Using a High Volume Sampler at Oil and Natural Gas Production Pads in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and natural gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit a substantial amount of greenhouse gasses, hydrocarbons and hazardous air pollutants into the atmosphere. These emissions come from a wide variety of sources including engine exhaust, combustor gases, atm...

  7. An experimental investigation of a lean-burn natural-gas pre-chamber spark ignition engine for cogeneration; Swiss Motor. Modification d'un moteur diesel pour le fonctionnement au gaz naturel en cogeneration. Fonctionnement avec prechambre de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Favrat, D.

    2001-07-01

    This thesis presented at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne describes the conversion and testing of a commercial diesel engine for use as a lean-burn, natural gas, pre-chamber, spark ignition engine with a rated power of 150 kW, in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The objective of the investigations - to evaluate the potential of reducing exhaust gas emissions - is discussed in detail with respect to NO{sub x} and CO emissions. The approach adopted includes both experimental work and numerical simulation. The report describes the testing facilities used. The results obtained with experimental spark-plug configurations based on simulation results are presented and the influence of various pre-chamber configuration variants are discussed. The results of the tests are presented and the significant reduction of NO{sub x}, CO and unburned-hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are discussed. The authors state that the engine, which achieves a fuel efficiency of more than 36.5%, fulfils the Swiss requirements on exhaust gas emissions. Also, ways of compensating for the slight loss in fuel-conversion efficiency in the pre-chamber configuration are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling : Volume 2. Appendix 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    The appendix to the preceding volume presents the data for the subject diesel engine noise study, including an engine sound power level analysis and sound spectrums showing the effect of intake and exhaust restrictions.

  9. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  10. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D [Laramie, WY

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  11. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  12. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  13. Methane Emissions from Leak and Loss Audits of Natural Gas Compressor Stations and Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2015-07-07

    As part of the Environmental Defense Fund's Barnett Coordinated Campaign, researchers completed leak and loss audits for methane emissions at three natural gas compressor stations and two natural gas storage facilities. Researchers employed microdilution high-volume sampling systems in conjunction with in situ methane analyzers, bag samples, and Fourier transform infrared analyzers for emissions rate quantification. All sites had a combined total methane emissions rate of 94.2 kg/h, yet only 12% of the emissions total resulted from leaks. Methane slip from exhausts represented 44% of the total emissions. Remaining methane emissions were attributed to losses from pneumatic actuators and controls, engine crankcases, compressor packing vents, wet seal vents, and slop tanks. Measured values were compared with those reported in literature. Exhaust methane emissions were lower than emissions factor estimates for engine exhausts, but when combined with crankcase emissions, measured values were 11.4% lower than predicted by AP-42 as applicable to emissions factors for four-stroke, lean-burn engines. Average measured wet seal emissions were 3.5 times higher than GRI values but 14 times lower than those reported by Allen et al. Reciprocating compressor packing vent emissions were 39 times higher than values reported by GRI, but about half of values reported by Allen et al. Though the data set was small, researchers have suggested a method to estimate site-wide emissions factors for those powered by four-stroke, lean-burn engines based on fuel consumption and site throughput.

  14. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohasseb, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  16. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  18. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  19. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  20. Lab-scale Lidar Sensing of Diesel Engines Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, A.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion technology and its environmental concerns are being considered with increasing attention, not only for global-scale effects, but also for toxicological implications, particularly in the lift conditions of traffic-congested areas and industrial sites. Majority combustion by-products (CO, NO(sub x)) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), are already subject to increasingly severe regulations; however other, non-regulated minority species, mainly soot and heavy aromatic molecules, involve higher health risks, as they are suspected to be agents of serious pathologies and even mutagenic effects. This is but one of the reasons why much research work is being carried out worldwide on the physical properties of these substances. Correspondingly, the need arises to detect their presence in urban environments, with as high a sensitivity as is required by their low concentrations, proper time- and space-resolutions, and 'real-time' capabilities. Lidar techniques are excellent candidates to this purpose, although severe constraints limit their applicability, eye-safety problems and aerosol Mie scattering uncertainties above all. At CNR's Istituto Motori in Napels, a Lidar-like diagnostic system is being developed, aimed primarily at monitoring the dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel exhausts, and at exploring the feasibility of a so-called 'Downtown Lidar'.

  1. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  4. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  5. Natural gas; Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, A.

    2010-09-15

    Among all the different energies which will answer to the world demand, natural gas has undoubtedly a particular and preferential position. It possesses indeed several favourable factors, among them a lower CO{sub 2} release than the other fossil resources. Natural gas will have to continue its development and to affirm its role in the years 2030. (O.M.)

  6. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  7. CFD and Experimental Analysis on Thermal Performance of Exhaust System of a Spark Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    DURAT, Mesut; PARLAK, Zekeriya; KAPSIZ, Murat; PARLAK, Adnan; FIÇICI, Ferit

    2013-01-01

    Catalysts of a gasoline engine become active when the exhaust temperature exceeds 200 oC. Cold start HCs are extremely high until catalysts reach the light-off temperature. Determination of optimum place and necessary time of the catalyst to reach this temperature is of vital importance. Interaction between exhaust gas and inner wall, along with the exhaust pipe needs to be well-understood. The interaction can be computed by numerical solutions based on fluid dynamics and heat transfer equati...

  8. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  9. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  10. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  11. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  12. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH UTILIZING EXHAUST GASES RECIRCULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Petar Kazakov

    2016-01-01

    From the various methods for reducing harmful exhaust emissions as combustion control, improved fuel injection form of the combustion chamber, recirculation of the combustion products, impact of smoke particles, the addition of water, synthetic fuel. Is established that the system for recirculation of exhaust gas is one of the most effective methods for obtaining of lower values of NOx, because the reduced temperature of the combustion process and excess oxygen.

  14. Performance of Blowdown Turbine Driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Desmon, Leland G

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.

  15. Influence of increased exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the thermodynamic processes in CI DI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielecha, I.; Skowron, M.; Bueschke, W.; Cieślik, W.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the conducted research was the thermodynamic identification of combustion process involving up to 50-60% recirculated exhaust gasses in compression ignition engine. The values of the respective indicators obtained for the high share of exhaust gasses in the cylinder were compared to the values obtained in the engine working without EGR. The research was conducted on the single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine equipped with recirculated gas cooling system. The conditions of combustion process were determined using indicators of engine operation and measurements of fast-varying cylinder pressure. The evaluation of the influence of different share of exhaust gases in the cylinder on the combustion course and heat release was conducted. As a result of the conducted research the possibility of utilizing the high share of exhaust gasses (50-60%) with simultaneous ecological benefits, not only in relation to nitrogen oxides, was demonstrated.

  16. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  17. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... from advertisements or other marketing materials for any engines in the engine family. (B) Your basic...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK... for marine generator engines Class I 10.0 610 5.0 Class II 8.0 610 5.0 (b) Averaging, banking, and...) Other engines: THC emissions. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards in...

  19. Effect of Exhaust Pressure on the Cooling Characteristics of a Liquid-Cooled Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ronald B.; Desmon, Leland G.

    1947-01-01

    Data for a liquid-cooled engine with a displacement volume of 1710 cubic inches were analyzed to determine the effect of exhaust pressure on the engine cooling characteristics. The data covered a range of exhaust pressures from 7 to 62 inches of mercury absolute, inlet-manifold pressures from 30 to 50 inches of mercury absolute, engine speeds from 1600 to 3000 rpm, and fuel-air ratios from 0.063 to 0.100. The effect of exhaust pressure on engine cooling was satisfactorily incorporated in the NACA cooling-correlation method as a variation in effective gas temperature with exhaust pressure. Large variations of cylinder-head temperature with exhaust pressure were obtained for operation at constant charge flow. At a constant charge flow of 2 pounds per second (approximately 1000 bhp) and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, an increase in exhaust pressure from 10 to 60 inches of mercury absolute resulted in an increase of 40 F in average cylinder-head temperature. For operation at constant engine speed and inlet-manifold pressure and variable exhaust pressure (variable charge flow), however, the effect of exhaust pressure on cylinder-head temperature is small. For example, at an inlet-manifold pressure of 40 inches of mercury absolute, an engine speed of 2400 rpm.- and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, the average cylinder-head temperature was about the same at exhaust pressures of 10 and 60 inches of,mercury absolute; a rise and a subsequent decrease of about 70 occurred between these extremes.

  20. Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2007-01-01

    .... As such, Russia has some ability to dictate natural gas prices. Russia cut off the gas supply to Ukraine and Moldova in January 2006 and threatened to cut off gas supplies to Belarus and Georgia during late 2006 price negotiations...

  1. Generation and propagation of shock waves in the exhaust pipe of a 4 cycle automobile engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, N.; Matsumura, S.; Aoki, K.; Takayama, K.

    1990-07-01

    An experimental investigation was made of reduction of noise generated in the exhaust pipe of a half liter 4-cycle water-cooled automobile gasoline engine. The pressure measurement along the exhaust pipe showed the nonlinear transition of compression waves discharged from the exhaust port of the engine into shock waves. In order to obtain a direct evidence of shock waves in the exhaust pipe, a flow visualization study was also conducted using a double exposure holographic interferometry. Weak shock waves of Mach number 1.09 exist in the exhaust pipe. For the purpose of collecting the data for designing optimum muffler configurations, additional shock tube experiments were carried out. The results indicates that the study of the non-linear wave interaction and propagation is important for the design of muffler.

  2. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  3. An introduction to the economics of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    2003-03-01

    This paper is an up-to-date, but only moderately technical survey, of the natural gas market. Supply, demand and pricing are discussed, and, in the light of the electricity deregulation experiment in California, where the expression ''dangerous failure'' has been repeatedly used to describe the extensive losses suffered by final consumers and utilities (or retailers), a modicum of attention is paid to the prospects for deregulating natural gas. Some microeconomics of the natural gas market is presented at a more elementary level than in author's energy economics textbook (2000) or book ''The Political Economy of Natural Gas'' (1987), and the author makes a studied attempt to avoid bringing the misleading Hotelling model (of exhaustible resource depletion) into the exposition. Finally, some comments on risk management with futures contracts are provided, and there is a brief mathematical appendix on futures, options and two-part pricing. (author)

  4. An introduction to the economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an up-to-date, but only moderately technical survey, of the natural gas market. Supply, demand and pricing are discussed, and, in the light of the electricity deregulation experiment in California, where the expression ''dangerous failure'' has been repeatedly used to describe the extensive losses suffered by final consumers and utilities (or retailers), a modicum of attention is paid to the prospects for deregulating natural gas. Some microeconomics of the natural gas market is presented at a more elementary level than in author's energy economics textbook (2000) or book ''The Political Economy of Natural Gas'' (1987), and the author makes a studied attempt to avoid bringing the misleading Hotelling model (of exhaustible resource depletion) into the exposition. Finally, some comments on risk management with futures contracts are provided, and there is a brief mathematical appendix on futures, options and two-part pricing. (author)

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  6. Desempeño y emisiones de un motor de combustión interna con combustible dual Diesel – Gas natural ;Performance and emissions study of an internal combustion engine with dual fuel diesel - natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los problemas reportados para los sistemas duales diesel- gas natural ocurren por mala dosificación del gas. Por esta razón se adaptó un sistema de alimentación dual con inyección electrónica de gas natural a un motor de combustión interna encendido por compresión. Se plantea un diseño experimental controlando el dosado de gas natural.Como resultado se obtiene un análisis comparativo entre los valoresde desempeño y emisiones desde la operación Diesel y Diesel-Gas natural. A partir de este análisis es posible observar que el desempeño del motor no se ve afectado por la operación del motor bajo el esquema Dual Diesel-GN, es decir que el motor funcionando bajo modo dual puede sostener las cargas solicitadas al motor. También se observa que la eficiencia volumétrica mejora bajo todas las condiciones de operación dual y las emisiones son mejores sólo cuando el motor trabaja a altas cargas. Many of the problems reported for dual diesel-natural gas systems occur due to poor gas dosage. For this reason a natural gas electronic injection feeding system was adapted to a compression ignitios internal combustion engine. An experimental design controlling the natural gas dosage is considered. As a result a comparative analysis between performance and emissions from the Diesel-and diesel-Natural Gas operation is obtained. From this analysis it is possible to see that engine performance is not affected by operation of the engine under the dual mode, i.e. the motor running under dual mode can support the loads applied to the engine. It is also observed that the volumetric efficiency improves under all conditions of operation and emissions from the dual mode of operation are better only when working at high engine loads.

  7. Performance study of an innovative natural gas CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lin; Zhao, Xiling; Zhang, Shigang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Sun, Zuoliang

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovation and changes in the economic and regulatory environment have resulted in increased attention to distributed energy systems (DES). Combined cooling heating and power (CHP) systems based on the gas-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) are increasingly used as small-scale distribution co-generators. This paper describes an innovative ICE-CHP system with an exhaust-gas-driven absorption heat pump (AHP) that has been set up at the energy-saving building in Beijing, China. The system is composed of an ICE, an exhaust-gas-driven AHP, and a flue gas condensation heat exchanger (CHE), which could recover both the sensible and latent heat of the flue gas. The steady performance and dynamic response of the innovative CHP system with different operation modes were tested. The results show that the system's energy utilization efficiency could reach above 90% based on lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas; that is, the innovative CHP system could increase the heat utilization efficiency 10% compared to conventional CHP systems, and the thermally activated components of the system have much more thermal inertia than the electricity generation component. The detailed test results provide important insight into CHP performance characteristics and could be valuable references for the control of CHP systems. The novel CHP system could take on a very important role in the CHP market. (author)

  8. The two-stroke poppet valve engine. Part 1: Intake and exhaust ports flow experimental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamili Zahidi, M.; Razali Hanipah, M.; Ramasamy, D.; Noor, M. M.; Kadirgama, K.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    A two-stroke poppet valve engine is developed to overcome the common problems in conventional two-stroke engine designs. However, replacing piston control port with poppet valve will resulted different flow behaviour. This paper is looking at experimental assessment on a two-stroke poppet valve engine configuration to investigate the port flow performance. The aims are to evaluate the intake and exhaust coefficient of discharge and assess the twostroke capability of the cylinder head. The results has shown comparable coefficient of discharge values as production engine for the intake while the exhaust has higher values which is favourable for the two-stroke cycle operation.

  9. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  10. Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani Firoozabadi, M.; Shahbakhti, M.; Koch, C.R.; Jazayeri, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature

  11. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  12. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  13. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  14. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  15. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Start using the natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions and the Norwegian Labour Party set down a committee to investigate the application potential for the Norwegian natural gas and to develop a strategy for its use. This report presents their conclusions. It discusses (1) The increased value added through product development in which natural gas is the resource, (2) What must be done to land offshore pipelines at strategic places along the coast, (3) Increased use of gas/hydrogen in the transportation sector, (4) A more environmentally friendly energy policy, (5) Point out areas in which Norway may play a leading role in the future. The committee concludes that (1) The domestic use of natural gas should cover 10% of the total production within ten years, (2) A state-owned company that invests in infrastructure for gas distribution should be established, (3) Prepare fore increased use of natural gas within the constraints imposed by international climate commitments, (4) An active transition to more environmentally friendly use of natural gas, (5) Increased public priority to electrification of the North Sea activities as an environmental project in a class by itself, (6) A company shall be established for the development of environmentally friendly energy technology, (7) Increased utilization of carbon dioxide as an industrial by-product, without adverse environmental consequences

  17. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  18. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.

  19. Insight conference proceedings : natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was discussed at this conference. Quebec's energy market is distinct by the diversity of its clients, the resource exploitation sector and its types of industries. As such, the energy needs are specific and the strategies for developing natural gas should be adapted to meet these needs. This conference focused on recent energy policy developments at Quebec's Office of Energy and other regulatory bodies. Topics of discussion included the risks and opportunities of the natural gas export market; volatile gas prices; public consultation processes; perspectives of large energy consumers; hydrocarbon potential and exploration in Quebec; natural gas exploration and development in Quebec; energy security and strategies to address carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics of discussion included the investment climate in Quebec; the profitability of Canada's oil and gas sector and refining capacity in Quebec. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 6 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  1. HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana D Petković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-stationary heat transfer in engine exhaust system. During the research, some of constructional parameters of exhaust system were adopted and optimized at environmental temperature of 22 C. The combination of design parameters giving best results at low environmental temperatures was observed. The results showed that the temperature in the environment did not have any significant influence on pre-catalyst light-off time.

  2. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL OF THE CYCLE OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE WITH EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Öğüçlü, Özer

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed and applied to predict the emission levels and performance of a spark ignition engine with using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas. The model simulates the full thermodynamic cycle of the engine and includes heat transfer, combustion, gas exchange process, thermal dissociation of water and carbon dioxide, and chemical equilibrium. 

  4. 40 CFR 1042.104 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 3 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION... engines are not subject to not-to-exceed standards. (d) Useful life. Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, expressed as a period in years or hours of...

  5. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst...

  6. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  9. [The carcinogenic and genotoxic action of the substances in the exhaust gases from internal combustion engines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhover, M S; Khesina, A Ia

    1990-01-01

    The review presents physicochemical methods of the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and analysis of substances composing the exhausts of the internal combustion engines (ICE). High carcinogenic effect of the ICE exhausts due to the presence of nitro-PAHs was confirmed in the experiments with animals and the mutagenic effect was detected in the Ames test. A necessity to study carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of nitro-PAHs in a view to reveal their potential human health hazard is emphasized.

  10. Heat transfer modeling in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lujan Martinez, José Manuel; Climent Puchades, Héctor; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; JIMENEZ MACEDO, VICTOR DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer from the hot gases to the wall in exhaust systems of high-performance two-stroke engines is underestimated using steady state with fully developed flow empirical correlations. This fact is detected when comparing measured and modeled pressure pulses in different positions in the exhaust system. This can be explained taking into account that classical expressions have been validated for fully developed flows, a situation that is far from the flow behavior in reciprocating interna...

  11. A Research on The Exhaust Emission of The Gasoline Engines in Tekirdag

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Durgut; S. Arin; E.Kilic

    2006-01-01

    The exhaust gases as a result of combustion in internal combustion engines, sump ventilatory systemand vaporization of fuel system are the pollution sources caused by the vehicles. Preventing the pollution inits source is the main method for controlling the pollution: In this study, the exhaust emissions of 1844vehicles with gasoline were examined randomly applied to measuring station. The measured CO, CO2 HC,O2 values were discussed in their suitability to the limits determined by Turkish St...

  12. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  13. Application of natural gas in market gardening. Erdgasanwendung im Erwerbsgartenbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsten, H.D. (Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany))

    In the last years, natural gas has become an important energy source in underglaze horticulture of the Federal Republic of Germany. Special techniques for application such as CO{sub 2}-concentration from waste gases of gas boilers and the application of CO{sub 2} - common also for the heating of vegetable cultures can be realized technically and economically advantageous with natural gas. New technologies such as cogeneration plants with gas engine for plant lighting are technically perfected in the meantime. As a whole, the application of natural gas facilitates a good efficiency and thus, a very good utilization of fuel. (orig./BWI).

  14. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  15. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  16. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  17. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  18. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  19. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  20. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  1. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  2. The natural gas supply of united Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    One cannot classify and describe the developments in the natural gas sector in Germany without reference to the environment. The natural gas economy is now international. The prospects for the demand for natural gas are dealt with, taking into account any energy taxation. The market share, occurrence of natural gas and prospects for obtention are described. (DG) [de

  3. HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Snežana D Petković; Radivoje B Pešić; Jovanka K Lukić

    2010-01-01

    During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-s...

  4. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  5. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  6. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  7. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  8. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Deng, Banglin; Liu, Jingping; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Zhengxin; Yang, Jing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  9. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... the whole catalytic exhaust system would be beneficial towards this goal. A methodology for developing a modular model capable of simulating a system consisting of several sub systems is presented. The methodology describes the steps the user should take to go from problem formulation to the final modular...

  10. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  11. Technology characterization: liquified natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categories as follows: (1) status of LNG projects, (2) general process description, (3) environmental aspects, (4) safety, and (5) economics. Each of these categories forms a major heading for this report. In addition, an LNG reference system of 250 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) is included in the report at Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) request. Information concerning this system was derived from other LNG systems in the literature. The report does not include an assessment of the market potential for the product gas or its end use. Published cost estimates in the literature have been identified but the original cost estimates have not been provided. Plant layouts, conceptual designs, and socioeconomic analysis are not provided.

  12. Natural gas supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    1992-01-01

    The geopolitical events over the last two years are such that the present natural gas supply schemes risk being overthrown. Recourse, to satisfy future European demands, to additional volumes coming from outlying sources will inevitably force the actors to define new strategies and to reconsider the reorganization of the transmission system' structure. Besides, the use of their capacities is closely bound to supply flexibility. At the same time, the saturation of the production and transmission capacities within the nearby outkirts combined with the purchasers' resolve to diversify their supply sources will undoubtedly shift the dynamics of the natural gas supply to potential sources and their access costs before the end of the century. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs., 4 maps

  13. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  14. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  15. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  16. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  17. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  18. Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    HAŞİMOĞLU, Can

    2002-01-01

    When the temperature of the combustion chamber rises beyond 1800 K in internal combustion engines, the nitrogen and oxygen in the air combine chemically and become a gas called nitrogen oxide, which is harmful to human health and the environment. Nitrogen oxides combine with humidity in the lungs and become nitric acid, which causes breathing illnesses. Diesel engines use excess air for combustion, and this increases nitrogen oxide production potential. In this research, the reduction of ...

  19. Maternal exposure to diluted diesel engine exhaust alters placental function and induces intergenerational effects in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentino, Sarah A; Tarrade, Anne; Aioun, Josiane; Mourier, Eve; Richard, Christophe; Dahirel, Michèle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Fournier, Natalie; Aubrière, Marie-Christine; Lallemand, Marie-Sylvie; Camous, Sylvaine; Guinot, Marine; Charlier, Madia; Aujean, Etienne; Al Adhami, Hala; Fokkens, Paul H; Agier, Lydiane; Boere, John A; Cassee, Flemming R; Slama, Rémy; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airborne pollution is a rising concern in urban areas. Epidemiological studies in humans and animal experiments using rodent models indicate that gestational exposure to airborne pollution, in particular diesel engine exhaust (DE), reduces birth weight, but effects depend on exposure

  20. Diesel engine exhaust accelerates plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullmann, Maja; Albrecht, Catrin; van Berlo, Damiën; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Wahle, Tina; Boots, Agnes W; Krutmann, Jean; Cassee, Flemming R; Bayer, Thomas A; Schins, Roel P F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate

  1. Multi-Stage Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penetrante, B

    1997-01-01

    .... A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO2. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NOx in lean-burn engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

  2. Natural-gas world reserves and world resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, G.; Rempel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas is extracted in nearly 80 countries, 12 of which have a share of four fifths in the world extraction and 15 of which have a share of four fifths in the world consumption. The natural-gas world reserves can cover the present annual demand for years beyond the middle of the coming century. According to current assessments, the resources which presently cannot be extracted economically, the expected additional resources, and the extractable share in the potential of unconventional natural gas amount to more than ten times the reliable world reserves of natural gas. From the geological and technical points of view the world natural-gas extraction will not decrease or cease in the near future. However, the more expensive development of unconventional deposits which are located far away from the end-user will have to be preferred over the medium term on account of the exhaustion of the known deposits whose exploitation is comparatively cheap. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  4. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  5. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied

  6. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  7. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  8. Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J G

    1975-04-01

    The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas.

  9. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  10. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  11. Energy equivalence factor in gasoline to compressed vehicle natural gas substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Amell Arrieta, Andres A

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors show a model based in a vehicle energy balance used to obtain the ratio of energy equivalence of natural gas and petrol used as fuels in the vehicle. The model includes the engine, transmission and natural gas cylinders effects. The model has been applied to different colombian natural gases, it shows that Guajira natural gas has 14,5% lower ratio than Cusiana natural gas and 5,6% lower ratio than Apiay natural gas, these results shows a need in the study of colombian natural gases interchangeability

  12. Exhaust gas heat recovery through secondary expansion cylinder and water injection in an internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiri Toosi Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance thermal efficiency and increase performance of an internal combustion engine, a novel concept of coupling a conventional engine with a secondary 4-stroke cylinder and direct water injection process is proposed. The burned gases after working in a traditional 4-stroke combustion cylinder are transferred to a secondary cylinder and expanded even more. After re-compression of the exhaust gases, pre-heated water is injected at top dead center. The evaporation of injected water not only recovers heat from exhaust gases, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the overall thermal efficiency. A 0-D/1-D model is used to numerically simulate the idea. The simulations outputs showed that the bottoming cycle will be more efficient at higher engines speeds, specifically in a supercharged/turbocharged engine, which have higher exhaust gas pressure that can reproduce more positive work. In the modeled supercharged engine, results showed that brake thermal efficiency can be improved by about 17%, and brake power by about 17.4%.

  13. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  14. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  15. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  16. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  17. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  18. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  19. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  20. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  1. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on SI Engines at Wide Open Throttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Sydney; Puzinauskas, Paulius

    2011-11-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation, a charge dilution technique, has proven to be an effective method of reducing NOx emissions and fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Wide open throttle operation also increases overall engine efficiency by reducing the pumping losses caused by throttling. In this study, the emissions and fuel economy benefits of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at wide open throttle conditions were quantified using a 2.4L port-injected engine. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded as the percentage of EGR in the intake charge was increased from zero to just above thirty percent (the EGR limit). This EGR percentage, in-cylinder pressure measurements, and the temperatures and pressures of the intake and exhaust were all recorded to ensure stable operating conditions. These tests were performed with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio at a constant speed of 2000 rpm at wide open throttle. The variation of brake specific fuel consumption and emissions (in particular NOx) with increasing EGR percentages was analyzed.

  2. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  3. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... state status in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1508(a)(2). Summary of the Application Liberty Natural Gas...

  4. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  5. Europe's future is natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Western Europe, with its substantial intraregional gas exports and imports, and its imports from outside the region, is a hub of international gas trading. Steel pipelines with diameters to 56 in. have proven to be a technically appropriate, cost-efficient system for the large-scale transportation of natural gas. In 1990, 74% of the trade in international markets was moved through pipelines. Worldwide, more than 800,000 miles of high-pressure gas pipelines are in operation. Laid end to end, these lines would stretch 30 times around the equator. The future progress for pipeline construction in Europe depends on the development of gas demand and the avenues open to the European gas industry to meet this demand

  6. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  7. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  8. DETERMINATION OF CO2 MASSES IN THE EXHAUST GASES OF THE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru COSOFRET

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reducing CO2 emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect is currently under attention of the relevant international bodies. In the field of maritime transport, in 2011 International Maritime Organization (IMO has taken steps to reduce emissions of CO2 from the exhaust gases of marine diesel engines on ships, by imposing their energy efficiency standards. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated by using to power it diesel and different blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The purpose of the study was to determine the formulas for calculating the mass flow rates of CO2 from exhaust gases’ concentrations experimentally determined. Determining the mass flow of CO2 is necessary to calculate the energy efficiency coefficient of the ship to assess the energy efficiency of the board of the limits imposed by the IMO.

  9. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  10. Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao

    2014-11-01

    The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.

  11. Prediction of emissions and exhaust temperature for direct injection diesel engine with emulsified fuel using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKKÜLÜNK, Görkem; AKDOĞAN, Erhan; AYHAN, Vezir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust gases have many effects on human beings and the environment. Therefore, they must be kept under control. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which is concerned with the prevention of marine pollution, limits the emissions according to the regulations. In Emission Control Area (ECA) regions, which are determined by MARPOL as ECAs, the emission rates should be controlled. Direct injection (DI) diesel engines are commonly used as a prop...

  12. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  14. A source-independent empirical correction procedure for the fast mobility and engine exhaust particle sizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Ramos, Manuel; Wallace, James S.; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    The TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) provide size distributions for 6-560 nm particles with a time resolution suitable for characterizing transient particle sources; however, the accuracy of these instruments can be source dependent, due to influences of particle morphology. The aim of this study was to develop a source-independent correction protocol for the FMPS and EEPS. The correction protocol consists of: (1) broadening the >80 nm size range of the distribution to account for under-sizing by the FMPS and EEPS; (2) applying an existing correction protocol in the 8-93 nm size range; and (3) dividing each size bin by the ratio of total concentration measured by the FMPS or EEPS and a water-based Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as a surrogate scaling factor to account for particle morphology. Efficacy of the correction protocol was assessed for three sources: urban ambient air, diluted gasoline direct injection engine exhaust, and diluted diesel engine exhaust. Linear regression against a reference instrument, the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), before and after applying the correction protocol demonstrated that the correction ensured agreement within 20%.

  15. Natural gas and renewable methane for powertrains future strategies for a climate-neutral mobility

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on natural gas and synthetic methane as contemporary and future energy sources. Following a historical overview, physical and chemical properties, occurrence, extraction, transportation and storage of natural gas are discussed. Sustainable production of natural gas and methane as well as production and storage of synthetic methane are scrutinized next. A substantial part of the book addresses construction of vehicles for natural and synthetic methane as well as large engines for industrial and maritime use. The last chapters present some perspectives on further uses of renewable liquid fuels as well as natural gas for industrial engines and gas power plants.

  16. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  17. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  18. Model of Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Chad; Vuppuluri, Prem; Shi, Li; Hall, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    The performance and operating characteristics of a hypothetical thermoelectric generator system designed to extract waste heat from the exhaust of a medium-duty turbocharged diesel engine were modeled. The finite-difference model consisted of two integrated submodels: a heat exchanger model and a thermoelectric device model. The heat exchanger model specified a rectangular cross-sectional geometry with liquid coolant on the cold side, and accounted for the difference between the heat transfer rate from the exhaust and that to the coolant. With the spatial variation of the thermoelectric properties accounted for, the thermoelectric device model calculated the hot-side and cold-side heat flux for the temperature boundary conditions given for the thermoelectric elements, iterating until temperature and heat flux boundary conditions satisfied the convection conditions for both exhaust and coolant, and heat transfer in the thermoelectric device. A downhill simplex method was used to optimize the parameters that affected the electrical power output, including the thermoelectric leg height, thermoelectric n-type to p-type leg area ratio, thermoelectric leg area to void area ratio, load electrical resistance, exhaust duct height, coolant duct height, fin spacing in the exhaust duct, location in the engine exhaust system, and number of flow paths within the constrained package volume. The calculation results showed that the configuration with 32 straight fins was optimal across the 30-cm-wide duct for the case of a single duct with total height of 5.5 cm. In addition, three counterflow parallel ducts or flow paths were found to be an optimum number for the given size constraint of 5.5 cm total height, and parallel ducts with counterflow were a better configuration than serpentine flow. Based on the reported thermoelectric properties of MnSi1.75 and Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5, the maximum net electrical power achieved for the three parallel flow paths in a counterflow arrangement was 1

  19. Evolution of deep-bed filtration of engine exhaust particulates with trapped mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Sandeep; Rothamer, David; Foster, David E.; Fansler, Todd D.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Stewart, Mark L.; Bell, David M.

    2016-11-03

    Micro-scale filtration experiments were performed on cordierite filter samples using particulate matter (PM) generated by a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine fueled with tier II EEE certification gasoline. Size-resolved mass and number concentrations were obtained from several engine operating conditions. The resultant mass-mobility relationships showed weak dependence on the operating condition. An integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method was used estimate the PM mass concentration in the exhaust stream from the SIDI engine and a heavy duty diesel (HDD) engine. The average estimated mass concentration between all conditions was ~77****** % of the gravimetric measurements performed on Teflon filters. Despite the relatively low elemental carbon fraction (~0.4 to 0.7), the IPSD mass for stoichiometric SIDI exhaust was ~83±38 % of the gravimetric measurement. Identical cordierite filter samples with properties representative of diesel particulate filters were sequentially loaded with PM from the different SIDI engine operating conditions, in order of increasing PM mass concentration. Simultaneous particle size distribution measurements upstream and downstream of the filter sample were used to evaluate filter performance evolution and the instantaneous trapped mass within the filter for two different filter face velocities. The evolution of filtration performance for the different samples was sensitive only to trapped mass, despite using PM from a wide range of operating conditions. Higher filtration velocity resulted in a more rapid shift in the most penetrating particle size towards smaller mobility diameters.

  20. Exhaust temperature analysis of four stroke diesel engine by using MWCNT/Water nanofluids as coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, M.; Mukesh Kumar, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a continuous improvement in designing of cooling system and in quality of internal combustion engine coolants. The liquid engine coolant used in early days faced many difficulties such as low boiling, freezing points and inherently poor thermal conductivity. Moreover, the conventional coolants have reached their limitations of heat dissipating capacity. New heat transfer fluids have been developed and named as nanofluids to try to replace traditional coolants. Moreover, many works are going on the application of nanofluids to avail the benefits of them. In this experimental investigation, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% volume concentrations of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/water nanofluids have been prepared by two step method with surfactant and is used as a coolant in four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to assess the exhaust temperature of the engine. The nanofluid prepared is characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm uniform dispersion and stability of nanotube with zeta potential analyzer. Experimental tests are performed by various mass flow rate such as 270 300 330 LPH (litre per hour) of coolant nanofluids and by changing the load in the range of 0 to 2000 W and by keeping the engine speed constant. It is found that the exhaust temperature decreases by 10-20% when compared to water as coolant at the same condition.

  1. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NO x emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

  2. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  3. The possibilities of the natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The transportation sector is today responsible of about 35% of the CO 2 emissions. If the biofuels can replace 10 at 15% of the petroleum fuels, they will not completely substitute for the petroleum. The natural gas for vehicles (NGV) seems to be particularly interesting. The gas reserves are important and well geographically distributed. Its use is compatible with the new engines technologies. Meanwhile, in France, the distribution and the vehicle are too little. This study aims to know if the natural gas for vehicle utilization allows substantial profits in term of CO 2 emission. (A.L.B.)

  4. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection diesel engine fueled with enriched biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaie, Mohamad A. Hasan; Janius, Rimfiel B.; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yunus, Robiah; Zakaria, Rabitah; Adam, Nor Mariah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrichment of PME by MO addition leads to slightly improved BTE. • The enrichment leads to a remarkable reduction in BSFC. • The enrichment did not improve exhaust emissions relative to neat PME. • Cetane number shows to be the key properties that determined the emissions. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel derived from different feedstocks that may have significantly different fatty acid profiles and physiochemical properties. This study aimed to gain further insight into the use of biodiesel in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The influences of the properties and compound structure of neat and enriched components of biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions were compared with that of petrodiesel under full load conditions. The enriched blends for testing were prepared by adding methyl oleate (MO) to palm oil methyl ester (PME) at specified volumetric ratios (vol/vol%): PME80:MO20, PME70:MO30, PME60:MO40, and PME50:MO50. Furthermore, various physiochemical properties of neat and enriched blends were evaluated against the ASTM D6751 standard. The impact of key fuel properties of neat and enriched blends associated with the performance of engine and exhaust emissions was discussed. The experimental results exhibited that enriched blends yielded a lower brake torque with higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than the petroleum diesel because of lower calorific value. Intrinsic reductions in the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) were also observed, as well as a slight increase in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. In addition, enriched blends showed a noticeable improvement in BSFC, with a slight increase in CO emission, HC emission, EGT, and NOx emission over individual PME as a result of lower ignition quality and lower oxygen content. Consequently, biodiesel that possesses more saturated components, and higher oxygen content yields

  5. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  6. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  7. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabo, Kristian; Scitovski, Rudolf; Vazler, Ivan; Zekic-Susac, Marijana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of natural gas consumption hourly forecast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas consumption in the preceding period. There are various methods and approaches for solving this problem in the literature. Some mathematical models with linear and nonlinear model functions relating to natural gas consumption forecast with the past natural gas consumption data, temperature data and temperature forecast data are mentioned. The methods are tested on concrete examples referring to temperature and natural gas consumption for the area of the city of Osijek (Croatia) from the beginning of the year 2008. The results show that most acceptable forecast is provided by mathematical models in which natural gas consumption and temperature are related explicitly.

  8. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Development of natural gas ocean transportation chain by means of natural gas hydrate (NGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, T.; Oya, N.; Ishida, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies in Japan have suggested that natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation of natural gas is more economical than liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation systems for small, medium and remote gas fields. Researchers in Japan have built a 600 kg per day NGH production and pelletizing plant and regasification facility. This paper discussed feasibility studies conducted in southeast Asia to determine the unit's commercialization potential with large natural gas-related businesses including shipping companies and electric power utilities. The total supply chain was compared with the corresponding liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) supply chains. The study also examined natural gas reserves, energy policies, the positioning of natural gas supplies, and future forecasts of natural gas demand. A conceptual design for an NGH supply chain in Indonesia was presented. Results of the study have demonstrated that the NGH chain is an appropriate and economically feasible transportation method for many areas in southeast Asia. 8 refs., 10 figs

  10. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  11. Natural gas in transport. An assessment of different routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Croezen, H.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Meulenbrugge, J.; Koornneef, G. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Kroon, P.; De Wilde, H. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Compressed or liquid natural gas (CNG, LNG) along with energy carriers produced from natural gas like electricity, hydrogen and Gas to Liquid (GTL) can limit emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in the transport sector. This is particularly the case if electricity, hydrogen or CNG are used to power cars and buses, with LNG being used for trucks and ships. To reduce the overall greenhouse gas emissions of shipping, however, methane emissions also need to be limited. To ensure the safety of LNG, effective control of the distribution infrastructure is also required, moreover. This study compares various types of natural gas with diesel and petrol as primary energy sources in the transport sector. The analysis covers the environment, costs and safety. Taking 2025 as a horizon, the entire fuel chain is considered, from production at source to combustion in the engine.

  12. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  13. New opportunities for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the prospect of extremely low gas prices - approaching $1.00 per million Btu (MMBtu) on a seasonal basis - is frightening many producers. The presence of large gas inventories only serves to intensify these fears. Threats of declining market conditions stir the question: How should producers react to these prices? On the score, the experts advise: One of the first rules of playing the power game is that all bad news must be accepted calmly as if one already knew and didn't much care. Although stated jokingly, there is a kernel of truth to the suggestion. Having thought through the adversities involved in the worst case scenario - and for natural gas producers and other industry participants, those adversities are formidable - companies may be better prepared to adapt to the worst case, should it happen to materialize. Here, the bad news is that CERA foresees serious near-term perils that could route the industry toward that worst case. The good news is that long-term prospects provide a cause for optimism

  14. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  15. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  16. 40 CFR 1039.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet after the 2014 model year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cooled, direct injection engines below 8 kW to an optional Tier 4 PM standard of 0.60 g/kW-hr. The term... my engines meet after the 2014 model year? 1039.101 Section 1039.101 Protection of Environment... NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1039.101 What exhaust...

  17. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettori, P.; Merigo, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  18. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  19. Evaluation And Analysis of Natural Gas Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is considered as a preferred fuel and its utility is growing every day in the country (Iran). The usage of natural gas has increased from 3.5 to 44 billion cubic meters from 1980 to 1997, respectively. Currently, 4 million residences and most of the industrial sector are being provided with the pipelined natural gas. Because of the tremendous increase in consumption, it is necessary to give the needed considerations to natural gas rate structure. The objective of the paper is to 1.Evaluate the fundamentals and principal methods used for rate structures. 2. Identification of effective components. 3. Analyze the current rates including connection fees and other customer charges

  20. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasada Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluate nine engine performance and emission parameters including Exhaust Gas Temperature (E.G.T, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, Brake Thermal Efficiency (B.The and various emissions like Hydrocarbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX and smoke. For the ANN modeling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model. A multi-layer perception (MLP network was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. It was found that ANN was able to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.980, 0.999, 0.985, 0.999, 0.999, 0.980, 0.999, and 0.999 for E.G.T, BSFC, B.The, HC, O2, CO2, CO, NOX, smoke respectively.

  3. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  4. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  5. Development of the natural gas engine Mercedes-Benz 12 liters given the limits of the law of EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emissions below the prescribed limits; Desenvolvimento do motor a gas natural Mercedes-Bens 12 litros atendendo os limites da legislacao de emissoes EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) inferiores aos limites prescritos para Euro 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Neto, J.A.; Wunderlich, C.; Miletovic, C.; Biazetti, W. [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The development of combustion for engines, has been focused in reducing of pollutants emissions limits and the compressed natural gas, as a fuel, achieves good results, resulted by the combustion dynamic from Otto cycle, values under the lower specific emissions limits, if compared with diesel cycle engines. Although the optimization of fuel maps and the using of a two-ways oxidation catalysator, in function of the lower particulate matters emissions, was possible to get the engine certification by TUV Germany in agreement with the EEV emissions limits. To sum up, this paper has principal subject to present the natural gas engine M447hLAG powered by Mercedes-Benz with power 240 kW and torque 1250 Nm , as a commercial advantage for markets with the respective legislation with lower emissions limits. (author)

  6. Investigation of diesel engine for low exhaust emissions with different combustion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodke Pundlik R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming stringent Euro-6 emission regulations for passenger vehicle better fuel economy, low cost are the key challenges for engine development. In this paper, 2.2L, multi cylinder diesel engine have been tested for four different piston bowls designed for compression ratio of CR 15.5 to improve in cylinder performance and reduce emissions. These combustion chambers were verified in CFD at two full load points. 14 mode points have been derived using vehicle model run in AVL CRUISE software as per NEDC cycle based on time weightage factor. Base engine with compression ratio CR16.5 for full load performance and 14-mode points on Engine test bench was taken as reference for comparison. The bowl with flat face on bottom corner has shown reduction 25% and 12 % NOx emissions at 1500 and 3750 rpm full load points at same level of Soot emissions. Three piston bowls were tested for full load performance and 14 mode points on engine test bench and combustion chamber ‘C’ has shown improvement in thermal efficiency by 0.8%. Combinations of cooled EGR and combustion chamber ‘C’ with geometrical changes in engine have reduced exhaust NOx, soot and CO emissions by 22%, 9 % and 64 % as compared to base engine at 14 mode points on engine test bench.

  7. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/ C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  8. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  9. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Spicer

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  10. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  11. Research on Factors Affecting the Optimal Exploitation of Natural Gas Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an optimizing model for the long-term exploitation of limited natural gas reserves in China. In addition to describing the life cycle characteristics of natural gas production and introducing the inter-temporal allocation theory, this paper builds the optimal exploitation model of natural gas resources within a gas field in the Ordos Basin as an example to analyze its exploitation scale and how influence factors, such as recovery rate, discount rate and the gas well exhausting cycle, affect the optimal exploration path of this gas field. We determine that an increase in the discount rate stimulates investors to invest more aggressively in natural gas exploitation in the early period due to the lower discounted value, thereby increasing the pace of the exploitation of natural gas and the exhaustion of gas fields. A higher recoverable factor implies more recoverable reserves and greater potential of increasing the output of gas fields. The exhaustion rate of gas wells affects the capability of converting capacity to output. When exhaustion occurs quickly in gas wells, the output will likely increase in the output rising period, and the output will likely decrease at a faster rate in the output reduction period. Price reform affects the economic recoverable reserves of gas fields.

  12. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    therefore focus on deriving and validating a mean-value model of a large two-stroke crosshead diesel engines with EGR. The model introduces a number of amendments and extensions to previous, complex models and shows in theory and practice that a simplified nonlinear model captures all essential dynamics...... the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take......Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

  13. Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.; Hawley, J. Gary

    2004-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NO x reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NO x emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed

  14. Influence Of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions At A Global Level And Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the differences in the aircraft engine exhaustemissions, as well as the impact of the emissions on theenvironment depending on several factors. These include theage of the engine, i. e. technical refinement, engine operating regimesat different thrusts during time periods: takeoff, climb,approach, etc. Also, the exhaust emissions do not have thesame influence on different atmospheric layers. The pollutantsemitted at higher altitudes during cruising have become agreater problem, although the volume of pollutants is smaller,due to the chemical complexity and sensitivity of these layers ascompared to the lower layers of atmosphere. One of the reasonswhy these problems have long remained outside the focus of interestof the environmentalists is that the air transport of goodsand people is performed at high altitudes, so that the pollutionof atmosphere does not present a direct threat to anyone, sincethe environment is being polluted at a global level and thereforeis more difficult to notice at the local level.

  15. Conductometric Sensor for Soot Mass Flow Detection in Exhausts of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Müller, Andreas; Schott, Andreas; Zöllner, Christian; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2015-11-13

    Soot sensors are required for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of automotive diesel particulate filters (DPF) to detect filter failures. Widely used for this purpose are conductometric sensors, measuring an electrical current or resistance between two electrodes. Soot particles deposit on the electrodes, which leads to an increase in current or decrease in resistance. If installed upstream of a DPF, the "engine-out" soot emissions can also be determined directly by soot sensors. Sensors were characterized in diesel engine real exhausts under varying operation conditions and with two different kinds of diesel fuel. The sensor signal was correlated to the actual soot mass and particle number, measured with an SMPS. Sensor data and soot analytics (SMPS) agreed very well, an impressing linear correlation in a double logarithmic representation was found. This behavior was even independent of the used engine settings or of the biodiesel content.

  16. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  18. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  20. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experiences and domestic situation in natural gas sector. On this basis, we presented the following proposals and implement approaches to ultimately achieving the market-oriented reform of natural gas pricing in China. First, the ex-factory prices for those residential gas users will be adjusted, which should be differentiated from those for the non-residential gas users. Second, the present natural gas pricing mechanism should be perfected with pipeline fees and gas storage fees being both added. Third, an integrated natural gas pricing system should be improved with differential prices implemented. Fourth, natural gas spot transaction should be promoted and energy measurement in gas metering and pricing should also be put into practice.

  1. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  3. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994

  4. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  5. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  6. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  7. Trends in natural gas distribution and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, C.F.A.

    1993-01-01

    On the occasion of the GAS EXPO 93, to be held from 13-15 October 1993 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, an overview is given of trends in the distribution of natural gas and the measuring of natural gas, as noted by experts from the energy utilities, GASTEC and Gasunie in the Netherlands. With regard to the natural gas distribution trends attention is paid to synthetic materials, the environmental effects, maintenance, underground natural gas pressure control, horizontal drilling (no-dig techniques), and other trends. With regard to natural gas metering trends brief discussions are given of the direct energy meter, the search for a new gas meter in households, telemetering, improving the accuracy of the gas meters by means of electronics, on the spot calibration of large gas meters, the use of an online chromatograph to determine the calorific value, the development of a calibration instrument, the so-called piston prover, to measure large quantities of natural gas, the recalibration of natural gas stations, the ultrasonic gas meter, and finally the quality of the natural gas supply. 1 fig., 11 ills

  8. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  10. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  11. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  12. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  13. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NO x through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO 2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  14. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  15. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  16. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...... in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...

  17. Exhaust Recirculation Control for Reduction of NOx from Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder

    the automotive industry, but have only recently been introduced commercially to large two-stroke diesel engines. Recirculation of exhaust gas to the cylinders lowers the oxygen availability and increases the heat capacity during combustion, which in turn leads to less formation of NOx. Experience shows...... for the scavenge oxygen fraction is designed. This observer compensates for a significant delay in the oxygen sensor, and observer errors are proven to converge exponentially. By inverting part of the reduced model and using the parameter observer, a novel scavenge oxygen controller based on nonlinear adaptive...

  18. Reduction of NOx and PM in Marine Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas using Microwave Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran, W; Beleca, R; Abbod, M; Manivannan, N

    2015-01-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energet...

  19. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for multiple myeloma was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 131 cases and 431 randomized referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the subjects. An analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique resulted in a few rate ratios significantly exceeding unity--namely, occupational exposure to engine exhausts, creosote, and fresh wood. In view of other studies that suggest ionizing radiation as a risk factor, it was somewhat surprising that low-level gamma radiation from background exposure was less common among the cases than the referents

  20. A conceptual plasma exhaust system for the Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriza, Alexander; Gentile, Charles; Blanchard, William; Kozub, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project proposes the construction of an indirect-drive inertial fusion reactor for the generation of electrical energy. LIFE will use hohlraum targets containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture which will be ignited by lasers at a rate of 16 times per second. In order to shield the first wall from high-energy x-rays and ions, the reactor vessel will be filled with an intervention gas of xenon. The average xenon density from the center to the first wall must be at least 8 g/m3 to ensure sufficient stopping power, while, because of nuclear exposure concerns, the amount of tritium in the vessel must not exceed 10 g. A conceptual design of the LIFE exhaust-processing system is undertaken with a focus on assessing its efficacy in meeting these two requirements simultaneously. A model of the density profile within the vessel indicates that an exhaust rate at the first wall of at least 26 m3/s is necessary to keep the tritium inventory below 10 g. At this rate, in order to maintain the required xenon density, approximately 40 tons of xenon will need to be exhausted, processed, and recirculated each day. This paper will discuss the operating parameters of this progenitor system for this and future IFE fusion reactors.

  1. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  3. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), except for variable-speed marine engines used with controllable-pitch propellers or with electrically... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1042.101... the 2014 model year, recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement) must be...

  4. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  5. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  6. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  7. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power.

  8. Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.t [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this experimental study, influence of the metallic-based additives on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engine were investigated. The metallic-based additives were produced by synthesizing of resin acid (abietic acid) with MnO{sub 2} or MgO. These additives were doped into diesel fuel at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 16 {mu}mol/l for preparing test fuels. Both additives improved the properties of diesel fuel such as viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. The fuels with and without additives were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Maximum reduction of specific fuel consumption was recorded as 4.16%. CO emission and smoke opacity decreased by 16.35% and by 29.82%, respectively. NO{sub x} emission was measured higher and CO{sub 2} emission was not changed considerably with the metallic-based additives.

  9. Measurement of nitrogen species NO{sub y} at the exhaust of an aircraft engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristori, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Palaiseau (France); Baudoin, C. [Societe Nationale d`Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d`Aviation (SNECMA), Villaroche (France)

    1997-12-31

    A research programme named AEROTRACE was supported by the EC (CEC contract AERA-CT94-0003) in order to investigate trace species measurements at the exhaust of aero-engines. Within this project, NO{sub y}, NO, HNO{sub 3} and HONO were measured at the exhaust of aircraft engine combustors. Major species (NO{sub y},NO) were measured by using a chemiluminescence instrument. Minor species (HNO{sub 3},HONO) were measured by using filter packs. Two combustors were tested under various running conditions; the first one at ONERA (Task 2) and the second one at DRA (Task 5). Results show that EI{sub NOy} < 50 g/kg, EI{sub HNO3} < 0.2 g/kg and EI{sub HONO} < 0.55 g/kg. Regarding ratios, (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub y}) < 0.5%, (HONO)/(NO{sub y}) < 8%, (HONO)/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 19.2%, and (HNO{sub 3})/(NO{sub 2}) {approx} 0.8% was found. (author) 9 refs.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  12. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  13. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  14. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  15. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  16. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Aolin; Dong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experie...

  17. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A)

  18. The geopolitics of natural gas in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. (author)

  19. Natural gas commoditization - evolution and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albon, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation dealt with issues of deregulation in the natural gas industry. The commoditization process, the effect of deregulation as reflected by changes in the percentage distribution of market participation by profession in NYMEX in 1994 and for the first quarter of 1998, the natural gas supply and demand from 1990 to 1996, and natural gas market activities (i.e. swaps, EFPs, spreads, transportation look-alikes, triggers) were reviewed. An Alberta supply and demand forecast for the winter heating season of 1998-1999 and its impact on prices was also provided. tabs., figs

  20. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  1. Feasibility study of a scroll expander for recycling low-pressure exhaust gas energy from a vehicle gasoline engine system

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Xu, Hongming

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of vehicles on the road has led to a rapid increase in fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions, so the challenges in fuel efficiency improvement and reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions have always been on the top agenda of the automotive industry. The paper presents a feasibility study of recovering the low-pressure exhaust gas energy via by-pass connection of a scroll expander to the engine system exhaust. The paper starts with the description of the proposed new exhaust e...

  2. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  3. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  4. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  5. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry

  6. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  7. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  8. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag

    2011-12-01

    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  9. Undiscovered Natural Gas Liquids Colorado Plateau

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset is based on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessments for “undiscovered” natural gas liquid resources, which are resources that have not yet...

  10. The evolution of natural gas regulatory policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.J. Jr. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the history of regulation and deregulation of the natural gas industry, providing insights which can be useful in identifying potential ways of attaining socially beneficial results in many analogous context.

  11. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7)

  12. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  13. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  14. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  15. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Natural Gas Annual 1984. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, E.H.

    1985-12-31

    This publication provides information on deliveries of natural gas to large end users by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code for 5 heating years from 1980-1981 through 1985-1985. Tables are presented showing deliveries of natural gas: (1) to the top 20 industries; (2) to large end users by SIC; (3) by the top 100 distributors; (4) to large end users by industry and state; and (5) to large end users by state. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R.A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  18. The eligibility of the natural gas consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The eligible consumers are allowed to chose freely their natural gas producers and negotiate the prices and the supply modalities. In this context this information paper presents the legislative and regulation framework of the natural gas consumers eligibility, a definition of the possible eligible consumers and a list at the 30 january 2004. It provides also recommendations and answers to the more often asked questions on the administrative procedures and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  19. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: Are we ready to natural gas price liberalization in Iran?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Hassan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan; Saeidpour, Lesyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Iran within a multivariate production model. We also investigate the effects of natural gas price on its consumption and economic growth using a demand side model. The paper employs bounds test approach to level relationship over the period of 1972–007. We find evidence of bidirectional positive relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in short-run and long-run, based on the production model. The findings also suggest that real GDP growth and natural gas have positive and negative impacts on gross fixed capital formation, respectively. Employment, however, was found to have negative but insignificant impact on gross fixed capital formation. Moreover, the estimation results of demand side model suggest that natural gas price has negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption only in the long-run, though there is insignificant impact on economic growth. These results imply that the Iranian government's decision for natural gas price liberalization has the adverse effects on economic growth and policy makers should be cautious in doing this policy. - Highlights: • Iran has been considered as a major natural gas producer in the world. • This paper examines the relationship between gas consumption and growth in Iran. • Positive impact of gas consumption on growth has been obtained. • The paper finds that gas consumption and income reinforce each other in Iran. • Natural gas price has also negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption in Iran

  2. EVALUATION OF DISPERSED PARTICLE CONTENT IN EXHAUST GAS OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of an atmosphere due to hazardous substances emissions deteriorates ecological environment in the world. Exhaust gases of diesel engines are considered as one of the main environmental pollutants. At the moment it is not possible to determine rate and limits of threshold level of air pollution which do not affect human health. The paper considers current issues pertaining to regulation and control over dispersed particles. The most convenient measuring methods for investigations are those which provide the opportunity to obtain immediate results. However, from the legislative point of view, a gravimetric investigation method is a legitimate one which requires compliance with certain procedures of adjustments and calculations. The method presupposes availability of complicated system for sample dilution and its adjustment must include temperature and kinetic parameters of the measured flow. In order to ensure measuring accuracy and results reproducibility filter loading should be in a regulated range and dilution parameters should be chosen according to not only engine type but also according to its emissions rate. Methods for evaluation of a hot exhaust gas sample is characterized by higher response and the results correlate with indices of combustion efficiency. However, such approach does not account for a number of processes that take place during gas cooling in the environment. Therefore, in this case, measuring results are to be evaluated within certain boundary conditions with respect to the object of investigations. Difficulty in achievement of modern ecologocal standards is substantiated by complicated fractional composition and multiple stage process in formation of hazardous components. The paper presents calculated dependences between particles and smokiness and contains a comparative analysis. Methods for measurement and investigations of dispersed particles have analyzed on the basis of the results obtainesd during engine

  3. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  4. Analysis of benefits of using internal exhaust gas recirculation in biogas-fueled HCCI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarac, Darko; Vuilleumier, David; Saxena, Samveg; Dibble, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of EGR on combustion of biogas fueled HCCI was investigated. • The aim was to reduce intake temperature requirement by internal EGR. • Combustion products caused the delay of combustion in similar conditions. • Internal EGR enabled by negative valve overlap increased cylinder temperature. • This increase was not enough to significantly reduce the intake temperature. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical study that analyzed the influence of combustion products (CP) concentration on the combustion characteristics (combustion timing and combustion duration) of a biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and the possibility of reducing the high intake temperature requirement necessary for igniting biogas in a HCCI engine by using internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) enabled by negative valve overlap (NVO). An engine model created in AVL Boost, and validated against experimental engine data, was used in this study. The results show, somewhat counter-intuitively, that when CP concentrations are increased the required intake temperature for maintaining the same combustion timing must be increased. When greater NVO is used to increase the in-cylinder CP concentration, the in-cylinder temperature does increase, but the chemical dilution influence of CP almost entirely counteracts this thermal effect. Additionally, it has been observed that with larger fractions of CP some instability of combustion in the calculation was obtained which indicates that the increase of internal EGR might produce some combustion instability

  5. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  6. The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doğan, Battal; Erol, Derviş; Yaman, Hayri; Kodanli, Evren

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Examining the performance of ethanol-gasoline blend. • Evaluation of the exhaust emissions. • Energy and exergy analysis. • Calculation of irreversibility from cooling system and the exhaust resulting. - Abstract: Ethanol which is considered as an environmentally cleaner alternative to fossil fuels is used on its own or blended with other fuels in different ratios. In this study, ethanol which has high octane rating, low exhaust emission, and which is easily obtained from agricultural products has been used in fuels prepared by blending it with gasoline in various ratios (E0, E10, E20, and E30). Ethanol-gasoline blends have been used in a four-cylinder four-stroke spark ignition engine for performance and emission analysis under full load. In the experimental studies, engine torque, fuel and cooling water flow rates, and exhaust and engine surface temperature have been measured. Engine energy distribution, irreversible processes in the cooling system and the exhaust, and the exergy distribution have been calculated using the experimental data and the formulas for the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Experiments and theoretical calculations showed that ethanol added fuels show reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions without significant loss of power compared to gasoline. But it was measured that the reduction of the temperature inside the cylinder increases the hydrocarbon (HC) emission.

  7. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  8. Application of GRNN for the prediction of performance and exhaust emissions in HCCI engine using ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendu, Harisankar; Deepak, B.B.V.L.; Murugan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First GRNN model to predict performance and emission parameters in HCCI engine. • At 170 °C, a maximum of 43% thermal efficiency is found for ethanol HCCI engine. • Negligible NO X and smoke are found for port injected ethanol HCCI operation. • A maximum of 2% error in the GRNN prediction shows promising for HCCI engines. - Abstract: The evaluation of the performance and emission parameters of an ethanol-fueled HCCI engine is a challenging one, because of non-linear nature of the parameters. In this investigation, a smart prediction tool was developed for measuring the performance, and emission characteristics of the ethanol-fueled HCCI engine. For this purpose, a study was conducted through a combination of experimental data analysis and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) modeling. This study used a set of experimental data obtained from the ethanol HCCI engine to characterize variations in performance measures such as brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature, and the emission parameters such as unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke opacity. The neural network was trained, validated and tested with the experimental data sets. In addition, grid search method was used to find the optimized kernel bandwidth to reduce the cross-validation error. The obtained results were validated and tested with the experimental HCCI performance and emission metrics. The validation results predicted that the output parameters those lie within 2% error. The results also showed that the GRNN models are advantageous for network simplicity and require less sparse data.

  9. Fuel characterisation, engine performance, combustion and exhaust emissions with a new renewable Licella biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Muhammad Aminul; Hossain, Farhad M.; Brooks, Peter; Rowlands, William N.; Tulloch, John; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new biofuel produced by hydrothermal liquefaction is investigated. • Licella biofuel blends showed no significant changes in engine performance. • Licella blends showed higher THC and NO emissions. • PM and PN emissions were observed to be lower for all Licella blends. • Hydrothermal liquefaction Licella biofuel is suitable for use in diesel engine. - Abstract: The current study investigates the opportunity of using Licella biofuel as a partly renewable fuel provided by Licella P/L. Hereafter this fuel will be referred to as Licella biofuel. The renewable component of the Licella biofuel was made from the hydrothermal conversion of Australian pinus radiata wood flour using Licella’s proprietary Cat-HTR™ technology. The diesel-soluble component of the hydrothermal product was extracted into road diesel to give a blended fuel containing approximately 30% renewable material with the balance from diesel. This was further blended with a regular diesel fuel (designated R0) to give fuels for testing containing 5%, 10% and 20% renewable fuel (designated R5, R10 and R20). Some of the key fuel properties were measured for R30 and compared with those of regular diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine. All experiments were performed with a constant speed and five different engine loads. Exhaust emissions including particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers, nitric oxide (NO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and performance parameters including brake power (BP), indicated power (IP), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), mechanical efficiency (ME), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) were investigated for all four blends (R0, R5, R10 and R20). Among other engine parameters, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR) and pressure (P) versus volume (V) diagrams

  10. Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cenk; Canakci, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30 Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21 deg., 24 deg., 27 deg., 30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that BSFC and emissions of NO x and CO 2 increased as BTE and emissions of CO and HC decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing (27 deg. CA BTDC), NO x and CO 2 emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for the retarded injection timings (21 deg. and 24 deg. CA BTDC) at the all test conditions. On the other side, with the advanced injection timings (30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC), decreasing HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO x and CO 2 emissions boosted. In terms of BSFC and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing in the all fuel blends gave negative results for all engine speeds and loads

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  12. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassiba Baimatova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95 was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3 at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb.

  13. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  14. Natural gas: A bridge to the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, but never got the chance to develop its use. The reason for that is the notion that the natural gas supplies would last for only some decennia. That is only right for the conventional gas supplies. In ice crystals, some hundreds of meters deep in the oceans, enormous methane reserves, many times larger than the conventional supplies, are enclosed in so-called clathrates. From the literature it appears that other sources of natural gas or methane and new options to use these energy sources are considered or to be developed. Attention is paid to the methane reserves in geologic formations, methane produced by microbes, and methane in clathrates. It is estimated that the methane reserve is 8 x 10 2 3 Joule. By using natural gas as a fuel CO 2 emission will be reduced considerably. Methane emission however must be limited, because of the reducing effect of methane on the oxygen production in the troposphere. The large reserves of methane also offer good prospects for the production of hydrogen, large-scale applications to generate electric power or the use of CH 4 as a fuel in the transportation sector. New techniques and economic, social and institutional factors determine how fast the use of natural gas will increase. It is expected that 0.54 Tm 3 of natural gas will be needed for the twelve countries of the European Community. Main users in the year 2030 will be the electric power industry (39%), industry (26%), households and trade (18%), and transportation sector and supply (15%). In 2030 63% of natural gas has to be imported. 3 refs

  15. Competition in trade with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 22 June 1998, the European Parliament and the Council of Europe adopted Directive 98/30/EC on common rules for the internal market for natural gas. The Natural Gas Market Directive is aimed at increasing the competition on the gas market and creating an internal market for natural gas. To achieve this, the Directive includes provisions for ensuring that owners of transmission and distribution networks will allow other players access to these networks. The Directive is much more far-reaching and comprehensive than the present Swedish legislation in the field of natural gas. The main task of the committee is to submit a proposal for natural gas legislation that will meet the requirements of the new Directive. According to the committee directives, the work on the new legislation should aim at the regulations serving as a basis for a socio economically efficient market. However, it should also be borne in mind that the Swedish natural gas market is less developed than the markets in most other European countries, and that a lack of equilibrium in the opening of the gas markets should be avoided. Current international deliberations concerning the natural gas network in the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea region should also be taken into account. Chapter 1 gives more detailed particulars of the points of departure for the work of the committee and the implementation of the work. The report is arranged in the form three main parts, i.e. a background part, a part describing the points of departure, and a proposals part

  16. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  17. Study on effect of fuel injection strategy on combustion noise and exhaust emission of diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhixia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mechanical fuel supply system has already been no way to satisfy the requirement of more stringent fuel consumption and emission legislation. For the past few years, it has been the hot topic to improve combustion and emission performance of diesel engine through optimizing the fuel injection strategy. All kinds of spray, combustion and emission models were studied and then a new 3D spray model coupled with the cavitating flow inside the nozzle was put forward to well consider the primary atomization induced by cavitating flow and turbulence in nozzle holes. The model, combined with combustion and emission models were used for simulating the single-injection combustion of 1015 diesel engine and validated through comparing the results from simulation with those from experiment. With the above verified models, different injection strategies were further investigated to reveal the effect of pilot injection (PI timing, quantity and main injection (MI timing on combustion noise and exhaust emission of diesel engine.

  18. Carbonaceous aerosol in jet engine exhaust: emission characteristics and implications for heterogeneous chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.P.; Kaercher, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Wessling (Germany). Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-08-01

    Characteristic parameters of black carbon aerosol (BC) emitted from jet engine were measured during ground tests and in-flight behind the same aircraft. Size distribution features were a primary BC mode at a model diameter D {approx} 0.045 {mu}m, and a BC agglomeration mode at D < 0.2 {mu}m. The total BC number concentration at the engine exit was 2.9 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} with good agreement between model results and in-flight measured number concentrations of non-volatile particles with D {>=} 0.014 {mu}m. A comparison between total number concentration of BC particles and the non-volatile fraction of the total aerosol at the exit plane suggests that the non-volatile fraction of jet engine exhaust aerosol consists almost completely of BC. In-flight BC mass emission indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 g BC (kg fuel){sup -1}. The measured in-flight particle emission value was 1.75 {+-} 0.15 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} with corresponding ground test values of 1.0-8.7 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}. Both size distribution properties and mass emission indices can be scaled from ground test to in-flight conditions. Implications for atmosphere BC loading, BC and cirrus interaction and the potential of BC for perturbation of atmospheric chemistry are briefly outlined. (author)

  19. Experimental study on engine gas-path component fault monitoring using exhaust gas electrostatic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zuo, Hongfu; Liu, Pengpeng; Wen, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the recent development in engine gas-path components health monitoring using electrostatic sensors in combination with signal-processing techniques. Two ground-based engine electrostatic monitoring experiments are reported and the exhaust gas electrostatic monitoring signal-based fault-detection method is proposed. It is found that the water washing, oil leakage and combustor linear cracking result in an increase in the activity level of the electrostatic monitoring signal, which can be detected by the electrostatic monitoring system. For on-line health monitoring of the gas-path components, a baseline model-based fault-detection method is proposed and the multivariate state estimation technique is used to establish the baseline model for the electrostatic monitoring signal. The method is applied to a data set from a turbo-shaft engine electrostatic monitoring experiment. The results of the case study show that the system with the developed method is capable of detecting the gas-path component fault in an on-line fashion. (paper)

  20. A critical view on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the opinions of several players in the market for natural gas on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law, which is drafted within the framework of the liberalization of the European market for natural gas

  1. Marine diesel engines exhaust noise. Pt. VII: Calculation of the acoustical performance of diesel engine exhaust systems / Uitlaatgeluid van scheepsdieselmotoren. Dl. VII: Berekening van de akoestische eigenschappen van uitlaatsystemen van dieselmotoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Gerretsen, E.; Vellekoop, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given lor the calculation of the transfer damping of diesel engine exhaust systems. Also the complete computer program in FORTRAN IV, based on this calculation method is given. The method includes such system elements as chamber resonators, 1,5-pipes, absorbing siìencers and shunts to

  2. Effect of exhaust gases of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coupling lean-burn gasoline engine on NOx purification of Lean NOx trap (LNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Zhijun; Liu, Shiyu; Shen, Boxi

    2017-03-01

    Based on pervious experimental research on the application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Lean NOx Trap (LNT) with its effects on NOx emission control and secondary development of CHEMKIN software, an integrated NOx purification chemical kinetics mechanism including NOx adsorption, NOx desorption and NOx reduction process of LNT was created based on actual exhaust gases of the lean-burn gasoline engine. The effect of exhaust gases on NOx deterioration of LNT was investigated by modifying H2, O2 and overlap phase in mechanism of NOx desorption and NOx reduction process. Research found that the inlet temperature of LNT around 300 °C possesses the best NOx adsorption performance compared with 200 °C and 400 °C. Pt plays an import role in the process of NOx adsorption and NOx reduction. The reductive capability order of complex compound between Pt, and H2, CO and HC is Pt-H2>Pt-CO>Pt-C3H6. Both CO2 and H2O(g) could deteriorate NOx purification of LNT. The deterioration caused by H2O(g) is not significant as CO2 but harder to be regenerated. O2 could be beneficial to the NOx adsorption process, but it also could weaken the reductive atmosphere in the process of NOx desorption and NOx reduction.

  3. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  4. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  5. A Proposed Imaging System to Spatially and Temporally Monitor Unburned Hydrocarbons in Jet Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.

    The local air quality surrounding airports is significantly impacted by ground-based airplane operations, such as landing, taxiing, idling, and takeoff. In recent years, studies performed across the country revealed that people living near major airports suffer from increased cancer risks and higher likelihoods of developing respiratory issues. Jet engine emissions have been monitored extensively by direct probing of the exhaust, but there are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive methods with which to study exhaust plume dynamics. This study assesses the feasibility of designing a multispectral imaging system to track the spatial-temporal nature of a jet engine plume. Ideally, the imaging system will be both inexpensive and portable enough to be deployed at any airport. We begin by characterizing the phenomenology of jet engine emissions during ground operations and select unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) as the basis for our plume tracking. A proposed LWIR imaging system layout and radiometric governing equation is developed to predict the camera's sensor-reaching radiance. We use two methods, the Ideal Gas Law and the Gaussian Plume Equation, to three-dimensionally model the UHC concentration within the plume, which, in turn, is used to predict the plume transmission as a function of downwind distance. Radiometric models are used to predict the sensor-reaching radiance of the camera, and two filter combinations are selected to maximize the plume detectability. Each filter combination uses one filter to monitor the background radiance and one filter to trace the plume radiance. They are located at 9.001/9.333 [mum] and 9.12/12.212 [mum]. The plume tracing filters are used to assess plume detectability, and we find that that a camera with an NEDeltaT of 0.05 [K] will be able to detect the plume up to 120 seconds after the engine has passed. We conclude by predicting what filter difference the camera will observe temporally, as plumes are continuously

  6. Natural gas for New Brunswick: First report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The development of the gas field off Sable Island and the imminent construction of a gas pipeline which will deliver natural gas to New Brunswick has prompted a thorough examination of energy-related issues in the province. This report presents the findings of the provincial energy committee which examined the implications of the arrival of natural gas to the province. The committee held a series of public hearings and consultations, and also received written submissions. After a historical perspective on natural gas as an energy source in the province and a review of the gas industry participants and their interests, the report discusses such issues as gas pipeline economics, local distribution company operations, infrastructure development, the regulatory framework, energy market competition, regional price equity, development of in-province gas sources, pipeline access, pipeline laterals and expansions, establishment of gas distribution franchises, municipal involvement in gas development, the impact of gas industry development on electric utility restructuring, and the environmental benefits of natural gas. Finally, recommendations are made regarding how natural gas should be regulated and distributed

  7. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  8. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  9. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  10. Natural gas for utility use appears unstoppable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, H.

    1993-04-01

    Electric demand probably will grow rapidly through 1995, which will force utilities to quickly build substantial new generating capacities, predicted the National Economic Research Associates Inc. (NERA) in December 1992. NERA, a market research firm based in White Plains, NY, also noted this growth would require an increase in coal and hydrogeneration capacities, electrical generation by natural gas. NERA feels environmental pressures, economics and short lead times for gas electric generation plants point to surging consumption during the late 90s into the early 21st century. NERA estimates utilities will burn 200 percent more natural gas by 2005, or up to 7.5-trillion cubic feet (7.5 Tef) in that year. The increased consumption would raise natural-gas-fired electrical capacity to 145 GW by year-end 1995 and 160 GW by 2000. NERA bases its estimate on the price of natural gas at the wellhead remaining below $3/Mcf ($3 per thousand cubic feet in 1991 dollars). NERA and the high growth in electric utility usage would put extreme pressure on the natural gas industry.

  11. Air Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Barnett Shale Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2013-12-01

    Radiello samplers. In addition, weekly PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon and quartz filters that were analyzed for mass and elements (Teflon filters), for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) by thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique (quartz filters).VOC emissions from condensate tanks were largely low molecular weight hydrocarbons, however these tanks were enhancing local benzene concentrations mostly through malfunctioning valves. PAH concentrations were low (in pg m-3 range) but the average PAH concentration profiles (higher fraction of methylated PAHs) indicated an influence of compressor engine exhausts and increased diesel transportation traffic. These measurements, however, only represent a small 'snap-shot' of the overall emissions picture from this area. For instance during this one month study, the compressor station was predominantly downwind of the community and this may not be the case in other times of the year. Long-term study of these systems, especially in areas that have yet to experience this type of exploration, but will in the future, is needed to truly evaluate the air impacts of unconventional natural gas development.

  12. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  13. Catalytic reduction of NOx in gasoline engine exhaust over copper- and nickel-exchanged X-zeolite catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Catalytic removal of NO x in engine exhaust gases can be accomplished by non-selective reduction, selective reduction and decomposition. Noble metals are extensively used for non-selective reduction of NO x and up to 90% of engine NO x emissions can be reduced in a stoichiometric exhaust. This requirement of having the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio acts against efficiency improvement of engines. Selective NO x reduction in the presence of different reductants such as, NH 3 , urea or hydrocarbons, requires close control of the amount of reductant being injected which otherwise may be emitted as a pollutant. Catalytic decomposition is the best option for NO x removal. Nevertheless, catalysts which are durable, economic and active for NO x reduction at normal engine exhaust temperature ranges are still being investigated. Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging the Na+ ion with copper, nickel and copper-nickel metal ions and applied to the exhaust of a stationary gasoline engine to explore their potential for catalytic reduction of NO x under a wide range of engine and exhaust conditions. Some encouraging results have been obtained. The catalyst Cu-X exhibits much better NO x reduction performance at any temperature in comparison to Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X; while Cu-Ni-X catalyst exhibits slightly better performance than Ni-X catalyst. Maximum NO x efficiency achieved with Cu-X catalyst is 59.2% at a space velocity (sv) of 31 000 h -1 ; while for Cu-Ni-X and Ni-X catalysts the equivalent numbers are 60.4% and 56% respectively at a sv of 22 000 h -1 . Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts exhibit significant NO x reduction capability for a wide range of air/fuel ratio and with a slower rate of decline as well with increase in air/fuel ratio. (author)

  14. Engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics of methanol-fueled two-cycle engines. Kogata ni cycle ter dot methanol kikan no seino ni oyobosu shoinshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, N.; Kajitani, S. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineerineering); Hayashi, S.; Kubota, Y. (Muroran Inst. of Technology, Muroran (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Regarding crank case compressed two cycle engine, feasibility of methanol-fueled engine was investigated by studying effective factors on properties of power, combustion, and exhaust gas. For the experiment, air-cooling single cylinder engine was used of which specification was shown by table. As for the experiment, quantities of in-taken air, fuel consumption, torque, and composition of exhaust gas were measured under various conditions. As the consideration of experimental results, those were obtained that less exhaust gas with high performance operation of tow-cycle engie was achieved, too, by using diluted mixture gas of methanol, and that problems were found to be studied for the realization of high compression ratio. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Performance of an Otto cycle motor with natural gas direct injection; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto com injecao direta de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga

    1997-07-01

    A Otto cycle engine with natural gas direct injection, during the inlet stroke, was submitted to runs with full power in a Foucaut dynamometer. The results obtained show a increase in the volumetric efficiency of the engine with natural gas direct injection when compared with natural gas injection applied in the inlet manifold, upstream of the throttle butterfly. In the conversion to natural gas direct injection, the technical characteristics were not changed. A kit for natural gas direct injection, with electronic management was located on the cylinder head of the test engine. Maintaining the pressure constant in the natural gas fuel line, using a reduction valve, the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder was regulated, varying the opening time of the solenoid valve fuel injector. Engine performance data is compared, emphasizing the factors that contribute to this increase in relative volumetric efficiency. Modifications are made to maximize the power of the engine with natural gas direct injection. (author)

  16. Investigation of Deposit Formation Mechanisms for Engine In-cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Systems Using Quantitative Analysis and Sustainability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Meng, Q.; Mohamadian, H. P.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, L.; Zhu, L.

    2007-06-01

    The formation of SI engine combustion deposits is a complex phenomenon which depends on various factors of fuel, oil, additives, and engine. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of operating conditions, gasoline, lubricating oil, and additives on deposit formation. Both an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis are conducted on a single cylinder engine. As a result, the impact of deposits on engine performance and exhaust emissions (HC, NO x ) has been indicated. Using samples from a cylinder head and exhaust pipe as well as switching gases via the dual-gas method (N2, O2), the deposit formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated via the thermogravity analysis approach, where the roles of organic, inorganic, and volatile components of fuel, additives, and oil on deposit formation are identified from thermogravity curves. Sustainable feedback control design is then proposed for potential emission control and performance optimization

  17. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  18. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  19. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  20. Challenges for the future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure talk from P. Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France (GdF) company, who draws out the perspectives of development of the French national company in the context of an increasing natural gas demand with new competition and with an evolution of the European regulations: perspectives of demand and production, the dependency of Europe, the competition with other energy sources, the European deregulation of natural gas market, the strategy of Gaz de France, the relation with consumers, the development of distribution systems, the promotion of new products, the environmental qualities of natural gas and the development of clean technologies, the construction of new pipelines within the national territory, the partnerships of GdF with other national companies, the socio-economical actions of GdF (employment etc..). (J.S.)

  1. Natural gas storage; Stockage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-07-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  2. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  3. Final report on development of species profiles for selected organic emission sources. Volume 2: Engine-exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censullo, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    The project involved the characterization of fugitive emissions from three source categories. Category 1 sources, discussed in volume 1, comprised emissions from California oil production facilities. Category 2 and 3 sources, discussed in this volume, included exhaust from utility and heavy-duty engines. The selection of 21 samples, based on estimates of engine populations in California, was described. The design and fabrication of a portable exhaust dilution system was discussed. Diluted exhaust from selected engines was sampled simultaneously for hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Diesel engines were additionally sampled for higher hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon species were collected into evacuated stainless steel canisters. Aldehydes were absorbed into midget impingers containing DNPH/acetonitrile. High molecular weight hydrocarbons from diesel exhaust were adsorbed in sorbent tubes filled with XAD-2 resin. Hydrocarbons were speciated by gas chromatographic techniques, as with Category 1 sources. Analysis of DNPH-aldehyde derivatives was performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Extracts from the XAD-2 resin were analyzed by gas chromatography, using a mass selective detector

  4. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling : Volume 1. Text and Appendixes A through H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    The diesel engine itself is an important source of diesel powered vehicle noise, and becomes dominant after proper treatment of intake/exhaust and cooling system noise at vehicle speeds below fifty miles per hour. An investigation is reported, in two...

  5. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) as part of the environmental review of the Liberty... governing their licensing, and the receipt of the current application for the proposed Liberty Deepwater...

  6. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  7. Building alliances for natural gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangles, N. [Novacorp International, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people.

  8. Building alliances for natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangles, N.

    1993-01-01

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people

  9. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  10. Biodiesel from lemon and lemon grass oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivagar, R.; Sundararaj, S.; Vignesh, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    In the present scenario many developing countries are depending on oil producing nations for their fuel resources. Due to demand and scarcity of the fuel, there has been a huge increase in fuel prices. The vehicular population is also continuously increasing and becoming a great menace to peoples. This paper aims to provide an alternate solution for petroleum based fuels. It suggests that biodiesel produced from lemon and lemon grass oil can be used as an alternative fuel. This work investigates the thermal performance of four stroke diesel engine using blends of biodiesel and diesel as a fuel. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were measured at different loads for diesel and various combination of biofuel (L10, L20, and L30). The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 26.12%for L20 which is slightly higher than that of diesel (24.91%). Engine experimental results showed that exhaust emissions including CO2 and HC were reduced by 6% and 5% for L20 mixture of biodiesel whereas CO emission was as same as diesel. However, there was increase in NOxby 26% to the diesel fuel.

  11. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  12. Observations and model calculations of B747 engine exhaust products at cruise altitude and inferred initial OH emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremmel, H.G.; Schlager, H.; Konopka, P.; Schulte, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F.; Klemm, M.; Droste-Franke, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    NO{sub y} (NO, HNO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3}) exhaust emissions in the near-field plume of two B747 jet airliners cruising in the upper troposphere were measured in situ using the DLR Falcon research aircraft. In addition CO{sub 2} was measured providing exhaust plume dilution rates for the species. The observations were used to estimate the initial OH concentration and NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} ratio at the engine exit and the combustor exit by back calculations using a chemistry box model. From the two different plume events, and using two different model simulation modes in each case, we inferred OH emission indices EI(OH) = 0.32-0.39 g/kg fuel (OH{sub 0} = 9-14.4 ppmv) and (NO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}){sub 0} = 0.12-0.17. Furthermore, our results indicate that the chemistry of the exhaust species during the short period between the combustion chamber exit and the engine exit must be considered, because OH is already consumed to a great extent in this engine section, due to conversion to HNO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3}. For the engines discussed here, the modeled OH concentration between combustor exit und engine exit decreases by a factor of about 350, leading to OH concentrations of 1-2.10{sup 12} molec/cm{sup 3} at the engine exit. (orig.) 45 refs.

  13. Performance analysis of exhaust heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle in a passenger car with a compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilvacs, M.; Prisecaru, T.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Prisecaru, M.; Pop, E.; Popescu, Gh; Ciobanu, C.; Mohanad, A.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    Compression ignition engines transform approximately 40% of the fuel energy into power available at the crankshaft, while the rest part of the fuel energy is lost as coolant, exhaust gases and other waste heat. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can be used to recover this waste heat. In this paper, the characteristics of a system combining a compression ignition engine with an ORC which recover the waste heat from the exhaust gases are analyzed. The performance map of the diesel engine is measured on an engine test bench and the heat quantities wasted by the exhaust gases are calculated over the engine's entire operating region. Based on this data, the working parameters of ORC are defined, and the performance of a combined engine-ORC system is evaluated across this entire region. The results show that the net power of ORC is 6.304kW at rated power point and a maximum of 10% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption can be achieved.

  14. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  15. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  16. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  17. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  18. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  19. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujotomo Isworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%, and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant has a high electrical efficiency (45%. Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  20. The perspectives of development of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This short paper analyses the actions carried out in the world, and in particular in France, to develop and promote the use of natural gas for vehicles (NGV). In France, a protocol of agreement was signed in June 1994 between the French car manufacturers, Gaz de France and the French Association of Natural Gas for Vehicles (AFGNV) in order to develop new kinds of gas fueled vehicles, more optimized engines, to increase the number of gas distribution stations, to ratify the new models of vehicles and the specific parts for these vehicles (composite materials tanks), to carry out R and D work on gas compressors, and to develop public and private fleets of urban buses and public service vehicles. The forthcoming application of the 'Clean Air Law' will support these actions. Significant and similar developments take place also in more than 30 other countries under the same environmental motivation and ambitious programs are planned in the USA, Japan and Argentina for the year 2000. The R and D effort now focusses on the use of LNG instead of compressed natural gas. (J.S.)

  1. Natural gas for public and private transportation: Present situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Iannaccone, S.; Unich, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles has grown due to its interesting chemical-physical properties which make it an efficient fuel and more environmentally compatible than conventional fuels. This promising consumption trend has led to increased R ampersand D investments in attempts to enhance the fuel's automotive performance and exhaust emission characteristics. This paper reviews the advances in these directions which have been made thus far by research teams around the world and assesses commercialization prospects for natural gas automotive fuels in light of the more stringent air pollution regulations being proposed by the European Communities

  2. The effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester on direct injection Diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36-9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME. The maximum NO x emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min -1 , the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5-21 ppm levels

  3. The prospects of natural gas vehicles in France and Europe; Les perspectives du GNV dans le monde, en Europe et en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolle, J.M. [Association Francaise du Gaz Naturel pour Vehicules, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-08-15

    Given the availability and environmental advantages of natural gas, several countries soon felt that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) were a logical way to respond to transportation needs while meeting up to the standards of sustainable development. Natural gas is now a genuine alternative to petroleum products, and NGVs are capable of using the current engine technology. (author)

  4. Finding a suitable catalyst for on-board ethanol reforming using exhaust heat from an internal combustion engine

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas Grau, Albert; Jiménez Divins, Nuria; Rejas García, Albert; Bosch Tous, Ricardo; Llorca Piqué, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming with pure ethanol and commercial bioethanol (S/C = 3) was carried out inside the housing of the exhaust gas pipe of a gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) by using exhaust heat (610–620 °C). Various catalytic honeycombs loaded with potassium-promoted cobalt hydrotalcite and with ceria-based rhodium–palladium catalysts were tested under different reactant loads. The hydrogen yield obtained over the cobalt-based catalytic honeycomb at low load (F/W < 25 mLliq·gcat-1...

  5. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  6. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  7. TTF stirs market for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyboom, W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Dutch company Air Products switched from Gasterra to the virtual gas market place TTF, taking along several of its own clients. Gasterra thus lost a major client for high calorific gas. The gas market is in full motion. TitleTransfer Facility is a virtual market place of the operator of the Dutch natural gas transport grid, Gas Transport Services. [mk] [nl

  8. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  9. The complexity of natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the process of the deregulation of the energy market large consumers will have lots of opportunities to purchase natural gas and electricity cheaper than before. However, only one third seizes those opportunities. Special consultants can help to conclude supply contracts, focusing on the customer, supplier and commodity. Advantages and disadvantages of collective purchases of energy are briefly outlined

  10. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  11. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  12. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  13. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  14. Markets for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerz, D.H.; Coad, L.A.

    1990-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry and the fundamentals underlying both the increase in activity and the longer-term outlook for the natural gas sector are examined. The basis for the analysis was the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model, to which a number of modifications were made. The level of natural gas resource assumed for northeastern British Columbia corresponds to an ultimate potential of 50 Tcf. Significant growth in production over the outlook period (1988-2007) is predicted. High rates of utilization on the Westcoast system underscore the need for significant capacity expansion if the production levels projected for the mid-1990s are to be achieved. Natural gas production is projected to be sustained at the 800 billion cubic foot level from the mid-1990s onwards, with the majority of the production growth occurring between 1992 and 1997. Significant growth in exports is projected, especially when capacity is available to move gas supplies directly into the California and Rocky Mountain regions in the US. These two transport corridors represent over half the increase in British Columbia production between 1992 and 1997. 53 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  16. Natural gas in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document briefly presents and comments the main data about natural gas in France: gas consumption, natural gas-based electricity production, refineries, energetic final consumption of natural gas, non-energetic final consumption of natural gas, gas imports and suppliers (countries), national production, and stocks

  17. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  18. The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Emission of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limyaa Mahdi Asaad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder variable compression ratio spark ignition engine type PRODIT was used in this study. The  experiments  were  conducted  with  gasoline  fuel  (80  octane  No.at  equivalence  ratio  (Ø  =1.  This study examined the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on emission. It was conducted at engine speeds (1500, 1900, 2300 and 2700 r.p.m..The  exhaust  gases  were  added  in  volumetric  ratios  of  10%,  20%  and  30%  of  the  entering  air/fuel charge. The results showed that the EGR addition decreases the CO2 concentrations, in the same time CO and HC concentrations increase remarkably.  NOx concentration decreased highly with the increase of EGR percentage at variable engine speeds and constant torque. Also, it decreased when the engine run  at  constant  speed  and  variable  engine  torque.  The  exhaust  gas  temperature  decreased  with increasing EGR ratio.

  19. Exhaust gas emissions evaluation in the flight of a multirole fighter equipped with a F100-PW-229 turbine engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of exhaust gas emission generated by turbine engines described in ICAO Annex 16 of the International Civil Aviation Convention includes a number of procedures and requirements. Their implementation is aimed at determining the value of the engine’s environmental parameters and comparing them to the values specified in the norms. The turbine engine exhaust gas emission test procedures are defined as stationary and the operating parameters values are set according to the LTO test. The engine load setting values refer to engine operating parameters that occur when the plane is in the vicinity of airports. Such a procedure is dedicated to civilian passenger and transport aircraft. The operating conditions of a multirole fighter aircraft vary considerably from passenger aircraft and the variability of their flight characteristics requires a special approach in assessing its environmental impact. This article attempts to evaluate the exhaust gas emissions generated by the turbine engine in a multirole fighter flight using the parameters recorded by the onboard flight recorder.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs