Sample records for natural water conditions

  1. Water repellency under natural conditions in sandy soils of southern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moral García, F.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.


    The occurrence and consequences of fire-induced water repellency have been studied in several regions of Spain since 1989. The occurrence of water repellency formed under natural conditions, however, has only been described for a few areas in Spain since 1998. The purpose of the present study was to

  2. The influence of reactive oxygen species on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rose


    Full Text Available Redox conditions in natural waters are a fundamental control on biogeochemical processes and ultimately many ecosystem functions. While the dioxygen/water redox couple controls redox thermodynamics in oxygenated aquatic environments on geological timescales, it is kinetically inert in the extracellular environment on the much shorter timescales on which many biogeochemical processes occur. Instead, electron transfer processes on these timescales are primarily mediated by a relatively small group of trace metals and stable radicals, including the reactive oxygen species superoxide. Such processes are of critical biogeochemical importance because many of these chemical species are scarce nutrients, but may also be toxic at high concentrations. Furthermore, their bioavailability and potentially toxicity is typically strongly influenced by their redox state. In this paper, I examine to what extent redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters are expected to be reflected in the redox states of labile redox-active compounds that readily exchange electrons with the dioxygen/superoxide redox couple, and potentially with each other. Additionally, I present the hypothesis that that the relative importance of the dioxygen/superoxide and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide redox couples exerts a governing control on local redox conditions in oxygenated natural waters on biogeochemically important timescales. Given the recent discovery of widespread extracellular superoxide production by a diverse range of organisms, this suggests the existence of a fundamental mechanism for organisms to tightly regulate local redox conditions in their extracellular environment in oxygenated natural waters.

  3. Hydrolysis and Photolysis of Herbicide Clomazone in Aqueous Solutions and Natural Water Under Abiotic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jia; DIAO Xiao-ping; HU Ji-ye


    The hydrolysis and photolysis of clomazone in aqueous solutions and natural water were assessed under natural and controlled conditions. Kinetics of hydrolysis and photolysis of clomazone were determined by HPLC-DAD. Photoproducts were identiifed by HPLC-MS. No noticeable hydrolysis occurred in aqueous buffer solutions ((25±2)°C, pH (4.5±0.1), pH (7.4±0.1), pH (9.0±0.1);(50±2)°C, pH (4.5±0.1), pH (7.4±0.1)) or in natural water up to 90 d. At pH (9.0±0.1) and (50±2)°C the half-life of clomazone was 50.2 d. Clomazone photodecomposition rate in aqueous solutions under UV radiation and natural sunlight followed ifrst-order kinetics. Degradation rates were faster under UV light (half-life of 51-59 min) compared to sunlight (half-life of 87-136 d). Under UV light, four major photoproducts were detected and tentatively identiifed according to HPLC-MS spectral information such as 2-chlorobenzamide, N-hydroxy-(2-benzyl)-2-methylpropan-amide, 2-[2-phenol]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone and 2-[(4,6-dihydroxyl-2-chlorine phenol)]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone. These results suggested that clomazone photodegradation proceeds via several reaction pathways:1) dehalogenation;2) substitution of chlorine group by hydroxyl;3) cleavage of the side chain. Photosensitizers, such as H2O2 and ribolfavin, could enhance photolysis of clomazone in natural sunlight. In summary, we found that photoreaction is an important dissipation pathway of clomazone in natural water systems.

  4. Hydrochemical diversity of semi-natural water system on the background of environmental conditions. (United States)

    Cudowski, Adam; Górniak, Andrzej Stefan; Więcko, Adam


    Research carried out from 2007 to 2011 showed that a tested semi-natural water system with a diverse catchment (peat, peat-mineral and mineral) has a very varied quality of water, as evidenced by a the large range of conductivity (174-828 μS/cm) and pH (6.34-9.92). Natural lake parts of the semi-natural water system were similar to the artificial parts in terms of physico-chemical parameters, as evidenced by the lack of statistically significant differences between the water quality in both of these ecosystems. Taking into account the quality of various types of water in this semi-natural system, it can be seen that the river waters differed significantly (p system contributed to higher values of many tested parameters (EC, pH, TC, TN, SO4 (2-) or Cl(-)) in waters of the canal. In contrast, rivers with high values of concentrations of organic matter (TOC > 10.0 mg/L) contributed to a decline in values of those parameters. Moreover, lake waters within the tested semi-natural water system showed a "cleansing" function, because they caused a decrease in conductivity, pH or the concentration of carbon, total nitrogen, sulphate(VI) and chloride in waters of the canal.

  5. Natural Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of Water with Corrosion Products at Super—Critical Pressures under Cooling COnditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-XueJiang; Ze-PeiRen; 等


    A numerical study is reported of laminar natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical cooled plate for water containing metal corrosion products at super-critical pressures.The influence of variable properties at super-critical pressures on natural convertion has been analyzed.The difference between heat and mass transfer under cooling or heating conditions is also discussed and some correlations for heat and mass transfer under cooling conditions are recommended.

  6. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination (United States)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana


    main processes that determine the conditions of residence and the behavior of elements in the water lakes. It was found that a key role in the formation of natural waters has the cumulative effect of landscape-geochemical conditions and anthropogenic impact. A great contribution, as shown by factorial analysis, make humic acid, which enhance the migratory activity elements. Jeffries D.S. (1997) Canadian acid rain assessment. Toronto. 3, 113 p. Moiseenko T.I. (1999) The fate of metals in Arctic surface waters: Method for defining critical levels Sci. Total Environ. 236, 19-39. Mannio J. (2001) Responces of headwater lakes to air pollution changes in Finland: Acad. Diss. Helsinki: Univ. Helsinki, 226 p. Moiseenko T.I., Gashkina N.A. (2007) Distribution of trace elements in surface waters and feature of their migration // Water resources. V. 34, № 4. P. 454-468. Moiseenko T.I. (2005) Water acidification and behavior of trace elements // Geochemistry. V.10. P.1120-1127. This work has done under the grant of the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research (ofi_m) №15-29-06948 «The features formation of water quality conditions in Arctic regions of development mineral resources: algorithms settlements of permissible impact»

  7. Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor: the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions. (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane


    The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (δE ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured δ(18) O of transpiration (δE ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled δE values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational δ(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in δE are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications.

  8. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions. (United States)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra


    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C4-10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment-water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm(3) g(-1) to 0.41 cm(3) g(-1) for C4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm(3) g(-1) to 6.5 cm(3) g(-1) for C4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric, Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanism of atmospheric, surface and soil water interactions (water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed, and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope, by bringing forward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal. Some factors, including slope angle, slope orientation and raindrop inclination, which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model. The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was also considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement in hillslope under natural rainfall conditions.

  10. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric,Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The mechanism of atmospheric,surface and soil water interactions( water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed,and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration,overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope,by bringing froward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal.Some factors,including slope angle,slope orientation and raindrop inclination,which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model.The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was aslo considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration,overland flow and sol water monvement in hillsope under natural rainfall conditions.

  11. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions. (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert


    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  12. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang


    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05–25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%–89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire

  13. Stability of uncoated and fulvic acids coated manufactured CeO2 nanoparticles in various conditions: From ultrapure to natural Lake Geneva waters. (United States)

    Oriekhova, Olena; Stoll, Serge


    Understanding the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in natural water and impact of water composition in changing conditions is of high importance to predict their fate once released into the environment. In this study we investigated the stability of uncoated and Suwannee River fulvic acids coated CeO2 manufactured nanoparticles in various environmental conditions. The effect of pH changes on the nanoparticle and coating stability was first studied in ultrapure water as well as the variation of zeta potentials and sizes with time in presence of fulvic acids at environmental pH. Then the stability of CeO2 in synthetic and natural Lake Geneva waters was investigated as a function of fulvic acids concentration. Our results indicate that the adsorption of environmentally relevant concentrations of Suwannee River fulvic acids promotes CeO2 stabilization in ultrapure water as well as synthetic water and that the coating stability is high upon pH variations. On the other hand in natural Lake Geneva water CeO2 NPs are found in all cases aggregated due to the effect of heterogeneous organic and inorganic compounds.

  14. Influence of thermal boundary conditions on MHD natural convection in square enclosure using Cu–water nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mansour


    Full Text Available Numerical investigation for heat transfer with natural convection and nanofluid flow subjected to changeable thermal boundary conditions and inclined magnetic field has been performed. Effect of problem’s parameters on each other has been monitored. It has been reached to that inclination angle can justify the quasi-symmetric boundary conditions to be symmetric. In addition to that as inclination angle increases, the magnetic force pointed to horizontal trend; so the convection regime dominates the cavity. In a related context, nanoparticles provide conduction regime, increase and maintenance the rate of heat transfer all over the cavity. However thermal emission at ends of heat source–sink has been found to be constant when boundary conditions change in the pure case.

  15. Quantification of aerobic biodegradation and volatilization rates of gasoline hydrocarbons near the water table under natural attenuation conditions (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.; Baker, R.J.


    Aerobic biodegradation and volatilization near the water table constitute a coupled pathway that contributes significantly to the natural attenuation of hydrocarbons at gasoline spill sites. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation and volatilization were quantified by analyzing vapor transport in the unsaturated zone at a gasoline spill site in Beaufort, South Carolina. Aerobic biodegradation rates decreased with distance above the water table, ranging from 0.20 to 1.5g m-3 d-1 for toluene, from 0.24 to 0.38 g m-3 d-1 for xylene, from 0.09 to 0.24 g m-3 d-1 for cyclohexene, from 0.05 to 0.22 g m-3 d-1 for ethylbenzene, and from 0.02 to 0.08 g m-3 d-1 for benzene. Rates were highest in the capillary zone, where 68% of the total hydrocarbon mass that volatilized from the water table was estimated to have been biodegraded. Hydrocarbons were nearly completely degraded within 1 m above the water table. This large loss underscores the importance of aerobic biodegradation in limiting the transport of hydrocarbon vapors in the unsaturated zone and implies that vapor-plume migration to basements and other points of contact may only be significant if a source of free product is present. Furthermore, because transport of the hydrocarbon in the unsaturated zone can be limited relative to that of oxygen and carbon dioxide, soil, gas surveys conducted at hydrocarbon-spill sites would benefit by the inclusion of oxygen- and carbon-dioxide-gas concentration measurements. Aerobic degradation kinetics in the unsaturated zone were approximately first-order. First-order rate constants near the water table were highest for cyctohexene (0.21-0.65 d-1) and nearly equivalent for ethylbenzene (0.11-20.31 d-1), xylenes (0.10-0.31 d-1), toluene (0.09-0.30 d-1), and benzene (0.07,0.31 d-1). Hydrocarbon mass loss rates at the water table resulting from the coupled aerobic biodegradation and volatilization process were determined by extrapolating gas transport rates through the capillary zone. Mass

  16. Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor - the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration of Mediterranean cork-oaks (Quercus suber L.)under natural conditions (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane


    Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor (δT) are a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale, but little is known on short-term variability of δT as direct high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes and δT to evaluate a modeling approach and investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in distinct seasons in cork-oaks (Quercus suber L.). The isotope signature of transpiration (δT) always deviated from steady-state predictions (ΔT) throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites is near isotopic steady-state. Thus, ΔT is further amplified compared to deviations of leaf water isotopes from steady-state, specifically in dry conditions. High agreement was found for direct estimates and modeled ΔT assuming non-steady-state conditions of leaf-water at the evaporating sites. Strong isoforcing on the atmosphere of transpiration in isotopic non-steady-state imply that short-term variations in δT have likely consequences for large-scale applications, e.g. partitioning of ecosystem evapotranspiration or carbon fluxes using C18O16O, or satellite-based applications.

  17. A comparison of iron limitation of phytoplankton in natural oceanic waters and laboratory media conditioned with EDTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Timmermans, K.R.


    The solubility of iron in oxic waters is so low that iron can be a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the open ocean. In order to mimic low iron concentrations in algal cultures, Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used. The presence of EDTA enables culture experiments to be pe

  18. Redox transformations of iron in the presence of exudate from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa under conditions typical of natural waters. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Garg, Shikha; Waite, T David


    Interaction of the exudate secreted by a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with Fe(II) and Fe(III) was investigated here under both acidic (pH 4) and alkaline (pH 8) conditions. At the concentrations of iron and exudate used, iron was present as dissolved iron (< 0.025 µm) at pH 4 but principally as small (< 0.45 µm) iron oxyhydroxide particles at pH 8 with only ~3-27% present in the dissolved form as a result of iron binding by the organic exudate. The formation of strong Fe(III)-exudate and relatively weak Fe(II)-exudate complexes alters the reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple facilitating more rapid oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4 and 8 than was the case in the absence of exudate. Our results further show that the organic exudate contains Fe(III) reducing moieties resulting in production of measureable concentrations of Fe(II). However, these reducing moieties are short-lived (with a half-life of 1.9 hours) and easily oxidized in air-saturated environments. A kinetic model was developed that adequately describes the redox transformation of Fe in the presence of exudate both at pH 4 and pH 8.

  19. Stratification in Natural Water Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen


    Density stratification of natural water bodies plays an important role for a number of civil engineering problems. The origin of stratification in natural water is discussed and the Black Sea, the Gulf of Katchch, and Maarmorilik Fiord in Greenland are described and used as examples. Stratification...... has a number of civil engineering implications. The lock exchange problem is used as a canonical example, and implications for water exchange and sedimentation is discussed by means of examples: Sedimentation in locks and estuaries, salt transport into fresh water reservoirs, water exchange...

  20. Microbiological quality of natural waters. (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J


    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  1. Fouling in reverse electrodialysis under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David A.; Kunteng, Damnearn; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Kitty


    Renewable energy can be generated from mixing salt water and fresh water in reverse electrodialysis. The potential for energy generation from mixing seawater and river water is enormous. To investigate the effect of fouling when such natural feed waters are used, the performance of three different s

  2. Regional scenario building as a tool to support vulnerability assessment of food & water security and livelihood conditions under varying natural resources managements (United States)

    Reinhardt, Julia; Liersch, Stefan; Dickens, Chris; Kabaseke, Clovis; Mulugeta Lemenih, Kassaye; Sghaier, Mongi; Hattermann, Fred


    Participatory regional scenario building was carried out with stakeholders and local researchers in four meso-scale case studies (CS) in Africa. In all CS the improvement of food and / or water security and livelihood conditions was identified as the focal issue. A major concern was to analyze the impacts of different plausible future developments on these issues. The process of scenario development is of special importance as it helps to identify main drivers, critical uncertainties and patterns of change. Opportunities and constraints of actors and actions become clearer and reveal adaptation capacities. Effective strategies must be furthermore reasonable and accepted by local stakeholders to be implemented. Hence, developing scenarios and generating strategies need the integration of local knowledge. The testing of strategies shows how they play out in different scenarios and how robust they are. Reasons and patterns of social and natural vulnerability can so be shown. The scenario building exercise applied in this study is inspired by the approach from Peter Schwartz. It aims at determining critical uncertainties and to identify the most important driving forces for a specific focal issue which are likely to shape future developments of a region. The most important and uncertain drivers were analyzed and systematized with ranking exercises during meetings with local researchers and stakeholders. Cause-effect relationships were drawn in the form of concept maps either during the meetings or by researchers based on available information. Past observations and the scenario building outcomes were used to conduct a trend analysis. Cross-comparisons were made to find similarities and differences between CS in terms of main driving forces, patterns of change, opportunities and constraints. Driving forces and trends which aroused consistently over scenarios and CS were identified. First results indicate that livelihood conditions of people rely often directly on the

  3. The state of Cs-137 in natural water solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropova, V.V.; Toropov, I.G.; Davydov, Yu.P. [Institute of Radioecological, Minsk (Belarus); Efremenkov, V.M. [Institute of Power Engineering, Minsk (Belarus)


    The state of Cs radionuclides has been studied in natural water systems - waters of some rivers, water channel, marshes. Investigations were performed using methods of ultrafiltration, dialysis, ion exchange. Based on experimental results obtained conclusions were made on state of radiocaesium in natural waters. It was shown, that Cs in such solutions presents mainly in ionic form. It is shown, how Cs may change its dispersion conditions in natural waters.

  4. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser


    cattle under field conditions in Egypt. Methods: A total of 35 buffaloes and cattle were clinically and laboratory investigated from March to June 2008. Twenty-nine buffaloes and cattle out of 35 were naturally infected with B. bovis and showed signs of bovine babesiosis. Three cows and three buffaloes...

  5. Analysis of ROSA 1.1 test with TRACE code: ECSS water injection under natural circulation conditions; Analisis con el codigo TRACE del test ROSA 1.1: Inyeccion de agua ECCS bajo condiciones de circulacion natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julibe, A. J.; Munoz-Coba, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Romero, A.


    This paper is based on modelling the ROSA 1.1 test by TRACE code. The ROSA 1.1 test presents several natural flow phases in biphasic conditions and this was the cause of this work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is verify the TRACE code ability to simulate such flows using standard components and modules.

  6. Effectiveness of solar disinfection using batch reactors with non-imaging aluminium reflectors under real conditions: Natural well-water and solar light. (United States)

    Navntoft, C; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P


    Inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions of Escherichia coli in well-water using compound parabolic collector (CPC) mirrors to enhance the efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) for batch reactors under real, solar radiation (cloudy and cloudless) conditions. On clear days, the system with CPC reflectors achieved complete inactivation (more than 5-log unit reduction in bacterial population to below the detection limit of 4CFU/mL) one hour sooner than the system fitted with no CPC. On cloudy days, only systems fitted with CPCs achieved complete inactivation. Degradation of the mirrors under field conditions was also evaluated. The reflectivity of CPC systems that had been in use outdoors for at least 3 years deteriorated in a non-homogeneous fashion. Reflectivity values for these older systems were found to vary between 27% and 72% compared to uniform values of 87% for new CPC systems. The use of CPC has been proven to be a good technological enhancement to inactivate bacteria under real conditions in clear and cloudy days. A comparison between enhancing optics and thermal effect is also discussed.

  7. Differences in the Effect of Coal Pile Runoff (Low pH, High Metal Concentrations) Versus Natural Carolina Bay Water (Low pH, Low Metal Concentrations) on Plant Condition and Associated Bacterial Epiphytes of Salvinia minima. (United States)

    Lindell, A H; Tuckfield, R C; McArthur, J V


    Numerous wetlands and streams have been impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in lowered pH and increased levels of toxic heavy metals. Remediation of these contaminated sites requires knowledge on the response of microbial communities (especially epiphytic) and aquatic plants to these altered environmental conditions. We examined the effect of coal pile runoff waters as an example of AMD in contrast to natural water from Carolina Bays with low pH and levels of metals on Salvinia minima, a non-native, metal accumulating plant and associated epiphytic bacteria. Treatments included water from two Carolina Bays, one AMD basin and Hoagland's Solution at two pH levels (natural and adjusted to 5.0-5.5). Using controlled replicated microcosms (N = 64) we determined that the combination of low pH and high metal concentrations has a significant negative impact (p epiphytes. Solution metal concentrations dropped indicating removal from solution by S. minima in all microcosms.

  8. Conditions of competition between the production of water by desalination and natural resources; Les conditions de concurrence entre la production d'eau par dessalement et les ressources naturelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A close examination of the local supply and demand for fresh water is involved when considering a sea water desalination plant in a given region. This examination makes it possible in most cases to undertake a thorough study of the natural resources, resulting in the use of desalination being rejected. After confirming this fact by precise examples, the authors consider that the preliminary study should be extended, taking into account the complementary character of natural resources and desalination systems: contribution to peak demand, contribution to base demand. This analysis results in a classification of the main user regions according to certain economic criteria defining their suitability for the use of desalination processes. (author) [French] Envisager une installation d'eau de mer dans une region donnee, entraine un examen attentif de l'offre et de la demande locale en eau douce. Cet examen permet de conduire dans la plupart des cas a une etude approfondie des ressources naturelles qui aboutit a ecarter le recours au dessalement. Apres avoir constate ce fait, par des exemples precis, les auteurs estiment que l'on doit pousser plus loin l'etude preliminaire en tenant compte de la complementarite entre les ressources naturelles et les systemes de dessalement: contribution a la demande de pointe, contribution a la demande de base. Cette analyse conduit a classer les regions utilisatrices essentielles selon certains criteres economiques definissant leur aptitude a l'utilisation des procedes de dessalement. (auteur)

  9. Disinfection Tests of MF-2 Disinfectant on Nature Water Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinlan; LIU Qingzeng; CUI Ying


    Objective To furnish evidence for practical application by examining the disinfection effect of MF - 2 disinfectant on different degree of contaminated water. Methods According to the determining methods of total bacterial count and coli - index of drinking water stimulated by the state conduct the forthwith disinfection experiments and accumulate disinfection experiments. Results Adding the MF - 2 into water resource to specific concentration according with the water resource sanitation criterion stipulated by the sater, after pointed time, it can chang water quality of severe contaminated water and questionable contaminated water into that of clean water, the quality of less contaminated water into that of drinking water. Conclusions MF - 2 disinfectant is applicable for disinfection of nature contaminated water resource in an outlying district and field - operation especially for urgent drinking water disinfection the area where there is neither clean water nor heating condition.

  10. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2009 (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Nielson, Ashley; Eacret, Robert J.; Myers, Andrew; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.


    This is the forty-sixth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions. This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2008. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights. and GW2009.pdf.

  11. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2008 (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, Martel J.; Freeman, Michael L.; Downhour, Paul; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Enright, Michael; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.


    This is the forty-fifth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2007. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at and

  12. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2007 (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Allen, David V.; Danner, M.R.; Enright, Michael; Cillessen, J.L.; Gerner, S.J.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, Bradley A.; Swenson, Robert L.; Howells, James H.; Christiansen, Howard K.; Fisher, Martel J.


    This is the forty-fourth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2006. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. This report is available online at http://www.waterrights.utah. gov/ and

  13. WaterWatch -- Current Water Resources Conditions (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — WaterWatch ( is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that displays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent,...

  14. Physical Conditioning through Water Exercises. (United States)

    Conrad, C. Carson

    This document describes activities in an aquatic program designed for an individual in sound health. Instructions for performing each activity are given in step-by-step outline form. The activities are arranged under the following categories: standing water drills; pool-side standing drills; gutter holding drills; bobbing (various forms);…

  15. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2003 (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.


    This is the fortieth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2002. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 2002 (United States)

    Burden, Carole B.; Enright, Michael; Danner, M.R.; Fisher, M.J.; Haraden, Peter L.; Kenney, T.A.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Eacret, Robert J.; Downhour, Paul; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.


    This is the thirty-ninth in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources and Division of Water Rights, provide data to enable interested parties to maintain awareness of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, precipitation, streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Information on well construction included in this report refers only to wells constructed for new appropriations of ground water. Supplementary data are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas which are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions and for which applicable data are available.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 2001. Most of the reported data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights and Division of Water Resources.

  17. Biological water oxidation: lessons from nature. (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Moghaddam, Atefeh Nemati; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Govindjee


    Hydrogen production by water splitting may be an appealing solution for future energy needs. To evolve hydrogen efficiently in a sustainable manner, it is necessary first to synthesize what we may call a 'super catalyst' for water oxidation, which is the more challenging half reaction of water splitting. An efficient system for water oxidation exists in the water oxidizing complex in cyanobacteria, algae and plants; further, recently published data on the Manganese-calcium cluster have provided details on the mechanism and structure of the water oxidizing complex. Here, we have briefly reviewed the characteristics of the natural system from the standpoint of what we could learn from it to produce an efficient artificial system. In short, to design an efficient water oxidizing complex for artificial photosynthesis, we must learn and use wisely the knowledge about water oxidation and the water oxidizing complex in the natural system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  18. Creep characteristics of plagioclase hornblende rock under natural and water-saturated conditions in deep underground%自然与饱水状态下深部斜长角闪岩蠕变特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春阳; 曹平; 汪亦显; 宁果果


    通过金川深部斜长角闪岩单轴压缩蠕变实验,选取典型蠕变曲线,发现该岩石黏弹性、黏塑性变形较瞬时变形偏小,卸载后弹性后效不显著.在5.1 MPa轴向应力下,自然状态的岩样近似纯弹性特征.饱水状态下岩样瞬时强度σ’b和长期强度σ’∝总体低于自然状态,且σ’∝已接近深部高地应力,因此,对于深部节理、裂隙很发育的岩体,应特别注意巷道排水,防止围岩因长期强度降低而导致巷道变形和破坏.自然与饱水状态下岩样瞬时弹性应变εme、瞬时塑性应变εmp随应力增大而增加,但增速逐渐放缓,饱水状态下塑性变形更显著;相同应力下,饱水状态岩样蠕变量大于自然状态,应变速率也总体快于自然状态,2种状态的蠕变速率在20~30 h时都逐渐稳定,且速率曲线随应力增大,微裂隙压密,彼此逐渐靠近,岩样处于相对硬化阶段;当轴向应力达到66.3 MPa后,饱水状态蠕变速率有相对加速趋势,速率曲线随应力增大先往左下移动,再朝右上移动,而自然状态蠕变速率曲线总体向右上移动.最后,通过蠕变数据分析,推导γ=ασk型经验方程,对蠕变试验数据进行回归拟合,拟合结果证明该蠕变经验模型的正确性.金川矿区斜长角闪岩蠕变实验研究为分析深部巷道该类围岩流变稳定性及支护方案优化等提供有效帮助.%According to plagioclase-hornblende rock in Jinchuan deep underground mine uniaxial compression creep test results, after selection typical creep curves, it is found that viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation are significantly less than instantaneous deformation, elastic after-effect is not obvious after unloading. Under 5.1 MPa of uniaxial stress, rock samples show pure elastic properties in natural condition. Under water condition, both instantaneous uniaxial compressive strength σ'b and long-term strength σξx are generally lower than nature condition,

  19. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge. (United States)

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan


    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  20. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus-Dieter BALKE; Yan ZHU


    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and fiver water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant puri- fication and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quanti-tative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated fiver water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hy-droxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing fiver discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the fiver discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  1. Spectra of Particulate Backscattering in Natural Waters (United States)

    Gordon, Howard, R.; Lewis, Marlon R.; McLean, Scott D.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Freeman, Scott A.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Boynton, Chris G.


    Hyperspectral profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance in natural waters (oligotrophic and mesotrophic) are combined with inverse radiative transfer to obtain high resolution spectra of the absorption coefficient (a) and the backscattering coefficient (bb) of the water and its constituents. The absorption coefficient at the mesotrophic station clearly shows spectral absorption features attributable to several phytoplankton pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, c, and Carotenoids). The backscattering shows only weak spectral features and can be well represented by a power-law variation with wavelength (lambda): b(sub b) approx. Lambda(sup -n), where n is a constant between 0.4 and 1.0. However, the weak spectral features in b(sub b), suggest that it is depressed in spectral regions of strong particle absorption. The applicability of the present inverse radiative transfer algorithm, which omits the influence of Raman scattering, is limited to lambda < 490 nm in oligotrophic waters and lambda < 575 nm in mesotrophic waters.

  2. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.


    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinkingwater from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitarystandards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation fornon-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of themain pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,trihalomethanes on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetableproducts (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells. Experiments were performedin dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions wasused tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used forremoval/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizingactive carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water forbeverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove oforganic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of waterper volume of filter.

  4. Seal formation in arid soil under natural and laboratory conditions (United States)

    Sarah, Pariente; Sachs, Eyal


    Runoff is of considerable importance in the functioning of a desert ecosystem. The hydrological characteristics of runoff developing on arid soil under natural field conditions and those of runoff occurring in laboratory-controlled rain simulation experiments using the same type of soil were investigated. Runoff and erosion measurements were carried out in small plots (0.2-0.8 m2) on a south-facing hillslope in the northern Negev, Israel (90 mm ave. annual rainfall). Soil from the area near to the runoff plots was collected for the rain simulation experiments conducted in the laboratory. The soil was collected from 0-1 cm and 1-5 cm depths, and then placed within boxes (1.16 m long and 0.55 m wide) in the laboratory in the same order as they had been in the field. Representative surface stones were collected in the field and scattered randomly on the soil surface in the laboratory boxes. In some of the laboratory experiments soil, 5 cm in depth, was placed on a geotechnical sheet on a metal screen, while in other experiments, soil of 5 cm depth was placed on a Terzaghi filter. Rain simulator used had a rotating disk with a tilted nozzle to simulate raindrop size dispersion and kinetic energy of natural rain. The sprinkling intensity was set at a rate of 18 mm/hour. Soil crusts in the field were more stable than those created in the lab for two standard tests: Emerson - immersion test, and the 'single water drop' test. Whereas weak activity of microphytes was found in the field there was no such activity in the lab. The rain depth until runoff in the field was less than under laboratory conditions, while the sediment yield was greater in the field than in the laboratory (8.64 g/m2 versus 0.58 g/m2). The rain simulator experiments that had included a Terzaghi filter showed significantly higher final infiltration rate (7.5 mm/h versus 4.2 mm/h), shorter accumulated watering depth until stabilization of soil seal formation (100-200 mm versus 50 mm), and smaller

  5. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08 (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.


    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  6. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo


    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  7. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005 (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.


    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  8. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources]. (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C


    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  9. Speciation of metals in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millero Frank


    Full Text Available The form or speciation of a metal in natural waters can change its kinetic and thermodynamic properties. For example, Cu(II in the free ionic form is toxic to phytoplankton, while copper complexed to organic ligands is not toxic. The form of a metal in solution can also change its solubility. For example, Fe(II is soluble in aqueous solutions while Fe(III is nearly insoluble. Natural organic ligands interactions with Fe(III can increase the solubility by 20-fold in seawater. Ionic interaction models that can be used to determine the activity and speciation of divalent and trivalent metals in seawater and other natural elements will be discussed. The model is able to consider the interactions of metals with the major (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, Br-, F- and minor (OH-, H2PO4-, HPO42-, PO43-, HS- anions as a function of temperature (0 to 50 °C, ionic strength [0 to 6 m (m = mol kg-1] and pH (1 to 13. Recently, it has been shown that many divalent metals are complexed with organic ligands. Although the composition of these ligands is not known, a number of workers have used voltammetry to determine the concentration of the ligand [Ln] and the stability constant (KML for the formation of the complex M2+ + Ln → MLn+2 KML= [MLn+2]/[M2+] [Ln] We have added the experimental values of KML for the formation of complexes of natural organics in seawater of known concentration ([Ln] with Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Fe3+ . The model can be used to examine the competition of inorganic and organic ligands for divalent metals as a function of ionic strength. The importance of organic ligands in controlling the solubility of Fe(III in seawater will be discussed. New experimental studies are needed to extend the model to higher temperatures and ionic strength.

  10. Hydrologic Conditions in Kansas, water year 2015 (United States)

    May, Madison R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring sites in Kansas. In 2015, the network included about 200 real-time streamgages (hereafter referred to as “gages”), 12 real-time reservoir-level monitoring stations, and 30 groundwater-level monitoring wells. These data and associated analyses provide a unique overview of hydrologic conditions and help improve the understanding of Kansas’s water resources.Real-time data are verified by the USGS throughout the year with regular measurements of streamflow, lake levels, and groundwater levels. These data are used in protecting life and property; and managing water resources for agricultural, industrial, public supply, ecological, and recreational purposes. Yearly hydrologic conditions are characterized by comparing statistical analyses of current and historical water year (WY) data for the period of record. A WY is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends.

  11. Oxidation behavior of Incoloy 800 under simulated supercritical water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulger, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, POB 78, Campului Street, No. 1, 115400 Mioveni (Romania)], E-mail:; Ohai, D.; Mihalache, M.; Pantiru, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, POB 78, Campului Street, No. 1, 115400 Mioveni (Romania); Malinovschi, V. [University of Pitesti, Research Center for Advanced Materials, Targul din Vale Street, No. 1, 110040 Pitesti (Romania)


    For a correct design of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) components, data regarding the behavior of candidate materials in supercritical water are necessary. Corrosion has been identified as a critical problem because the high temperature and the oxidative nature of supercritical water may accelerate the corrosion kinetics. The goal of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior of Incoloy 800 exposed in autoclaves under supercritical water conditions for up to 1440 h. The exposure conditions (thermal deaerated water, temperatures of 723, 773, 823 and 873 K and a pressure of 25 MPa) have been selected as relevant for a supercritical power plant concept. To investigate the structural changes of the oxide films, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses were used. Results show changes in the oxides chemical composition, microstructure and thickness versus testing conditions (pressure, temperature and time). The oxide films are composed of two layers: an outer layer enriched in Fe oxide and an inner layer enriched in Cr and Ni oxides corresponding to small cavities supposedly due to internal oxidation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available The water condition in cages of the paste of chlorella was investigated by the method of thermogravimetric analysis. With increasing heating rate endothermic effect corresponding to the dehydration process is shifted towards higher temperatures. Temperature intervals of chlorella dehydration are defined at rate of heating 2 К/min - 308-368 K, 5 К/min - 323-403 K, and 10 К/min - 348-403 K. Quantitative characteristics of kinetic unequal water in chlorella have been received for each step (∆, ∆Т, a mass fraction (w, energy of activation (Еа. This process is similar to the process of the dehydration in ion exchange membranes. The derived kinetic characteristics give the possibility to define an optimum temperature interval and rate of drying microalgae for the purpose of increase of periods of storage in the form of paste or a solid substance for the further use as the bioadditive. In addition the presence of three types of water chlorella in a cell set according to NMR with pulsed magnetic field gradient. Since free water is involved in biochemical, chemical and microbiological processes, it is desirable to remove during drying of the preparation. The resulting temperature range of 323-343 K (step 2 at a heating rate of 2 K / min corresponds to a temperature range of drying the chlorella in a production environment. It should be noted that the highest number of algae in a tightly-water (the last stage. Apparently, this is determined by a unique cell structure. Temperature ranges dehydration process are not clear and vary depending on the heating rate, which is fully in line with previous studies of thermal analysis for grains, vegetables and bakery products.

  13. Natural/mine water deep treatment modular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averin, G.V.; Biochenko, V. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)


    Shortage of water of service and drinking standards is heavily felt in some industries and residential areas in Donetsk region. Modifications of a natural/mine water deep treatment modular system can be used: to produce service water from mine and natural water sources for further use in industry and household applications; to restore industrial waste waters to ecological standards; to provide tertiary treatment, producing the highest quality of drinking water. The system is briefly described and its specifications are given. Three modifications of modular design are expected to be made of the mine/natural water treatment system. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Conditionally pathogenic fungi in recreational waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.


    Full Text Available The improvement of health and life conditions depends on various environmental factors. The exposition to organic and inorganic pollutants, as well as to the broad spectar of microorganisms is one of these factors. Medically important fungi have been increasing their number recently especially in urban and in recreational zones. Some of them, first of all molds and yeasts, are involved by different means in causing more or less serious diseases of man and animals. Frequency of alergic symptoms and human mycotic lesions increased significantly during last decades. Such phenomena have provoked more scientific attention recently. According to the available literature data, micro-fungi, causing mycoses and "environmental" fungi too could be considered as an important factor of health risk, being neglected and underestimated so far, especially in analyses of safe use of recreational waters and surrounding areas, among them swimming pools, river and sea beaches. On the basis of such statement there arises conclusion that water and ground of recreational zones could serve as vectors in transmission pathways of potentially or conditionally pathogenic fungi, being dangerous especially for immunocompromised individuals, which suggests inclusion of qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal community into a continual monitoring of hygienic status of recreational zones.

  15. 7 CFR 989.58 - Natural condition raisins. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition raisins. 989.58 Section 989.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... raisins which exceed the tolerance established for maturity under a weight dockage system...

  16. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg


    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal...

  17. Multi-storey steel framed buildings under natural fire conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G. van den; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.


    In this article, a methodology is presented by which the structural behaviour of composite steel framed building under natural fire conditions can be analysed. As a first step, a fire model is employed in order to predict the temperature development in the fire compartment. Secondly, a thermal

  18. Primary Approach to WaterNatural Monopoly) Industry Remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Natural monopoly, because of its spontaneous or natural characteristics, most have some mysterious causes of reasonableness. Thus, the regulations to its efficiency loss would have a different way compared to other monopolies. That the characteristics of natural monopoly, in the case of water industry, are that the infrastructure investments are very large, most of which are used to build the transportation system? The webs for transporting their products to their customers, and the products are identity goods or services. By examining the characteristics of natural monopoly, this paper proposed a way to break up and remodel the industry of """"""""natural monopoly'. The main clue of remodeling is that the govemments, who represent the public and who ha ve the power to control over public resources, should build and maintain a public web platform for the goods' transportation uses, and break up the barrier of the entry so as to produce a market-oriented competitive structure, The running model and the condition of remodeling are put forward and the cost-revenue analysis of the operation is briefly under consideration.

  19. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical note. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, ...

  20. Review of biological transformations of anionic synthetic detergents in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irkha, N.I.; Priiman, R.A.


    A review of biological transformations of anionic synthetic detergents in natural waters, based on data from studies of detergent transformation under natural and model conditions, covers the biodegradation of alkyl sulfates; colorimetric determination of such detergents; carbon dioxide evolution methods; intermediate products of decomposition; monitoring of biodegradation by luminous fluxes; the role of microorganisms in biodegradation; toxicity; and the rate of self-purification of natural water bodies from such detergents.

  1. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters (United States)

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.


    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  2. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  3. Canopy management and water use efficiency in vineyards under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente Mario


    In addition, both positive effects of sprawl treatments (crop load and training system resulted in better yield and quality in Mediterranean semiarid conditions under the same inputs (sun, water and soil, causing higher efficiency of natural resources.

  4. Mass transfer and carbon isotope evolution in natural water systems (United States)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Plummer, L.N.; Pearson, F.J.


    This paper presents a theoretical treatment of the evolution of the carbon isotopes C13 and C14 in natural waters and in precipitates which derive from such waters. The effects of an arbitrary number of sources (such as dissolution of carbonate minerals and oxidation of organic material) and sinks (such as mineral precipitation, CO2 degassing and production of methane), and of equilibrium fractionation between solid, gas and aqueous phases are considered. The results are expressed as equations relating changes in isotopic composition to changes in conventional carbonate chemistry. One implication of the equations is that the isotopic composition of an aqueous phase may approach a limiting value whenever there are simultaneous inputs and outputs of carbonate. In order to unambiguously interpret isotopic data from carbonate precipitates and identify reactants and products in reacting natural waters, it is essential that isotopic changes are determined chiefly by reactant and product stoichiometry, independent of reaction path. We demonstrate that this is so by means of quantitative examples. The evolution equations are applied to: 1. (1) carbon-14 dating of groundwaters; 2. (2) interpretation of the isotopic composition of carbonate precipitates, carbonate cements and diagenetically altered carbonates; and 3. (3) the identification of chemical reaction stoichiometry. These applications are illustrated by examples which show the variation of ??C13 in solutions and in precipitates formed under a variety of conditions involving incongruent dissolution, CO2 degassing, methane production and mineral precipitation. ?? 1978.

  5. Influence of the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of a Francis turbine (United States)

    Valentín, David; Ramos, David; Bossio, Matías; Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme


    Natural frequencies estimation of Francis turbines is of paramount importance in the stage of design in order to avoid vibration and resonance problems especially during transient events. Francis turbine runners are submerged in water and confined with small axial and radial gaps which considerably decrease their natural frequencies in comparison to the same structure in the air. Acoustic-structural FSI simulations have been used to evaluate the influence of these gaps. This model considers an entire prototype of a Francis turbine, including generator, shaft, runner and surrounding water. The radial gap between the runner and the static parts has been changed from the real configuration (about 0.04% the runner diameter) to 1% of the runner diameter to evaluate its influence on the machine natural frequencies. Mode-shapes and natural frequencies of the whole machine are discussed for all the boundary conditions tested.

  6. What is the Imbalance of Water in Nature? (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.


    Look at any lake. Water comes into the lake from the atmosphere, from surface and groundwater sources. Water leaves the lake to the atmosphere, surface and underground drains, as well as for consumption by human society, wild plants and animals if they are within the boundaries of the lake's system. If quantity of water coming into the lake is equally of the quantity of water which flow from the lake, so the lake level has not changed and we have a state of equilibration or balance. The bookkeeper's book also has name "balance". But this is just a play on words. If the water is coming into the lake more than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will increase and we have a state of the imbalance of the increase type. If the water is coming into the lake less than the water is coming away from lake, therefore the lake level will decrease and we have a state of the imbalance of the decrease type. Everyone knows that the lake level rises or falls, for example during the year. Sometimes it is happened some balance. But the state of balance is rare and in of the short duration. The lake is of most the time in the conditions of the imbalance increases or the imbalance decreases type. The balance as a state of equilibrium, in the language of mathematics, is the point of the extremum between the periods of rise and fall. The balance is a special condition, which is existing very rare and a very short period of time. The people sometimes to do the great efforts for maintain the constant level of the lakes. But these facts don't change the situation. On the contrary, the human's struggle for maintain the lake in constant level just shows how difficult and expensive to go against the natural laws of Nature. When water was plentiful, these facts could be ignored. But now when the global water shortage is quickly growing, many previously ignored details are becoming crucial. There are very important to do the correct definitions of the borders and

  7. Coal gasification with water under supercritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Vostrikov; S.A. Psarov; D.Yu. Dubov; O.N. Fedyaeva; M.Ya. Sokol [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federastion). Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Division


    The conversion of an array of coal particles in supercritical water (SCW) was studied in a semibatch reactor at a pressure of 30 MPa, 500-750{sup o}C, and a reaction time of 1-12 min. The bulk conversion, surface conversion, and random pore models were used to describe the conversion. The quantitative composition of reaction products was determined, and the dependence of the rate of reaction on the degree of coal conversion, reaction time, and reaction temperature was obtained on the assumption of a first-order reaction and the Arrhenius function. It was found that the gasification of coal under SCW conditions without the addition of oxidizing agents is a weakly endothermic process. The addition of CO{sub 2} to SCW decreased the rate of conversion and increased the yield of CO. It was found that, at a 90% conversion of the organic matter of coal (OMC) in a flow of SCW in a time of 2 min, the process power was 26 W/g per gram of OMC.

  8. Unexpected Sources of Reactive Oxygen Species in Natural Water (United States)

    Kahan, T.; Grossman, J. N.


    We report novel formation methods of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) relevant to surface waters and aqueous aerosols. In one set of studies, we demonstrate that 1O2 can be produced photochemically in aqueous solutions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halide ions under environmentally relevant conditions. This process may be important to oxidizing capacity and pollutant fate in saline waters including oceans and aqueous aerosols. In a second set of studies, we present a potentially important dark radical source. The Fenton reaction is a major dark radical source in natural waters, but it is negligibly slow at neutral pH due to the insolubility of Fe(III). We demonstrate that OH production rates from the dark Fenton reaction at pH 7 can be greatly increased by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis (SO). Our results suggest that OH production (and therefore oxidizing capacity) may be much greater than currently expected in dark circumneutral waters containing iron-reducing bacteria.

  9. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Iacob, O. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)


    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioacty control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 {mu}Sv over background radiation of 2,512 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  10. Hybrid protocols plus natural treatments for inflammatory conditions. (United States)


    Hybrid protocols combine one, two, or three pharmaceutical drugs with several nutritional or immune-based therapies. These protocols are not limited solely to FDA-approved drugs or strictly to alternative therapies. The rationale for using a hybrid protocol is to find an effective antiviral regimen that also restores immune function. The goal is to obtain the benefits of protease inhibitors without viral resistance and side effects which include problems with fat metabolism and cholesterol levels. Natural treatments for inflammatory conditions are also described. Options include licorice root, ginger root, and slippery elm.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajah Dulima Jali


    Redox potential in the well developed tropical peat swamp in Brunei was studied for a year. Generally the redox potential measurements showed a large variation, ranging from -234 mV to 727 mV. The expected rise in redox values did not take place following the drop of water table during the dry months of June to September. The redox value at 100 cm depth indicated that the soil remained reduced throughout the year in spite of the lowering of water table below 150 cm in all sites during dry period. Similarly the redox values did not decrease rapidly following flooding when the water table rose to the surface. This phenomenon could be attributed to the topography of the peat dome which facilitated the fast lateral movement of water and thus promoted oxygen supply down the peat profile, though not great enough to reach the 100 cm depth. The rapid lateral flow of water in the outer Alan batu site facilitated aeration, but in the inner sites remained which was reduced because of the slower water movement. The slower initiation of the reducing condition was likely due to the presence of nitrate which has accumulated as a result of ammonium oxidation during the relatively long aerobic period. Differences in the distribution of redox potential with depth are possibly explained by the different permeability of peat affecting flow patterns and residence time of water. The nature and compactibility of the peat might have slowed the diffusion rates of O2 into the lower layer. Though the bulk density of the peat was low, the composition of the peat might influence the peat permeability and hydraulic conductivity. The tree trunks are not decomposed or large branches must have lowered permeability compared to the other peat material.

  12. The natural conditions as a limiting factor for the development of Serbian-Macedonian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Slavoljub


    Full Text Available Natural conditions of certain area imply to the complex influence of various elements of the environment (surface, relief, climate, water, vegetation type and man, and knowledge of their recent state represents basis of an integrated approach in the land use planning. Analysis of natural conditions and processes in the Serbian-Macedonian border area is usually done through the valorization of natural potentials, but aspect of their limiting influence on the development of this territory - natural hazards assessment has remained unresolved. Degree of natural hazards vulnerability of a certain territory is an important factor in land use planning, because it represents a threat to the undisturbed development of a certain teritory. The basic idea of this paper is to provide multi-hazard assessment and the integral map of areas vulnerable to various types of natural hazards in Serbian-Macedonian border area. In this way seclusion of areas where natural conditions can represent the limiting factor for the development of the analyzed territory shall be performed.

  13. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch


    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used......Under natural conditions, the feral hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) will choose a nest location away from the flock, whereas under commercial conditions, the domestic hen will often choose the same nest as other hens have used or are still using. Simultaneous nest sharing causes several welfare...

  14. Natural selection and the conditions for existence: representational vs. conditional teleology in biological explanation. (United States)

    Reiss, John O


    Human intentional action, including the design and use of artifacts, involves the prior mental representation of the goal (end) and the means to achieve that goal. This representation is part of the efficient cause of the action, and thus can be used to explain both the action and the achievement of the end. This is intentional teleological explanation. More generally, teleological explanation that depends on the real existence of a representation of the goal (and the means to achieve it) can be called representational teleological explanation. Such explanations in biology can involve both external representations (e.g., ideas in the mind of God) and internal representations (souls, vital powers, entelechies, developmental programs, etc.). However, another type of explanation of intentional action (or any other process) is possible. Given that an action achieving a result occurs, the action can be explained as fulfilling the necessary conditions (means) for that result (end), and, reciprocally, the result explained by the occurrence of those necessary conditions. This is conditional teleological explanation. For organisms, natural selection is often understood metaphorically as the designer, intentionally constructing them for certain ends. Unfortunately, this metaphor is often taken rather too literally, because it has been difficult to conceive of another way to relate natural selection to the process of evolution. I argue that combining a conditional teleological explanation of organisms and of evolution provides such an alternative. This conditional teleology can be grounded in existence or survival. Given that an organism exists, we can explain its existence by the occurrence of the necessary conditions for that existence. This principle of the 'conditions for existence' was introduced by Georges Cuvier in 1800, and provides a valid, conditional teleological method for explaining organismal structure and behavior. From an evolutionary perspective, the

  15. Static and dynamic properties of surfactant films on natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis³aw J. Pogorzelski


    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of natural surface film surface pressure - area experiments carried out in inland waters and shallow offshore regions of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas during 1990-99 under calm water conditions using the Langmuir trough - Wilhelmy filter paper plate system, which "cuts out" an undisturbed film-covered sea area without any initial physico-chemical sample processing. The limiting specific area Alim (268–3157 Å2/molecule-1 and mean molecular mass (0.65-9.7 kDa of microlayer surfactants were determined from the 2D virial equation of state applied to the isotherms. Film structure signatures were derived from – A isotherm hysteresis and application of the 2D polymer scaling theory. The stress-relaxation measurements revealed a two-step relaxation process at the interface with characteristic times 1 (1.1–2.8 and 2 (5.6-25.6 seconds suggesting the presence of diffusion-controlled and structural organization relaxation phenomena. The results demonstrate that natural films are a complex mixture of biomolecules covering a wide range of solubilities, surface activity and molecular mass with an apparent structural organization exhibiting a spatial and temporal variability.

  16. Evaluation of pressure transducers under turbid natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    Pressure measurements made in two turbid natural waters have led to the inference that the effective depthmean in situ density values, rho sub(eff), of these waters are less than (approx equal to 0.4%-4.5%) that of the density of the same water...

  17. Microbiological composition of untreated water during different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Bešić


    Full Text Available Introduction: Water can support the growth of different microorganisms which may result in contamination. Therefore, the microbiological examination is required for testing the hygienic probity of water. In the study of microbial composition of untreated, natural spring and mineral water differences in the presence and number of bacteria during the two periods, winter and summer, are detectable.Methods: In our study, we analyzed and compared the following parameters, specified in the Rulebook: total bacteria and total aerobic bacteria (ml/22 and 37°C, total Coliform bacteria and Coliforms of fecalorigin (MPN/100ml, fecal streptococci as Streptococcus faecalis  (MPN/100ml, Proteus spp (MPN/100ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPN/100 ml Sulphoreducing Clostridia (cfu / ml. The paper is a retrospective study in which we processed data related to the period of 2005-2009 year. While working, we used the descriptive-analytical comparative statistical treatment.Results: The obtained results show statistically significant differences in the microbial composition of untreated water in the two observed periods,Conclusions: Findings were consequence of different weather conditions in these periods, which imply a number of other variable factors.

  18. Emotions' impact on viewing behavior under natural conditions. (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Hloucal, Teresa-Maria; Kriz, Jürgen; Canzler, Sonja; Gameiro, Ricardo Ramos; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter


    Human overt attention under natural conditions is guided by stimulus features as well as by higher cognitive components, such as task and emotional context. In contrast to the considerable progress regarding the former, insight into the interaction of emotions and attention is limited. Here we investigate the influence of the current emotional context on viewing behavior under natural conditions.In two eye-tracking studies participants freely viewed complex scenes embedded in sequences of emotion-laden images. The latter primes constituted specific emotional contexts for neutral target images.Viewing behavior toward target images embedded into sets of primes was affected by the current emotional context, revealing the intensity of the emotional context as a significant moderator. The primes themselves were not scanned in different ways when presented within a block (Study 1), but when presented individually, negative primes were more actively scanned than positive primes (Study 2). These divergent results suggest an interaction between emotional priming and further context factors. Additionally, in most cases primes were scanned more actively than target images. Interestingly, the mere presence of emotion-laden stimuli in a set of images of different categories slowed down viewing activity overall, but the known effect of image category was not affected. Finally, viewing behavior remained largely constant on single images as well as across the targets' post-prime positions (Study 2).We conclude that the emotional context significantly influences the exploration of complex scenes and the emotional context has to be considered in predictions of eye-movement patterns.

  19. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  20. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning (United States)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.


    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  1. A global analysis of zooplankton in natural and artificial fresh waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye L. Merrix-Jones


    Full Text Available Water-body size and location influence zooplankton diversity in freshwaters, but less is known about systematic variations in zooplankton community composition between natural and artificial waters on different continents. We used meta-analysis to assess how zooplankton in artificial water bodies across different biomes might differ from natural water bodies of similar size. Among 79 lakes, ponds and reservoirs (11 artificial and 68 natural, proximity to other water bodies apparently increased species richness in all lake types, probably reflecting dispersal. However, richness did not differ systematically between natural and artificial water bodies of comparable size. In contrast, community composition differed between artificial and natural waters after accounting for depth, productivity, longitude and conductivity, with models explaining up to 50% of the overall variance at genus level. Leptodiaptomus, Chydorus, Cyclops, Acanthocyclops, Skistodiaptomus, Epischura, Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus all occurred more frequently in natural waters, whilst Thermocyclops, Moina and Epischura occurred more frequently in artificial lakes. Rank-occurrence data revealed that Ceriodaphnia, Orthocyclops, Holopedium and Eucyclops were equitably distributed across water bodies of contrasting sizes, depths and climates. Other genera occurred under more specific conditions, typically where they had strong associations with natural lakes (e.g. Limnocalanus, Senecella, Heterocope, Arctodiaptomus and Aglaodiaptomus. These results are among the first to illustrate systematic differences in zooplankton composition between natural and artificial lakes at a global scale. Potential explanations require further evidence, but might include provision for niche specialists in natural lakes versus reduced heterogeneity, management or disturbance effects in artificial lakes; and effects of lake age, stability and habitat naturalness in

  2. Natural ecological water demand in the lower Heihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinfeng FU; Hongmou HE; Xiaohui JIANG; Shengtian YANG; Guoqing WANG


    The ecological environment in the lower Heihe River has been deteriorating due to large water consump-tion in the upper and middle reaches, and less available water downstream. To restore the ecological environment in the lower Heihe River, the ecological water demand should be guaranteed. The natural vegetation area in the lower Heihe River was first obtained through the inter-pretation of remote sensing images taken in 1998. Based on the analysis for the Quota of the natural ecological water demand in the lower Heihe River and the deter-mination of the natural ecological water demand calcula-tion method, the ecological water demand in the lower Heihe River was calculated. Finally, the natural ecological water demand in the lower Heihe River under the current situation was calculated with the groundwater storage volume change method, Aweliyongrufe method and the measured water volume method. In comparison, the nat-ural ecological water demand in the lower Heihe River is 3.91-4.05×108 m3.

  3. Water Productivity under Drought Conditions Estimated Using SEEA-Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Borrego-Marín


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of droughts on agricultural water productivity in the period 2004–2012 in the Guadalquivir River Basin using the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-Water. Relevant events in this period include two meteorological droughts (2005 and 2012, the implementation of the Drought Management Plan by the basin's water authority (2006, 2007 and 2008, and the effects of irrigated area modernization (water-saving investment. Results show that SEEA-Water can be used to study the productivity of water and the economic impact of the different droughts. Furthermore, the results reflect the fact that irrigated agriculture (which makes up 65% of the gross value added, or GVA, of the total primary sector has considerably higher water productivity than rain-fed agriculture. Additionally, this paper separately examines blue water productivity and total water productivity within irrigated agriculture, finding an average productivity of 1.33 EUR/m3 and 0.48 EUR/m3, respectively.

  4. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V


    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  5. Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low-Pressure Conditions through PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Paladino


    Full Text Available Natural circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations. The PANDA large-scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural circulation loops in a range with increased attention. This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “natural circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors.” It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

  6. Does Inflation Provide Natural Initial Conditions for the Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Chen, Jennifer


    If our universe underwent inflation, its entropy during the inflationary phase was substantially lower than it is today. Because a low-entropy state is less likely to be chosen randomly than a high-entropy one, inflation is unlikely to arise through randomly-chosen initial conditions. To resolve this puzzle, we examine the notion of a natural state for the universe, and argue that it is a nearly-empty spacetime. If empty space has a small vacuum energy, however, inflation can begin spontaneously in this background. This scenario explains why a universe like ours is likely to have begun via a period of inflation, and also provides an origin for the cosmological arrow of time.

  7. Emotions' impact on viewing behavior under natural conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kaspar

    Full Text Available Human overt attention under natural conditions is guided by stimulus features as well as by higher cognitive components, such as task and emotional context. In contrast to the considerable progress regarding the former, insight into the interaction of emotions and attention is limited. Here we investigate the influence of the current emotional context on viewing behavior under natural conditions.In two eye-tracking studies participants freely viewed complex scenes embedded in sequences of emotion-laden images. The latter primes constituted specific emotional contexts for neutral target images.Viewing behavior toward target images embedded into sets of primes was affected by the current emotional context, revealing the intensity of the emotional context as a significant moderator. The primes themselves were not scanned in different ways when presented within a block (Study 1, but when presented individually, negative primes were more actively scanned than positive primes (Study 2. These divergent results suggest an interaction between emotional priming and further context factors. Additionally, in most cases primes were scanned more actively than target images. Interestingly, the mere presence of emotion-laden stimuli in a set of images of different categories slowed down viewing activity overall, but the known effect of image category was not affected. Finally, viewing behavior remained largely constant on single images as well as across the targets' post-prime positions (Study 2.We conclude that the emotional context significantly influences the exploration of complex scenes and the emotional context has to be considered in predictions of eye-movement patterns.

  8. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters. (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel


    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat


    Full Text Available Issues connected with the standardization of radiation protection indexes of natural mineral waters are considered in the article. It is shown that classification of natural mineral waters according to their intended use which is accepted in GOST R 54316-2011 is close to their classification in the EU countries. Justification is given of the approaches to standardization of natural radionuclides content in natural mineral waters. It is shown that it is more acceptable to use the values of interventional levels for individual radionuclides given in Radiation Safety Standard-99/2009 for this purpose in comparing with the values given in WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

  10. Rice cultivation on floating-beds in different natural waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGXiangfu; WUWeiming; JINGQianyu; YINGHuodong; ZHUMing; ZOUGuoyan


    Following the success in rice cultivation on floating-beds in natural water in 1990, the ecological adaptability of growing rice on floatingbeds was studied during the period of 1991-1993. Experiments were conducted in five different types of natural waters in Zhejiang Province from 28°35′ to 30°58′N and from 119°05′ to 121°11′E.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations in leaves under natural conditions. (United States)

    Cheeseman, John M


    While H2O2 has been implicated in numerous plant environmental responses, normal levels and variabilities are poorly established, and estimates of leaf tissue concentrations span more than three orders of magnitude, even in a single species under similar conditions. Here, leaf tissue H2O2 contents under natural conditions are reported after determining (i) that H2O2 in extracts was stable with time, (ii) that H2O2 added to the extract was recovered quantitatively, and (iii) that the H2O2 calibration curve was unaffected (or quantifiably affected) by the extract. The broad applicability of the protocol and variability in leaf concentrations were demonstrated using tissue collected from several habitats in association with three, more extensive, experiments. The first involved nychthemeral studies of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. Lowest H2O2 levels occurred in the early morning and near sunset, with higher levels both at midday and at night. Second, using five temperate species in Spring, concentrations were compared on a warm, sunny day and a cool, cloudy day. Higher concentrations were found on the warm day for Aesculus glabra Willd., Glechoma hederacea L., Plantago major L., and Viola soraria Willd., while there were no differences in Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Finally, the effects of elevated CO2 and ozone were examined in soybean, Glycine max L. Pioneer 93B15 under Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment (FACE) conditions. Both supplements led to elevated H2O2. Overall, mean leaf, midday, and mid-summer H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.67 micromol (gFW)(-1) in mangrove to 3.6 micromol (gFW)(-1) in A. glabra Willd. Greatest within-species differences were only 2.5-fold in any of the studies.

  12. Biomimetic water-collecting materials inspired by nature. (United States)

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin


    Nowadays, water shortage is a severe issue all over the world, especially in some arid and undeveloped areas. Interestingly, a variety of natural creatures can collect water from fog, which can provide a source of inspiration to develop novel and functional water-collecting materials. Recently, as an increasingly hot research topic, bioinspired materials with the water collection ability have captured vast scientific attention in both practical applications and fundamental research studies. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of water collection in various natural creatures and present the fabrications, functions, applications, and new developments of bioinspired materials in recent years. The theoretical basis related to the phenomenon of water collection containing wetting behaviors and water droplet transportations is described in the beginning, i.e., the Young's equation, Wenzel model, Cassie model, surface energy gradient model and Laplace pressure equation. Then, the water collection mechanisms of three typical and widely researched natural animals and plants are discussed and their corresponding bioinspired materials are simultaneously detailed, which are cactus, spider, and desert beetles, respectively. This is followed by introducing another eight animals and plants (butterfly, shore birds, wheat awns, green bristlegrass, the Cotula fallax plant, Namib grass, green tree frogs and Australian desert lizards) that are rarely reported, exhibiting water collection properties or similar water droplet transportation. Finally, conclusions and outlook concerning the future development of bioinspired fog-collecting materials are presented.

  13. Water and society: Interdisciplinary education in natural resources (United States)

    Natural resource management and education must account for both the natural and human components of a complex system, yet examples of such interdisciplinary approaches are still relatively rare, especially in education. This study discusses a graduate seminar on water management, developed from an i...

  14. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants. (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir


    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  15. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    Pressure measurements made in various turbid natural waters have led to the inference that the effective depth-mean in-situ density values peff of these waters are less than (approx equal to 2.70%) their static bulk densities and also (approx equal...

  16. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  17. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains (United States)

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  18. Liquid Water Structure from Anomalous Density under Ambient Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei


    @@ From discussion of the structure of liquid water, we deduce that water under ambient condition is mainly composed of ice Ih-like molecular clusters and clathrate-like molecular clusters. The water molecular clusters remain in a state of chemical equilibrium (reversible clustering reactions). This structural model can be demonstrated by quantitative study on anomalous density with increasing temperature at ambient pressure.

  19. Determination of phosphorus in natural waters: A historical review. (United States)

    Worsfold, Paul; McKelvie, Ian; Monbet, Phil


    The aim of this paper is to introduce a virtual special issue that reviews the development of analytical approaches to the determination of phosphorus species in natural waters. The focus is on sampling and sample treatment, analytical methods and quality assurance of the data. The export of phosphorus from anthropogenic activities (from diffuse and point sources) can result in increased primary production and eutrophication, and potentially the seasonal development of toxic algal blooms, which can significantly impact on water quality. Therefore the quantification of phosphorus species in natural waters provides important baseline data for studying aquatic phosphorus biogeochemistry, assessing ecosystem health and monitoring compliance with legislation.

  20. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G. (Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Radioactividad Ambiental)


    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author).

  1. The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Otto; Giacomazzi, Luigi; Pinilla, C.; Scandolo, Sandro


    Only one out of 107 water molecules is dissociated in liquid water at ambient conditions, but the concentration of dissociated molecules increases with pressure ad temperature, and water eventually reaches a fully dissociated state when pressure exceeds 50-100 GPa and temperature reaches a few thousand Kelvin. The behavior of the dissociation constant of water (pKa) at conditions intermediate between ambient and the fully dissociated state is poorly known. Yet, the water pKa is a parameter of primary importance in the aqueous geochemistry as it controls the solubility of ions in geological fluids. We present results of molecular dynamics calculations of the pKa water at extreme conditions. Free-energy differences between the undissociated and the dissociated state are calculated by thermodynamic integration along the dissociation path. The calculations are based on a recently developed all-atom polarizable force-field for water, parametrized on density-functional theory calculations.

  2. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M


    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation.

  3. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania. (United States)

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M


    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in natural circulation flow loops under supercritical conditions (United States)

    Jain, Rachna

    In recent years, a growing interest has been generated in investigating the thermal hydraulics and flow stability phenomenon in supercritical natural circulation loops. These flow conditions are relevant to some of the innovative passive safety designs proposed for the Gen-IV Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) concepts. A computational model has been developed at UW Madison which provides a good basic simulation tool for the steady state and transient analysis of one dimensional natural circulation flow, and can be applied to conduct stability analysis. Several modifications and improvements were incorporated in an earlier numerical scheme before applying it to investigate the transient behavior of two experimental loops, namely, the supercritical water loop at UW-Madison and the supercritical carbon-dioxide (SCCO2) loop at Argonne National Laboratories. Although the model predicted development of instabilities for both SCW and SCCO2 loop which agrees with some previous work, the experiments conducted at SCCO2 loop exhibited stable behavior under similar conditions. To distinguish between numerical effects and physical processes, a linear stability approach has also been developed to investigate the stability characteristics associated with the natural circulation loop systems for various inlet conditions, input powers and geometries. The linear stability results for the SCW and SCCO2 loops exhibited differences with the corresponding transient simulations. This linear model also predicted the presence of instability in the SCCO 2 loop for certain high input powers contradictory to the experimental findings. Dimensionless parameters were proposed which would generalize the stability characteristics of the natural circulation flow loops under supercritical conditions.

  5. Influences of water properties on the aggregation and deposition of engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in natural waters. (United States)

    Li, Ling; Sillanpää, Markus; Risto, Maarit


    With the increasing usage of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs), their release into the environment makes it important to understand their transport, fate and behaviour in natural waters. In this study, aggregation and deposition of TiO2 NPs were studied during a 3-h period by using a dynamic light scattering instrument and a UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. TiO2 NPs were spiked in 34 lake and 5 brackish water samples at an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Depending on the physicochemical properties of the natural waters, TiO2 NPs exhibited different colloidal stability. In brackish waters with high salinity, TiO2 NPs were prone to aggregate and settled rapidly. Whereas under conditions of humic and humus-poor lake waters, TiO2 NPs were suspended in water column for a longer time without remarkable change in particle size and concentration. Deposition likely occurred in nutrient-rich lakes which had high amount of nitrogen and phosphorus accompanied by high values of conductivity, alkalinity, pH and turbidity. Linear regression analysis revealed the statistically significant relationships (p ≤ 0.008) between the TiO2 NPs stability and these water properties. Our study makes a better understanding of the water properties that control the aggregation and deposition of TiO2 NPs in complex natural waters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. PANDI


    Full Text Available The water from nature and the erosion process. Studying earth's surface erosion process is necessary for practical reasons. The theoretical approach requires knowledge of the alluvial system’s structure and operation as the cascade sequence of fluvial system’s mass and energy. Geosystem research methodology requires that the water energy and the role of adjacent surface must be expressed. The expression of water power can be grouped according to the shape of movement and action in the basin. A particular, important case is the energy variation in a basin-slope. An important role in energy expressions is considering the existence in nature of biphasic fluid - water as dispersion phase and solid particles as dispersed phase. The role of the adjacent surface is taken into account by using the erosion resistance indicator, which is calculated using the indicator of geological resistance and the indicator of plant protection. The evolution of natural systems, therefore of river basins too, leads to energy diminishing, thus affecting their dynamic balance. This can be expressed using the concept of entropy. Although erosion processes are usual natural phenomena for the evolution of river basins, they induce significant risks in certain circumstances. Depending on the circulated water energies, water basins can be ranked in terms of potential risks.

  7. Toxicity of aluminium in natural waters controlled by type rather than quantity of natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papathanasiou, Grigorios [SEAES, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); White, Keith N.; Walton, Rachel [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Boult, Stephen, E-mail: [SEAES, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    Extension of the conditions under which Al toxicity is tested is required. Environmentally representative preparation of waters is used in investigating roles of alginate (AA) and humic acids (HA) in partitioning of Al (0.5 mg L{sup -1}), subsequent uptake and accumulation by and toxicity to Lymnaea stagnalis. HA and AA did not alter precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3}, but altered subsequent behaviour of Al. High (40 mg L{sup -1}) HA concentrations, and to a lesser extent AA, prevented settling and availability for benthic grazing but made deposited Al more likely to be ingested. HA detoxified but AA increased toxicity relative to Al alone. Low concentration (4 mg L{sup -1}) AA and HA do not change partitioning but increase uptake; they both detoxify, but AA less than HA. The study shows OC:Al ratio is critical in predicting Al behaviour in natural waters, also uptake is mediated by snail behaviour, not solely a function of concentration and form of Al. Therefore, predicting Al behaviour will be subject to errors in determining relevant water composition and response of biota to the new speciation. However, with respect to toxicity, rather than other aspects of Al behaviour, different ratios of HA and Al are insignificant compared to whether AA is present rather than HA. - Highlights: {yields} Toxicity assessment in which environmental relevance is of primary concern. {yields} Mass balance of Al monitored throughout the exposure period. {yields} Al behaviour influenced by concentration of organic matter. {yields} Strong dependence of toxicity on type rather than concentration of organic matter. {yields} Toxicity is a function of Al behaviour but also animal behaviour.

  8. Possible applications of clinoptilolites for natural water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Vatin


    Full Text Available Possible applications of clinoptilolites (CP in natural water purification processes from various contaminants are evaluated. Sorption properties of CP in various deposits of Russia are studied in relation to heavy metal ions. It was found that the studied specimens have a considerable sorption exchange capacity not only for ions of toxic (Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2', but also other heavy metals (Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Ba2+ , Sr2+. It is shown that CP sorption capacity is more efficient when a Mn2+ ion is removed from natural water compared to synthetic ion-exchange resins and activated coals. The dynamic sorption capacities for a Mn2+ ion up to a breakthrough 0.01 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 is determined. The CP sorption capacity is insignificant for various halide ions except a fluoride ion the removal of which from natural underground waters is possible with the help of sorption on CP. It was proposed to use CP for removing natural radionuclides (radium 226 and potassium 40 from deep wellbore waters. The purification efficiency with the initial radium 226 concentration at the level 3,0 Bq/I (30 MPC was not below 96%. The efficiency of removing potassium 40 natural isotope depends on the CP form and is maximal for Na form. Post treatment of natural waters after their coagulation treatment with the use of CP has been studied. It is shown that sorption filters with CP allow not only post-treatment of waters from excessive aluminum and zinc, but also additional reduction of odor, color, and ammonium ion content.

  9. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant. (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay


    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  10. Attenuation and colloidal mobilization of bacteriophages in natural sediments under anoxic as compared to oxic conditions. (United States)

    Klitzke, Sondra; Schroeder, Jendrik; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Szewzyk, Regine; Chorus, Ingrid


    Redox conditions are known to affect the fate of viruses in porous media. Several studies report the relevance of colloid-facilitated virus transport in the subsurface, but detailed studies on the effect of anoxic conditions on virus retention in natural sediments are still missing. Therefore, we investigated the fate of viruses in natural flood plain sediments with different sesquioxide contents under anoxic conditions by considering sorption to the solid phase, sorption to mobilized colloids, and inactivation in the aqueous phase. Batch experiments were conducted under oxic and anoxic conditions at pH values between 5.1 and 7.6, using bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174 as model viruses. In addition to free and colloid-associated bacteriophages, dissolved and colloidal concentrations of Fe, Al and organic C as well as dissolved Ca were determined. Results showed that regardless of redox conditions, bacteriophages did not adsorb to mobilized colloids, even under favourable charge conditions. Under anoxic conditions, attenuation of bacteriophages was dominated by sorption over inactivation, with MS2 showing a higher degree of sorption than PhiX174. Inactivation in water was low under anoxic conditions for both bacteriophages with about one log10 decrease in concentration during 16 h. Increased Fe/Al concentrations and a low organic carbon content of the sediment led to enhanced bacteriophage removal under anoxic conditions. However, even in the presence of sufficient Fe/A-(hydr)oxides on the solid phase, bacteriophage sorption was low. We presume that organic matter may limit the potential retention of sesquioxides in anoxic sediments and should thus be considered for the risk assessment of virus breakthrough in the subsurface.

  11. Accounting for natural-climatic conditions in the design of roads in western Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir N. Efimenko; Sergey V. Efimenko; Alexey V. Sukhorukov


    The paper proposes a methodological scheme that thoroughly accounts for natural-climatic conditions which can impair the stability and longevity of transport facilities (roadways), to ensure the best possible quality of the initial road design. Factors determining the formation of water-heating mode subgrade soils are allocated, and an information database for mathematical modeling of geocomplexes is shown. Values of strength and deformability of clay soils are calculated within the limits of the defined, homogeneous road districts in Western Siberia to provide the required level of reliability of design solutions.

  12. Development of sampling for quantification of glyphosate in natural waters


    Tzaskos,Danilla Fernanda; Marcovicz,Crislaine; Dias,Nivea Maria Piccolomini; Rosso,Neiva Deliberali


    Glyphosate is a systemic, post-emergent, non-selective herbicide widely used in agriculture. The objective of this study was to develop a method for sample preparation, to partially purified natural water samples contaminated with residues of glyphosate, and to quantify them by derivation and spectroscopically. To assess the accuracy of the method, samples of water from an artesian well and from a stream were fortified with known amounts of glyphosate. The concentration of glyphosate was dete...

  13. Statutory protection for the water requirements of natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Uys


    Full Text Available A project was recently registered with the National Parks Board to investigate the need for legal protection of the water requirements of natural ecosystems and the existing legislation which provides such protection. There is a distinct lack of legal protection, which is identified and discussed in this paper. It is submitted that the current South African water law is outdated and in need of reform so as to accommodate the demands of a wider spectrum of user sectors. Since the amendment of the existing water allocation system (in a country where water is a scarce resource could be politically a disconcerting step, it should be made only after due consideration of the various needs for water, the historical foundation of the existing system, and a study made of effective systems in countries with similar water problems. An in-depth study of the historical development of South African water law has already revealed interesting yet abrogated concepts, which can possibly serve as a means of protecting the natural water requirements.

  14. Condition, use, and management of water resources among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 17, 2012 ... ISSN 1996-0786 ©2012 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Condition, use ... The study recommends that strong assistance is required in ... gender relations in using, managing and controlling water resources.

  15. Effect of filler water absorption on water swelling properties of natural rubber (United States)

    Trakuldee, J.; Boonkerd, K.


    The efficient water swelling rubber can be obtained by using high hydrophilic rubber such as chloroprene rubber. However, chloroprene rubber is synthetic rubber developed from the petroleum. Recently, many researches try to replace the usage of synthetic rubber with natural rubber. This is not only due to the concerning of environment but the cost reduction as well. However, natural rubber is hydrophobic, thus not absorbing water. To develop the water swelling rubber from natural rubber, the addition of water absorption filler is needed. The study was aimed to formulate water swelling rubber from natural rubber filled with sodium polyacrylate (SA)/sodium bentonite clay (SBC) hybrid filler used to water absorbent. The filler loading was kept constantly at 150 phr. The effect of SA/SBC ratio varied from 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 on the water absorption of the hybrid filled natural rubber was determined. The obtained result showed that the water adsorption proportionally increased with increasing SA loading but decreased with increasing SBC loading. The effect of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) on the water absorption was studied later. The result from a scanning electron microscope depicted that the presence of GM can depress the falling out of SA from the rubber matrix while the presence of PEG increased water absorption.

  16. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada (United States)

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.


    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  17. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems (United States)

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  18. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems (United States)

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  19. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  20. Coupling conditions for the shallow water equations on a network

    CERN Document Server

    Caputo, Jean-Guy; Gleyse, Bernard


    We study numerically and analytically how nonlinear shallow water waves propagate in a fork. Using a homothetic reduction procedure, conservation laws and numerical analysis in a 2D domain, we obtain angle dependent coupling conditions for the water height and the velocity. We compare these to the ones for a class of scalar nonlinear wave equations for which the angle plays no role.

  1. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  2. Ammonium ion interaction with conditioned natural zeolite with silver and its effect on the disinfection of polluted water in front of a consortium of gram (+) and gram (-) microorganisms; Interaccion del ion amonio con zeolita natural acondicionada con plata y su efecto sobre la desinfeccion de agua contaminada frente a un consorcio de microorganismos gram (+) y gram (-)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga G, V. E.


    Clinoptilolite zeolite material is a relative abundance in Mexico, which has ion exchange properties, therefore, has the ability to retain metal ions giving it an application in the process of disinfecting of water contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, we conducted a study of disinfection of water contaminated with a microbial consortium, from a zeolite rock clinoptilolite from a deposit located in the State of Guerrero. Initially, the zeolite prepared by the grinding and sieving, for conditioning with NaCl and subsequently with AgNO{sub 3}, finally to be characterized using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Tests using columns packed with zeolite material, the effect of zeolite bactericidal conditioned with silver (ZGAg) against a microbial consortium consisting of Escherichia coli and Sthapyloccocus aureus in aqueous solution in the presence of ammonium ions used to increase the ion exchange with zeolite fitted with silver. To describe curves disinfecting a continuous flow system is adapted Gu pta model, which describes the kinetics and equilibrium adsorption process, considering the microorganisms as the adsorbate and the sanitizing agent (conditioned with silver zeolite) as the adsorbent. Characterization results show that in the scanning electron microscopy (Sem), no changes were obtained on the morphology of typical clinoptilolite crystals before and after that was modified with sodium and then with silver, it is worth mentioning however that fitted with silver zeolite (ZGAg), small particles are seen on the zeolite material which when analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we found a high concentration of Ag +. The disinfection period is increased as the concentration increased ammonium ions, this behavior is attributed to the ion exchange that occurs between the ammonium ions and silver ions. A lower percentage of inactivation is due, therefore, to a lesser amount of money available to

  3. Preconcentration method for trace metals in natural waters using 4-morpholine dithiocarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SABO


    Full Text Available The optimum conditions were found for the preconcentration of trace metals in natural waters and model samples with standard metals concentrations by using 4-morpholinedithiocarbamate. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform. Different methods for recovering the metals from the organic solvent were studied and compared before AAS metal analysis. The developed preconcentration method was successfully applied to the determination of trace metals concentrations in water samples from the “Barje” lake (Leskovac, Yugoslavia.

  4. The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters. (United States)

    Crisp, P. T.; And Others


    Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

  5. The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters. (United States)

    Crisp, P. T.; And Others


    Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

  6. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  7. Proton cycling, buffering, and reaction stoichiometry in natural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, A.F.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.A.; Meysman, F.J.R.


    Ongoing acidification of the global ocean necessitates a solid understanding of how biogeochemical processes are driving proton cycling and observed pH changes in natural waters. The standard way of calculating the pH evolution of an aquatic system is to specify first how biogeochemical processes af

  8. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong


    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Natural Gas Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini K.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.


    with a heavy phase were previously obtained using cubic plus association (CPA) coupled with a solid phase model in the case of hydrates, for the binary systems of water–methane and water–nitrogen and a few natural gas mixtures. In this work, CPA is being validated against new experimental data, both water...... content and phase equilibrium data, and solid model parameters are being estimated for four natural gas main components (methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide). Different tests for the solid model parameters are reported, including vapor-hydrate-equilibria (VHE) and liquid-hydrate-equilibria (LHE......As the need for dew point specifications remains very urgent in the natural gas industry, the development of accurate thermodynamic models, which will match experimental data and will allow reliable extrapolations, is needed. Accurate predictions of the gas phase water content in equilibrium...

  10. Simultaneous effects of water spray and crosswind on performance of natural draft dry cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadikia Hossein


    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT, a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.

  11. Calculation of the eroei coefficient for natural gas hydrates in laboratory conditions (United States)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Čaja, Alexander


    In the 1960s, scientists discovered that methane hydrate existed in the gas field in Siberia. Gas hydrates are known to be stable under conditions of high pressure and low temperature that have been recognized in polar regions and in the uppermost part of deep -water sediments below the sea floor. The article deals with the determination of the EROEI coefficient to generate the natural gas hydrate in the device under specific temperature and pressure conditions. Energy returned on energy invested expresses ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource. Gas hydrates have been also discussed before decades like potential source mainly for regions with restricted access to conventional hydrocarbons also tactic interest in establishing alternative gas reserves.

  12. The man-made creators of the imbalance of water in Nature (United States)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.


    these are different places where the water taken, where the water used to grow crops, where the crop had eaten and where waste throw out. It creates a lot of the man-made imbalances of redeployment, which generate the new chains of different types of the man-made imbalances of water, other components and processes. The waste is one of the most important man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. Some of water from the waste comes back into circulation in the clean or dirty conditions. Another part of water from waste will join into numerous water-based or water-use components of Nature, and fall out of the hydrological cycle for a long time. The quantity and diversity of waste are rising much faster than the recycles industries and it is creating a lot of dangerous imbalances of Nature. The wastes are is the time bombs, which man made, and which will soon explode. The traditional balanced science and practice are not prepared to deal with the waste problem. The concept of the imbalance of Nature can help prevent this catastrophic explosion. People are creating a lot of the man-made imbalances of Nature which bring the dangerous 'unexpected surprises'. The concept of the imbalance of Nature give possibilities to create the man-made imbalances of Nature with the predictable parameters and it can help do Mother Nature to be friendlier to humanity.

  13. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Cold Conditions Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg


    The objective of this article is to investigate the energy performance of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method of buildings within houses located in temperate countries using Denmark as a case study. The method consists in running simulations with a thermal-airflow program of a household...... that there is a reduction of 90% of hours of a possible use of mechanical ventilation, showing the feasibility to achieve thermal comfort within the house by using passive ventilation. The conclusion is therefore that the results contribute to an assessment of the economic and environmental benefits of using natural...... located in Vejle, Denmark during the months of June, July and August calculating the indoor air temperatures during this period. The dwelling belongs to a Danish project of passive houses named Komfort Husene where its users claim there are periods of overheating during the summer time. Then, after...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur SABAH


    Full Text Available In this work, the potential for the elimination of hardness of the water by using zeolitic tuff (klinoptilolit obtained from the upper layer tuff of Balıkesir-Bigadiç, where the richest deposits are located in our country, has been investigated; as a means of water supply, daily usage water of campus, Selçuk University, was utilized to wich none of the pre-refining process was applied apart from chloring. At first, zeolite samples of -0.85+0.60 mm were regenerated by NaOH and the change in the hardness of water passing through zeolitic bad in ion exchange column at a constant rate was abserved. After optimizing the regeneration conditions in this way, the effect of the velocity of water fed into zeolitic bad and the water left in the column on the elimination of water hardness were also searched. As a result, the lowest value of water hardness was obtained by taking the water feeding rates at 10 ml/sec. and using zeolite regenerated with 0.75 M NaOH. Additionally, it was seen that the highest working capacity will be reached under these circumstances.

  15. Iron speciation in natural hyperacid water investigated by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C. Bender; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl; Mørup, Steen


    We have demonstrated the usefulness of the archetypical solid state-technique of Mössbauer spectroscopy to non-invasive studies of the redox and coordination chemistry of iron in a natural hyperacid solution from Iron Mountain, CA. Suitable fast cooling conditions were used to prepare a glass fro...

  16. TBA biodegradation in surface-water sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.


    The potential for [U-14C] TBA biodegradation was examined in laboratory microcosms under a range of terminal electron accepting conditions. TBA mineralization to CO2 was substantial in surface-water sediments under oxic, denitrifying, or Mn(IV)-reducing conditions and statistically significant but low under SO4-reducing conditions. Thus, anaerobic TBA biodegradation may be a significant natural attenuation mechanism for TBA in the environment, and stimulation of in situ TBA bioremediation by addition of suitable terminal electron acceptors may be feasible. No degradation of [U-14C] TBA was observed under methanogenic or Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  17. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, 2013 water year (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Kansas Water Science Center (KSWSC), in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring gages in the State of Kansas. These include 195 real-time streamflow-gaging stations (herein gages) and 12 real-time reservoir-level monitoring stations. These data and associated analysis, accumulated for many years, provide a unique overview of hydrologic conditions and help improve our understanding of our water resources.

  18. Effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on Pavlovian conditioning and responding for conditioned reinforcement. (United States)

    Tabbara, Rayane I; Maddux, Jean-Marie N; Beharry, Priscilla F; Iannuzzi, Jessica; Chaudhri, Nadia


    An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day. During Pavlovian conditioning sessions, half the rats in each concentration and deprivation condition received a 10-s CS paired with 0.2 ml of sucrose (16 trials/session; 3.2 ml/session). The remainder received unpaired CS and US presentations. Entries into a port where sucrose was delivered were recorded. Next, responding for conditioned reinforcement was tested, wherein pressing an active lever produced the CS and pressing an inactive lever had no consequences. CS-elicited port entries increased, and latency to the first CS-elicited port entry decreased across sessions in paired groups. Water deprivation augmented these effects, whereas sucrose concentration had no significant impact on behavior. Responding for conditioned reinforcement was observed in the 20S water-deprived, paired group. Thus, water deprivation can facilitate the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning, potentially by enhancing motivational state, and a high-intensity US and a high motivational state can interact to heighten the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity Towards Superoxide in Natural Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Whitney King


    Full Text Available Antioxidants are a class of molecules that provide a protective function against reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems by out competing physiologically important molecules for ROS oxidation. In natural waters, the reactivity of antioxidants gives an estimate of oxidative stress and may determine the reactivity and distribution of reactive oxidants. We present an analytical method to measure antioxidant activity in natural waters through the competition between ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and MCLA, a chemiluminescent probe for superoxide. A numerical kinetic model of the analytical method has been developed to optimize analytical performance. Measurements of antioxidant concentrations in pure and seawater are possible with detection limits below 0.1 nM. Surface seawater samples collected at solar noon contained over 0.4 nM of antioxidants and exhibited first-order decay with a half-life of 3-7 minutes, consistent with a reactive species capable of scavenging photochemically produced superoxide.

  20. Nature of water molecular bridging of the soil organic matter (United States)

    Kucerik, Jiri; Siewert, Christian; Quilesfogel-Esparza, Claudia; Schaumann, Gabriele E.


    Soil is a complex anisotropic and porous system consisting of both inorganic and organic parts, air and water, inhabited and successively transformed by soil biota. Processes of soil formation are influenced by several factors. Among the most important factors belong the inorganic and organic input materials, which are mixed and transformed during soil formation. As a result, specific interactions and interrelationships develop between soil compartments. Although, they are important for soil function and its stability, they are still not well understood. This work deals with water molecule bridges (WaMB), as one of those interactions, and their relation to organic matter functioning. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) belongs to the family of methods of thermal analysis, i.e. it uses heat as a probe of the sample's nature. In soil science, the application of this common method is quite rare. In our previous works, DSC revealed a physical stabilization of organic matter segments in soils by development of WaMB. Results suggested the development of those bridges at ambient temperature accompanied with condensation of water into small nanodroplets. In another work, we found out that water, evaporating at the same temperature as WaMB transition occurs, correlates with the activity of soil microorganisms measured via CO2respiration. In this work, the enthalpy and kinetic parameters of water evaporation are studied in two kinds of soil: in clay-rich chernozem soils originating from Siberia and a histosol collected in Germany. We discuss the details of application of DSC, experimental arrangement and advantages and disadvantages of this approach. It is shown that enthalpy of evaporation can be used for understanding the nature of water binding in soils with well-developed aggregates. In contrast, the evaporation of water from histosol, without a typical soil texture, is more complicated because of diffusion processes. Further, the connection between enthalpy of

  1. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed (United States)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen


    more water available for the generation of other ecosystem services. Our findings contribute to a more complete picture of the human appropriation of water and the understanding of the interlinkages between the SDGs, thus feeding the debate on water for wood products versus nature, food or feed.

  2. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions. (United States)

    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M


    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation.

  3. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.


    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  4. Spectral Transmission Studies of Ocean Water Under Different Sea Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Gupta


    Full Text Available Propagation of electro-magnetic radiation through the atmosphere and the sea depends upon different physical processes. The atmosphere is primarily a scattering medium. In the case of sea water, however, both absorption and scattering account for its spectral attenuation characteristics. The sea surface determines the transition of radiation at the air-water boundary. The spatial and temporal variations in the sea conditions make it a very complex medium for theoretical predictions. The paper reports various parameters relevant to the study of spectral transmission of ocean water under different seaconditions.1.

  5. Effect of Michael adduction on peptide preservation in natural waters. (United States)

    McKee, G A; Kobiela, M E; Hatcher, P G


    The reaction of peptides with chemicals already present in natural waters (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is one method that has been suggested to preserve peptides for the longer term. In this study we test whether the reaction of tetrapeptides with a model quinone can help stabilise the peptide in one polluted riverine system, Elizabeth River in Virginia, USA. We found that there is almost no difference in rate constants between the peptide and its quinone adduct (e.g. 6.62 versus 6.86 per day for AVFA and its respective adduct). However, when monitoring the removal of the adduct from natural water, we identified two new compounds that are formed as a result of its decomposition. Using tandem mass spectrometry we identified potential structures and mechanisms for the formation of these new compounds. These new compounds are more recalcitrant than their parent peptide-quinone adduct, since they remain in solution for 3-10 times longer. Based on our findings we postulate that the reaction of peptides with quinones can help preserve sections of the original peptide following an initial rearrangement of the original adduct, potentially explaining why seemingly labile peptides are observed in most natural waters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko


    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  7. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001 (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  8. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.


    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  9. Groundwater surface water interaction study using natural isotopes tracer (United States)

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Kim, Yong Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Kil Yong


    Tritium and stable isotopes are a component of the water molecule, they are the most conservative tracer for groundwater study. And also, radon is natural radioactive nuclide and well dissolved in groundwater. Therefore, these isotopes are used natural tracer for the study of surface water and groundwater interaction of water curtain greenhouse area. The study area used groundwater as a water curtain for warming tool of greenhouse during the winter, and is associated with issues of groundwater shortage while being subject to groundwater-river water interaction. During the winter time, these interactions were studied by using Rn-222, stable isotopes and H-3. These interaction was monitored in multi depth well and linear direction well of groundwater flow. And dam effect was also compared. Samples were collected monthly from October 2013 to April 2014. Radon and tritium were analyzed using Quantulus low background liquid scintillation counter and stable isotopes were analyzed using an IRIS (Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy ; L2120-i, Picarro). During the winter time, radon concentration was varied from 0.07 Bq/L to 8.9 Bq/L and different interaction was showed between dam. Surface water intrusion was severe at February and restored April when greenhouse warming was ended. The stable isotope results showed different trend with depth and ranged from -9.16 ‰ to -7.24 ‰ for δ 18O value, while the δD value was ranged from -57.86 ‰ to -50.98 ‰. The groundwater age as dated by H-3 was ranged 0.23 Bq/L - 0.59 Bq/L with an average value of 0.37 Bq/L.

  10. Experience of inundation or drought alters the responses of plants to subsequent water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shu; Callaway, Ragan M.; Zhou, Dao-Wei


    early drought. * Results indicate that early exposure to inundation or drought conditions alters how plants respond to later conditions and suggest that exposure to extreme events can induce physiological or morphological changes that improve tolerance for either extreme conditions later. This increased......The availability of water is often highly variable over the life of a plant in nature, and most plants experience episodic extremes in water scarcity and abundance. The importance of plant plasticity in coping with such experiences is widely recognized, but little is known about how plastic...... responses to current conditions are affected by prior environmental experiences. * Our objectives were to investigate the effects of early inundation or drought on the subsequent responses of plant species to the same, opposite or more favourable conditions. * To address these questions, we subjected four...

  11. Monitoring the condition of natural resources in US national parks. (United States)

    Fancy, S G; Gross, J E; Carter, S L


    The National Park Service has developed a long-term ecological monitoring program for 32 ecoregional networks containing more than 270 parks with significant natural resources. The monitoring program assists park managers in developing a broad-based understanding of the status and trends of park resources as a basis for making decisions and working with other agencies and the public for the long-term protection of park ecosystems. We found that the basic steps involved in planning and designing a long-term ecological monitoring program were the same for a range of ecological systems including coral reefs, deserts, arctic tundra, prairie grasslands, caves, and tropical rainforests. These steps involve (1) clearly defining goals and objectives, (2) compiling and summarizing existing information, (3) developing conceptual models, (4) prioritizing and selecting indicators, (5) developing an overall sampling design, (6) developing monitoring protocols, and (7) establishing data management, analysis, and reporting procedures. The broad-based, scientifically sound information obtained through this systems-based monitoring program will have multiple applications for management decision-making, research, education, and promoting public understanding of park resources. When combined with an effective education program, monitoring results can contribute not only to park issues, but also to larger quality-of-life issues that affect surrounding communities and can contribute significantly to the environmental health of the nation.

  12. Study on natural circulation characteristics of an IPWR under inclined and rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lihui [College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China); Wang, Bing [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Xia, Genglei, E-mail: [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Peng, Minjun [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)


    Highlights: • An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic analysis code was developed based on RELAP5 codes. • The inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core. • The system parameters asymmetry increases with the increasing inclination angle. • Flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. • The off-center roll axis location can break the symmetry and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate. - Abstract: An ocean-based thermal-hydraulic system analysis code was developed based on RELAP5/MOD3 code by adding additional force model of ocean condition and control volume coordinate solver model. The natural circulation operation characteristics of integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) under ocean conditions were studied and the effects of inclination and rolling motions were analyzed. The results conclude that, the inclination condition can reduce the mass flow rate of reactor core and lead to inconsistent coolant flow rates of the left and right loops, furthermore, it affects the heat transfer of once-through steam generators (OTSGs). In the case of rolling motion, the additional pressure drop of the loop is dominated by tangential force, and flow oscillation of different loops cancel each other due to the symmetrical arrangement of the reactor. The off-center roll axis location, the combination of the inclination and rolling motion, both can break the thermal-hydraulic symmetry among different loops and enlarge fluctuation amplitude of the core flow rate.

  13. Ammonium sorption from aqueous solutions by the natural zeolite Transcarpathian clinoptilolite studied under dynamic conditions. (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Lebedynets, Mariya; Terzyk, Artur P; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek; Buszewski, Bogusław


    The scope of this study is ammonium-ion uptake from synthetic aqueous solutions onto raw and pretreated forms of the natural zeolite Transcarpathian clinoptilolite under dynamic conditions. Hydrogen ions displaced exchangeable cations on the clinoptilolite in distilled water (sodium ions) and hydrochloric acid (sodium, potassium, and calcium ions) and destroyed the zeolite framework structure in the last case. Ammonium uptake onto the zeolite occurs by exchange with Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) ions. Although Na(+) ions were observed to be more easily exchanged for both hydrogen and ammonium ions, the role of Ca(2+) ions increased with zeolite saturation by NH(+)(4) ions. The maximum sorption capacity of the clinoptilolite toward NH(+)(4) ions, estimated under dynamic conditions, is significantly higher than that measured under static conditions; proximity of the values of a distribution coefficient and a retardation factor for different conditions (215-265 dm(3)/kg and 979-1107, respectively) allows us to use these parameters to model ammonium uptake onto the clinoptilolite. Slowing down or interruption in filtration resulted in the improvement of ammonium sorption properties of the zeolite. The ammonium removal improves with use of the finer fractions of the clinoptilolite up to 0.35 mm. A recycling study results confirmed the importance of external diffusion for ammonium sorption by the clinoptilolite. Preliminary treatment of the sorbent confirmed the predominant importance of the ion-exchange mechanism. The advantage of prior NaCl treatment of the clinoptilolite in improvement of ammonium removal over the other techniques was shown.

  14. Hydrologic conditions in Florida during Water Year 2008 (United States)

    Verdi, Richard J.; Holt, Sandra L.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.


    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008). Record-low levels were caused by a continuation of the 2007 water year drought conditions into the 2008 water year and persisting until summer rainfall. The gage at the Santa Fe River near Fort White site recorded record-low monthly mean discharges in October and November 2007. The previous records for this site were set in 1956 and 2002, respectively. Record-high conditions in northeast and northwest Florida were caused by the rainfall and runoff associated with Tropical Storm Fay. For example, St. Mary's River near Macclenny recorded a new record-high monthly mean discharge in August 2008. The previous record for this site was set in 1945. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached new minimum monthly mean lake levels since monitoring began in 1912 from October to March during the 2008 water year. Some wells throughout northwest and south Florida registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  15. Physicochemical nature of iron oxidation in a damp atmospheric condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongyan PAN; Yunpinq XI


    The surface oxidation patterns of iron or low-carbon steels are critical to their life when serving in typical damp environments.An accurate determination of the oxidation pattern entails tracking the iron atoms oxidized at the iron/steel-moisture interface.Using a quantum chemistry-based force field that is capable of simulating chemical reactions,this paper studies the process of iron oxidation under a typical moist condition. The oxidation of iron surface was found to be highly thermodynamic and dependent on the availability of reactants.A triplex structure was formed at the end of a three-stage oxidation process to reduce the overall oxidation speed.The results from this study shed light on the atomistic mechanism of iron oxidation; therefore can be used to guide the protection of general ferrous-based iron/steel structures.

  16. Sea water air conditioning : a cost effective alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology; Saeid, L. [National Gas Company, Cairo (Egypt). GIS and Design Section


    The 2 main types of air conditioning systems are vapor compression systems which are electrically operated, and absorption systems which are heat operated. This paper presented a new air conditioning technique for use in the Middle East. The Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) system uses deep cold ocean and sea water as a renewable energy source to air-condition buildings. A technical and economical assessment was performed to determine the advantages of the SWAC system over conventional vapor compression systems to air-condition hotels and resorts at a new tourists resort in Egypt. Meteorological data for the region was used to estimate the gross cooling load for the hotels using the HVAC Load Explorer program. The major components of the SWAC system were sized and analyzed to the determine its operational performance and to estimate the probable costs. The economic analysis was based on two different methods, notably the net present value (NPV) and the simple pay back method. Three options were investigated in the economic study. The first was the use of a conventional air conditioning system to provide a baseline for the other options being investigated. The second option was the use of deep sea water only, and the third option involved the use of a hybrid system using both a sea water air conditioning system and a conventional chiller in series. The SWAC system was the preferred option for its minimum net present value as well as the short pay back period. The energy savings approached 80 per cent of conventional air-conditioners. It was concluded that in addition to reducing electricity use, the SWAC systems can contribute to a reduction in greenhouse gases. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Vitality of Complex Water Governance Systems: Condition and Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); C. van Leeuwen (Corniel)


    markdownabstractIn this article the evolution of vitality of social systems in water governance processes, approached as social-ecological systems, is studied. Vitality as well as conditions for vitality are theorized and measured in two cases of the Dutch southwest Delta region. Different patterns

  18. Thermoregulation in intensively lactating cows in near-natural conditions (United States)

    Berman, A.


    1. Thermoregulatory reactions of lactating cows (33 kg milk/day) have been measured in summer (25-39° C) and in winter (9·5-24° C) at 3 hr intervals, during four nychthemeral (24 hr) cycles in each season. 2. The rectal-to-tympanic temperature gradient increased with rising body temperatures. The seasonal changes were larger for the rectal temperatures than for the tympanic membrane temperatures. These and the significantly lower correlations between rectal temperatures and regulatory responses suggest that in the ruminant rectal temperatures are considerably affected by rumen metabolism and do not represent a reliable index of the regulated temperature. 3. In the winter the regulatory responses were correlated with skin temperatures only. In the summer responses were correlated with both skin and tympanic temperatures, excepting for skin water loss. 4. The seasonal difference in the effects of skin and tympanic temperatures on regulatory responses was associated with a small change in mean tympanic temperature. The twofold larger nychthemeral fluctuation in the summer tympanic temperature is suggested to cause the seasonal difference in the thermoregulatory mode. 5. The winter range of nychthemeral fluctuations in tympanic temperature suggests a range of permitted core thermolability. A wider permitted core thermolability in summer is unlikely to be a mechanism of acclimatization in the cow. PMID:5169378

  19. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong


    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  20. Hydrologic Conditions in Florida during Water Year 2007 (United States)

    Verdi, Richard Jay; Tomlinson, Stewart A.; Irvin, Ronald B.; Fulcher, David L.


    Record-high and record-low hydrologic conditions occurred during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006 - September 30, 2007) based on analyses of precipitation, surface-water flows, lake elevations, and ground-water levels. For example, the streamgage at Suwannee River at White Springs in northwest Florida recorded an annual streamflow of 103 cubic feet per second during 2007, or about 6 percent of the period-of-record average since monitoring began in 1906. Lake Okeechobee in south Florida reached record-low elevations (8.82 feet on July 2) since monitoring began in 1912. Several wells throughout the State registered period-of-record lowest daily maximum water levels.

  1. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  2. Water-CO2 Mixtures Under Extreme Conditions (United States)

    Plattner, D. L.; Somayazulu, M.


    In situ high pressure-temperature Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the formation of clathrates in water-CO2 mixtures and to study the chemical interactions between water and CO2 at supercritical conditions. Diamond anvil cell’s (DAC) were loaded with ruby, water, CO2, and a gold plated gasket. Quartz was later added to the cell as a pressure sensor for supercritical phase analysis. At 25 °C and within the pressure range of 0.8 to 2.6 GPa, no clathrate was observed. Our results confirm recent findings which also dispute claims of clathrate existence at our conditions. A decrease in the temperature required to reach the supercritical phase of water-CO2 mixtures was observed from 0.35 GPa to 4.5 GPa. Furthermore, at 4.4 GPa and 290 °C, a chemical reaction between CO2 and water occurred. The resulting compound has a Raman peak with a frequency shift of 1000 cm-1. This reaction and the compound it produces are of great interest and are currently being investigated.

  3. Effects of natural gas composition on ignition delay under diesel conditions (United States)

    Naber, J. D.; Siebers, D. L.; Dijulio, S. S.; Westbrook, C. K.


    Effects of variations in natural gas composition on autoignition of natural gas under direct-injection (DI) diesel engine conditions were studied experimentally in a constant-volume combustion vessel and computationally using a chemical kinetic model. Four fuel blends were investigated: pure methane, a capacity weighted mean natural gas, a high ethane content natural gas, and a natural gas with added propane typical of peak shaving conditions. Experimentally measured ignition delays were longest for pure methane and became progressively shorter as ethane and propane concentrations increased. At conditions characteristic of a DI compression ignition natural gas engine at Top Dead Center (CR = 23:1, p = 6.8 MPa, T = 1150K), measured ignition delays for the four fuels varied from 1.8 ms for the peak shaving and high ethane gases to 2.7 ms for pure methane. Numerically predicted variations in ignition delay as a function of natural gas composition agreed with these measurements.

  4. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (United States)

    Hem, John David


    The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from human activities. Broad interrelationships among these processes and their effects can be discerned by application of principles of chemical thermodynamics. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium, including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the Earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural freshwater.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of tobacco under water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara


    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production. Understanding the molecular basis of how plants respond to this water deficit stress is key to developing drought tolerant crops. In this study we generated time course-based transcriptome profiles of tobacco plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. In this paper, we describe in detail the experimental procedures and analyses performed in our study. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE67434 has been analysed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tobacco's responses to drought.

  6. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe


    with the ‘full-cost-recovery principle’ – are discouraging investments in new energy-related technologies. There are also restrictions on the water utilities production of renewable energy – including rules on mandatory ownership unbundling. In section 6 of this chapter there is a short conclusion on the current...... conditions. Based on these facts, the resource efficiency and low–carbon policy of the EU as well as the EU’s rules of relevance for the utilities are highlighted in section 4. It is concluded that the current EU legislation makes it possible for the Member States to promote energy–smart water utilities...

  7. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.


    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  8. Dispersion and toxicity of selected manufactured nanomaterials in natural river water samples: effects of water chemical composition. (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Youn, Sejin; Hovsepyan, Anna; Llaneza, Veronica L; Wang, Yu; Bitton, Gabriel; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J


    Experimental conditions that mimic likely scenarios of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) introduction to aquatic systems were used to assessthe effect of nanoparticle dispersion/solubility and water chemical composition on MN-toxicity. Aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (C60), nanosilver (nAg), and nanocopper (nCu) were prepared in both deionized water and filtered (0.45 microm) natural river water samples collected from the Suwannee River basin, to emphasize differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and solution ionic strengths (I). Two toxicity tests, the Ceriodaphnia dubia and MetPLATE bioassays were used. Results obtained from exposure studies show that water chemistry affects the suspension/solubility of MNs as well as the particle size distribution, resulting in a wide range of biological responses depending on the type of toxicity test used. Under experimental conditions used in this study, C60 exhibited no toxicity even when suspended concentrations exceeded 3 mg L(-1). MetPLATE results showed that the toxicity of aqueous suspensions of nCu tends to increase with increasing DOC concentrations, while increasing I reduces nCu toxicity. The use of the aquatic invertebrate C. dubia on the other hand showed a tendency for decreased mortality with increasing DOC and I. MetPLATE results for nAg showed decreasing trends in toxicity with increasing DOC concentrations and I. However, C. dubia exhibited contrasting biological responses, in that increasing DOC concentrations reduced toxicity, while the latter increased with increasing I. Overall, our results show that laboratory experiments that use DI-water and drastic MN-suspension methods may not be realistic as MN-dispersion and suspension in natural waters vary significantly with water chemistry and the reactivity of MNs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise


    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-Mao; LU Xian-Guo; ZHAO Chun-Hui; ZHAO Yan-Bo; QI Han-Qiang


    A detailed assessment on water resources of HNNR is to find the changing rules in time and space scale of water resources of HNNR and its adjacent areas, and the generating and degrading factors of wetland and provide scientific base on restoring and managing the hydrologic regime for planning and designing at HNNR. Both the assessment area and its adjacent watershed of Bielahong River belong to the same region in the climate and surface features. Total of 46 years of serial data from 1956-2001 in the Bielahong Hydrology Station was employed. Typical analysis of the serial runoff was conducted by adopting the residual mass curve method. The calculation methods of hydrological parameters are valuable for analyzing the water balance of HNNR. The results showed that the inputs of 118.29 × 106 m3 of the surface runoff and 1 478km2 of the areas of natural watershed in HNNR were decreased. At the same time some measurements to control and prevent water resources decreased have been proposed.

  11. Bulk water phase and biofilm growth in drinking water at low nutrient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik


    to quantify the effect of retention times at hydraulic conditions similar to those in drinking water distribution networks. Water and pipe wall samples were taken and examined during the experiment. The pipes had been exposed to drinking water at approximately 131C, for at least 385 days to allow......In this study, the bacterial growth dynamics of a drinking water distribution system at low nutrient conditions was studied in order to determine bacterial growth rates by a range of methods, and to compare growth rates in the bulk water phase and the biofilm. A model distribution system was used...... the formation of a mature quasi-stationary biofilm. At retention times of 12 h, total bacterial counts increased equivalent to a net bacterial growth rate of 0.048 day1. The bulk water phase bacteria exhibited a higher activity than the biofilmbacteria in terms of culturability, cell-specific ATP content...

  12. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe


    conditions. Based on these facts, the resource efficiency and low–carbon policy of the EU as well as the EU’s rules of relevance for the utilities are highlighted in section 4. It is concluded that the current EU legislation makes it possible for the Member States to promote energy–smart water utilities...... of the national regulatory design and the problems related to legal barriers are illustrated in section 5 with examples from Danish legislation. The Danish regulatory style is more inflexible than necessary. The benchmarking model and price-cap systems – established as mandatory legal conditions together...

  13. Conditioned enhancement of natural killer cell activity, but not interferon, with camphor or saccharin-LiCl conditioned stimulus. (United States)

    Ghanta, V K; Hiramoto, N S; Solvason, H B; Tyring, S K; Spector, N H; Hiramoto, R N


    Pavlovian conditioning of the natural killer (NK) cell response has been demonstrated by pairing camphor with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in nine association trials. The NK cell response could be conditioned also by using combined saccharin and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the conditioned stimulus. The camphor and saccharin-LiCl paradigms were tested to determine if the conditioned NK cell activity was the result of conditioning of the interferon response. Interferon levels were measured at 6 hr and NK cell activity at 24 hr after application of the conditioned stimulus. The interferon levels measured in separate experiments were not uniformly elevated in conditioned animals compared with controls.

  14. Summary of hydrologic conditions in Kansas, water year 2016 (United States)

    Louen, Justin M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, maintains a long-term network of hydrologic monitoring sites in Kansas. Real-time data are collected at 216 streamgage sites and are verified throughout the year with regular measurements of streamflow made by USGS personnel. Annual assessments of hydrologic conditions are made by comparing statistical analyses of current and historical water year (WY) data for the period of record. A WY is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the calendar year in which the period ends. Long-term monitoring of hydrologic conditions in Kansas provides critical information for water-supply management, flood forecasting, reservoir operations, irrigation scheduling, bridge and culvert design, ecological monitoring, and many other uses.

  15. Ferruginous conditions dominated later neoproterozoic deep-water chemistry. (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E; Poulton, Simon W; Knoll, Andrew H; Narbonne, Guy M; Ross, Gerry; Goldberg, Tatiana; Strauss, Harald


    Earth's surface chemical environment has evolved from an early anoxic condition to the oxic state we have today. Transitional between an earlier Proterozoic world with widespread deep-water anoxia and a Phanerozoic world with large oxygen-utilizing animals, the Neoproterozoic Era [1000 to 542 million years ago (Ma)] plays a key role in this history. The details of Neoproterozoic Earth surface oxygenation, however, remain unclear. We report that through much of the later Neoproterozoic (<742 +/- 6 Ma), anoxia remained widespread beneath the mixed layer of the oceans; deeper water masses were sometimes sulfidic but were mainly Fe2+-enriched. These ferruginous conditions marked a return to ocean chemistry not seen for more than one billion years of Earth history.

  16. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B in preserved natural water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun; Strobel, Bjarne W.


    The naturally occurring carcinogen ptaquiloside and its degradation product pterosin B are found in water leaching from bracken stands. The objective of this work is to present a new sample preservation method and a fast UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of ptaquiloside and pterosin B...... at realistic transportation and storing conditions prior to extraction. Groundwater samples collected in November 2015 at the shallow water table below a Danish bracken stand were preserved and analyzed using the above methods, and PTA concentrations of 3.8 ± 0.24 μg/L (±sd, n = 3) were found, much higher than...

  17. Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District (United States)


    e.g., hydrogen sulfide , methane, etc.). Most fish and other intolerant aquatic life cannot inhabit water with less than 4 to 5 mg/l dissolved...substances (e.g., phosphorus, metals, sulfides , etc.) as the reduced conditions intensify and result in the production of toxic and caustic substances...Chlorophyll-a, Total Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen) No No TMDL to be developed Conestoga Reservoir Yes Aquatic Life, Aesthetics, Recreation Algae Toxins

  18. Hydrodynamic boundary condition of water on hydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Schaeffel, David; Yordanov, Stoyan; Schmelzeisen, Marcus; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kappl, Michael; Schmitz, Roman; Dünweg, Burkhard; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Koynov, Kaloian


    By combining total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy with Brownian dynamics simulations, we were able to measure the hydrodynamic boundary condition of water flowing over a smooth solid surface with exceptional accuracy. We analyzed the flow of aqueous electrolytes over glass coated with a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (advancing contact angle Θ = 108°) or perfluorosilane (Θ = 113°). Within an error of better than 10 nm the slip length was indistinguishable from zero on all surfaces.

  19. Processes Driving Natural Acidification of Western Pacific Coral Reef Waters (United States)

    Shamberger, K. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Golbuu, Y.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.; Barkley, H. C.


    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are acidifying the oceans, reducing seawater pH, aragonite saturation state (Ωar) and the availability of carbonate ions (CO32-) that calcifying organisms use to build coral reefs. Today's most extensive reef ecosystems are located where open ocean CO32- concentration ([CO32-]) and Ωar exceed 200 μmol kg-1 and 3.3, respectively. However, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and long residence times of water can result in carbonate chemistry conditions within coral reef systems that differ greatly from those of nearby open ocean waters. In the Palauan archipelago, water moving across the reef platform is altered by both biological and hydrographic processes that combine to produce seawater pH, Ωar, [CO32-] significantly lower than that of open ocean source water. Just inshore of the barrier reefs, average Ωar values are 0.2 to 0.3 and pH values are 0.02 to 0.03 lower than they are offshore, declining further as water moves across the back reef, lagoon and into the meandering bays and inlets that characterize the Rock Islands. In the Rock Island bays, coral communities inhabit seawater with average Ωar values of 2.7 or less, and as low as 1.9. Levels of Ωar as low as these are not predicted to occur in the western tropical Pacific open ocean until near the end of the century. Calcification by coral reef organisms is the principal biological process responsible for lowering Ωar and pH, accounting for 68 - 99 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water at our sites. However, in the Rock Island bays where Ωar is lowest, CO2 production by net respiration contributes between 17 - 30 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water. Furthermore, the residence time of seawater in the Rock Island bays is much longer than at the well flushed exposed sites, enabling calcification and respiration to drive Ωar to very low levels despite lower net ecosystem

  20. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment (United States)

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.


    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  1. Natural attenuation of organic contaminants at the interface between groundwater and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middeldorp, P.; Staps, S.; Rijnaarts, H. [TNO-MEP Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Roelofsen, F.; Valstar, J. [TNO-NITG, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Smits, J. [WL/Delf Hydraulics (Netherlands)


    There are strong indications that the interface between groundwater and surface water plays an important role in the natural degradation of organic contaminants (NA-interface). This is especially the case for mobile contaminants that are relatively persistent in an anaerobic (subsurface) environment, and are mineralised relatively easy under more oxidized environmental conditions (e.g. benzene, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride, the light aliphatic fraction of mineral oil, etc.). These compounds are often also present as degradation products of natural or stimulated in situ biodegradation processes. Previous investigations have indicated indirectly that NA-interface processes contribute to a reduction of contaminant flux into surface water systems. Until now, no straightforward assessment and quantification of NA-interface has been performed. Moreover, limit values for allowable influx of contamination from a site into a surface water system do not exist. This prevents a possible beneficial use of NA-interface processes as a part of a cost-effective and integrated soil and water quality management. This project aims to gain more understanding of the occurrence of NA-interface processes, to quantify their contribution to emission reduction towards the surface water system and, in case of substantial contribution, to promote application of NA-interface as a part of a cost-effective integrated environmental management of contaminated sites and surrounding water bodies. The project's starting point is that the surface water is regarded as an object of risk and not as a reactor. Thus, effective degradation in the interface does not move environmental problems to surface water systems, but eliminates contaminants by natural occurring processes, thus protecting the aquatic ecosystem. (orig.)

  2. Experimental study of choking flow of water at supercritical conditions (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Altan

    Future nuclear reactors will operate at a coolant pressure close to 25 MPa and at outlet temperatures ranging from 500°C to 625°C. As a result, the outlet flow enthalpy in future Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWR) will be much higher than those of actual ones which can increase overall nuclear plant efficiencies up to 48%. However, under such flow conditions, the thermal-hydraulic behavior of supercritical water is not fully known, e.g., pressure drop, forced convection and heat transfer deterioration, critical and blowdown flow rate, etc. Up to now, only a very limited number of studies have been performed under supercritical conditions. Moreover, these studies are conducted at conditions that are not representative of future SCWRs. In addition, existing choked flow data have been collected from experiments at atmospheric discharge pressure conditions and in most cases by using working fluids different than water which constrain researchers to analyze the data correctly. In particular, the knowledge of critical (choked) discharge of supercritical fluids is mandatory to perform nuclear reactor safety analyses and to design key mechanical components (e.g., control and safety relief valves, etc.). Hence, an experimental supercritical water facility has been built at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal which allows researchers to perform choking flow experiments under supercritical conditions. The facility can also be used to carry out heat transfer and pressure drop experiments under supercritical conditions. In this thesis, we present the results obtained at this facility using a test section that contains a 1 mm inside diameter, 3.17 mm long orifice plate with sharp edges. Thus, 545 choking flow of water data points are obtained under supercritical conditions for flow pressures ranging from 22.1 MPa to 32.1 MPa, flow temperatures ranging from 50°C to 502°C and for discharge pressures from 0.1 MPa to 3.6 MPa. Obtained data are compared with the data given in

  3. The Survey of Sorption Ion-Exchange Properties of Paleozoic Natural Minerals in the Static Conditions (United States)

    Germanova, T. V.; Nefedov, V. A.; Valieva, I. R.


    An experimental and exploring process’ results of iron’s ion, manganese and ammonium sodium extraction from aqueous solution by some Ural’s natural minerals in a static regime at certain physicochemical conditions: by the zeolite, montmorillonite and vermiculite in the static conditions. Values of maximum sorption capacity are estimated on a gram of natural sorbents for the present conditions. Comparison of the survey’s results shows that effective sorptions from exploring natural minerals can be used as a clinoptilolite and zeolite-mineral montmorillonite type.

  4. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.


    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  5. Natural chlorine and fluorine in the atmosphere, water and precipitation (United States)

    Friend, James P.


    The geochemical cycles of chlorine and fluorine are surveyed and summarized as framework for the understanding of the global natural abundances of these species in the atmosphere, water, and precipitation. In the cycles the fluxes into and out of the atmosphere can be balanced within the limits of our knowledge of the natural sources and sinks. Sea salt from the ocean surfaces represent the predominant portion of the source of chlorine. It is also an important source of atmospheric fluorine, but volcanoes are likely to be more important fluorine sources. Dry deposition of sea salt returns about 85 percent of the salt released there. Precipitation removes the remainder. Most of the sea salt materials are considered to be cyclic, moving through sea spray over the oceans and either directly back to the oceans or deposited dry and in precipitation on land, whence it runs off into rivers and streams and returns to the oceans. Most of the natural chlorine in the atmosphere is in the form of particulate chloride ion with lesser amounts as gaseous inorganic chloride and methyl chloride vapor. Fluorine is emitted from volcanoes primarily as HF. It is possible that HF may be released directly form the ocean surface but this has not been confirmed by observation. HCl and most likely HF gases are released into the atmosphere by sea salt aerosols. The mechanism for the release is likely to be the provision of protons from the so-called excess sulfate and HNO3. Sea salt aerosol contains fluorine as F(-), MgF(+), CaF(+), and NaF. The concentrations of the various species of chlorine and fluorine that characterize primarily natural, unpolluted atmospheres are summarized in tables and are discussed in relation to their fluxes through the geochemical cycle.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lie-hui; FENG Guo-qing; LI xiao-ping; LI Yun


    In the fractured water drive reservoirs of China, because of the complex geological conditions, almost all the active water invasions appear to be water breakthrough along fractures, especially along macrofractures. These seal the path of gas flow, thus the remaining gas in the pores mixes into water, and leads to gas-water interactive distribution in the fractured gas reservoir. These complicated fractured systems usually generate some abnormal flowing phenomena such as the crestal well produces water while the downdip well in the same gas reservoir produces gas, or the same gas well produces water intermittently. It is very difficult to explain these phenomena using existing fracture models because of their simple handling macrofractures without considering nonlinear flowing in the macrofractures and the low permeability matrix. Therefore, a nonlinear combined-flowing multimedia simulation model was successfully developed in this paper by introducing the equations of macrofractures and considering nonlinear flow in the macrofractures and the matrix. This model was then applied to actual fractured bottom water gas fields. Sensitivity studies of gas production by water drainage in fractured gas reservoirs were completed and the effect of different water drainage intensity and ways on actual gas production using this model were calculated. This model has been extensively used to predict the production performance in various fractured gas fields and proven to be reliable.

  7. Trace metal speciation in natural waters: Computational vs. analytical (United States)

    Kirk, Nordstrom D.


    Improvements in the field sampling, preservation, and determination of trace metals in natural waters have made many analyses more reliable and less affected by contamination. The speciation of trace metals, however, remains controversial. Chemical model speciation calculations do not necessarily agree with voltammetric, ion exchange, potentiometric, or other analytical speciation techniques. When metal-organic complexes are important, model calculations are not usually helpful and on-site analytical separations are essential. Many analytical speciation techniques have serious interferences and only work well for a limited subset of water types and compositions. A combined approach to the evaluation of speciation could greatly reduce these uncertainties. The approach proposed would be to (1) compare and contrast different analytical techniques with each other and with computed speciation, (2) compare computed trace metal speciation with reliable measurements of solubility, potentiometry, and mean activity coefficients, and (3) compare different model calculations with each other for the same set of water analyses, especially where supplementary data on speciation already exist. A comparison and critique of analytical with chemical model speciation for a range of water samples would delineate the useful range and limitations of these different approaches to speciation. Both model calculations and analytical determinations have useful and different constraints on the range of possible speciation such that they can provide much better insight into speciation when used together. Major discrepancies in the thermodynamic databases of speciation models can be evaluated with the aid of analytical speciation, and when the thermodynamic models are highly consistent and reliable, the sources of error in the analytical speciation can be evaluated. Major thermodynamic discrepancies also can be evaluated by simulating solubility and activity coefficient data and testing various

  8. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows. (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció


    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  9. Geochemical Signature of Natural Water Recharge in the Jungar Basin and Its Response to Climate. (United States)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Rioual, Patrick


    This paper analyzed the physico-chemical characteristics of natural waters in a drainage system of the Jungar Basin, northwestern China to identify chemical evolution and recharge mechanisms of natural waters in an arid environment. The waters studied are different in mineralization, but are typically carbonate rivers and alkaline in nature. No Cl-dominated water type occurs, indicating an early stage of water evolution. Regolith and geomorphological parameters controlling ground-surface temperature may play a large role in the geological evolution of the water. Three main morphological and hydrological units are reflected in water physico-chemistry. Climate influences the salinization of natural waters substantially. Direct recharge from seasonal snow and ice-melt water and infiltration of rain to the ground are significant recharge processes for natural waters, but recharge from potential deep groundwater may be less important. The enrichment of ions in lakes has been mainly caused by evaporation rather than through the quality change of the recharged water.

  10. Water Relationships in the U.S. Southwest: Characterizing Water Management Networks Using Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Murphy


    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and named entity recognition (NER techniques are applied to collections of newspaper articles from four cities in the U.S. Southwest. The results are used to generate a network of water management institutions that reflect public perceptions of water management and the structure of water management in these areas. This structure can be highly centralized or fragmented; in the latter case, multiple peer institutions exist that may cooperate or be in conflict. This is reflected in the public discourse of the water consumers in these areas and can, we contend, impact the potential responses of management agencies to challenges of water supply and quality and, in some cases, limit their effectiveness. Flagstaff, AZ, Tucson, AZ, Las Vegas, NV, and the Grand Valley, CO, are examined, including more than 110,000 articles from 2004–2012. Documents are scored by association with water topics, and phrases likely to be institutions are extracted via custom NLP and NER algorithms; those institutions associated with water-related documents are used to form networks via document co-location. The Grand Valley is shown to have a markedly different structure, which we contend reflects the different historical trajectory of its development and its current state, which includes multiple institutions of roughly equal scope and size. These results demonstrate the utility of using NLP and NER methods to understanding the structure and variation of water management systems.

  11. Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidic, Radisav [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This study evaluated the feasibility of using abandoned mine drainage (AMD) as make- up water for the reuse of produced water for hydraulic fracturing. There is an abundance of AMD sources near permitted gas wells as documented in this study that can not only serve as makeup water and reduce the demand on high quality water resources but can also as a source of chemicals to treat produced water prior to reuse. The assessment of AMD availability for this purpose based on proximity and relevant regulations was accompanied by bench- and pilot-scale studies to determine optimal treatment to achieve desired water quality for use in hydraulic fracturing. Sulfate ions that are often present in AMD at elevated levels will react with Ba²⁺ and Sr²⁺ in produced water to form insoluble sulfate compounds. Both membrane microfiltration and gravity separation were evaluated for the removal of solids formed as a result of mixing these two impaired waters. Laboratory studies revealed that neither AMD nor barite formed in solution had significant impact on membrane filtration but that some produced waters contained submicron particles that can cause severe fouling of microfiltration membrane. Coagulation/flocculation was found to be an effective process for the removal of suspended solids and both bench- and pilot-scale studies revealed that optimal process conditions can consistently achieve the turbidity of the finished water below 5 NTU. Adjusting the blending ratio of AMD and produced water can achieve the desired effluent sulfate concentration that can be accurately predicted by chemical thermodynamics. Co-treatment of produced water and AMD will result in elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the solid waste generated in this process due to radium co-precipitation with barium sulfate. Laboratory studies revealed that the mobility of barite that may form in the subsurface due to the presence of sulfate in the fracturing fluid can be

  12. Mixing Corrosion of CaCO3 in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hui


    Full Text Available The methods of aqueous speciation calculation, pH calculation and the solubility (precipitability calculation of CaCO3 were used to study the mixing corrosion of CaCO3 in natural waters. Mixing processes were done between two unsaturated (with CaCO3 solutions, two oversaturated solutions and between an unsaturated solution and an oversaturated solution, respectively. Results show that the mixing corrosion can be divided into two different levels: mixing corrosion in strict sense and mixing corrosion in broad sense. When mixing corrosion occurs, the HCO3- concentration in one end member solution is usually higher than that in the other solution, and the Ca2+ concentration in the former solution is also usually higher than that in the latter one.

  13. Focussing the view on Nature's water-splitting catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messinger, Johannes; Yano, Junko


    About 3 billion years ago Nature invented a catalyst that splits water with highefficiency into molecular oxygen and hydrogen equivalents (protons and electrons). This reaction is energetically driven by sun light and the active centre contains relatively cheap and abundant metals: manganese and calcium. This biological system therefore forms the paradigm for all man made attempts for direct solar fuel production and several studies are underway to determine the electronic and geometric structures of this catalyst. In this report we briefly summarize the problems and the current status of these efforts, and propose a DFT-based strategy for obtaining a reliable high resolution structure of this unique catalyst that includes both the inorganic core and the first ligand sphere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Romanova


    Full Text Available The results of the investigation on the accumulation of cadmium by water hyacinth, depending on the conditions of pollutant exposure and the presence of various additives are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that all the experiments were carried out in natural conditions using the approach based on the application of the capacities called minicosms. It allowed estimating hit consequences of pollutant on ecosystem most really having made experiment in the conditions as much as possible close to the natural. In this article a very important problem of an accuracy and reliability of the results of trace elements determination in plants is also debated. As a result of carried investigations it was shown that the degree of cadmium extraction by hyacinth from contaminated natural water while maintaining the viability of the plants depends on the way of pollutant introducing into the reservoir and the maximum (about 79% value is observed in the case of it’s gradual entry.

  15. Arsenic speciation in natural waters by cathodic stripping voltammetry. (United States)

    Gibbon-Walsh, Kristoff; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G


    Contamination of groundwater with arsenic (As) is a major health risk through contamination of drinking and irrigation water supplies. In geochemically reducing conditions As is mostly present as As(III), its most toxic species. Various methods exist to determine As in water but these are not suitable for monitoring arsenic speciation at its original pH and without preparation. We present a method that uses cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) to determine reactive As(III) at a vibrating, gold, microwire electrode. The As(III) is detected after adsorptive deposition of As(OH)(3)(0), followed by a potential scan to measure the reduction current from As(III) to As(0). The method is suitable for waters of pH 7-12, has an analytical range of 1 nM to 100 microM As (0.07-7500 ppb) and a limit of detection of 0.5 nM with a 60 s deposition time. The As speciation protocol involves measuring reactive As(III) by CSV at the original pH and acidification to pH 1 to determine inorganic As(III)+As(V) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using the same electrode. Total dissolved As is determined by ASV after UV-digestion at pH 1. The method was successfully tested on various raw groundwater samples from boreholes in the UK and West Bengal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Energiekonversion, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)


    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  17. Two Noveland Simple Correlations to Estimate Equilibrium Water Dew Point for Natural Gas Dehydration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Alberto Benitez


    Full Text Available Water is probably the most undesirable component found in crude natural gas because its presence can produce hydrate formation, and it can also lead to corrosion or erosion problems in pipes and equipment. Natural gas must be dehydrated before being transported through a long distance to ensure an efficient and trouble-free operation. Thermodynamic modelling of triethyleneglycol (TEG-water system is still rather inaccurate, especially with regard to systems at high temperature and high TEG concentration. As a consequence, design and operation of absorber towers are affected by the lack of accurate data. Two novel correlations have been developed to estimate the equilibrium water dew point of a natural gas stream by evaluating experimental data and literature. These data were collected and analyzed by means of images scanned with MATLAB software R2012B version. An average percentage error is of 1-2% for linear correlation and it is of 2-3% for non-linear correlation. Results are quite accurate and they are consistent with literature data. Due to the simplicity and precision of the correlations developed in this work, the equations obtained have a great practical value. Consequently, they allow process engineers to perform a quick check of the water dew point at different conditions without using complex expressions or graphics.

  18. Chemosensory deprivation in juvenile coho salmon exposed to dissolved copper under varying water chemistry conditions. (United States)

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Baldwin, David H; Meador, James P; Scholz, Nathaniel L


    Dissolved copper is an important nonpoint source pollutant in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Copper is neurotoxic to fish and is specifically known to interfere with the normal function of the peripheral olfactory nervous system. However,the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of copper to olfactory sensory neurons is not well understood. Here we used electrophysiological recordings from the olfactory epithelium of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to investigate the impacts of copper in freshwaters with different chemical properties. In low ionic strength artificial fresh water, a short-term (30 min) exposure to 20 microg/L dissolved copper reduced the olfactory response to a natural odorant (10(-5) M L-serine) by 82%. Increasing water hardness (0.2-1.6 mM Ca) or alkalinity (0.2-3.2 mM HCO3-) only slightly diminished the inhibitory effects of copper. Moreover, the loss of olfactory function was not affected by a change in pH from 8.6 to 7.6. By contrast, olfactory capacity was partially restored by increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 0.1-6.0 mg/L). Given the range of natural water quality conditions in the western United States, water hardness and alkalinity are unlikelyto protect threatened or endangered salmon from the sensory neurotoxicity of copper. However, the olfactory toxicity of copper may be partially reduced in surface waters that have a high DOC content.

  19. Stability analysis on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Peter


    The purpose of the study is a stability analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor concept. A fluid dynamics code, DYNOS, was developed and successfully validated against FRIGG and DESIRE data and a stability benchmark on the Ringhals 1 forced circulation BWR. Three simplified desings were considered in the analysis: The SWRIOOO by Siemens and the SBWR and ESBWR from the General Electric Co. For all three design operational characteristics, i.e. power versus flow rate maps, were calculated. The effects which different geometric and operational parameters, such as the riser height, inlet subcooling etc., have on the characteristics have been investigated. Dynamic simulations on the three simplified design revealed the geysering and the natural circulation oscillations modes only. They were, however, only encountered at pressure below 0.6 MPa. Stability maps for all tree simplified BWRs were calculated and plotted. The study concluded that a fast pressurisation of the reactor vessel is necessary to eliminate the possibility of geysering or natural circulation oscillations mode instability. (au) 26 tabs., 88 ills.

  20. Natural Convection and Boiling for Cooling SRP Reactors During Loss of Circulation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.


    This study investigated natural convection and boiling as a means of cooling SRP reactors in the event of a loss of circulation accident. These studies show that single phase natural convection cooling of SRP reactors in shutdown conditions with the present piping geometry is probably not feasible.

  1. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters (United States)

    Paerl, Hans


    Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2) to ammonia (NH 3), is a microbially mediated process by which “new” N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another. N 2-fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the “oxygen problem”; however, none of these allows N 2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of “new” N by N 2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial) play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls) as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N 2 to ammonia (NH 3) is a  microbially-mediated process by which “new” nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in

  2. Sea/Lake Water Air Conditioning at Naval Facilities. (United States)



  3. Degradation of toxaphene in water during anaerobic and aerobic conditions. (United States)

    LacayoR, M; van Bavel, B; Mattiasson, B


    The degradation of technical toxaphene in water with two kinds of bioreactors operating in sequence was studied. One packed bed reactor was filled with Poraver (foam glass particles) running at anaerobic conditions and one suspended carrier biofilm reactor working aerobically. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen, total toxaphene and specific toxaphene isomers were measured. After 6 weeks approx. 87% of the total toxaphene was degraded reaching 98% by week 39. The majority of the conversion took place in the anaerobic reactor. The concentrations of toxaphene isomers with more chlorine substituents decreased more rapidly than for isomers with less chlorine substituents.

  4. Separation and determination of dimethylarsenate in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Issa Nureddin


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of dimethylarsenate DMAs(V was developed in this work. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE resin and iron-oxide coated hybrid (HY resin were tested. By simple adjusting pH value of water at 7.00, DMAs(V passed through the HY column without any changes, while all other arsenic species [inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonate, MMAs(V] were quantitatively bonded on HY resin. The resin capacity was calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.00 the HY resins bonded more than 4150 μg g-1 of As(III, 3500 μg g-1 of As(V and 1500 μg g1 of MMAs(V. Arsenic adsorption behavior in the presence of impurities showed tolerance with the respect to potential interference of anions commonly found in natural water. DMAs(V was determined in the effluent by ICP-MS. The detection limit was 0.03 μg L?1 and relative standard deviation (RSD was between 1.1?7.5 %. Proposed method was established performing standard procedures: with external standard, certified reference material and the standard addition method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria


    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.


    In this paper, what is known about the transformation of chromium in the subsurface is explored. This is an attempt to identify conditions where it is most likely to occur, and describe soil tests that can assist in determining the likelihood of natural attenuation of Cr(VI) in s...

  7. Naturalness judgments by lay Americans: Process dominates content in judgments of food or water acceptability and naturalness



    This study directly tests the hypothesis that, at least within the domains of food and drink for Americans, the judgment of naturalness has more to do with the history of an object, that is the processes that it has undergone, as opposed to its material content. Individuals rate the naturalness and acceptability of a natural entity (water or tomato paste), that same entity with a first transformation in which a natural substance is added (or some part removed), and then a second transformatio...

  8. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature (United States)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.


    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  9. A theoretical model of virtual water trade under increasing water scarcity conditions (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Pande, Saket


    This paper proposes a virtual water trade model to obtain a better understanding of how hydro-climatic change affects societies through changes in virtual water trade. In previous studies it has been shown that global trade patterns can be influenced by water scarcity and vice-versa. The extent to which this relationship holds is still a topic under discussion. With the model introduced in this paper, the dynamics behind these trade patterns are further explored. First, a model is constructed of a society suffering from an increase in water scarcity. This model is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. In order to incorporate the effects of globalization and trade, the model has been extended to a toy model of virtual water trade between two societies. The two societies are represented by overlapping generations models. The individuals of each generation provide the labour needed for the production of the composite goods. In addition to this labour, water and technology are also incorporated as factors of production. There are two goods being produced; one is labour intensive and the other water intensive. Trade emerges from the principle of comparative advantage, with differences in labour-abundance and water resources availability between the two societies. Using this model of two societies interconnected by trade, it is examined how trade of water-intensive commodities alters under changing scarcity conditions. In particular we explore the conditions under which trade emerges, and to what extent. Furthermore, we present the conditions for the sustainable development within these two societies.

  10. Determination of iron in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Simple methods for the determination of Fe in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS are suggested. The results of the investigation of selectivity of the proposed AAS method proved that this procedure is not affected by high concentrations of other metals. The calibration graph for iron was linear at levels near the detection limit up to at least 0.10 mg ml-1. For the determination of microamounts of iron in mineral waters, an extraction AAS technique was developed. Iron was retained as Fe-8-oxyquinoline complex and extracted into chloroform. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the iron complex were determined. The AAS method was applied to the determination of Fe in mineral waters and natural waters from different areas of Lithuania. The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated in comparison with a photometric method. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure could be successfully applied for the analysis of water samples with satisfactory accuracy.

  11. Effect of coagulation and flocculation conditions on water quality in an immersed ultrafiltration process. (United States)

    Walsh, M E; Zhao, N; Gora, S L; Gagnon, G A


    The removal of natural organic matter under variable coagulation and flocculation pretreatment conditions was evaluated for three surface waters in an immersed ultrafiltration (UF) process. Coagulation with alum, flocculation and UF treatment were conducted in a bench-scale test apparatus designed to simulate pilot- and full-scale water treatment systems. Variable coagulation and flocculation operating conditions were investigated, including coagulant dose, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and mixing intensity (e.g. velocity gradient). Treatment performance was evaluated by measuring specific water quality parameters in the permeate stream, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and true colour. Coagulant dose was found to be the most important variable for treatment performance with regard to permeate water quality, with significantly lower alum dosages required to achieve enhanced coagulation water quality targets than conventional filtration systems. Experiments conducted to evaluate variable flocculation stage HRT and applied velocity gradient demonstrated that traditional set points for these operating variables, applied in conventional filtration systems, may not be required in UF systems. In particular, optimized UF permeate water quality was found with reduced flocculation retention times (e.g. process tank during operation was also evaluated. The use of air scour, tested as an intermittent operation at an applied velocity gradient of 50 s(-1) was found to significantly reduce DOC concentrations and UV254 measurements in the UF permeate stream when compared with UF operations without air scour.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Degradation of water quality caused by an anthropogenic influence is a problem which is present even at some special nature reserves (SNRs in the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The aim of this paper is to present results of preliminary research on water quality on three SNRs. Whereas in the SNR Ludaško jezero (Ludaš Lake and in the SNR Obedska bara (Obedska Pond serious euthropic processes are present due to agricultural runoff and untreated wastewater, the SNR Stari Begej – Carska bara (Old Bega River - Imperial Pond is under the potential influences of fish farms and agriculture. The monitoring conducted in spring/summer period and in autumn in all SNR included water sampling on several locations within each SNR. The analyses included basic water quality parameters, water mineralization and microbiological analyses. Both, water quality and microbiological results have proven highly eutrophic status of the SNR Ludaško jezero and significant difference in salinity in the north and in the south of the lake. The results on the other two investigated SNRs are a bit better indicating moderate eutrophic conditions, except for autumn sampling at SNR Stari Begej-Carska bara when serious deterioration of water quality was determined.

  13. Natural solar photolysis of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in water. (United States)

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Hua, Guanghui


    Municipal wastewater has been increasingly used to augment drinking water supplies due to the growing water scarcity. Wastewater-derived disinfection byproducts (DBPs) may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and human health of downstream communities during water reuse. The objective of this research was to determine the degradation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) in water by natural sunlight irradiation. Outdoor solar photolysis experiments were performed to investigate photolytic degradation of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by fulvic acid and real water and wastewater samples. The results showed that TOX degradation by sunlight irradiation followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives in the range of 2.6-10.7 h for different TOX compounds produced by fulvic acid. The TOX degradation rates were generally in the order of TOI > TOBr ≅ TOCl(NH2Cl) > TOCl(Cl2). High molecular weight TOX was more susceptible to solar photolysis than corresponding low molecular weight halogenated compounds. The nitrate and sulfite induced indirect TOX photolysis rates were less than 50% of the direct photolysis rates under the conditions of this study. Fulvic acid and turbidity in water reduced TOX photodegradation. These results contribute to a better understanding of the fate of chlorinated, brominated and iodinated DBPs in surface waters.

  14. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.


    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  15. Optical backscattering properties of the "clearest" natural waters

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    M. S. Twardowski


    depths between 300 and 350 m, from 23.5° S, 118° W to 26° S, 114° W, where total backscattering at 650 nm was not distinguishable from pure seawater; – Distributions of particulate backscattering bbp across the central gyre exhibited a broad particle peak centered ~100 m;
    – The particulate backscattering ratio typically ranged between 0.4% and 0.6% through the majority of the central gyre from the surface to ~210 m, indicative of "soft" water-filled particles with low bulk refractive index; and
    bbp at 532 and 650 nm showed a distinct secondary deeper layer centered ~230 m that was absent in particulate attenuation cp data. The particulate backscattering ratio was significantly higher in this layer than in the rest of the water column, reaching 1.2% in some locations. This high relative backscattering, along with the pigment composition and ecological niche of this layer, appear to be consistent with the coccolithophorid F. profunda.

    Moreover, results were consistent with several expectations extrapolated from theory and previous work in oceanic and coastal regions, supporting the conclusion that particulate and total backscattering could be resolved in these extremely clear natural waters.

  16. Optical backscattering properties of the "clearest" natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Twardowski


    , 118° W to 26° S, 114° W, where total backscattering at 650 nm was not distinguishable from pure seawater;
    –Distributions of particulate backscattering bbp across the central gyre exhibited a broad particle peak centered ~100 m;
    –The particulate backscattering ratio typically ranged between 0.4% and 0.6% at 650 nm through the majority of the central gyre from the surface to ~210 m, indicative of "soft" water-filled particles with low bulk refractive index; and
    – bbp showed a distinct secondary deeper layer centered ~230 m that was absent in particulate attenuation cp data. The particulate backscattering ratio was significantly higher in this layer than in the rest of the water column, reaching 1.2% in some locations. This high relative backscattering, along with the pigment composition and ecological niche of this layer, appear to be consistent with the coccolithophorid Florisphaera profunda.

    Moreover, results were consistent with several expectations extrapolated from theory and previous work in oceanic and coastal regions, supporting the conclusion that particulate and total backscattering could be resolved in these extremely clear natural waters.

  17. Experimental study of Ni solubility in sulphidic groundwater and cement water under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U.; Kekki, T.; Aalto, H. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The nickel solubility was studied during a 177-day period under anoxic conditions in three types of waters: a synthetic reference groundwater (OL-SR), a natural Olkiluoto groundwater (PVA2), and a cement-conditioned groundwater (C-PVA2). To each water, nickel, ferrous iron and sulphide were added yielding eight combinations of, approximately, the following initial concentrations: nickel: 1.0x10{sup -6} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L, ferrous iron: 1.8 10{sup -6} and 1.8x10{sup -5} mol/L, and sulphide: 3.1x10{sup -6} and 9.4x10{sup -5} mol/L. The concentrations of these elements in the natural groundwater PVA2 as well as in the cement-conditioned water C-PVA2 was insignificant. In the synthetic water, the nickel concentration was unchanged in all samples having a high initial nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -3} mol/L. In the samples with an initial low nickel concentration of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, the sulphide content determined the final nickel concentration. Where the initial sulphide concentration was low, the nickel concentration remained at the level of 1.0x10{sup -6} mol/L, but the higher sulphide concentration caused the nickel concentration to drop to below 10{sup -8} mol/L. In the natural groundwater PVA2, the nickel concentration dropped to below 10{sup -4} mol/L in all samples with an initially high nickel concentration, and to values of roughly 10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with an initially low nickel content. In the cement-conditioned water, the nickel concentration reached a value of 3x10{sup -6} mol/L in samples with initial high nickel concentrations, and to a value of 1x10{sup -7} mol/L in samples with a low initial nickel content. The added amounts of iron and sulphide did not have any significant effect on the observed nickel solubility. The solid phases formed in the natural and synthetic groundwater were analyzed by XRD but could not be identified. In the case of cement-conditioned water the XRD analyses showed the presence of Ni(OH){sub 2} as well


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA


    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frog Boris Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available Whenever environmental pollution by sulphur compounds is under discussion, the latter contemplate those compounds that may be subjected to consideration through the employment of methods of analytical control. First of all, sulphates and volatile compounds of partially or completely restored sulphur, such as SO2, H2S, methyl sulphur compounds (merkaptans, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and others may be subjected to control. Elementary sulphur that is contained in the water is difficult to analyze. At the same time, an extensive group of water-soluble compounds of restored sulphur is not considered by numerous nature protection organizations. As a rule, they do not possess distinct analytical properties. The latter include any organic and inorganic thio-acids and their combinations with ions of transitive metals, in particular, with ions of monovalent copper. Microcolloidal (nano- particles of FeS may also be included into this group of compounds. The objective of the article is to generate the awareness of those compounds of reduced sulphur that are out of control. By virtue of this article, the authors apply to specialists in water treatment, water conditioning and water quality regulation.

  20. Imbalance of Water as an Example of Fundamental Imbalance of Nature. (United States)

    Nechayev, A.


    Water is one of the main attributes of the world around us. Turning into ice or water vapor it controls a wide range of natural phenomena. It is one of the most moving substances of Earth and in it as in a mirror all imbalance of the Nature reflects. The laws that govern the water are above all the laws of classical physics, laws of motion and conservation. They determine an equilibrium state and out of it when the balance of forces, flows and energy is disturbed. Volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, hurricane or tornado formation are the extreme form of imbalance of Nature. Unfortunately they are involved in it as a genetic feature. Mass and energy flows pervade the natural world. The structure of the space makes them come into conflict. Internal stress increase, there is an imbalance resulting in the fast, catastrophic events. Whether it is possible to understand the reasons of similar imbalance and to find its critical conditions? The water in their states shows the most striking examples of imbalance of Nature. If the equilibrium of forces and flows is disturbed the nature of movement can fundamentally change. The dependence of the total flux I flowing through the structure of the pressure drop Δp causing this flow can serve as an important informative characteristic for the imbalance phenomena connected with water. This «flow - forcing» characteristic I(Δp) qualitatively changes its form with changes of so-called bifurcation parameter. From monotonous it can become S- or N-shaped. The approach to the analysis of Nature imbalance phenomenon can be illustrated by geyser eruption mechanism which is theoretically described in (Nechayev, 2012). One-dimensional motion of water flow in the geyser conduit obeys the Navier-Stokes equation. The influx of masses of water vapor due to water boiling in an underground chamber creates increasing overpressure. Bifurcation parameter is the volume of this chamber. There is a critical value of this volume (as compared

  1. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the

  2. Storage of natural water samples and preservation techniques for pharmaceutical quantification. (United States)

    Mompelat, S; Jaffrezic, A; Jardé, E; Le Bot, B


    In order to perform a human and ecological risk assessment of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in natural waters, it is necessary to accurately quantify a broad variety of PPs at low concentrations. Although numerous currently implemented analytical methodologies, less is known about the preservation of PPs in natural water samples within the period before analysis (holding time, storage conditions). This paper is the first literature review about the stability of PPs in natural waters (surface and groundwaters) during sample storage. The current work focuses on a comparison of the performances of the available preservation techniques (filtration, container materials, storage temperature, preservative agents, etc.) for PPs in samples. All 58 reviewed PPs may be successfully stabilized during 7 days in surface waters by at least one appropriate methodology regarding temperature, acidic and non-acidic preservatives. When temperature is not a sufficient preservation parameter for some PPs (hormones and fluoxetine) its combination with the addition of chemical agents into the samples may prolong the integrity of the PPs during storage in surface water. There is a strong need to use standard protocols to assess and compare the stability of PPs in environmental water matrices during storage as well as during analytical preparation or analysis (European criteria 2002/657/EC). Since the stability of PPs during sample storage is a critical parameter that could call into question the quality of the data provided for the concentrations, the design of stability studies should rigorously take into account all critical parameters that could impact the concentrations of the PPs with time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez


    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  4. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei


    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  5. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez (Lauraceae seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA. Pires

    Full Text Available The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 ºC, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 ºC and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 ºC. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor.

  6. Influence of the initial state of carbon nanotubes on their colloidal stability under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwyzer, Irene [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura [Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Magrez, Arnaud [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)


    The colloidal stability of dry and suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of amphiphilic compounds (i.e. natural organic matter or surfactants) at environmentally realistic concentrations was investigated over several days. The suspensions were analyzed for CNT concentration (UV-vis spectroscopy), particle size (nanoparticle tracking analysis), and CNT length and dispersion quality (TEM). When added in dry form, around 1% of the added CNTs remained suspended. Pre-dispersion in organic solvent or anionic detergent stabilized up to 65% of the added CNTs after 20 days of mild shaking and 5 days of settling. The initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. suspended) and the medium composition hence are critical determinants for the partitioning of CNTs between sediment and the water column. TEM analysis revealed that single suspended CNTs were present in all suspensions and that shaking and settling resulted in a fractionation of the CNTs with shorter CNTs remaining predominantly in suspension. - Highlights: > Individually suspended CNTs are present under environment relevant conditions. > The number of suspended CNTs varies depending on the medium composition. > Surfactants at environmental concentrations have no suspending effect on dry CNTs. > Pre-dispersed CNTs are more stable in suspension than dry CNTs. - The colloidal stability of CNTs varies a lot depending on the initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. pre-dispersed), the applied dispersant for pre-suspension, and the composition of the medium.

  7. Experimental study of critical heat flux enhancement with hypervapotron structure under natural circulation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Fangxin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Chang, Huajian [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Zhao, Yufeng, E-mail: [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Zhang, Ming; Gao, Tianfang [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Chen, Peipei [State Power Investment Corporation, Beijing (China)


    Highlights: • Natural circulation tests are performed to study the effect of hypervapotron on CHF. • Hypervapotron structure improves CHF under natural circulation conditions. • Visualization data illustrate vapor blanket behavior under subcooled flow conditions. - Abstract: The enhancement of critical heat flux with a hypervapotron structure under natural circulation conditions is investigated in this study. Subcooled flow boiling CHF experiments are performed using smooth and hypervapotron surfaces at different inclination angles under natural circulation conditions. The experimental facility, TESEC (Test of External Vessel Surface with Enhanced Cooling), is designed to conduct CHF experiments in a 30 mm by 61 mm rectangular flow channel with a 200 mm long heated surface along the flow direction. The two-phase flow of subcooled flow boiling on both smooth and hypervapotron heating plates is observed and analyzed by the high-speed visualization technology. The results show that both smooth surface and hypervapotron surface CHF data exhibit a similar trend against inclination angles compared with the CHF results under forced flow condition on the same facility in earlier studies. However, the CHF enhancement of the hypervapotron structure is evidently more significant than the one under forced flow conditions. The experiments also indicate that the natural flow rates are higher with hypervapotron structure. The initiation of CHF is analyzed under transient subcooling and flow rate conditions for both smooth and hypervapotron heating surfaces. An explanation is given for the significant enhancement effect caused by the hypervapotron surface under natural circulation conditions. The visualization data are exhibited to demonstrate the behavior of the vapor blanket at various inclination angles and on different surfaces. The geometric data of the vapor blanket are quantified by an image post-processing method. It is found that the thickness of the vapor blanket

  8. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York (United States)

    Soren, Julian


    Queens County is a heavily populated borough of New York City, at the western end of Long Island, N. Y., in which large amounts of ground water are used, mostly for public supply. Ground water, pumped from local aquifers, by privately owned water-supply companies, supplied the water needs of about 750,000 of the nearly 2 million residents of the county in 1967; the balance was supplied by New York City from surface sources outside the county in upstate New York. The county's aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Late Cretaceous and of Pleistocene ages, and the aquifers comprise a wedge-shaped ground-water reservoir lying on a southeastward-sloping floor of Precambrian(?) bedrock. Beds of clay and silt generally confine water in the deeper parts of the reservoir; water in the deeper aquifers ranges from poorly confined to well confined. Wisconsin-age glacial deposits in the uppermost part of the reservoir contain ground water under water-table conditions. Ground water pumpage averaged about 60 mgd (million gallons per day) in Queens County from about 1900 to 1967. Much of the water was used in adjacent Kings County, another borough of New York City, prior to 1950. The large ground-water withdrawal has resulted in a wide-spread and still-growing cone of depression in the water table, reflecting a loss of about 61 billion gallons of fresh water from storage. Significant drawdown of the water table probably began with rapid urbanization of Queens County in the 1920's. The county has been extensively paved, and storm and sanitary sewers divert water, which formerly entered the ground, to tidewater north and south of the county. Natural recharge to the aquifers has been reduced to about one half of the preurban rate and is below the withdrawal rate. Ground-water levels have declined more than 40. feet from the earliest-known levels, in 1903, to 1967, and the water table is below sea level in much of the county. The aquifers are being contaminated by the movement of

  9. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson


    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  10. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  11. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations on leaf carbon assimilation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, I.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Robson, T. M.; Cano, F. J.; Alte, L.; Sanchez-Gomez, D.


    Limitations to diffusion and biochemical factors affecting leaf carbon uptake were analyzed in young beech seedlings (Fagus sylvtica L.) growing in natural gaps of a beech-wood at the southern limit of the species. Half of the seedlings received periodic watering in addition to natural rainfall to reduce the severity of the summer drought. Plant water status was evaluated by measuring predawn water potential. Basic biochemical parameters were inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-CO{sub 2} curves (A-C{sub c}) under saturating light. The curves were established on three dates during the summer months. The main variables studied included: stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO{sub 2} (g{sub s} and g{sub m} respectively), maximum velocity of carboxylation (V{sub c}max) and maximum electron transport capacity (J{sub m}ax). The gm was estimated by two methodologies: the curve-fitting and J constant methods. Seedlings withstood moderate water stress, as the leaf predawn water potential ({Psi}{sub p}d) measured during the study was within the range -0.2 to -0.5 MPa. Mild drought caused gs and gm to decrease only slightly in response to {Psi}{sub p}d. However both diffusional parameters explained most of the limitations to CO{sub 2} uptake. In addition, it should be highlighted that biochemical limitations, prompted by V{sub c}max and J{sub m}ax, were related mainly to ontogenic factors, without any clear relationship with drought under the moderate water stress experienced by beech seedlings through the study. The results may help to further understanding of the functional mechanisms influencing the carbon fixation capacity of beech seedlings under natural conditions. (Author) 68 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh


    Full Text Available Composites of flour from different lignocellulosic sources with high-density polyethylene were prepared, and their water absorption and flexural properties were studied. Flour samples from loblolly pine, hybrid Euro-American poplar, and wheat straw were mixed with the polymer at 35 wt % lignocellulosics content and either zero or 2% compatibilizer. Water absorption tests were carried out on injection-molded specimens for temperatures of 30, 45, 60, and 75°C. Results indicated a significant difference among different lignocellulosic types, of which wheat straw composites exhibited the highest and the pine composites showed the lowest water absorption values. The composites with 2% MAPE showed lower water absorption compare to the composites without MAPE. This indicates that the compatibilizer plays an important role to repel the water molecules. For all four temperature conditions, rising temperature increased water absorption significantly. Composites with poplar had the highest flexural strength and modulus. Adding compatibilizer to the composites boosted the flexural properties by improving the adhesion between natural filler and the polymer matrix.

  13. Prediction of natural gas hydrate formation region in wellbore during deep- water gas well testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yuan; SUN Bao-jiang; WANG Xue-rui; ZHANG Zhen-nan


    Wellbore temperature field equations are established with considerations of the enthalpy changes of the natural gas during the deep-water gas well testing. A prediction method for the natural gas hydrate formation region during the deep-water gas well testing is proposed, which combines the wellbore temperature field equations, the phase equilibrium conditions of the natural gas hydrate formation and the calculation methods for the pressure field. Through the sensitivity analysis of the parameters that affect the hydrate formation region, it can be concluded that during the deep-water gas well testing, with the reduction of the gas production rate and the decrease of the geothermal gradient, along with the increase of the depth of water, the hydrate formation region in the wellbore enlarges, the hydrate formation regions differ with different component contents of natural gases, as compared with the pure methane gas, with the increase of ethane and propane, the hydrate formation region expands, the admixture of inhibitors, the type and the concentrations of which can be optimized through the method proposed in the paper, will reduce the hydrate formation region, the throttling effect will lead to the abrupt changes of temperature and pressure, which results in a variation of the hydrate formation region, if the throttling occurs in the shallow part of the wellbore, the temperature will drop too much, which enlarges the hydrate formation region, otherwise, if the throttling occurs in the deep part of the wellbore, the hydrate formation region will be reduced due to the decrease of the pressure.

  14. Nanofiltration processes applied to the removal of phenyl-ureas in natural waters. (United States)

    Benítez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; García, Carolina


    Four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, diuron, chlortoluron and isoproturon) dissolved in a commercial mineral water and in reservoir water were subjected to nanofiltration (NF) processes in cross-flow laboratory equipment with recycling of the retentate stream. Three NF membranes of different nature, with molecual weigth cut-off (MWCO) in the range 150-300 Da, were used. The hydraulic permeabilities of the membranes were determined from filtration experiments of ultra-pure (UP) water. In the NF of the synthetic waters, the permeate fluxes were evaluated, the influence of the main operating conditions (transmembrane pressure, temperature, and MWCO of the membranes) on the steady-state permeate fluxes was established, and the different resistances found in the system, which are responsible of the flux declines, were deduced. The retention coefficients for each herbicide were also evaluated and discussed in view of the nature and characteristics of herbicides and membranes. Finally, the herbicides mass adsorbed on the membranes were also determined and the contribution of the adsorption mechanism to the global retention is pointed out.

  15. Pesticides water decontamination in oxygen-limited conditions. (United States)

    Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Ferrari, Federico; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Merli, Annalisa; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco


    This study was undertaken to develop a laboratory bioreactor, with a functioning principle similar with that of biobed systems but working in oxygen-limited conditions, suitable for decontaminating wastewater mixtures with pesticides. The system is composed by two cylindrical plastic containers. The first one, where the pesticides solution is collected, is open, whereas the second one, where the biomass is disposed, is closed. The pesticides solution was pumped at the biomass surface and subsequently recollected and disposed in the first container. Four pesticides with different physical-chemical characteristics were tested. The results obtained showed a relatively good capacity of the developed prototype to decontaminate waste water containing the mixture of pesticides. The time of the experiment, the number of cycles that the solution made in the system and the environmental temperature have a significantly influence for the decontamination of acetochlor and chlorpyrifos whereas for the decontamination of terbuthylazine and metalaxyl no significant influence was observed. Even if the present prototype could represent a valid solution to manage the water pesticides residues in a farm and to increase the confidence of bystanders and residents, the practical difficulties when replacing the biomass could represent a limit of the system.

  16. Reaction Behaviors of Glycine under Super- and Subcritical Water Conditions (United States)

    Alargov, Dimitar K.; Deguchi, Shigeru; Tsujii, Kaoru; Horikoshi, Koki


    The influence of temperature and pressure on the dimerization and decomposition of glycine under simulated hydrothermal system conditions was studied by injecting a glycine solution into water in the sub- and supercritical state. The experiments at five different temperatures of supplied water - 250, 300, 350, 374, and 400 °C - were performed at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa. At 350 °C, experiments under 15.0-40.0 MPa were conducted. Diglycine, triglycine (trace), diketopiperazine, and an unidentified product with a high molecular mass (433 Da) were the main products of oligomerization. The results show that temperature and pressure influence the extent of dimerization and decomposition of glycine. The maximum of dimers formation was observed at 350 and 375 °C at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa, respectively, and coincided with a high rate of glycine decomposition. Glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, as well as other amino acids, were obtained by injecting a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia. The results support the oligomerization and synthesis of amino acids in a submarine hydrothermal system.

  17. The origin of speciation: Trace metal kinetics over natural water/sediment interfaces and the consequences for bioaccumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.


    The speciation of heavy metals was measured over a variety of natural and undisturbed water/sediment interfaces. Simultaneously, two benthic species (oligochaete Limnodrilus spp. and the midge Chironomus riparius) were exposed to these sediments. Under occurring redox conditions, free ion activities

  18. The origin of speciation: Trace metal kinetics over natural water/sediment interfaces and the consequences for bioaccumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.


    The speciation of heavy metals was measured over a variety of natural and undisturbed water/sediment interfaces. Simultaneously, two benthic species (oligochaete Limnodrilus spp. and the midge Chironomus riparius) were exposed to these sediments. Under occurring redox conditions, free ion activities

  19. Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops. (United States)

    Foote, N E; Davis, T S; Crowder, D W; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D


    In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. A man-induced landslide in Lower Austria: natural conditions versus man-made causes (United States)

    Kittel, Roland; Ottner, Franz; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit


    In many cases, composition and characteristics of hillslope sediments are of particular importance related to landslide research in low mountain areas. The interaction of geologic, geomorphologic, and hydrologic factors determines the susceptibility for mass movements, which is affected by human impact as well. The present study aims to investigate factors that control mass movements and natural and anthropogenic impacts. On March 8th 2009, a landslide of 30.000 to 50.000 m³ occurred that destroyed a large part of a sports ground in the village of Hintersdorf, municipality of St. Andrä-Wördern (Lower Austria). As a result of extensive water supply ground liquefaction was initiated and the slide mass moved in form of a mud flow about 200 m down slope. As a consequence a small forest area and a fishpond were destroyed and an adjacent road was damaged. Closely to the event, first studies started and showed that the Hintersdorf landslide was triggered by extensive water saturation combined with hydrostatic pressure inside the slide mass. Heavy and long-lasting rainfalls and the start of snowmelt caused strong seepage and soil water saturation. Furthermore, insufficient ground drainage and overflow of a small retention pond intensified the unfavourable impact on soil-mechanical stability. Further studies included archive data analyse, field survey, as well as laboratory analyse and showed that high landslide susceptibility at the Hintersdorf landslide site was caused by a bundle of factors that control the process: The sports ground was built nearby the head of a trough valley that collects interflow and surface run-off from the surrounding slopes. The Flysch bedrock is covered extensively by clayey slope deposits. Furthermore, in the area of the valley head a waste deposit was operated up to the 1980's that resulted in a thick waste filling there. The Hintersdorf sports ground was constructed in 1984 on top of the waste body. Preliminary results show that hillslope

  1. In field arsenic removal from natural water by zero-valent iron assisted by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Laboratorio de Investigaciones Medioambientales de Zonas Aridas, LIMZA, Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, CIHDE, Arica (Chile)], E-mail:; Lienqueo, Hugo; Arenas, Maria [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Acarapi, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Laboratorio de Investigaciones Medioambientales de Zonas Aridas, LIMZA, Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, CIHDE, Arica (Chile); Contreras, David; Yanez, Jorge; Mansilla, Hector D. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile)


    An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated water is presented. The method is based in the use of steel wool, lemon juice and solar radiation. The method was evaluated using water from the Camarones River, Atacama Desert in northern Chile, in which the arsenic concentration ranges between 1000 and 1300 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Response surface method analysis was used to optimize the amount of zero-valent iron (steel wool) and the citrate concentration (lemon juice) to be used. The optimal conditions when using solar radiation to remove arsenic from natural water from the Camarones river are: 1.3 g L{sup -1} of steel wool and one drop (ca. 0.04 mL) of lemon juice. Under these conditions, removal percentages are higher than 99.5% and the final arsenic concentration is below 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}. This highly effective arsenic removal method is easy to use and inexpensive to implement. - An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated waters by using zero-valent iron, citrate and solar radiation was developed.

  2. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.


    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  3. The therapeutic effect of carbogaseous natural mineral waters in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinteza Delia


    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome is a complex of metabolic disturbances that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Entity includes: dyslipidemia (altered lipid profile, with increasing levels of serum triglycerides and low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis, high blood sugar (diabetes type II or increased insulin resistance, hypertension, abdominal obesity syndrome, proinflammatory, prothrombotic syndrome. In the last 20 years, there was a continuous increase in individuals suffering from this syndrome, the cause remains unknown, but several studies also claim that it is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Of environmental factors, diet low in micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium seems to be an essential contributor element (Feldsein et al, 2007, Cidalia Pereira et al, 2011. Decreased intake of sodium and increased intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, proposed by Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - DASH diet (Van Leer et al 1995, Meigl et al 2008 leads to optimized blood pressure. Even in the absence of increased sodium intake, low levels of magnesium in the blood and cells can induce in some conditions, hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance or completely metabolic syndrom.Among the methods proposed to correct dietary intake of micronutrients, natural mineral water, often very complex in terms of chemical composition and versatile in terms of the intended effect is one handy, safe and simple.Although used in order to preserve the health from ancient times, scientific studies proving natural mineral water effects on the human body takes place only since the twentieth century. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of deep water filtering through volcanic soils, which contain CO2, carbon dioxide, thus obtained, will help dissolve other elements contained in the soil layers

  4. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues (United States)

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  5. On the interdisciplinary nature of water-related programs in American public universities (United States)

    Li, F.; Du, C. L.


    This paper presents a research on the interdisciplinary nature of 167 water-related programs in 46 selected American public universities. Using keyword coding and Classification method, and the results show that water-related disciplines largely focus on environment, natural resources, engineering, ocean and agricultural studies, which are all applied disciplines. Moreover, water-related disciplines lay great emphasis on the interdisciplinary research and research platforms construction with the research fields of environment, natural resources and agricultural.

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Emporia- Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988 (United States)

    Myers, N.C.; Bigsby, P.R.


    Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the Emporia-Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, were investigated from April 1988 through April 1989. Potentiometric-surface maps indicated groundwater movement from the northeast and northwest towards the landfill and then south through the landfill to the Cottonwood River. The maps indicate that during periods of low groundwater levels, groundwater flows northward in the north-west part of the landfill, which may have been induced by water withdrawal from wells north of the landfill or by water ponded in waste lagoons south and west of the landfill. Chemical analysis of water samples from monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient of the landfill indicate calcium bicarbonate to be the dominant water type. No inorganic or organic chemical concentrations exceeded Kansas or Federal primary drinking-water standards. Kansas secondary drinking-water standards were equaled or exceeded, however, in water from some or all wells for total hardness, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese. Water from one upgradient well contained larger concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, and smaller concentrations of bicarbonate, alkalinity, ammonia, arsenic, iron, and manganese as compared to all other monitoring wells. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater quality downgradient of well MW-2 has increased concentrations of some inorganic and organic compounds. Due to the industrial nature of the area and the changing directions of groundwater flow, it is not clear what the source of these compounds might be. Long-term monitoring, additional wells, and access to nearby waste lagoons and waste-lagoon monitoring wells would help define the sources of increased inorganic and organic compounds. (USGS)

  7. Water and chemical budgets in an urbanized river system under various hydrological conditions (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.


    Since historical times, riversides are preferential settlement places for human life and activities, ultimately leading to the development of Cities. Available water resources are not only essential to ensure human's vital functions, they are also used for the production of food, goods, and energy, as transport routes and as evacuation ways for domestic and industrial waste products. All these activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. An extreme example of strongly modified river system is the river Zenne crossing the city of Brussels. In and around the city, the river together with its connected navigation canal, determine a small vertical urbanized area (800 km2) combining extreme land-use landscapes. While the southern upstream part of this area lies in a region of intensive agricultural activities, the central part is occupied by a dense cityscape including a forested area, and the downstream part is mainly under industrial influence. In this context, we established a box-model representation of water and selected polluting chemicals (N and P, biological oxygen demand, and a selection of metals, pesticides and PAHs) budgets for the studied area under variable hydrological conditions. We first have identified the general distribution of water and pollutant tracers in the various background sources of the system: waters in streams located in the very upstream parts of the catchment, and untreated and treated sewage. Secondly we have assessed the distribution of water flows, and pollutant tracer concentrations at the boundaries of the studied water systems for different stable hydrological conditions and during flood events. Finally we will discuss water budgets and pollution tracer budgets for a yearly average hydrological situation and for dry and wet weather conditions in order

  8. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.


    day, which is the largest temperature variability as measured so far in a cold-water coral habitat. Warm events, related to Gulf Stream meanders, had the duration of roughly 1 week and the current during these events was directed to the NNE. The consequences of such events must be significant given the strong effects of temperature on the metabolism of cold-water corals. Furthermore, elevated acoustic backscatter values and high mass fluxes were also recorded during these events, indicating a second stressor that may affect the corals. The abrasive nature of sand in combination with strong currents might sand blast the corals. We conclude that cold-water corals near Cape Lookout live under extreme conditions that limit mound growth at present.

  9. Estimation of natural historical flows for the Manitowish River near Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.; Robertson, Dale M.


    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is charged with oversight of dam operations throughout Wisconsin and is considering modifications to the operating orders for the Rest Lake Dam in Vilas County, Wisconsin. State law requires that the operation orders be tied to natural low flows at the dam. Because the presence of the dam confounds measurement of natural flows, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, installed streamflow-gaging stations and developed two statistical methods to improve estimates of natural flows at the Rest Lake Dam. Two independent methods were used to estimate daily natural flow for the Manitowish River approximately 1 mile downstream of the Rest Lake Dam. The first method was an adjusted drainage-area ratio method, which used a regression analysis that related measured water yield (flow divided by watershed area) from short-term (2009–11) gaging stations upstream of the Manitowish Chain of Lakes to the water yield from two nearby long-term gaging stations in order to extend the flow record (1991–2011). In this approach, the computed flows into the Chain of Lakes at the upstream gaging stations were multiplied by a coefficient to account for the monthly hydrologic contributions (precipitation, evaporation, groundwater, and runoff) associated with the additional watershed area between the upstream gaging stations and the dam at the outlet of the Chain of Lakes (Rest Lake Dam). The second method used to estimate daily natural flow at the Rest Lake Dam was a water-budget approach, which used lake stage and dam outflow data provided by the dam operator. A water-budget model was constructed and then calibrated with an automated parameter-estimation program by matching simulated flow-duration statistics with measured flow-duration statistics at the upstream gaging stations. After calibration of the water-budget model, the model was used to compute natural flow at the dam from 1973 to

  10. Water supply patterns over Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle


    Full Text Available A large ensemble of 24 bias-corrected and uncorrected regional climate model (RCM simulations is used to investigate climate change impacts on water supply patterns over Germany using the seasonal winter and summer Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI based on 6-month precipitation sums. The climate change signal is studied comparing SPI characteristics for the reference period 1971–2000 with those of the "near" (2036–2065 and the "far" (2071–2100 future. The spread of the climate change signal within the simulation ensemble of bias-corrected versus non-corrected data is discussed. Ensemble scenarios are evaluated against available observation-based data over the reference period 1971–2000. After correcting the model biases, the model ensemble underestimates the variability of the precipitation climatology in the reference period, but replicates the mean characteristics. Projections of water supply patterns based on the SPI for the time periods 2036–2065 and 2071–2100 show wetter winter months during both future time periods. As a result soil drying may be delayed to late spring extending into the summer period, which could have an important effect on sensible heat fluxes. While projections indicate wetting in summer during 2036–2065, drier summers are estimated towards the south-west of Germany for the end of the 21st century. The use of the bias correction intensifies the signal to wetter conditions for both seasons and time periods. The spread in the projection of future water supply patterns between the ensemble members is explored, resulting in high spatial differences that suggest a higher uncertainty of the climate change signal in the southern part of Germany. It is shown that the spread of the climate change signals between SPIs based on single ensemble members is twice as large as the difference between the mean climate change signal of SPIs based on bias-corrected and uncorrected precipitation. This implies that the

  11. Numerical simulation and artificial neural network modeling of natural circulation boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Sastry, P.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Pandey, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)]. E-mail:; Dixit, U.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Gupta, S.K. [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    Numerical simulation of natural circulation boiling water reactor is important in order to study its performance for different designs and under various off-design conditions. Numerical simulations can be performed by using thermal-hydraulic codes. Very fast numerical simulations, useful for extensive parametric studies and for solving design optimization problems, can be achieved by using an artificial neural network (ANN) model of the system. In the present work, numerical simulations of natural circulation boiling water reactor have been performed with RELAP5 code for different values of design parameters and operational conditions. Parametric trends observed have been discussed. The data obtained from these simulations have been used to train artificial neural networks, which in turn have been used for further parametric studies and design optimization. The ANN models showed error within {+-}5% for all the simulated data. Two most popular methods, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) networks, have been used for the training of ANN model. Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) has been used for optimization.

  12. Competitive effects on mercury removal by an agricultural waste: application to synthetic and natural spiked waters. (United States)

    Rocha, Luciana S; Lopes, Cláudia B; Henriques, Bruno; Tavares, Daniela S; Borges, J A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda


    In this work, the efficiency of a local and highly, available agricultural waste, the raw rice husk, was used to remove mercury (Hg) from synthetic and natural waters, spiked with concentrations that reflect the contamination problems found in the environment. Different operating conditions were tested, including initial pH, ionic strength, the presence of co-ions (cadmium) and organic matter. The sorption efficiency of rice husk was slightly affected by the presence H+ ions (pH range between 3 and 9), but in the presence of NaNO3 and NaCl electrolytes and in binary solutions containing Cd2+ and H2+, the sorption efficiency was dependent on the nature and levels of the interfering ion and on the initial concentration of Hg+ used. Nevertheless, in a situation of equilibrium the effect of those ions was negligible and the removal efficiency ranged between 82% and 94% and between 90% and 96% for an initial Hg2+ concentration of 0.05 mg L(-1) and 0.50 mg L(-1), respectively. In more complex matrices, i.e. in the presence ofhumic substances and in natural river waters, the speciation and dynamics of Hg was changed and a fraction of the metal becomes unavailable in solution. Even then, the values obtained for Hg removal were satisfactory, i.e. between 59% and 76% and 81% and 85% for an initial concentration of Hg2+ of 0.05 and 0.50 mg L(-1), respectively.

  13. Determination of humic substances in natural waters by cathodic stripping voltammetry of their complexes with iron. (United States)

    Laglera, Luis M; Battaglia, Gianluca; van den Berg, Constant M G


    A new voltammetric method is presented for the measurement of humic substances (HS) in natural waters. The method is based on catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) and makes use of adsorptive properties of iron-HS complexes on the mercury drop electrode at natural pH. A fulvic acid standard (IHSS) was used to confirm the voltammetric response (peak potential and sensitivity) for the HS for natural water samples. Optimized conditions included the linear-sweep mode, deposition at -0.1 V, pH buffered at 8 and a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1). At a deposition time of 240 s in the presence of 10 nM iron and 30 mM bromate, the detection limit was 5 microg L(-1) HS in seawater, which could be lowered further by an increase in the bromate concentration, or in the adsorption time. The method was used to determine HS in the Irish Sea which were found to occur at levels between 60 and 600 microg L(-1). The new method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the low HS content in oceanic samples and has implications to the study of iron speciation.

  14. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B.


    Starting point for the Earth, Wind and Fire research, of which the sub-concepts of Ventec roof, Climate Cascade and Solar Chimney are an integral part of the (Architectural) building design, are the following hypotheses: (1) An integrated approach of Architecture / Constructions and Climate Design is capable of using the available ambient energy in the form of earth mass, wind, and sun, to condition the air mainly naturally in a building; (2) The sub-concepts can be modeled and validated, in order to be able to reliably support the design process in practice; and (3) The sub-concepts can individually or in combination contribute to the realization of zero energy buildings [Dutch] Airconditioning van gebouwen kan volledig met natuurlijke middelen, zonder mechanische ventilatie. Dat stelt de auteur in zijn proefschrift. Hij wil met vallend water, zon en wind een energiepositief kantoor realiseren. Bronsema is nu op zoek naar een gebouw voor een grootschalige praktijkproef met zijn Earth, Wind and Fire-concept. Het systeem bestaat uit drie hoofdonderdelen: het Ventecdak, de Klimaatcascade en de Zonneschoorsteen. Het Ventecdak zorgt voor aanvoer van verse en afvoer van vuile lucht door gebruikmaking van over- en onderdrukken. Die lucht wordt via de klimaatcascade toegevoerd en via een Zonneschoorsteen afgevoerd. Een mock-up van de Zonneschoorsteen is gerealiseerd als een elf meter hoge toren, die met opgevangen warmte van invallend zonlicht ventilatielucht verwarmt. Het op gang brengen van de luchtstroom gebeurt in de Klimaatcascade. Dit is een bouwkundige schacht waarin van bovenaf waterdruppels worden gesproeid waarmee de lucht kan worden gekoeld of verwarmd.

  15. Improvement of toughness and water resistance of bioplastic based on wheat gluten using epoxidized natural rubber (United States)

    Hemsri, S.; Thongpin, C.; Somkid, P.; Sae-arma, S.; Paiykaew, A.


    Novel blends based on wheat gluten (WG) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were fabricated with different ENR contents of 10, 20 and 30 wt% in an internal mixer. Sulfur vulcanization was used to crosslink the ENR phase in the blends. Comparatively, blends of WG and natural rubber (WG/NR) were prepared in the same condition as the WG/ENR blends. Tensile mechanical properties and impact strength of the WG/ENR blends were investigated and compared with the WG/NR blends as well as pure WG. Moreover, water absorption of pure WG and the WG/ENR blends was also tested. As investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the results revealed more compatibility between WG and ENR compared with NR. The elongation at break, impact strength and water resistance of the WG/ENR blends were found to remarkably increase with respect to the pure WG. Thus, incorporation of ENR into WG could improve toughness and water resistance of WG. Furthermore, the effect of adding glycerol acting as a plasticizer on the mechanical properties and impact strength of the WG/ENR blends was also studied. The blends with glycerol-plasticized WG (WG-Gly/ENR) showed more homogeneous morphologies and superior results in the mechanical properties and impact strength compared with the WG/ENR blends.

  16. Mining microbial metatranscriptomes for expression of antibiotic resistance genes under natural conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, D.; Andrea, D' M.M.; Ramiro Garcia, J.; Leimena, M.M.; Hugenholtz, F.; Zhang, J.; Öztürk, B.; Nylund, L.; Sipkema, D.; Schaik, van W.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Passel, van M.W.J.


    Antibiotic resistance genes are found in a broad range of ecological niches associated with complex microbiota. Here we investigated if resistance genes are not only present, but also transcribed under natural conditions. Furthermore, we examined the potential for antibiotic production by assessing

  17. [The energy metabolism of the Emperor penguin (Aptendodytes patagonica J. F. Miller) in ambient natural conditions]. (United States)

    Dorst, M J


    In natural ambient conditions at Possession Island the resting metabolism of the emancipated King Penguin is 50.40 kcal/kg/D. A bird whose insulation is good and which maintains its stomachic temperature at a high level can reduce its heat production by 42% during the long fasting periods which characterize its reproductive cycle, in particular by social and individual thermoregulating behaviour.

  18. 淄博市淄川区饮用天然矿泉水赋存条件与形成机理研究%Study on Occurrence Conditions and the Formation Mechanism of Drinking Natural Mineral Water in Zichuan District of Zibo City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In accordance with potable aquifer properties ,natural mineral water in Zichuan district of Zibo city can be divided into loose rock pore water ,fissure karst water in carbonate rocks and magmatite class structural fissure water .As showed by drinking natural mineral water test results of 29 monitoring wells , there are 3 types of mineral water in studying area ,such as strontium type ,lithium type and strontium lithium type .From the aspect of water and rock interaction ,the source of strontium and lithium in mineral water have been analyzed .It is regarded that Cambrian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the area , rich strontium in limestone ,particularly in oolitic limestone is one of the main sources of strontium mineral water .The movement of groundwater along the limestone karst fissure creat important hydrodynamic con‐dition for the formation of mineral water .Humus in study area will form weak acidity humic acidic solution and infiltrated into underground after the leaching of nearly neutral atmospheric precipitation with low mineralization .It will cause the dissolution and leaching to underground rocks .Accompanying with the dissolution process ,Sr in rocks will come into underground water in a large number .%淄博市淄川区饮用天然矿泉水按照含水层性质可划分为松散岩类孔隙水、碳酸盐岩类裂隙岩溶水和岩浆岩类构造裂隙水3大类。区内29眼井泉监测点饮用天然矿泉水检测结果显示,研究区存在锶型、锂型和锶锂复合型3种类型矿泉水。从水岩作用角度分析了矿泉水中锶和锂的来源,认为研究区广泛分布寒武纪碳酸盐岩,石灰岩尤其是鲕状灰岩中丰富的锶元素,是锶矿泉水形成主要的物源条件之一;地下水沿灰岩裂隙岩溶运动为矿泉水的形成创造了重要的水动力条件;研究区腐殖质经低矿化近中性的大气降水淋滤后,形成富含腐殖酸的偏酸性溶液入渗地下

  19. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Bastida, C. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Colón y Tollocan s/n, C.P. 50000, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Martínez-Miranda, V.; Vázquez-Mejía, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Solache-Ríos, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandón, Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801 México, D.F. (Mexico); Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca, Km. 14.5, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico); Trujillo-Flores, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 50130, Toluca, Estado de México (Mexico)


    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. - Highlights: ► Corrosion of distribution systems affects the quality of drinking water. ► Corrosion in water distribution systems is related to acidity and carbon dioxide. ► Pipes are corroded and manganese is deposited on pipes and dissolved in water. ► The deterioration of the pipes and the corrosion products were determined. ► Nitrate ions increase the acidity of water in the wells.

  20. Bridge Pressure Flow Scour at Clear Water Threshold Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junke; KERENYI Kornel; PAGAN-ORTIZ Jorge E; FLORA Kevin


    Bridge pressure flow scour at clear water threshold condition is studied theoretically and experimentally. The flume experiments reveal that the measured scour profiles under a bridge are more or less 2-dimensional; all the measured scour profiles can be described by two similarity equations, where the horizontal distance is scaled by the deck width while the local scour by the maximum scour depth; the maximum scour position is located just under the bridge about 15% deck width from the downstream deck edge; the scour begins at about one deck width upstream the bridge while the deposition occurs at about 2.5 deck widths downstream the bridge; and the maximum scour depth decreases with increas-ing sediment size, but increases with deck inundation. The theoretical analysis shows that: bridge scour can be divided into three cases, i.e. downstream unsubmerged, partially submerged, and totally submerged. For downstream unsubmerged flows, the maximum bridge scour depth is an open-channel problem where the conventional methods in terms of critical velocity or bed shear stress can be applied; for partially and totally submerged flows, the equilibrium maximum scour depth can be described by a scour and an inundation similarity number, which has been confirmed by experiments with two decks and two sediment sizes. For application, a design and field evaluation procedure with examples is presented, including the maximum scour depth and scour profile.

  1. Drain line melt through experiment under water-free condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Kotaro [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Jaeckel, Bernd; Hirschmann, Harald; Patorski, Jacek; Duijvestijn, Guus


    In order to investigate the behavior of a BWR drain line attacked by an oxidic melt, the experiment, CORVIS (Corium Reactor Vessel Interaction Studies) 03/2 was performed. The drain line tube was formed according to the design of an existing BWR. Aluminum oxide was used as the core melt substitute. The melt with an initial temperature of 2518 to 2543 K flowed into the water-free drain line and filled it on entire length of 7012 mm. The melt would have penetrated even further it the melt flow was not stopped by a steel plug at the tube end. The drain line did not fail but was distorted at the high temperature and elongated by 50 mm by thermoplastic deformation under its dead weight. Maximum surface temperature of 1323 K were measured near the drain line welding nozzle. It was concluded that the drain was torn off at higher internal pressure under the same thermal conditions. Temperature histories indicate that a crust was formed on the test plate screening temporarily the steel structures against melting. (author)

  2. Natural convection heat transfer of water in a horizontal circular gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Guanghui; Kenichiro Sugiyama; WU Yingwei


    An experimental study on the natural convection heat transfer on a horizontal downward facing heated surface in a water gap was carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions. A total of 700 experimental data points were correlated using Rayleigh versus Nusselt number in various forms, based on different independent variables. The effects of different characteristic lengths and film temperatures were discussed. The results show that the buoyancy force acts as a resistance force for natural convecti on beat transfer ona downward facing horizontal heated surface in a confined space. For the estimation of the natural convection heat transfer under the present conditions, empirical correlations in which Nusselt number is expressed as a function of the Rayleigh number, or both Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, may be used. When it is accurately predicted, the Nusselt number is expressed as a function of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers, as well as the gap width-to-heated surface diameter ratio; and uses the temperature difference between the heated surface and the ambient fluid in the definition of Rayleigh number. The characteristic length is the gap size and the film temperature is the average fluid temperature.

  3. Working regime identification for natural circulation loops by comparative thermalhydraulic analyses with three fluids under identical operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Milan K.S.; Basu, Dipankar N., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Thermalhydraulic analyses of NCL to justify the use of supercritical condition. • Mass flow rate of supercritical loop increases with heater power till a maxima. • Supercritical loop suffer from HTD beyond the maxima with jump in fluid temperature. • HTD is pronounced at higher sink temperatures and pressures just above critical. • Supercritical CO{sub 2} is preferred fluid till the HTD and single-phase water afterwards. - Abstract: Computational investigation for comparative thermalhydraulic analyses of rectangular natural circulation loops is performed to propose a guideline for selecting the working fluid and nature of the loop, subcritical or supercritical, under identical levels of operating parameters like pressure, heating power and coolant temperature. A 3-d uniform-diameter loop geometry is developed with horizontal heating and cooling. Heating is provided in constant heat flux mode, whereas cooling is through a constant temperature sink. Due to favourable thermophysical properties and environmental conformity, water, CO{sub 2} and R134a are selected as possible working fluids. Operational parameters are set so as to have sub- to supercritical condition for CO{sub 2}, supercritical for R134a and single-phase liquid for water. Mass flow rate for supercritical fluid rapidly increases with heater power, when the fluid is allowed to cross the pseudocritical point during its passage through the heater, and exhibits a maxima. Drastic fall in mass flow rate can be observed beyond the maxima, accompanied by a jump in maximum fluid temperature and a rapid decline in sink-side heat transfer coefficient. That can be identified as heat transfer deterioration in supercritical natural circulation loops, a highly undesirable situation from loop safety point of view. Allowable working range of heater power can be enhanced by increasing system pressure and decreasing sink temperature. For any specified set of operating conditions, CO{sub 2}-based

  4. Assessment of Water Quality Conditions: Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, 2012 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an assessment of water quality data collected from source water, discharge and within Agassiz Pool. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  5. Some observations on overwintering sites of adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and strategies followed under natural and seminatural conditions. (United States)

    Thareja, V; Singh, Rangoli; Singha Naorem, Anjana


    Field population of adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say, landed in December, congregated and overwintered in indoor artificial sites in Delhi. Repeated sampling strategy by individually collecting the adults was adopted to study their overwintering strategies for 4 years (December to April). They remained vagile and readily repopulated the resting sites after the removal of samples. A large percentage of females was fertile, unfed and nulliparous indicating that reproduction ceased in them. Adult survival was significantly prolonged to a maximum of 3 months under natural conditions. Gonotrophic cycle also got prolonged. Close to quitting, they became gravid and left in April without oviposition. No adults were observed on the sites for the rest of the year. Oviposition was induced in the blood-engorged females when provided with food, water and outdoor conditions. Oviposition might have been induced directly by water and food provided them energy under seminatural conditions. Eggs were laid singly or in the form of rafts, and the number in both the cases was low. Singly laid eggs did not hatch, and in rafts, hatching was ~80 %. Winter conditions seemed to strongly impact fertility, blood feeding, fecundity, oviposition behaviour, egg hatchability and longevity. Use of the overwintering sites as biological tool, as a part of environmental control in IPM, is suggested for organising antivector measures during winter. There is a need of exploring and creating more sites of this kind.

  6. Integrated treatment process using a natural Wyoming clinoptilolite for remediating produced waters from coalbed natural gas operations (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Vance, G.F.; Urynowicz, M.A.; Gregory, R.W.


    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in western U.S. states has resulted in an increase in an essential energy resource, but has also resulted in environmental impacts and additional regulatory needs. A concern associated with CBNG development relates to the production of the copious quantities of potentially saline-sodic groundwater required to recover the natural gas, hereafter referred to as CBNG water. Management of CBNG water is a major environmental challenge because of its quantity and quality. In this study, a locally available Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Wyoming (WY) was examined for its potential to treat CBNG water to remove Na+ and lower the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, mmol1/2 L- 1/2). The zeolite material was Ca-modified before being used in column experiments. Column breakthrough studies indicated that a metric tonne (1000??kg) of Ca-WY-zeolite could be used to treat 60,000??L of CBNG water in order to lower SAR of the CBNG water from 30 to an acceptable level of 10??mmol1/2 L- 1/2. An integrated treatment process using Na-WY-zeolite for alternately treating hard water and CBNG water was also examined for its potential to treat problematic waters in the region. Based on the results of this study, use of WY-zeolite appears to be a cost-effective water treatment technology for maximizing the beneficial use of poor-quality CBNG water. Ongoing studies are evaluating water treatment techniques involving infiltration ponds lined with zeolite. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie


    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  8. Moment-based boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann simulations of natural convection in cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca


    We study a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model for natural convection with moment-based boundary conditions. The unknown primary variables of the algorithm at a boundary are found by imposing conditions directly upon hydrodynamic moments, which are then translated into conditions for the discrete velocity distribution functions. The method is formulated so that it is consistent with the second order implementation of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equations for fluid flow and temperature. Natural convection in square cavities is studied for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 108. An excellent agreement with benchmark data is observed and the flow fields are shown to converge with second order accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  9. Artesian water supply control system in transient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Олегович Буравченко


    Full Text Available The paper describes an artesian water supply control system in the transition mode. The control system searches for the optimal performance trajectory of the water supply on the basis of a maximum return with a view to the fastest mode of stabilization. The analysis of artesian water supply control systems in transition mode and methods of improvement was conducted


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin PRČÍK


    Full Text Available Landscape potential, reflecting the country's ability to provide some opportunities and prerequisites for the use to meet the needs of human society and long-term use along the lines of sustainable development, is considered as basic purposeful and value characteristic of the country. The aim of this paper is based on the analysis of natural conditions and landscape structure to determine the possibility of applying different forms of rural tourism in the Slovak Republic, namely the example region Tekov, which lies on the border of western and central Slovakia. Region Tekov is among the warmest regions of Slovakia. The results presented in this paper were processed using the method of scientific abstraction, landscape structure analysis methods investigated area based on the methodology of landscape-ecological planning and methods of SWOT analysis. Region Tekov occupies the territory of 48 municipalities with its total area of 776.58 km2 and a population 73637. The dominant presence in the region has agricultural areas (67% of the area of the territory. This is the type of agricultural land, which their natural condition and on the basis of favourable landscape structure offers opportunities and space for application activities related to rural tourism, namely walking, cycling, water sports, agro tourism, viticulture, hunting and winter sports, especially skiing. Strengths of rural tourism in the region are heterogeneous landscape structure with the preserved natural environment and favourable climatic conditions, a strong tradition in viticulture, apiculture, horticulture and the presence of ecologically stable elements with plenty of usable water resources.

  11. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.


    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  12. Interrelationships between Fish Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Water Quality for South Dakota Natural Lakes and Impoundments (United States)

    Chipps, Steven R.; Stetler, Larry; Stone, James J.; McCutcheon, Cindy M.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether water quality parameters commonly associated with primary productivity may be used to predict the susceptibility of a specific water body to exceed proposed fish consumption advisory limitation of 0.3 mg kg−1. South Dakota currently has nine lakes and impoundments that exceed fish tissue mercury advisory limits of 1.0 mg kg−1 total mercury, far exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration 0.3 mg kg−1 consumption criteria. Previous studies suggest that increased aquatic productivity may mitigate the effects of biological production and subsequent uptake of methyl mercury through bio-dilution; however, it is uncertain whether these trends may exist within highly alkaline and highly productive aquatic conditions common to South Dakota lakes and impoundments. Water quality parameters and fish tissue mercury data for northern pike and walleye were collected and assessed using existing South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Game Fish and Parks data. The data was initially screened using both parametric linear regression and non-parametric Mann–Whitney rank sum comparisons and further assessed using binary logistic regression and stepwise logistic regression methodology. Three separate phosphorus measurements (total, total dissolved, and Trophic State Index) and pH were determined to significantly correlate with increased mercury concentrations for the northern pike-in-impoundments model. However, phosphorus surprisingly was not a strong predictor for the remaining scenarios modeled. For the northern pike-in-natural lakes models, alkalinity was the most significant water quality parameter predicting increased mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations for the walleye-in-natural lakes models were further influenced by pH and alkalinity. The water quality and fish tissue mercury interrelationships determined within this study suggest aquatic

  13. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas (United States)

    Lee, J.N.


    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  14. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail:; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa


    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  15. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.


    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.


    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  17. Marginal value of natural water in agriculture: a study in the suburbs of Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gezahegn, T.W.; Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin


    In areas where markets for natural water are lacking, information on its marginal value can be an important tool for proper pricing to achieve efficient allocation of the resource. This article investigates the marginal value of natural water (rainwater used as a proxy) in agricultural crop producti

  18. Water-quality conditions in southern Rockingham County, New Hampshire (United States)

    Silvey, William Dudley; Wheeler, Robert L.


    Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water were measured at 26 surface-water sites, 17 ground-water sites, and in effluent from two sanitary landfills as part of planning for area-wide waste management in four watersheds within the Southern Rockingham Regional Planning District in Southern New Hampshire. Dissolved minerals concentration in water at all but one of 26 surface-water-sampling sites is low and within recommended limits of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water at the 26 surface-water-sampling sites generally was enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus and contained at least some coliform bacteria, indicating contamination, probably from waste disposal systems. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and pesticides were not present in the water, but small amounts of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor were present in stream-bottom materials at 11 of the 26 sites, and PCBs were present at 7. Iron and manganese were present in concentrations that in some cases exceeded recommended limits. Coliform bacteria were present at 5 of the 17 ground-water-sampling sites; concentrations of iron exceeded recommended limits at 8 sites, and manganese exceeded recommended limits at 9 sites. PCBs and pesticides were not present in any samples collected at the ground-water-sampling sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. An investigation into natural vibrations of fluid-structure interaction systems subject to Sommerfeld radiation condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Tang Xing


    A fluid-structure interaction system subject to Sommerfeld's condition is defined as a Sommerfeld system which is divided into three categories:Fluid Sommerfeld(FS)System,Solid Sommerfeld(SS)System and Fluid Solid Sommerfeld(FSS)System of which Sommerfeld conditions are imposed on a fluid boundary only,a solid boundary only and both fluid and solid boundaries,respectively.This paper follows the previous initial results claimed by simple examples to further mathematically investigate the natural vibrations of generalized Sommerfeld systems.A new parameter representing the speed of radiation wave for generalized 3-D problems with more complicated boundary conditions is introduced into the Sommerfeld condition which allows investigation of the natural vibrations of a Sommerfeld system involving both free surface and compressible waves.The mathematical demonstrations and selected examples confirm and reveal the natural behaviour of generalized Sommerfeld systems defined above.These generalized conclusions can be used in theoretical or engineering analysis of the vibrations of various Sommerfeld systems in engineering.

  20. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  1. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  2. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling Results for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site on June 20 and 21, 2012. This long-term monitoring of natural gas includes samples of produced water from gas production wells that are located near the site. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.

  3. Brain dynamics during natural viewing conditions--a new guide for mapping connectivity in vivo. (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir


    We describe here a new way of obtaining maps of connectivity in the human brain based on interregional correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during natural viewing conditions. We propose that anatomical connections are reflected in BOLD signal correlations during natural brain dynamics. This may provide a powerful approach to chart connectivity, more so than that based on the 'resting state' of the human brain, and it may complement diffusion tensor imaging. Our approach relies on natural brain dynamics and is therefore experimentally unbiased and independent of hypothesis-driven, specialized stimuli. It has the advantage that natural viewing leads to considerably stronger cortical activity than rest, thus facilitating detection of weaker connections. To validate our technique, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record BOLD signal while volunteers freely viewed a movie that was interrupted by resting periods. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to segregate cortical areas before characterizing the dynamics of their BOLD signal during free viewing and rest. Natural viewing and rest each revealed highly specific correlation maps, which reflected known anatomical connections. Examples are homologous regions in visual and auditory cortices in the two hemispheres and the language network consisting of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and a premotor region. Correlations between regions known to be directly connected were always substantially higher than between nonconnected regions. Furthermore, compared to rest, natural viewing specifically increased correlations between anatomically connected regions while it decreased correlations between nonconnected regions. Our findings therefore demonstrate that natural viewing conditions lead to particularly specific interregional correlations and thus provide a powerful environment to reveal anatomical connectivity in vivo.

  4. Ecohydrology of Graciosa semi-natural grasslands: water use and evapotranspiration partition (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; Paredes, Paula; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Madruga, João S.; Pereira, Luís S.


    Semi-natural grasslands are a main landscape of Graciosa and other Islands of Azores. The present study aims at calibrate and validate the soil water balance model SIMDualKc for those grasslands aiming at assessing the dynamics of soil water and evapotranspiration. This objective relates with the need to improve knowledge on the ecohydrology of grasslands established in (volcanic) Andosols. This model adopts the dual crop coefficient approach to compute daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and to perform its partition into transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (Es). The application refers to a semi-natural grassland sporadically sowed with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Model calibration and validation were performed comparing simulated against observed grassland evapotranspiration throughout two periods in consecutive years. Daily ET values were derived from eddy covariance data collected at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), at Graciosa, Azores (Portugal). Various statistical performance indicators were used to assess model accuracy and results show a good adequacy of the model for predicting vegetation ET in such conditions. Surface flux energy balance was also evaluated throughout the observation period (2014-2016). The ratio Es/ET shows that soil evaporation is much small than T/ET due to high soil cover by vegetation. The model was then applied to contrasting climatic conditions (dry vs. wet years) to assess related impacts on water balance components and grassland transpiration.

  5. Adsorption of natural surfactants present in sea waters at surfaces of minerals: contact angle measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Boniewicz-Szmyt


    Full Text Available The wetting properties of solid mineral samples (by contact angles in original surfactant-containing sea water (Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic were characterised under laboratory conditions on a large set (31 samples of well-classified stones of diverse hydrophobicity using the sessile drop (ADSA-P approach, captive bubble and inclined plate methods. An experimental relation between the static contact angle θeq and stone density ρ was obtained in the form θeq = Bρ + C, where B = 12.23 ± 0.92, C = - (19.17 ± 0.77, and r2 = 0.92. The histogram of θeq distribution for polished stone plates exhibited a multimodal feature indicating that the most abundant solid materials (hydrophilic in nature have contact angles θeq = 7.2, 10.7, 15.7 and 19.2º, which appear to be applicable to unspecified field stones as well. The contact angle, a pH-dependent quantity, appears to be a sensitive measure of stone grain size, e.g. granite. The captive bubble method gives reproducible results in studies of porous and highly hydrophilic surfaces such as stones and wood. The authors consider the adsorption of natural sea water surfactants on stone surfaces to be the process responsible for contact angle hysteresis. In the model, an equation was derived for determining the solid surface free energy from the liquid's surface tension γLV it also enabled the advancing θA and receding θR contact angles of this liquid to be calculated. Measurements of contact angle hysteresis Δθ (=θA - θR with surfactant-containing sea water and distilled water (reference on the same stone surfaces allowed the film pressure ΔΠ (1.22 to 8.80 mJ m-2, solid surface free energy ΔγS (-17.03 to -23.61 mJ m-2 and work done by spreading ΔWS (-1.23 to -11.52 mJ m-2 to be determined. The variability in these parameters is attributed to autophobing, an effect operative on a solid surface covered with an adsorptive layer of surfactants. The wetting behaviour of solid particles is of great

  6. True Colour Classification of Natural Waters with Medium-Spectral Resolution Satellites: SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS and OLCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J. van der Woerd


    Full Text Available The colours from natural waters differ markedly over the globe, depending on the water composition and illumination conditions. The space-borne “ocean colour” instruments are operational instruments designed to retrieve important water-quality indicators, based on the measurement of water leaving radiance in a limited number (5 to 10 of narrow (≈10 nm bands. Surprisingly, the analysis of the satellite data has not yet paid attention to colour as an integral optical property that can also be retrieved from multispectral satellite data. In this paper we re-introduce colour as a valuable parameter that can be expressed mainly by the hue angle (α. Based on a set of 500 synthetic spectra covering a broad range of natural waters a simple algorithm is developed to derive the hue angle from SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS and OLCI data. The algorithm consists of a weighted linear sum of the remote sensing reflectance in all visual bands plus a correction term for the specific band-setting of each instrument. The algorithm is validated by a set of 603 hyperspectral measurements from inland-, coastal- and near-ocean waters. We conclude that the hue angle is a simple objective parameter of natural waters that can be retrieved uniformly for all space-borne ocean colour instruments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová


    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  8. Remaking "Nature" The Ecological Turn in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disco, Cornelis


    The ecological turn in water management has usually been interpreted as a political andcultural rather than technical and professional accomplishment. The dynamics of theuptake of ecological expertise into hydraulic engineering bureaucracies have not beenwell described. Focusing on the controversy a

  9. The Nature of Family Engagement in Interventions for Children With Chronic Conditions. (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Havill, Nancy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Fleming, Louise; Crandell, Jamie L; Sandelowski, Margarete


    Recognizing the bi-directional relationship between family functioning and child well-being in the context of childhood chronic conditions, researchers have tested family-focused interventions aimed at promoting both child and family well-being through improving the family's condition management capacity. Based on a sample of 70 interventions for families in which there was a child with a chronic physical condition, this analysis examined the nature of family engagement in the interventions. Data were extracted from the intervention reports using a standardized template; conventional content analysis was used to describe family engagement. Interventions varied in focus, structure, and level of family engagement. Investigators most often sought to improve condition control or management, with parent engagement focused on improving capacity to manage the treatment regimen. Few investigators addressed capacity building in the context of family functioning. Recommendations are made for reporting standards for family-focused interventions and for enhancing the family systems grounding of interventions.

  10. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water. (United States)

    Alvarez-Bastida, C; Martínez-Miranda, V; Vázquez-Mejía, G; Solache-Ríos, M; Fonseca-Montes de Oca, G; Trujillo-Flores, E


    Corrosion problems having to do with drinking water distribution systems are related to many processes and factors and two of them are ionic acidity and carbon dioxide, which were considered in this work. The corrosion character of water is determined by the corrosion indexes of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson, and Mojmir. The results show that pipes made of different materials, such as plastics or metals, are affected by corrosion, causing manganese to be deposited on materials and dissolved in water. The deterioration of the materials, the degree of corrosion, and the deposited corrosion products were determined by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. High levels of manganese and nitrate ions in water may cause serious damage to the health of consumers of water. Three wells were examined, one of them presented a high content of manganese; the others had high levels of nitrate ions, which increased the acidity of the water and, therefore, the amount of corrosion of the materials in the distribution systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Refuges from ocean acidification: determining tolerances of coralline algae to naturally low-pH water (United States)

    Cooper, H.; Paytan, A.; Potts, D. C.


    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide dissolving into the world's oceans is causing a profound and rapid shift in ocean chemistry referred to as ocean acidification (OA) that causes carbonate structures to dissolve more readily in seawater with negative effects for organisms relying on calcified skeletons or shells (e.g. corals, mollusks, coralline algae). Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are ubiquitous and essential on coral reefs, providing both ecological and structural benefits to the reefs. However, CCA are adversely affected by low pH water, with severe reductions in recruitment, survival, growth and productivity. The ability of different species of CCA to adapt to low pH waters was tested using a system of natural submarine springs (called "ojos") near Puerto Morelos on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. These ojos continuously discharge groundwater that is close to seawater salinity but more acidic (pH 6.70-7.30) and under saturated (0.3 Ω to 0.97 Ω) than the ambient seawater (pH 8.03, 3.60 Ω ). Both corals and coralline algae grow in the water from these springs, suggesting that some calcifying species differ in their tolerance to low pH waters. Corallines were sampled along a pH gradient at five springs in December 2013 using underwater transects. Differences in percent cover, species abundance and diversity of CCA by pH levels will be discussed. This work utilizes a unique natural laboratory for studying properties of calcifying biota along pH gradients and provides insight into the ability of CCA to tolerate or adapt to future conditions.

  12. Study on the Effects of Natural Factors on Water Conservation Capacity of Qilian Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective]The study aimed at analyzing the effects of natural factors on water conservation capacity of Qilian Mountain.[Method] Based on water conservation quantity,elevation data and SPOT-VEGETATION remote sensing data of Qilian Mountain in 2003,the relationship between water conservation quantity and influencing factors like elevation,slope,aspect and vegetation index varying greatly in the studied area was analyzed quantitatively by means of statistical method,and the effects of natural factors on wate...

  13. [Investigation of the distribution of water clusters in vegetables, fruits, and natural waters by flicker noise spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zubov, A V; Zubov, K V; Zubov, V A


    The distribution of water clusters in fresh rain water and in rain water that was aged for 30 days (North Germany, 53 degrees 33' N, 12 degrees 47' E, 293 K, rain on 25.06.06) as well as in fresh vegetables and fruits was studied by flicker noise spectroscopy. In addition, the development of water clusters in apples and potatoes during ripening in 2006 was investigated. A different distribution of water clusters in irrigation water (river and rain) and in the biomatrix of vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, red beets) and fruits (apples, bananas) was observed. It was concluded that the cluster structure of irrigation water differs from that of water of the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits and depends on drought and the biomatrix nature. Water clusters in plants are more stable and reproducible than water clusters in natural water. The main characteristics of cluster formation in materials studied were given. The oscillation frequencies of water clusters in plants (biofield) are given at which they interact with water clusters of the Earth hydrosphere. A model of series of clusters 16(H2O)100 4(H2O)402 2(H2O)903 (H2O)1889 in the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits was discussed.

  14. Carboxymethylation of Cassava Starch in Different Solvents and Solvent-Water Mixtures: Optimization of Reaction Conditions (United States)

    Nwokocha, Louis M.; Ogunmola, Gabiel B.

    The influence of reaction medium on carboxymethylation process was investigated by treating cassava starch with sodium monochloroacetate in different solvents and solvent-water mixtures under alkaline conditions. The amount of carboxyl groups introduced into the starch moiety was determined titrimetrically and used to calculate the Degree of Substitution (DS) and Reaction Efficiency (RE). The results showed that carboxymethylation is significantly affected by the nature of reaction medium at p<0.05. Carboxymethylation in different solvent-water mixtures showed that aqueous 80% n-propanol offered the best medium for carboxymethylation. Optimization of reaction conditions in aqueous 80% n-propanol showed that the best condition for carboxymethylation was at starch-liquor ratio of 1:3, NaOH/reagent molar ratio of 4.0 and reagent-starch molar ratio of 0.35. An increase in temperature was required to effect the reaction at shorter time. At 55°C the highest values of DS and RE achieved in 0.5 h would require three hours to achieve the same values of DS and RE at 45°C.

  15. Survival of Wild Adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann under Natural Winter Conditions in North East Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peñarrubia-María


    Full Text Available The overwintering of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann at the northern limits of its geographic distribution is not yet well known. With the aim of estimating the survival rate of medfly adults in northeast Spain under natural winter conditions, a two-winter-season trial was carried out. A control was carried out in a climatic chamber at 25°C. The results showed that medfly adults were unable to survive the entire winter season in the Girona area. Climatic conditions, including the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature and the high rainfall, appeared to be involved in adult mortality in winter.

  16. [Degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the composition of microbial destructors under natural conditions]. (United States)

    Volova, T G; Gladyshev, M I; Trusova, M Iu; Zhila, N O


    The degradation dynamics of polyhydroxyalkanoates of different composition has been studied in an eutrophic storage reservoir for two seasons. It has been shown that the biodegradation of polymers under natural conditions depends not only on their structure and physicochemical properties but also, to a great extent, on a complex of weather-climatic conditions affecting the state of the reservoir ecosystem. The molecular genetic analysis of 16S rRNA has revealed bacterial species (clones) probably involved in the degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in a model storage reservoir.

  17. Transformation of the Herbicides MCPP and Atrazine under Natural Aquifer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertved, Jeanette; Ruegge, Kirsten; Barker, James


    The potential for aerobic biotransformation of the herbicides MCPP[(+/-)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid] and Atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] under natural aquifer conditions was investigated. A natural gradient experiment was carried out in an aerobic ground...... from 400 to 30 μg/1. As predicted, MCPP was not retarded compared to the conservative tracer. No transformation was observed in the in situ testers over 47 days. In the laboratory experiments no transformation was observed over 74 days. Atrazine was recalcitrant within the experimental period of 96...... days in the natural gradient experiment. A retardation factor R = 1.2, within the predicted range, was found for Atrazine in the Borden aquifer. No transformation was observed either in the in situ testers or in the laboratory experiments after a period of 96 and 74 days, respectively. These results...

  18. Theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This article presents a theoretical investigation on the steady-state natural circulation characteristics of a new type of pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solving the one-dimensional steady-state single-phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics were studied. On the basis of the preliminary calculation analysis, it was found that natural circulation mass flow rate was proportional to the exponential function of the power and that the value of the exponent is related to the operating conditions of the secondary side of the steam generator. The higher the outlet pressure of the secondary side of the steam generator, the higher the primary natural circulation mass flow rate. The larger height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable for the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation.

  19. Experimental study on the adsorptive-distillation for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites (United States)

    Megawati, Wicaksono, D.; Abdullah, M. S.


    This research studied adsorptive-distillation (AD) for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites as adsorbent for ethanol purification. Especially, the effect of purification time is recorded and studied to evaluate performance of designed AD equipment. This AD was performed in a batch condition using boiling flask covered with heating mantle and it was maintained at 78°C temperature and 1 atm pressure. The initial ethanol volume was 300 mL with 93.8% v/v concentration. The synthetic zeolite type used was zeolite 3A. The flowed vapour was condensed using water as a cooling medium. Every 5 minutes of time duration the samples were collected until the vapour could not be condensed in that condition and then be analyzed its concentration using Gas-Chromatography. Experiment shows that the designed AD equipment could increase ethanol concentration at first 5 minutes with highest ethanol concentration achieved using synthetic zeolite (97.47% v/v). However, ethanol concentration from AD process using natural zeolite only reached 96.5% v/v. Thus, synthetic zeolite as adsorbent could pass azeotropic point, but natural zeolite fail. The ratio of adsorbed water per adsorbent for natural and synthetic zeolites are about 0.023 and 0.056 gwater/gads, respectively, at 50 minutes of time. Finally, synthetic zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.85 and the average outlet water concentration is 4.70 mole/L) as adsorbent for AD of ethanol water is better than natural zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.63 and the average outlet water concentration is 6.43 mole/L).

  20. Removal of Cu (II and Zn (II from water with natural adsorbents from cassava agroindustry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schwantes


    Full Text Available Current study employs solid residues from the processing industry of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz (bark, bagasse and bark + bagasse as natural adsorbents for the removal of metal ions Cu(II and Zn(II from contaminated water. The first stage comprised surface morphological characterization (SEM, determination of functional groups (IR, point of zero charge and the composition of naturally existent minerals in the biomass. Further, tests were carried out to evaluate the sorption process by kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. The adsorbents showed a surface with favorable adsorption characteristics, with adsorption sites possibly derived from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The dynamic equilibrium time for adsorption was 60 min. Results followed pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, suggesting a chemisorption monolayer. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the biosorption process of Cu and Zn was endothermic, spontaneous or independent according to conditions. Results showed that the studied materials were potential biosorbents in the decontamination of water contaminated by Cu(II and Zn(II. Thus, the above practice complements the final stages of the cassava production chain of cassava, with a new disposal of solid residues from the cassava agroindustry activity.

  1. Nature conditionings of the cultural landscape in the area between the Ropa and Wisłok rivers (United States)

    Soszyński, Dawid


    The principal aim of the dissertation was to analyze the influence of natural environment components on main elements of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of each component were presented separately for the three main types of physiographic regions: mountains, foothills and depressions. Additionally, in selected cases, the analyses of cultural landscape evolution during the last centuries were presented. The research area is located between the Ropa and the Wisłok rivers in Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie - two regions in SE part of Poland. Besides, three small drainage basins were chosen for detailed investigation. The main method applied in dissertation, especially in spatial landscape structure research, was a cartographic analysis in GIS system. The elements of the cultural landscape described in this paper were: main communication routes, settlement patterns and dwellings (including spatial settlement distribution, country buildings, sacral landscape, industrial buildings) as well as land use. According to the research carried out in this work, the component of the natural environment which has had the most significant influence on the cultural landscape is land relief, especially land slopes. The impact of this factor is leading on all elements of the cultural landscape. The other factors (surface and ground waters, climate, soils, natural resources) have had a significant influence only on some of the analyzed elements. The elements of the cultural landscape which are most dependent on natural factors are spatial settlement distribution and the pattern of land use. In case of other cultural landscape elements, natural factors play less important but still significant role. The research proved that natural conditionings of the cultural landscape are less clear in the depression area and most clear within foothills and mountain areas, depending on analyzed cultural elements. A decrease of correlation intensity between natural and cultural

  2. Pollen flow of wheat under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River Wheat Region, China


    Sun, Ai-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Wu, Cheng-Lai; Gao, Qing-Rong


    The transgenic pollen spread is the main pathway of transgenic plant gene flow. The maximum distance of pollen dispersal (horizontal), the spatial dynamics of pollen movement (vertical), and the patterns of pollen dispersal are important considerations in biosafety assessments of genetically modified crops. To evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollen dispersal, we measured the pollen suspension velocity and analyzed pollen dispersal patterns under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River wh...

  3. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia


    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  4. Natural Gas Conditioning and Processing From Marginal Fields Using Modular Technology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriji A.Boniface


    Full Text Available Gas flaring in Nigeria is a major pollution concern for the environment and health of Nigerians. Burning of natural gas brings about emitting of carbon monoxide into the environment as well as warm up the environment, thereby contributing to the global warming scourge. The lack of processing this gas has also led to loss of revenue in a sector where there is a likelihood of otherwise generating more revenue in the country. Gas conditioning and processing in Nigeria has brought about certain level of solutions to the flaring of natural gas in the country. This paper discusses a modular technology associated with the conditioning and processing of natural gas that marginal fields can partake-in in Nigeria to monetize natural gas in the country using a typical Nigeria natural gas plant located in Delta State as a cased study. There have been lots of discouragement in the past about investing in associated gas produced during crude oil production, but the study on this particular gas plant in Nigeria shows solutions to most of this problems. The gas plant LPG facility is a modular assembly of process equipment linked with interconnecting pipework for scalability and ease of deployment. The design took into consideration the specific composition of the associated gas produced during production of crude oil.The traditional approach of piping gas from a remotely located oil field to a central processing facility can now be put aside paving the way for a less than orthodox technique of “bringing the plant to the gas” whereby the need for expensive pipeline will be eliminated by situating the facility adjacent to the oil flow station. The gas plant gives a full technology of utilizing natural gas resources to meet the socio-economic needs of mankind while preserving the environment not only for meeting present needs but for the needs of future generations

  5. The generation and its sealing condition of natural gas in the Tadong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Focusing on the two natural gas exploration geological problems with abundant source of oil cracking gas in the late stage and the sealing condition of the oil cracking gas reservoir,the kinetics of oil cracking gas and the evaluation parameters of gas cap rock are adopted to the study on the natural gas accumulation conditions in the Tadong area. Both the study on the kinetics of oil cracking gas and the statistical results of reservoir bitumen reveal that the geological formation of oil cracking gas in the Tadong area is located in the top of Cambrian. Two kinds of oil cracking gas geological models at least,namely well Mandong-1’s early rapid generation model(Middle Ordovician-end Silurian) and peak cracking model(with the natural gas conversion rate >90%) ,namely well Yingnan-2’s two-stage generation model of oil cracking gas,have been set up. The oil cracking gas of Yingnan-2 in the late stage is very significant in the evaluation of natural gas exploration in the Tadong area. The evaluation results of the cap rock show that the microscopic parameters of cap rock from the lower assemblage of Cambrian-Ordovician are better than those from the upper assemblage. The former has strong capillary sealing ability and higher cap rock breakthrough pressure than the upper assemblage,with strong sealing ability,so that natural gas dissipates mainly by diffusion. According to the above investigations,the lower assemblage Cambrian-Ordovician natural gas of Kongquehe slope,Tadong low uplift and Yingjisu depression in the Tadong area prospects well.

  6. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portugese Shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.


    Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing fire-i

  7. WACODI: A generic algorithm to derive the intrinsic color of natural waters from digital images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoa, S.; Wernand, M.; van der Woerd, H.J.


    This document presents the WAter COlor from Digital Images (WACODI) algorithm, which extracts the color of natural waters from images collected by low-cost digital cameras, in the context of participatory science and water quality monitoring. SRGB images are converted to the CIE XYZ color space, und

  8. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation... (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority...

  9. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portugese Shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.


    Post-fire land degradation is often attributed to fire-induced soil water repellency, despite the fact that soil water repellency is a natural phenomenon in many soils and is therefore not necessarily caused by fire. To improve our understanding of the role of soil water repellency in causing

  10. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig L. Patterson; Jeffrey Q. Adams


    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people.Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems.Prior to an event,utilities and municipalities can use “What if”? scenarios to develop emergency operation,response,and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction.Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  11. Photodegradation of the antihistamine cetirizine in natural waters. (United States)

    Mead, Ralph N; Barefoot, Seth; Helms, John R; Morgan, Jeremy B; Kieber, Robert J


    The photodegradation rate of the anti-histamine cetirizine (Zyrtec®) was investigated in various water matrices. The average observed first-order photodegradation rate coefficient (kobs ), obtained by linear regression of the logarithmic-transformed cetirizine concentrations versus irradiation time in simulated sunlight, was 0.024 h(-1) (n = 6; standard deviation ± 0.004) in deionized water corresponding to a half-life of approximately 30 h. There was no statistical difference in the kobs of cetirizine photodegradation in coastal seawater compared with deionized water or deionized water amended with dissolved chromophoric organic matter. The quantum yield of cetirizine photodegradation decreased dramatically with increasing wavelength and decreasing energy of incoming radiation, with the average value ranging from 5.28 × 10(-4) to 6.40 × 10(-3) in the ultraviolet wavelength range (280-366 nm). The activation energy of cetirizine photodegradation was 10.3 kJ mol(-1) with an observed increase in cetirizine photodegradation as temperature increased. This is a significant environmental factor influencing half-life and an important consideration, given that cetirizine has been detected in wastewater and receiving waters from different locations globally.

  12. Dynamics of water solutions of natural polysaccharides by fast field cycling nmr relaxometry (United States)

    Prusova, Alena; Conte, Pellegrino; Kucerik, Jiri; de Pasquale, Claudio; Alonzo, Giuseppe


    Cryobiology studies the effect of low temperatures on living systems such as microorganisms and plants. In particular, plants growing in cold or frozen environments can survive such extreme conditions due to the cold hardening process. Hardening is a three step process during which, first, translocation of polysaccharides to the plant roots affects water structure in the cell-soil surface. For this reason, increase of cell-membrane permeability and resistance to temperatures from -5°C to -10°C is achieved. In a second step, chemical alteration of cell membrane arises and resistance to temperatures up to -20°C is obtained. The last hardening step consists in the vitrification of the plant tissues which allow plants to survive at temperatures as low as -50°C. Since polysaccharides play a very important role in the initial part of the cold hardening process, it is of paramount importance to study the effect of such natural biopolymers on water structure. Here, we present preliminary data obtained by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry on the effect of hyaluronan (an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan) on water structure at different concentrations of the polysaccharide. Although hyaluronan is a polysaccharide found exceptionally in animal, human or bacterial bodies, in the present work it was used as a model "pilot" compound. In fact, it has an unique ability to hold water and it contains both polysaccharide and protein-like acetamido functionalities. For this reason, hyaluronan promotes the future research on other plant biopolymers such as, for instance, starch and other very specific proteins. Results revealed that different water-structure systems surround the molecule of hyaluronan in diluted and semidiluted systems. Namely, at the lowest hyaluronan concentration, three hydration shells can be recognized. The first hydration shell is made by bound water (BW) which is strongly fixed to the hyaluronan surface mainly through electrostatic interactions. A

  13. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties. (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena


    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content.

  14. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization (United States)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  15. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard


    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  16. Marine water quality under climate change conditions/scenarios (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Brigolin, Daniele; Carniel, Sandro; Pastres, Roberto; Marcomini, Antonio


    The increase of sea temperature and the changes in marine currents are generating impacts on coastal waters such as changes in water biogeochemical and physical parameters (e.g. primary production, pH, salinity) leading to progressive degradation of the marine environment. With the main aim of analysing the potential impacts of climate change on coastal water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic (i.e. coastal water bodies of the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, Italy). RRA integrates the outputs of regional models providing information on macronutrients (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen e reactive phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and temperature, etc., under future climate change scenarios with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. biotic index, presence and extension of seagrasses, presence of aquaculture). The presented approach uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the integration of stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the evaluation process. RRA outputs are hazard, exposure, vulnerability, risk and damage maps useful for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets in the considered region. Therefore, the main aim of this contribution is to apply the RRA methodology to integrate, visualize, and rank according to spatial distribution, physical and chemical data concerning the coastal waters of the North Adriatic Sea in order to predict possible changes of the actual water quality.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu, Yonggang [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hu, Yongyun, E-mail: [Laboratory for Climate and Atmosphere-Ocean Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)


    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  18. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water. (United States)

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon


    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water.

  19. Hydrologic and water-quality data, Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, August 2001-September 2003 (United States)

    Slattery, Richard N.; Furlow, Allen L.; Ockerman, Darwin J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and rainfall and stormflow water-quality data from seven sites in two adjacent watersheds in the Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, during August 2001–September 2003, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the San Antonio Water System. Data collected during this period represent baseline hydrologic and water-quality conditions before proposed removal of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) from one of the two watersheds. Juniper removal is intended as a best-management practice to increase water quantity (aquifer recharge and streamflow) and to protect water quality. Continuous (5-minute interval) rainfall data are collected at four sites; continuous (5-minute interval) streamflow data are collected at three sites. Fifteen-minute averages of meteorological and solar-energy-related data recorded at two sites are used to compute moving 30-minute evapotranspiration values on the basis of the energy-balance Bowen ratio method. Periodic rainfall water-quality data are collected at one site and stormflow water-quality data at three sites. Daily rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration totals are presented in tables; detailed data are listed in an appendix. Results of analyses of the periodic rainfall and stormflow water-quality samples collected during runoff events are summarized in the appendix; not all data types were collected at all sites nor were all data types collected during the entire 26-month period.

  20. The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments. (United States)

    Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher


    Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation.

  1. Hydrogen isotope exchange between n-alkanes and water under hydrothermal conditions (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Sylva, Sean P.


    To investigate the extent of hydrogen isotope (2H and 1H) exchange between hydrocarbons and water under hydrothermal conditions, we performed experiments heating C1-C5n-alkanes in aqueous solutions of varying initial 2H/1H ratios in the presence of a pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite redox buffer at 323 °C and 35-36 MPa. Extensive and reversible incorporation of water-derived hydrogen into C2-C5n-alkanes was observed on timescales of months. In contrast, comparatively minor exchange was observed for CH4. Isotopic exchange is facilitated by reversible equilibration of n-alkanes and their corresponding n-alkenes with H2 derived from the disproportionation of water. Rates of δ2H variation in C3+n-alkanes decreased with time, a trend that is consistent with an asymptotic approach to steady state isotopic compositions regulated by alkane-water isotopic equilibrium. Substantially slower δ2H variation was observed for ethane relative to C3-C5n-alkanes, suggesting that the greater stability of C3+ alkenes and isomerization reactions may dramatically enhance rates of 2H/1H exchange in C3+n-alkanes. Thus, in reducing aqueous environments, reversible reaction of alkanes and their corresponding alkenes facilitates rapid 2H/1H exchange between water and alkyl-bound hydrogen on relatively short geological timescales at elevated temperatures and pressures. The proximity of some thermogenic and purported abiogenic alkane δ2H values to those predicted for equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation with ambient water suggests that this process may regulate the δ2H signatures of some naturally occurring hydrocarbons.

  2. A correlation for predicting the abrasive water jet cutting depth for natural stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan C. Engin


    Full Text Available The abrasive water jet (AWJ cutting method has been used widely for the cutting and processing of materials because of its cool, damage-free, and precise cutting technique. Nowadays, the use of AWJ cutting in the natural stone industry is increasing. However, the effectiveness of AWJ cutting of natural stones is dependent on the rock properties and machine operating parameters. In this study, injection-type AWJ cutting was applied to 42 different types of natural stones to investigate the effects of rock properties and operating parameters on the cutting depth. Shore hardness, Bohme surface abrasion resistance and the density of the rocks were the most significant rock properties affecting the cutting depth. The working pump pressure and traverse velocity were the most significant operating parameters affecting cutting, as has been shown previously. The relationships between the rock properties or operating parameters and the cutting depth were evaluated using multiple linear and nonlinear regression analyses, and estimation models were developed. Some of the models included only rock properties under fixed operating conditions, and others included both rock properties and operating parameters to predict cutting depth. The models allow for the preselection of particular operating parameters for the cutting of specific rocks types. The prediction of cutting depth is a valuable tool for the controlled surface machining of rock materials.

  3. Experimental and analytical study of stability characteristics of natural circulation boiling water reactors during startup transient (United States)

    Woo, Kyoungsuk

    Two-phase natural circulation loops are unstable at low pressure operating conditions. New reactor design relying on natural circulation for both normal and abnormal core cooling is susceptible to different types of flow instabilities. In contrast to forced circulation boiling water reactor (BWR), natural circulation BWR is started up without recirculation pumps. The tall chimney placed on the top of the core makes the system susceptible to flashing during low pressure start-up. In addition, the considerable saturation temperature variation may induce complicated dynamic behavior driven by thermal non-equilibrium between the liquid and steam. The thermal-hydraulic problems in two-phase natural circulation systems at low pressure and low power conditions are investigated through experimental methods. Fuel heat conduction, neutron kinetics, flow kinematics, energetics and dynamics that govern the flow behavior at low pressure, are formulated. A dimensionless analysis is introduced to obtain governing dimensionless groups which are groundwork of the system scaling. Based on the robust scaling method and start-up procedures of a typical natural circulation BWR, the simulation strategies for the transient with and without void reactivity feedback is developed. Three different heat-up rates are applied to the transient simulations to study characteristics of the stability during the start-up. Reducing heat-up rate leads to increase in the period of flashing-induced density wave oscillation and decrease in the system pressurization rate. However, reducing the heat-up rate is unable to completely prevent flashing-induced oscillations. Five characteristic regions of stability are discovered at low pressure conditions. They are stable single-phase, flashing near the separator, intermittent oscillation, sinusoidal oscillation and low subcooling stable regions. Stability maps were acquired for system pressures ranging 100 kPa to 400 kPa. According to experimental investigation

  4. Water resources and ecological conditions in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Yudong(宋郁东); WANG; Ranghui(王让会); PENG; Yongsheng(彭永生)


    Temporal sequential analyses of the hydrological observational data in the Tarim Ba-sin over the last forty years revealed an annual increase of 2 × 107m3 in the water quantities at thethree headstreams of the upper courses and an annual decrease of 3 × 107m3 in the water flowfrom Alaer, which is on the upper main stream. A prediction of the trends indicates that there canbe severe situations under which intermittent water interceptions occur. By means of approximateestimations on vegetative water consumption through phreatic evaporation combined with a quotaassessment, the ecological water demands required to maintain the ecological environment in themainstream area over the three different targeted years of 2005, 2010 and 2030 are defined asstanding at 31.86× 108m3, 36.27× 108m3 and 41.04× 108m3 respectively. Ecological fragility in-dexes are established on the basis of the selection of environmental sensitivity factors. Rationalevaluations give proof that the lower reaches of the mainstream have already turned into zoneswhere their ecological environments are gravely damaged. Multi-objective optimization should beconducted and protective schemes be framed within the threshold limits of the bearing capacitiesof water resources and the environment.

  5. Oxidation of chlorfenvinphos in ultrapure and natural waters by ozonation and photochemical processes. (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Javier Benitez, F; González, Antonio


    The chemical oxidation of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorfenvinphos, a priority pollutant in aquatic environments, has been conducted in ultrapure water, by means of single degradation agents (ozone and UV radiation), and by the Advanced Oxidation Processes constituted by combinations of these oxidants (O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2)). The influence of the operating variables was discussed, and the degradation rates were evaluated by determining the rate constants for the reactions with ozone (k(O)(3)=3.7+/-0.2 L mol(-1)s(-1)) and OH radicals (k(OH)=(3.2+/-0.2)x10(9) L mol(-1)s(-1)), as well as the quantum yield for the photodegradation (around 0.1 mol E(-1), depending on the pH). Additionally, the ozonation of chlorfenvinphos in a natural water system (a surface water from a reservoir) was studied. The influence of the operating conditions on the insecticide removal efficiency was established, and the R(ct) parameter was evaluated. A kinetic model was proposed for the prediction of the elimination rate of chlorfenvinphos in the ozonation process and the results obtained reveal a good agreement between experimental results and predicted values.

  6. Geology and ground-water conditions in the Wilmington-Reading area, Massachusetts (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus; Healy, H.G.; Hackett, O.M.


    The Wilmington-Reading area, as defined for this report, contains the headwaters of the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts. Since World War II the growth of communities in this area and the change in character of some of them from rural to suburban have created new water problems and intensified old ones. The purpose of this report on ground-water conditions is to provide information that will aid in understanding and resolving some of these problems. The regional climate, which is humid and temperate, assures the area an ample natural supply of water. At the current stage of water-resources development a large surplus of water drains from the area by way of the Ipswich River during late autumn, winter, and spring each year and is unavailable for use during summer and early autumn, when during some years there is a general water deficiency. Ground water occurs both in bedrock and in the overlying deposits of glacial drift. The bedrock is a source of small but generally reliable supplies of water throughout the area. Glacial till also is a source of small supplies of water, but wells in till often fail to meet modern demands. Stratified glacial drift, including ice-contact deposits and outwash, yields small to large supplies of water. Stratified glacial drift forms the principal ground-water reservoir. It partly fills a system of preglacial valleys corresponding roughly to the valleys of the present Ipswich River system and is more than 100 feet thick at places. The ice-contact deposits generally are more permeable than the outwash deposits. Ground water occurs basically under water-table conditions. Recharge in the Wilmington-Reading area is derived principally from precipitation on outcrop areas of ice-contact deposits and outwash during late autumn, winter. and spring. It is estimated that the net annual recharge averages about 10 inches and generally ranges from 5 inches during unusually dry years to 15 inches during unusually wet years. Ground water

  7. Effects of various thermal boundary conditions on natural convection in porous cavities (United States)

    Cheong, H. T.; Sivasankaran, S.; Bhuvaneswari, M.; Siri, Z.


    The present work analyzes numerically the effects of various thermal boundary conditions and the geometry of the cavity on natural convection in cavities with fluid-saturated porous medium. Cavity of square, right-angled trapezium and right-angled triangle shapes are considered. The different temperature profiles are imposed on the left wall of the cavity and the right wall is maintained at a lower constant temperature. The top and bottom walls are adiabatic. The Darcy model is adopted for the porous medium. The finite difference method is used to solve the governing equations and boundary conditions over a range of Darcy-Rayleigh numbers. Streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers are used for presenting the results. The heat transfer of the square cavity is more enhanced at high Darcy-Rayleigh number for all the thermal boundary conditions considered.

  8. Determination of selenium in natural waters by adsorptive differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry. (United States)

    Ashournia, Mehdi; Aliakbar, Alireza


    In this work bovine albumin was used innovatively as a medium for adsorptive accumulation of Se-I(2) on thin mercury film electrode. Se-I(2) was formed by reaction between Se(IV) and iodide in HCl media. The adsorbed Se-I(2) was stripped in 0.05 M HCl by differential pulse cathodic potential scan. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of Se(IV) and Se(VI) in natural waters sampled from some lagoons south of Caspian Sea. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters and influence of cations and anions were studied. The detection limit was 0.37 ng mL(-1). The obtained results were compared with the results of DPCSV after electrochemical preconcentration, HG-AAS and ICP-AES.

  9. Maggie Creek Water Quality Data for Ecological Proper Functioning Condition Analysis (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are "standard" water quality parameters collected for surface water condition analysis (for example pH, conductivity, DO, TSS). This dataset is associated...

  10. The effect of induced mutations on quantitative traits in Arabidopsis thaliana: Natural versus artificial conditions. (United States)

    Stearns, Frank W; Fenster, Charles B


    Mutations are the ultimate source of all genetic variations. New mutations are expected to affect quantitative traits differently depending on the extent to which traits contribute to fitness and the environment in which they are tested. The dogma is that the preponderance of mutations affecting fitness will be skewed toward deleterious while their effects on nonfitness traits will be bidirectionally distributed. There are mixed views on the role of stress in modulating these effects. We quantify mutation effects by inducing mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia accession) using the chemical ethylmethane sulfonate. We measured the effects of new mutations relative to a premutation founder for fitness components under both natural (field) and artificial (growth room) conditions. Additionally, we measured three other quantitative traits, not expected to contribute directly to fitness, under artificial conditions. We found that induced mutations were equally as likely to increase as decrease a trait when that trait was not closely related to fitness (traits that were neither survivorship nor reproduction). We also found that new mutations were more likely to decrease fitness or fitness-related traits under more stressful field conditions than under relatively benign artificial conditions. In the benign condition, the effect of new mutations on fitness components was similar to traits not as closely related to fitness. These results highlight the importance of measuring the effects of new mutations on fitness and other traits under a range of conditions.

  11. Minimal-time bioremediation of natural water resources


    Gajardo, Pedro; Harmand, Jerome; Ramirez Cabrera , H; Rapaport, Alain


    International audience; We study minimal time strategies for the treatment of pollution of large volumes, such as lakes or natural reservoirs, with the help of an autonomous bioreactor. The control consists in feeding the bioreactor from the resource, the clean output returning to the resource with the same flow rate. We first characterize the optimal policies among constant and feedback controls, under the assumption of a uniform concentration in the resource. In a second part, we study the ...

  12. Adsorptive properties of natural water surfactant films. Dead Vistula catchment water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław J. Pogorzelski


    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of natural film experiments carried out on inland waters in the Dead Vistula (Martwa Wisła catchment area during 1999-2002 using the integrated Langmuir trough-Wilhelmy plate system, which "cuts out" an undisturbed film-covered area without any physicochemical sample processing. The static film parameters result from the generalized scaling procedures applied to the surface pressure-area isotherms. They appear to correspond well to observations of the film composition Alim, MW, Eisoth, film solubility and the miscibility of its components (via R, ΔSc and y factors, and surface concentration Πeq, Γeq. A novel approach is presented for the adsorption dynamics on the basis of the mixed kinetic-diffusion model and analyses of the dynamic surface pressure plots, which leads to the determination of the effective relative diffusion coefficient Deff / D and activation energy barrier i>Ea / RT. There is reason to believe that certain classes of film-forming components or "end-members" may dominate the static and dynamic surface properties. Some of these substances can be used as source-specific surface-active biomarkers to trace temporal and spatial changes due to environmental factors or the production of biological matter. The concept was tested for the Dead Vistula river and its tributaries. The results demonstrate that natural films are a complex mixture of biopolymeric molecules covering a wide range of solubilities, surface activities and molecular masses with an apparentstructural film architecture. Such studies could lead to the development of film structure parameters - indicators of ecosystem quality and the state of the environment.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Ying


    When a body navigates with cavity in shallow water,both flexible free surface and rigid bottom wall will produce great influences on the cavity shape and hydrodynamic performances,and further affect the motion attitude and stability of the body.In the present work,characteristics of the natural cavitating flow around a 2-D symmetrical wedge in shallow water were investigated and the influences of two type boundaries on the flow pattern were analyzed.The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphaseflow method which is suitable for free surface problems was utilized,coupled with a natural cavitation model to deal with the mass-transfer process between liquid and vapor phases.Within the range of the cavitation number for computation (0.07-1.81),the cavity configurations would be divided into three types,viz.,stable type,transition type and wake-vortex type.In this article,the shapes of the free surface and the cavity surface,and the hydrodynamic performance of the wedge were discussed under the conditions of relatively small cavitation number ( < 0.256 ).The present numerical cavity lengths generally accord with experimental data.When the cavitation number was decreased,the cavity was found to become longer and thicker,and the scope of the deformation of the free surface also gradually extends.The free surface and the upper cavity surface correspond fairly to their shapes.However,the lower side of the cavity surface was rather leveled due to the influence of wall boundary.The lift and drag coefficients of this 2-D wedge basically keep linear relations with the natural cavitation number smaller than 0.157,whereas direct proportion for drag and inverse proportion for lift.

  14. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses. (United States)

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan


    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, the most common method of disposal of waste water is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high labor requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface an d ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonl y used for treatment of seconda ry municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ethiopia. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. Th is paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alt ernative treatment mechanism for agricultural wa stewater and suggests design guide lines.

  16. Exposure assessment of natural uranium from drinking water. (United States)

    Jakhu, Rajan; Mehra, Rohit; Mittal, H M


    The uranium concentration in the drinking water of the residents of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan has been measured for exposure assessment. The daily intake of uranium from the drinking water for the residents of the study area is found to vary from 0.4 to 123.9 μg per day. For the average uranium ingestion rate of 35.2 μg per day for a long term exposure period of 60 years, estimations have been made for the retention of uranium in different body organs and its excretion with time using ICRP's biokinetic model of uranium. Radioactive and chemical toxicity of uranium has been reported and discussed in detail in the present manuscript.

  17. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.


    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  18. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.


    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  19. Water Trapping on Tidally Locked Terrestrial Planets Requires Special Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Yongyun; Abbot, Dorian S


    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea-ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, night-side sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and night-side water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's w...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius D.; Bucknor, Matthew; Kraus, Adam R.; Lv, Qiuping


    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive safety concept under consideration for the overall safety strategy of advanced reactors such as the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). One such variant, air-cooled RCCS, uses natural convection to drive the flow of air from outside the reactor building to remove decay heat during normal operation and accident scenarios. The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (“Argonne”) is a half-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The facility was constructed to carry out highly instrumented experiments to study the performance of the RCCS concept for reactor decay heat removal that relies on natural convection cooling. Parallel modeling and simulation efforts were performed to support the design, operation, and analysis of the natural convection system. Throughout the testing program, strong influences of ambient conditions were observed in the experimental data when baseline tests were repeated under the same test procedures. Thus, significant analysis efforts were devoted to gaining a better understanding of these influences and the subsequent response of the NSTF to ambient conditions. It was determined that air humidity had negligible impacts on NSTF system performance and therefore did not warrant consideration in the models. However, temperature differences between the building exterior and interior air, along with the outside wind speed, were shown to be dominant factors. Combining the stack and wind effects together, an empirical model was developed based on theoretical considerations and using experimental data to correlate zero-power system flow rates with ambient meteorological conditions. Some coefficients in the model were obtained based on best fitting the experimental data. The predictive capability of the empirical model was demonstrated by applying it to the new set of experimental data. The

  1. On the nature of a supposed water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Heckmann


    Full Text Available A cell model that has been proposed by Stanley and Franzese in 2002 for modeling water is based on Potts variables that represent the possible orientations of bonds between water molecules. We show that in the liquid phase, where all cells are occupied by a molecule, the Hamiltonian of the cell model can be rewritten as a Hamiltonian of a conventional Potts model, albeit with two types of coupling constants. We argue that such a model, while having a first-order phase transition, cannot display the critical end point that is postulated for the phase transition between a high- and low-density liquid. A closer look at the mean-field calculations that claim to find such an end point in the cell model reveals that the mean-field theory is constructed such that the symmetry constraints on the order parameter are violated. This is equivalent to introducing an external field. The introduction of such a field can be given a physical justification due to the fact that water does not have the type of long-range order occurring in the Potts model.

  2. On the nature of a supposed water model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, Lotta, E-mail:; Drossel, Barbara [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)


    A cell model that has been proposed by Stanley and Franzese in 2002 for modeling water is based on Potts variables that represent the possible orientations of bonds between water molecules. We show that in the liquid phase, where all cells are occupied by a molecule, the Hamiltonian of the cell model can be rewritten as a Hamiltonian of a conventional Potts model, albeit with two types of coupling constants. We argue that such a model, while having a first-order phase transition, cannot display the critical end point that is postulated for the phase transition between a high- and low-density liquid. A closer look at the mean-field calculations that claim to find such an end point in the cell model reveals that the mean-field theory is constructed such that the symmetry constraints on the order parameter are violated. This is equivalent to introducing an external field. The introduction of such a field can be given a physical justification due to the fact that water does not have the type of long-range order occurring in the Potts model.

  3. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics during rainfall-driven conditions (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad


    Within this study we propose a stochastic approach to simulate soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone by using a non-linear, space domain random walk of water particles. Soil water is represented by particles of constant mass, which travel according to the Itô form of the Fokker-Planck equation. The model concept builds on established soil physics by estimating the drift velocity and the diffusion term based on the soil water characteristics. A naive random walk, which assumes all water particles to move at the same drift velocity and diffusivity, overestimated depletion of soil moisture gradients compared to a Richards solver. This is because soil water and hence the corresponding water particles in smaller pore size fractions are, due to the non-linear decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity with decreasing soil moisture, much less mobile. After accounting for this subscale variability in particle mobility, the particle model and a Richards solver performed highly similarly during simulated wetting and drying circles in three distinctly different soils. Both models were in very good accordance during rainfall-driven conditions, regardless of the intensity and type of the rainfall forcing and the shape of the initial state. Within subsequent drying cycles the particle model was typically slightly slower in depleting soil moisture gradients than the Richards model. Within a real-world benchmark, the particle model and the Richards solver showed the same deficiencies in matching observed reactions of topsoil moisture to a natural rainfall event. The particle model performance, however, clearly improved after a straightforward implementation of rapid non-equilibrium infiltration, which treats event water as different types of particles, which travel initially in the largest pore fraction at maximum velocity and experience a slow diffusive mixing with the pre-event water particles. The proposed Lagrangian approach is hence a promising, easy

  4. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Mathisen, R.P.; Eklind, O.; Norman, B.


    The hydrodynamic stability and the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water have been studied in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test section was a round, duct of 20 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure, increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing inlet sub-cooling and increasing throttling after the test section. The measured thresholds of instability compared well with the analytical results by Jahnberg. For an inlet sub-cooling temperature of about 2 deg C the measured burnout steam qualities were low by a factor of about 1.3 compared to forced circulation data obtained with the same test section. At higher sub-cooling temperatures the discrepancy between forced and natural circulation data increased, so that at {delta}t{sub sub} = 16 deg C, the natural circulation data were low by a factor of about 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zavadskaya


    Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

  6. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis. (United States)

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I


    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources.

  7. Quantitative trait loci associated with natural diversity in water-use efficiency and response to soil drying in Brachypodium distachyon. (United States)

    Des Marais, David L; Razzaque, Samsad; Hernandez, Kyle M; Garvin, David F; Juenger, Thomas E


    All plants must optimize their growth with finite resources. Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the relationship between biomass acquisition and transpired water. In the present study, we performed two experiments to understand the genetic basis of WUE and other parameters of plant-water interaction under control and water-limited conditions. Our study used two inbred natural accessions of Brachypodium distachyon, a model grass species with close phylogenetic affinity to temperate forage and cereal crops. First, we identify the soil water content which causes a reduction in leaf relative water content and an increase in WUE. Second, we present results from a large phenotyping experiment utilizing a recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from these same two natural accessions. We identify QTLs associated with environmentally-insensitive genetic variation in WUE, including a pair of epistatically interacting loci. We also identify QTLs associated with constitutive differences in biomass and a QTL describing an environmentally-sensitive difference in leaf carbon content. Finally, we present a new linkage map for this mapping population based on new SNP markers as well as updated genomic positions for previously described markers. Our studies provide an initial characterization of plant-water relations in B. distachyon and identify candidate genomic regions involved in WUE.

  8. Hydrate Formation/Dissociation in (Natural Gas + Water + Diesel Oil Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun


    Full Text Available Hydrate formation/dissociation of natural gas in (diesel oil + water emulsion systems containing 3 wt% anti-agglomerant were performed for five water cuts: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol%. The natural gas solubilities in the emulsion systems were also examined. The experimental results showed that the solubility of natural gas in emulsion systems increases almost linearly with the increase of pressure, and decreases with the increase of water cut. There exists an initial slow hydrate formation stage for systems with lower water cut, while rapid hydrate formation takes place and the process of the gas-liquid dissolution equilibrium at higher water cut does not appear in the pressure curve. The gas consumption amount due to hydrate formation at high water cut is significantly higher than that at low water cut. Fractional distillation for natural gas components also exists during the hydrate formation process. The experiments on hydrate dissociation showed that the dissociation rate and the amount of dissociated gas increase with the increase of water cut. The variations of temperature in the process of natural gas hydrate formation and dissociation in emulsion systems were also examined.

  9. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.


    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number:, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  10. Natural organic matter interactions with polyamide and polysulfone membranes: Formation of conditioning film

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo


    A conditioning film changes the physicochemical properties of the membrane surface and strongly affects subsequent fouling behavior. Results from this Atomic Force Microscopy study indicate that Natural Organic Matter (NOM) characteristics, membrane surface properties, and solution chemistry are fundamental during conditioning film formation. Repulsive forces were observed between HUM (humic-NOM) and Polyamide (PA) or Polysulfone (PS) membranes during approach in Na+ and Ca2+ solutions. However, repulsive and attractive forces were randomly recorded during BIOP (biopolymer-NOM) approach to both membranes, possibly caused by low electrostatic repulsion, hydrogen bonding, and presence of chemically/physically heterogeneous regions on membrane surfaces. During retracting, Ca2+ ions increased HUM adhesion to PA and PS membrane, indicating cation bridging/complexation as dominant interacting mechanism for this isolate. BIOP adsorption on PS and PA membrane was stronger than HUM under similar solution conditions, where hydrogen bonding would play an important role. Additionally, irrespective of solution conditions, higher adhesion energy was recorded on PS than on PA membrane for both NOM isolates, indicating membrane hydrophobicity as an important interacting factor. Results from this research will advance our understanding of conditioning film formation for NOM isolates and membranes of different physicochemical characteristics.

  11. Manganese complexes with bicarbonate and sulfate in natural water (United States)

    Hem, J.D.


    The association constant for the dissolved species MnHCO3+ was experimentally determined to be 63. From this value and a published constant for the species MNSO4 aq., a diagram was prepared showing per cent of dissolved manganese complexed in the presence of 10 to 10,000 p.p.m. bicarbonate and 1.0 to 10,000 p.p.m. sulfate. The rate of oxidation of Mn+2 in aerated water is greatly increased by increasing pH, and is retarded when SO4-2and HCO3- are present.

  12. Natural COnvective Heat and Mass Transfer on a Vertical Heated Plate for Water Flow Containing Metal Corrosion Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xueJiang; Ze-peiRen; 等


    Corrosion products of structural materials when contained in water usually are in two states:soluble state and colloidal particles with dimeter about 10-3-10-1um,Deposits of such corrosion products on tube surfaces under high pressure will jeopardize the operating economy of power plant equipment and even esult in accidents.A numerical study is reported in this paper of the natural convective heat and mass transfer on a vertical heated plate subject to the flrst or mixed kind of boundary conditions for high-pressure water(P=17MPa) containing metal corrosion products with consideration of varialbe thermophysical properties.

  13. Activation of persulfates by natural magnetic pyrrhotite for water disinfection: Efficiency, mechanisms, and stability. (United States)

    Xia, Dehua; Li, Yan; Huang, Guocheng; Yin, Ran; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun; Lu, Anhuai; Wong, Po Keung


    This study introduces natural occurring magnetic pyrrhotite (NP) as an environmentally friendly, easy available, and cost-effective alternative catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) of controlling microbial water contaminants. The E. coli K-12 inactivation kinetics observed in batch experiments was well described with first-order reaction. The optimum inactivation rate (k = 0.47 log/min) attained at a NP dose of 1 g/L and a PS dose of 1 mM, corresponding to total inactivation of 7 log10 cfu/mL cells within 15 min. Measured k increased > 2-fold when temperature increased from 20 to 50 °C; and > 4-fold when pH decreased from 9 to 3. Aerobic conditions were more beneficial to cell inactivation than anaerobic conditions due to more reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated. ROS responsible for the inactivation were identified to be SO4(-) > OH > H2O2 based on a positive scavenging test and in situ ROS determination. In situ characterization suggested that PS effectively bind to NP surface was likely to form charge transfer complex (≡Fe(II)⋯O3SOOSO3(-)), which mediated ROS generation and E. coli K-12 oxidation. The increased cell-envelope lesions consequently aggravated intracellular protein depletion and genome damage to cause definite bacterial death. The NP still maintained good physiochemical structure and stable activity even after 4 cycle. Moreover, NP/PS system also exhibited good E. coli K-12 inactivation efficiency in authentic water matrices like surface water and effluents of secondary wastewater.

  14. Low-flow characteristics of streams under natural and diversion conditions, Waipiʻo Valley, Island of Hawaiʻi, Hawaiʻi (United States)

    Fontaine, Richard A.


    Over the past 100 years, natural streamflow in Waipiʻo Valley has been reduced by the transfer of water out of the valley by Upper and Lower Hāmākua Ditches. The physical condition and diversion practices along the two ditch systems have varied widely over the years, and as a result, so have their effects on natural streamflow in Waipiʻo Valley. Recent renovation and improvements to Lower Hāmākua Ditch system, along with proposals for its future operation and water-diversion strategies, have unknown implications. The purpose of this report is to quantify the availability of streamflow and to determine the effects of current and proposed diversion strategies on the low-flow hydrology in Waipiʻo Valley. In this report, the low-flow hydrology of Waipiʻo Valley is described in terms of flow-duration statistics. Flow-duration statistics were computed for three locations in the Waipiʻo Valley study area where long-term surface-water gaging stations have been operated. Using a variety of streamflow record-extension techniques, flow-duration statistics were estimated at an additional 13 locations where only few historical data are available or where discharge measurements were made as part of this study. Flow-duration statistics were computed to reflect natural conditions, current (2000-2005) diversion conditions, and proposed future diversion conditions at the 16 locations. At the downstream limit of the study area, on Wailoa Stream at an altitude of 190 feet, a baseline for evaluating the availability of streamflow is provided by computed flow-duration statistics that are representative of natural, no-diversion conditions. At the Wailoa gaging station, 95- and 50-percentile discharges under natural conditions were determined to be 86 and 112 cubic feet per second, respectively. Under 1965-1969 diversion conditions, natural 95- and 50-percentile discharges were reduced by 52 and 53 percent, to 41 and 53 cubic feet per second, respectively. Under current (2000

  15. MR-6 type fuel elements cooling in natural convection conditions after the reactor shut down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, K.; Bykowski, W.; Moldysz, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock Swierk (Poland)


    Natural cooling conditions of the nuclear fuel in the channel type reactor after its shut down are commonly determined with relatively high uncertainty. This is not only to he lack of adequate measurements of thermal parameters i.e. the residual power generation, the coolant flow and temperatures, but also due to indeterminate model of convection mechanism. The numerical simulation of natural convection in multitube fuel assembly in the fuel channel leads to various convection modes including evidently chaotic behaviour. To determine the real cooling conditions in the MARIA research reactor a series of experiments has been performed with fuel assembly equipped with a set of thermocouples. After some forced cooling period (the shortest was half an hour after the reactor shut down) the reactor was left with the only natural convection. Two completely different cooling modes have been observed. The MARIA core consists of series of individual fuel channel and so called bypasses, maintaining the hydraulic properties of the fuel channel, connected in parallel. Initially, the convection cells were established trough few so-called bypasses providing a very effective mode of cooling. In this mode the flow charts were identical to those existing in forced cooling mode. After certain period the system switched on the second cooling mode with natural circulation within the individual fuel cells. Higher temperatures and temperature fluctuations were characteristic for this mode approaching 30 deg in amplitude. In almost all the cases the system was switching few times between modes, but eventually remained in the second mode. The switching times were not regular and the process has a chaotic behaviour. (author)

  16. Charming water-wave with natural gas technology. Hints for planning natural-gas use in hairdressers' shops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzfischer, I.

    Both fitters of natural-gas equipment and advisers on the staff of gas utilities who deal with hairdressers' shops must have detailed knowledge of the ins and outs of the business to be able to make a correct assessment of heating and hot-water requirements before deciding on the capacity and type of devices. Rates also play an important part in that trade. The paper presents detailed information on water-heating in hairdressers' shops. Advisory staff will find important clues.

  17. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cel


    Full Text Available Poland, due to the estimated shale gas deposits amounting to 346-768 billion m3 has become one of the most attractive regions for shale gas exploration in Europe. Throughout the period 2010-2015, 72 exploratory drillings have been made (as of 4.01.2016 while hydraulic fracturing was carried out 25 times. Employing new drilling and shale gas prospecting technologies raises a question pertaining to their impact on the environment. The number of chemical compounds used (approximately 2000 for the production of new technological fluids may potentially pollute the environment. The fact that the composition of these fluids remains undisclosed hinders the assessment of their impact on the environment and devising optimal methods for managing this type of waste. The presented work indicates the chemical compounds which may infiltrate to groundwater, identified on the basis of technological fluids characteristics, as well as the review of studies pertaining to their impact on potable water carried out in the United States. The study focused on marking heavy metals, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, chlorides and sulphates in the surface waters collected in proximity of Lewino well.

  20. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation. (United States)

    Fontenot, Brian E; Hunt, Laura R; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Oka, Hyppolite; Walton, Jayme L; Hopkins, Dan; Osorio, Alexandra; Bjorndal, Bryan; Hu, Qinhong H; Schug, Kevin A


    Natural gas has become a leading source of alternative energy with the advent of techniques to economically extract gas reserves from deep shale formations. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale formation of North Texas. We evaluated samples from 100 private drinking water wells using analytical chemistry techniques. Analyses revealed that arsenic, selenium, strontium and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in some samples from private water wells located within 3 km of active natural gas wells. Lower levels of arsenic, selenium, strontium, and barium were detected at reference sites outside the Barnett Shale region as well as sites within the Barnett Shale region located more than 3 km from active natural gas wells. Methanol and ethanol were also detected in 29% of samples. Samples exceeding MCL levels were randomly distributed within areas of active natural gas extraction, and the spatial patterns in our data suggest that elevated constituent levels could be due to a variety of factors including mobilization of natural constituents, hydrogeochemical changes from lowering of the water table, or industrial accidents such as faulty gas well casings.

  1. Estimated mean annual natural ground-water recharge in the conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer resolution raster (grid) dataset is an index of mean annual natural ground-water recharge. The dataset was created by multiplying a grid of...

  2. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve is 8.485 billion yuan, while the function of water conservation is a small fraction of ecological service function, indicating that there is great ecological value in service function of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve, that is, Gongbo Nature Reserve has vital ecological value.

  3. Photochemical reactivity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in conditions representing surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaalgamaa, Sanna, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Vaehaetalo, Anssi V. [Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Coastal Zone Research Team, Aronia Research and Development Institute, Novia University of Applied Sciences and Abo Akademi University, Raseborgsvaegen 9, FI-10600 Ekenaes (Finland); Perkola, Noora; Huhtala, Sami [Finnish Environment Institute, Research and Innovation Laboratory, Hakuninmaantie 6 (P.O. Box 149), FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)


    Potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to degrade via indirect photolysis in aquatic solution under conditions representing surface water was studied. Globally distributed and bioaccumulative PFOA does not absorb solar radiation by itself, but may be potentially photochemically transformed by the natural sensitizers such as dissolved organic matter (DOM), nitrate or ferric iron. Reaction solutions containing purified water, fulvic acid (representing DOM), nitrate, ferric iron or sea water from the Baltic Sea were spiked with PFOA and irradiated with an artificial sun (290-800 nm). In comparison similar samples were also irradiated under UV radiation at 254 nm in order to study the direct photolysis. UV radiation at 254 nm decomposed PFOA to perfluoroheptanoic-, perfluorohexanoic- and perfluoropentanoic acids. The samples irradiated with an artificial sun contained no decomposition products and no decrease in PFOA concentration was observed. According to the detection limit of the products and typical solar radiation at the surface of ocean, the photochemical half-life for PFOA was estimated to be at least 256 years at the depth of 0 m, > 5000 years in the mixing layer of open ocean and > 25,000 years in coastal ocean. This is significantly more than the previously reported photochemical half-life of PFOA (> 0.96 years). - Research highlights: {yields} UV-vis irradiation (290-800 nm) with natural sensitizers did not promote decomposition of PFOA. {yields} The photochemical half-life of PFOA is at least 256 years at the depth of 0 m. {yields} In the mixing layer of open ocean the photochemical half-life is > 5000 years. {yields} In coastal ocean PFOA photochemical half-life is more than 25,000 years.

  4. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola


    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  5. Minimal-time bioremediation of natural water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Gajardo, Pedro; Rapaport, Alain; Harmand, Jérôme


    We study minimal time strategies for the treatment of pollution of large volumes, such as lakes or natural reservoirs, with the help of an autonomous bioreactor. The control consists in feeding the bioreactor from the resource, the clean output returning to the resource with the same flow rate. We first characterize the optimal policies among constant and feedback controls, under the assumption of a uniform concentration in the resource. In a second part, we study the influence of an inhomogeneity in the resource, considering two measurements points. With the help of the Maximum Principle, we show that the optimal control law is non-monotonic and terminates with a constant phase, contrary to the homogeneous case for which the optimal flow rate is decreasing with time. This study allows the decision makers to identify situations for which the benefit of using non-constant flow rates is significant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE


    Full Text Available Central Caucasus is an important transit place for the "Great Silk Road"; an important role in it is assigned to the Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line which is at finishing stage of its construction, and others. The countries of Central Caucasus can make a meaningful contribution to the construction of the "New Silk Road" with other untapped rich natural resources. Especially attractive for investors can be the Georgian underground artesian renewable, biologically clean drinking water reserves of international importance; an effective utilization of their small part can make a significant contribution to the resolving of high quality drinking water supply problem for millions of people in Europe and Asia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, independent post-Soviet Georgia has passed through the toughest period of reforms, conflicts and development. A significant part of its territory is still occupied, the economy is weak; the country is oriented to the European Union. In this light the country should use foreign experience and capabilities in the real sector (agriculture, mining industry .... In post-Soviet Georgia according to the current legislation, foreign investors enjoy the same rights as domestic ones. A large part of the world's population suffers from water shortages. In Georgia this resource is virtually untapped (only 0.01 is used. This resource will further rise in price on the world market of raw materials. Through the participation of foreign investors Georgia can make its contribution to the solving of the above-noted global problem in different directions: By the exploitation of freshwater resources Georgia should become a larger producer and exporter of drinking water until the problems of products transportation arise; the second part of underground water reserves should be provided to Europe and other countries through

  7. Evaluation of effectiveness of natural organic compounds removal from water in hybrid processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malczewska Beata


    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (Natural Organic Matter – NOM represents a mixture of diverse chemical structure and different properties. The humic substances constitute an important component of NOM, and they are responsible for water color and taste, also they can contribute to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBP. Therefore, removal of NOM is considered to be one of the important technological operations during water treatment.

  8. Separation of Co(II) ions from water resources by natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)


    Jakupi, Shaban; Lisickov, Kiril; Golomeova, Mirjana; Atkovska, Katerina; Marinkovski, Mirko


    The contemporary trends in green separation processes impose the need for application of natural, low-cost and high-efficiency selective adsorbents within the processes for the treatment of drinking water supplies. Lately, nano-porous inorganic sorbents represent an ongoing trend for elimination of heavy metals from water resources. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite was used as a potential raw material for the purpose of removal of Co ions from model solutions. The experimental results were obta...

  9. The prediction of borate mineral equilibria in natural waters: Application to Searles Lake, California (United States)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.


    The chemical equilibrium model of HARVIEet al. (1984) has been extended to include borate species. The model is based upon the semi-empirical equations of PITZER (1973) and coworkers and is valid to high ionic strength (≈14 m) and high borate concentration. Excellent agreement with the existing emf, isopiestic and solubility data in the system (Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-CO2-B(OH)4-H2O) is obtained. Calculated mineral solubilities are in general within 10% of their experimental values, even at high ionic strengths. The model was applied to the multicomponent, high ionic strength (I ~ 10) and high borate concentration (BT ~ 0.5 m) Searles Lake evaporite deposit. Utilizing the chemical composition of the interstitial brine, the model predicts equilibrium between the brine and only those minerals which are known to be in contact with the brine. These calculations clearly demonstrate the applicability of the model to high ionic strength, high borate concentration natural waters. The model was also utilized to calculate the mineral sequences which should result from evaporation of the major source of water for Searles Lake, the Owens River. The geochemical conditions necessary for the formation of the most recent mud and saline units are examined. The final results indicate that the mineral sequences found in the most recent saline unit in Searles Lake can be produced by evaporation of a water close in composition to present Owens River water, provided primary dolomite formation is delayed and back reaction between the Parting Mud and the Upper Salt is inhibited.

  10. Simulation of Surface-Water Conditions in the Nontidal Passaic River Basin, New Jersey (United States)

    Spitz, Frederick J.


    The Passaic River Basin, the third largest drainage basin in New Jersey, encompasses 950 mi2 (square miles) in the highly urbanized area outside New York City, with a population of 2 million. Water quality in the basin is affected by many natural and anthropogenic factors. Nutrient loading to the Wanaque Reservoir in the northern part of the basin is of particular concern and is caused partly by the diversion of water at two downstream intakes that is transferred back upstream to refill the reservoir. The larger of these diversions, Wanaque South intake, is on the lower Pompton River near Two Bridges, New Jersey. To support the development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nutrients in the nontidal part of the basin (805 mi2), a water-quality transport model was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and New Jersey EcoComplex, developed a flow-routing model to provide the hydraulic inputs to the water-quality model. The Diffusion Analogy Flow model (DAFLOW) described herein was designed for integration with the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) watershed water-quality model. The flow routing model was used to simulate flow in 108 miles of the Passaic River and major tributaries. Flow data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations represent most of the model's upstream boundaries. Other model inputs include estimated flows for ungaged tributaries and unchanneled drainage along the mainstem, and reported flows for major point-source discharges and diversions. The former flows were calibrated using the drainage-area ratio method. The simulation extended over a 4+ year period representing a range in flow conditions. Simulated channel cross-sectional geometry in the DAFLOW model was calibrated using several different approaches by adjusting area and top width parameters. The model also was calibrated to observed flows for water year 2001 (low flow) at five mainstem

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of natural water and selenium-rich water resources in the Northern Daba Mountains, China. (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Luo, Kunli; Du, Yajun; Tian, Yuan; Long, Jie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shixi


    The Northern Daba Mountains (NDM) of Shaanxi Province, China, are a well-known selenium (Se)-rich area, and the area is also known for endemic fluorine (F) and arsenic (As) poisoning. In order to study the hydrochemical characteristics and trace element contents of the natural waters of this region, 62 water samples were collected from Lan'gao area in the NDM. The hydrochemical composition was principally characterized by Ca·Mg-HCO3·SO4. F and As concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.67 mg/L and from 0.33 to 6.29 μg/L, respectively, lower than Chinese national standard and international guidelines for drinking water quality. One year of monitoring proved that F and As in natural water were not the sources of the local fluorosis and arseniasis in the NDM. The average Se concentration in fissure water was 5.20 μg/L. The average Se content of river water was 2.82 μg/L, 14 times that of the world's surface level (0.2 μg/L). The Se content in eight samples reached the Chinese national standards for mineral drinking water quality (>10 μg/L). Contrasting the water samples of May, July, and September in 2015 shows that the Se content is relatively stable and the increase of humidity might be beneficial to increase the content of selenium and strontium in water.

  12. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries]. (United States)

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco


    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality using natural treatment methods in rural Tanzania. (United States)

    Mbogo, Shaaban Aman


    It is estimated that one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated drinking water. This paper reports on an investigation into the potential of indigenous or natural water treatment methods as alternatives to conventional chemical water treatment methods. The seeds of five natural plant species--Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus mungo, Glycine max, Pisum sativam, and Arachis hypogea--were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, and their efficiency was compared with that of alum. The use of a solar energy-saving method to disinfect drinking water--leaving it to heat under the sun to reduce bacteria colonies--also was evaluated, The study revealed that for raw water with turbidity of 482 nephelometric turbidity units, coagulation with seed extracts from natural plant species reduced natural turbidity by 96.7 to 100 percent when the seed extract was used as the primary coagulant and by 100 percent when it was used as a coagulant aid. The study showed further that natural coagulants were as effective as commercial alum [Al2(SO4)3] and even superior for clarification because the optimum dosage was low compared with that of alum. Leaving samples of water clarified by natural coagulants on a black-painted roof for 8 hours achieved up to 100 percent bacteria kill.

  14. Effect of Water Logging Conditions on Solubility of Soil Nutrients (United States)

    The wide use of herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, and soil amendments affect the rhizosphere biochemistry and ecology. Soils in the Midwest of the US tend to be saturated in the early spring when snow and ice melt, and frequent rain occurs. Saturated conditions also occur after heavy rainfall eve...

  15. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Conditions and Variability in Water Quality Parameters (United States)

    Interest in recent years has increased regarding conditions in the nearshore of the Great Lakes. We conducted a high-resolution survey of the Lake Ontario nearshore along the 20 m contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 720 km survey was conducted September 6-10, 20...

  16. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina. (United States)

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I


    (III) and As(V) concentrations in San Juan ranged from 4-138 μg l(-1) to arsenic in surface waters and 32-100% in groundwater. This is unexpected because it is typically thought that in oxidising conditions (surface waters), the dominant arsenic species is As(V). However, data from the SPE methodology suggests that As(III) is the prevalent species in San Juan, indicating a greater influence from reductive processes. La Pampa groundwater had As(III) and As(V) concentrations of 5-1,332 μg l(-1) and 0.09-592 μg l(-1) for EC and 32-242 μg l(-1) and 30-277 μg l(-1) As for LU, respectively. Detectable levels of MA(V) were reported in both provinces up to a concentration of 79 μg l(-1) (equating to up to 33% of the total arsenic). Previously published literature has focused primarily on the inorganic arsenic species, however this study highlights the potentially significant concentrations of organoarsenicals present in natural waters. The potential for separating and preserving individual arsenic species in the field to avoid transformation during transport to the laboratory, enabling an accurate assessment of in situ arsenic speciation in water supplies is discussed.

  17. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions (United States)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.


    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icinig. Flight data wre reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured 'iced' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13173

  18. Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati


    Uttaranchal is bestowed with numerous rivers, huge forest resources ranging from tropical to temperate, tourists' places, pilgrimages and feasible climatic conditions for growing fruits, vegetables,food grains, livestock rearing, tea garden practices, etc.The economic development, on the other hand, could not take place partly due to lack of modern technology with innovation in agricultural system and also unwillingness of the people towards using it.Furthermore, due to its harsh climatic conditions,rigorous terrain and distinct identity, as a part of Uttar Pradesh state, the development could not take place and today the state is believed to be one of the poorer states. Infrastructurally, this region is lagged behind due to its inaccessibility. The ideal geographical and agrarian conditions might be used evenly for the developmental processes. Ecologically,the whole region is fragile. The diverse socio-economic activities, harsh traditional beliefs and hard working potentials further change the entire scenario of the state. Only the need of the hours is to frame and implementation of the rational policies and planning for sustainable development of the state.What had appeared during the past, pertaining to the economic development, needs radical changes in policies, planning and beliefs. This paper aims to evaluate the present conditions of resources as a form of natural vegetation, agricultural crops, horticultural farming, herbs, tea garden practices, livestock rearing,hydropower projects and economic development of the Uttaranchal Himalaya.

  19. Dynamics of the near response under natural viewing conditions with an open-view sensor. (United States)

    Chirre, Emmanuel; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo


    We have studied the temporal dynamics of the near response (accommodation, convergence and pupil constriction) in healthy subjects when accommodation was performed under natural binocular and monocular viewing conditions. A binocular open-view multi-sensor based on an invisible infrared Hartmann-Shack sensor was used for non-invasive measurements of both eyes simultaneously in real time at 25Hz. Response times for each process under different conditions were measured. The accommodative responses for binocular vision were faster than for monocular conditions. When one eye was blocked, accommodation and convergence were triggered simultaneously and synchronized, despite the fact that no retinal disparity was available. We found that upon the onset of the near target, the unblocked eye rapidly changes its line of sight to fix it on the stimulus while the blocked eye moves in the same direction, producing the equivalent to a saccade, but then converges to the (blocked) target in synchrony with accommodation. This open-view instrument could be further used for additional experiments with other tasks and conditions.

  20. Comparing monoterpenoid emissions and net photosynthesis of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural conditions (United States)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, É.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Steppe, K.


    Although biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) only represent a very limited fraction of the plant's carbon (C) budget, they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry for example as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. We performed a study comparing BVOC emissions of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural environmental conditions. A young and adult beech tree was exposed to short-term temperature variations in growth room conditions and in an experimental forest, respectively. This study attempts to clarify how short-term temperature variations between days influenced the ratio between monoterpenoid (MT) emissions and net photosynthesis (Pn). Within a temperature range of 17-27 °C and 13-23 °C, the MT/Pn carbon ratio increased 10-30 fold for the growth room and forest, respectively. An exponential increasing trend between MT/Pn C ratio and air temperature was observed in both conditions. Beech trees re-emitted a low fraction of the assimilated C back into the atmosphere as MT: 0.01-0.12% and 0.01-0.30% with a temperature rise from 17 to 27 °C and 13-23 °C in growth room and forest conditions, respectively. However, the data showed that the MT/Pn C ratio of young and adult beech trees responded significantly to changes in temperature.

  1. Daily rhythms of physiological parameters in the dromedary camel under natural and laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Al-Haidary, Ahmed A; Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Sani, Mamane; Refinetti, Roberto


    Camels are well adapted to hot arid environments and can contribute significantly to the economy of developing countries in arid regions of the world. Full understanding of the physiology of camels requires understanding of the internal temporal order of the body, as reflected in daily or circadian rhythms. In the current study, we investigated the daily rhythmicity of 20 physiological variables in camels exposed to natural oscillations of ambient temperature in a desert environment and compared the daily temporal courses of the variables. We also studied the rhythm of core body temperature under experimental conditions with constant ambient temperature in the presence and absence of a light-dark cycle. The obtained results indicated that different physiological variables exhibit different degrees of daily rhythmicity and reach their daily peaks at different times of the day, starting with plasma cholesterol, which peaks 24min after midnight, and ending with plasma calcium, which peaks 3h before midnight. Furthermore, the rhythm of core body temperature persisted in the absence of environmental rhythmicity, thus confirming its endogenous nature. The observed delay in the acrophase of core body temperature rhythm under constant conditions suggests that the circadian period is longer than 24h. Further studies with more refined experimental manipulation of different variables are needed to fully elucidate the causal network of circadian rhythms in dromedary camels.

  2. Supplementary artificial light to increase egg production of geese under natural lighting conditions. (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Meng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Lee, Shuen-Rong; Jea, Yu-Shine; Kao, Jung-Yie


    A new supplementary lighting program was designed to increase the egg production of geese under natural light conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementary lighting program on egg production of White Roman geese in an open housing system at the Tropic of Cancer. Forty mature White Roman geese were randomly allocated into two groups (male:female=1:4). The supplementary lighting program with a total daily photoperiod of between 12.0 h and 13.5 h was initiated on 1 November and withdrawn from the experimental group on 30 January. In contrast, the geese in the control group were kept under natural lighting conditions throughout this study. The results showed that the laying peak of the experimental group occurred earlier than normal in the reproductive season and the geese continued laying throughout the breeding season. The geese in the experimental group had 47.6 eggs/goose which was significantly (PTropic of Cancer.

  3. Impact of environmental conditions on the marine natural product bryostatin 1. (United States)

    Manning, Thomas J; Rhodes, Emily; Land, Michael; Parkman, Render; Sumner, Brandy; Lam, Tukiet T; Marshall, Alan G; Phillips, Dennis


    Marine Natural Products (MNPs), such as bryostatin 1, are exposed to a range of physical and chemical conditions through the life cycle of the host organism. These include exposure to sunlight, oxidizing and reducing agents, cation binding, and adsorption to reactive metal oxide surfaces. Using Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR), Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), UV/Vis absorbance spectroscopy, and molecular modeling, we studied the impact of UV light, TiO2, I2, and reaction with FeCl3 on the structure of bryostatin 1. Our results demonstrate that natural conditions transform bryostatin to a number of structures, including one with a molar mass of 806 Da, which we have previously identified in the sediment collected from the Gulf of Mexico. To date, at least 20 different structures of bryostatin have been reported in the literature. This work suggests that these variations may be products of the chemical environment in which the bryozoa Bugula neritina resides and are not the result of genetic variations within Bugula.

  4. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.


    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites.

  5. High stimulus specificity characterizes anti-predator habituation under natural conditions. (United States)

    Hemmi, Jan M; Merkle, Tobias


    Habituation is one of the most fundamental learning processes that allow animals to adapt to dynamic environments. It is ubiquitous and often thought of as a simple form of non-associative learning. Very little is known, though, about the rules that govern habituation and their significance under natural conditions. Questions about how animals incorporate habituation into their daily behaviour and how they can assure only to habituate to non-relevant stimuli are still unanswered. Animals under threat of predation should be particularly selective about which stimuli they habituate to, since ignoring a real threat could be fatal. In this study, we tested the response of fiddler crabs, Uca vomeris, to repeatedly approaching dummy predators to find out whether these animals habituate to potential predators and to test the selectivity of the habituation process. The crabs habituated to model predators, even though they were confronted with real predators during the same habituation process. They showed remarkable selectivity towards the stimulus: a simple change in the approach distance of the stimulus led to a recovery in their responses. The results strongly indicate that in the context of predator avoidance, habituation under natural conditions is highly selective and a stimulus is not defined just by its current sensory signature, but also its spatio-temporal history.

  6. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.


    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites. PMID:28091528

  7. Formation of Carbonate Nanoglobules by a Mixed Natural Culture under Hypersaline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci


    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated formation of Ca and P rich nanoglobules by a mixed natural halophilic population enriched from hypersaline lake sediments in laboratory culture experiments. Nanoglobules consisting of complex mixture of Ca, P, O, and C with minor amount of Mg occurred in the external envelop of bacterial cell in the first week of incubation at various Mg+2/Ca+2 ratios and salinity at 30 °C. Unlike the control experiments (e.g., non-viable cells and without cells, later aggregation and transformation of nanoglobules caused the precipitation of calcium and/or magnesium carbonates in variable amount depending on the Mg+2/Ca+2 ratios of the medium after 37 days of incubation. By showing the nucleation of carbonates on bacterial nanoglobules closely associated with the cell surfaces of mixed natural population this study emphasis that formation of nanoglobules may not be specific to a microbial strain or to activity of a particular microbial group. Formation of carbonate nanoglobules under various conditions (e.g., Mg+2/Ca+2 ratios, salinity with the same halophilic culture suggest that the although metabolic activity of bacteria have an influence on formation of nanoglobules the mineralogy of nanoglobules may be controlled by the physicochemical conditions of the precipitation solution and the rate of mineral precipitation.

  8. Historical metal pollution in natural gudgeon populations: Inferences from allozyme, microsatellite and condition factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapen, Dries, E-mail: [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Research Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); De Wolf, Hans [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Research Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Knaepkens, Guy [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ethology Research Group, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Research Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ethology Research Group, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Research Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Verheyen, Erik [Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Department of Vertebrates, Molecular Laboratory, Vautierstraat 29, 1000 Brussel (Belgium)


    This study presents the results of a microsatellite and allozyme analysis on natural populations of the gudgeon (Gobio gobio) located in a pollution gradient of cadmium and zinc. Differences among contaminated and reference populations were observed at 2 allozyme loci, as well as a relationship between the fish condition factor and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase genotypes, the locus that showed the largest difference in allele frequencies. The microsatellite data partly confirmed the differentiation pattern that was revealed by the allozyme survey. Our data further suggest that at least 2 microsatellite loci may be affected by natural selection. We thus illustrate that both microsatellite and allozyme loci do not necessarily behave as selectively neutral markers in polluted populations. Estimates of population differentiation can therefore be significantly different depending on which loci are being studied. Finally, these results are discussed in the light of the conservation unit concept, because microsatellites are often used to assess genetic variation in endangered natural populations and to propose measures for conservation or management.

  9. Effects of Several Natural Macromolecules on the Stability and Controlled Release Properties of Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsions. (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Yiheng; Zhu, Yunping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting


    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are effective vehicles for embedding application of active compounds but limited by their thermodynamic instability and rapid release properties. The present study added bovine serum albumin, whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate, sodium caseinate, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, fish gelatin, apple pectin, gum arabic, ι-carrageenan, and hydroxypropyl chitosan separately to the internal or external aqueous phase to investigate their effects on the physical stabilities and controlled release properties of W/O/W emulsions. The effects of the natural macromolecules in the internal and external aqueous phases were different and depended upon the macromolecule structure and its mass fraction. The addition of the natural macromolecule strengthened the interfaces of emulsions, which improved the physical stability. The natural macromolecules that improved the stability often did not improve controlled release. Therefore, the balance between these properties needs to be considered when adding natural macromolecules to a W/O/W emulsion.

  10. Pulsed NMR studies of water under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, Timothy Hatmaker


    The dynamic structure of water and heavy water was studied using NMR spin-lattice relaxation and self-diffusion techniques. For both compounds, the relaxation rate is proportional to the ratio of viscosity to absolute temperature at constant density. The coupling between rotational and translational motions decreases with increasing temperature and increasing density. The temperature and density dependence of the deuteron quadrupole coupling constant in D/sub 2/O was determined. The proton spin-lattice relaxation times of supercritical H/sub 2/O were measured from 400 to 700/sup 0/C and to 1 kbar. The times were found to be roughly proportional to density and were found to decrease with temperature. The angular momentum correlation times tau/sub J/ were calculated and compared with the times between collisions for a hard sphere fluid, the Enskog times, tau/sub E/. The values of tau/sub E//tau/sub J/ were roughly 6 at 400/sup 0/C and low densities. The values decreased at higher densities and higher temperatures. The proton spin-lattice relaxation times of H/sub 2/O were also measured from 90 to 350/sup 0/C up to 2 to 5 kbar. The data clearly show the change from dipolar to spin-rotation relaxation as a function of temperature and density. Both the low and the high temperature results agree with the idea that it is the strong and anisotropic intermolecular potential which causes the dynamic behavior of water to be so different from that of normal liquids.

  11. Studies on the stability of preservatives under subcritical water conditions. (United States)

    Kapalavavi, B; Marple, R; Gamsky, C; Yang, Y


    The goal of this work was to further validate the subcritical water chromatography (SBWC) methods for separation and analysis of preservatives through the evaluation of analyte stability in subcritical water. In this study, the degradation of preservatives was investigated at temperatures of 100-200°C using two different approaches. First, the peak areas obtained by SBWC at high temperatures were compared with those achieved using the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 25°C. In the second approach, several preservatives and water were loaded into a vessel and heated at high temperatures for 30 or 60 min. The heated mixtures were then analysed by GC/MS to determine the stability of preservatives. The t- and F-test on the results of the first approach reveal that the peak areas achieved by HPLC and SBWC are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level, meaning that the preservatives studied are stable during the high-temperature SBWC runs. Although the results of the second approach show approximately 10% degradation of preservatives into mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid and phenol at 200°C, the preservatives studied are stable at 100 and 150°C. This is in good agreement with the validation results obtained by the first approach. The findings of this work confirm that SBWC methods at temperatures up to 150°C are reliable for separation and analysis of preservatives in cosmetic and other samples. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Kinetics of Natural Attenuation: Review of the Critical Chemical Conditions and Measurements at Bore Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Atteia


    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical conditions that should favour the biodegradation of organic pollutants. Thermodynamic considerations help to define the reaction that can occur under defined chemical conditions. The BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene degradation is focused on benzene, as it is the most toxic oil component and also because it has the slowest degradation rate under most field conditions. Several studies on benzene degradation allow the understanding of the basic degradation mechanisms and their importance in field conditions. The use of models is needed to interpret field data when transport, retardation, and degradation occur. A detailed comparison of two existing models shows that the limits imposed by oxygen transport must be simulated precisely to reach correct plumes shapes and dimensions, and that first-order kinetic approaches may be misleading. This analysis led us to develop a technique to measure directly biodegradation in the field. The technique to recirculate water at the borehole scale and the CO2 analysis are depicted. First results of biodegradation show that this technique is able to easily detect the degradation of 1 mg/l of hydrocarbons and that, in oxic media, a fast degradation rate of mixed fuel is observed.

  13. Characterizing natural organic matter in drinking water treatment processes and trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baghoth, S.A.


    Natural organic matter (NOM) generally influences water treatment processes such as coagulation, oxidation, adsorption, and membrane filtration. NOM contributes colour, taste and odour in drinking water, fouls membranes, serves as a precursor for disinfection by-products, increases the exhaustion a

  14. Removal of Natural Organic Matter from Two Types of Humic Ground Waters by Nanofiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alborzfar, Maryam; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Grøn, Christian


    The efficiency of nano filtration (NF) in producing drinking water from two types of humic ground waters was studied on site at a pilot scale in Denmark. At one site, the natural organic matter (NOM) consisted almost entirely of humic acids with a concentration of 20-22 mg C/l, a broad molecular...

  15. Boundary conditions control for a Shallow-Water model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene


    A variational data assimilation technique was used to estimate optimal discretization of interpolation operators and derivatives in the nodes adjacent to the rigid boundary. Assimilation of artificially generated observational data in the shallow-water model in a square box and assimilation of real observations in the model of the Black sea are discussed. It is shown in both experiments that controlling the discretization of operators near a rigid boundary can bring the model solution closer to observations as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. This type of control allows also to improve climatic variability of the model.

  16. Photochemical degradation of marbofloxacin and enrofloxacin in natural waters. (United States)

    Sturini, Michela; Speltini, Andrea; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella; Pretali, Luca; Fasani, Elisa; Albini, Angelo


    The photochemical fate of Marbofloxacin (MAR) and Enrofloxacin (ENR), two Fluoroquinolones (FQs) largely used as veterinary bactericides known to be present in surface waters, was investigated in aqueous solution. The degradation of these pollutants (5-50 microg L(-1) starting concentration) was complete in about 1 h by exposure to solar light (summer) and obeyed a first-order kinetics. The structure of the primary photoproducts was determined. Those from ENR arose through three paths, namely, oxidative degradation of the piperazine side-chain, reductive defluorination, and fluorine solvolysis. More heavily degraded products that had been previously reported were rationalized as secondary photoproducts from the present ones. As for MAR, this underwent homolytic cleavage of the tetrahydrooxadiazine moiety to give two quinolinols. All of the primary products were themselves degraded in about 1 h. The photoreactions rates were scarcely affected by Ca(2+) (200 mg L(-1)), Mg(2+) (30 mg L(-1)), Cl(-) (30 mg L(-1)), and humic acid (1 mg L(-1)), but increased in the presence of phosphate (20 mg L(-1)). The fastest degradation of ENR occurred at pH about 8 where the zwitterionic form was present, while in the case of MAR the cationic form was the most reactive.

  17. Disinfection byproduct yields from the chlorination of natural waters (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.


    Yields for the formation of trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide disinfection byproducts were determined as a function of pH and initial free-chlorine concentration for the chlorination of water from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected at 12 sites on the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, MN, to New Orleans. LA, and on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers 1.6 km above their confluences with the Mississippi during the summer, fall, and spring seasons of the year. Yields varied little with distance along the Mississippi River, although the dissolved organic-carbon concentration decreased considerably with distance downstream. Yields for the Missouri and Ohio were comparable to yields for the Mississippi, despite much higher bromide concentrations for the Missouri and Ohio. Trihalomethane yields increased as the pH and initial free- chlorine concentration increased. Nonpurgeable total organic-halide yields also increased as the initial free-chlorine concentration increased, but decreased as the pH increased.

  18. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;


    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...


    Janzer, Victor J.


    The U. S. Geological Survey conducts research and collects hydrologic data relating to the Nation's water resources. Seven types of natural matrix reference water samples are prepared for use in the Survey's quality assurance program. These include samples containing major constituents, trace metals, nutrients, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals in a water and suspended-sediment mixture, and precipitation (snowmelt). To prepare these reference samples, natural water is collected in plastic drums and the sediment is allowed to settle. The water is then filtered, selected constituents are added, and if necessary the water is acidified and sterilized by ultraviolet irradiation before bottling in plastic or glass. These reference samples are distributed twice yearly to more than 100 laboratories for chemical analysis. The most probable values for each constituent are determined by evaluating the data submitted by the laboratories using statistical techniques recommended by ASTM.

  20. Elimination of drugs of abuse and their toxicity from natural waters by photo-Fenton treatment. (United States)

    Catalá, M; Domínguez-Morueco, N; Migens, A; Molina, R; Martínez, F; Valcárcel, Y; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Segura, Y


    This paper investigates the elimination of drugs of abuse from six different chemical classes and their metabolites in natural fluvial waters (nearby the output of a sewage system). Mineralization of these substances and toxicological characterization before and after treatment by a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system has been evaluated. This advanced oxidation technology was able to significantly reduce the concentration of the drugs of abuse in all the tested conditions (different hydrogen peroxide and catalyst loadings). However, toxicological analyses measured as inhibition of fern spore mitochondrial activity, showed only a complete elimination of acute and chronic toxicity when a higher solid catalyst loading was used (0.6 g/L). A lower catalyst loading of 0.2 g/L was not enough for toxicity elimination. These results evidence the need for combining toxicological tests and chemical analyses in order to establish the effectiveness of the water treatment technologies based on advanced oxidation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal. (United States)

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A


    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  2. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang


    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  3. Impacts of Embankment System on Natural Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources Development in the Northwest Region of Bangladesh (United States)

    Pervin, M.; Rahman, M. A.


    In the Northwest region of Bangladesh, the Chalan Beel is one of the largest Beel ("Beel" refers to natural wetland) in Bangladesh. Polder C (an area surrounded by embankment) of Chalan Beel area consists of 50% natural wetland of the region. Historically, the area was rich with fish, flora and fauna, and agricultural resources. Both flood and drainage congestion have been identified as major problems existing in the project area. Farmers are badly affected by the sudden onrush of floodwater through the embankment breaches, public cuts and incomplete hydraulic structures during the rainy season. The floodwater damages B. Aman and late Boro paddy by 10% and washes away housing settlements. Sometimes water gets scarce in polder C in dry season that is unfavorable for the crop. Loss of crops and fishery affects the economy strongly. The polder was not according to master plan and with lack of operation and maintenance. Instead of improving the livelihood in the study area the embankment arises detrimental effect on the people. This paper focuses mainly the impact of the embankments on hydrology, fishery, agriculture and socio-economic condition in polder C at Chalan Beel area. Present conditions are compared with the natural conditions existed in the last decades. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations for further sustainable water resources management. It is estimated that the natural wetland loss is about 10%. The analysis shows that the river or channel cross-sections are reduced by ca. 2 m and water level is increasing with time in the rivers along the polder due to confinement effect and siltation. It appears from the study that due to this confinement effect and siltation effect, flood and drainage problems are increasing and consequently, the area is affected in every year to a great extent. At present, cross sections of natural canals are not working properly and back water flow from Hurasagar River creates drainage congestion. About 20% of fish

  4. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.


    The presented study was aimed at investigating possible interactions between the porous sandy aquifer intensively exploited for drinking water purposes and the groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE) consisting of a valuable forest stand. The investigated aquifer (Bogucice Sands) and the associated GDE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The aquifer covers the area of ca. 200 km2 and belongs to the category of medium groundwater basins in Poland. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. This relic of once vast forests is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepolomicka" (PLB120002) that supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the Niepolomice Forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. The Niepolomice Forest contains also several nature reserves and the European bison breeding centre and has an important recreational value as the largest forest complex in the vicinity of Krakow. Due to spatially variable lithologies and groundwater levels, the Niepolomice Forest is a mosaic of various forest and non-forest habitats, including wetlands, marsh forests, humid forests and fresh forests. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils in the area. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly in the period 1900-1930 and after the Second World War and by forest management. Due to artesian conditions in the area and relatively thin clay layer separating Tertiary aquifer layers from shallow Quaternary aquifer, the upward leaching of deeper groundwater may contribute in a significant way to the water balance of the investigated GDE. In September 2009 a cluster of

  5. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  6. Removal naturally occurring radionuclides from drinking water using a filter specifically designed for Drinking Water Treatment Plants. (United States)

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Ontalba-Salamanca, M Á; Jiménez-Ramos, M C


    The occurrence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water can pose health hazards in some populations, especially taking into account that routine procedures in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) are normally unable to remove them efficiently from drinking water. In fact, these procedures are practically transparent to them, and in particular to radium. In this paper, the characterization and capabilities of a patented filter designed to remove radium from drinking water with high efficiency is described. This filter is based on a sandwich structure of silica and green sand, with a natural high content manganese oxide. Both sands are authorized by Spanish authorities to be used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants. The Mn distribution in the green sand was found to be homogenous, thus providing a great number of adsorption sites for radium. Kinetic studies showed that the (226)Ra adsorption on green sand was influenced by the content of major cations solved in the treated water, but the saturation level, about 96-99%, was not affected by it. The physico-chemical parameters of the treated water were unaltered by the filter. The efficiency of the filter for the removal of (226)Ra remained unchanged with large water volumes passed through it, proving its potential use in DWTP. This filter was also able to remove initially the uranium content due to the presence of Fe2O3 particles in it, although it is saturated faster than radium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li


    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve

  8. Texture-defined objects influence responses of blowfly motion-sensitive neurons under natural dynamical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Ullrich


    Full Text Available The responses of visual interneurons of flies involved in the processing of motion information do not only depend on the velocity, but also on other stimulus parameters, such as the contrast and the spatial frequency content of the stimulus pattern. These dependencies have been known for long, but it is still an open question how they affect the neurons’ performance in extracting information about the structure of the environment under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight. Free-flight of blowflies is characterized by sequences of phases of translational movements lasting for just 30-100 milliseconds interspersed with even shorter and extremely rapid saccade-like rotational shifts in flight and gaze direction. Previous studies already analyzed how nearby objects, leading to relative motion on the retina with respect to a more distant background, influenced the response of a class of fly motion sensitive visual interneurons, the HS cells. In the present study, we focused on objects that differed from their background by discontinuities either in their brightness contrast or in their spatial frequency content. We found strong object-induced effects on the membrane potential even during the short intersaccadic intervals, if the background contrast was small and the object contrast sufficiently high. The object evoked similar response increments provided that it contained higher spatial frequencies than the background, but not under reversed conditions. This asymmetry in the response behavior is partly a consequence of the depolarization level induced by the background. Thus, our results suggest that, under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight, i.e. on a very short timescale, the responses of HS cells represent object information depending on the polarity of the difference between object and background contrast and spatial frequency content.

  9. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions. (United States)

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L; Alvarez, David A; Patterson, Howard


    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (R(s)) was evaluated in microcosms containing 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IntroductionW8ter is one of the moSt imPOrtant problems overthe world. How to clean waste water and reuse thewaste water for industry and potable water have beenconcerned by researchers and government. Particles inwater and waste water suPPlies may be mineral (clays,aluminum and iron oxides and hydroxides, asbestos,silica, etc.) or organic matter (viruses, bacteria,protozoan cysts, algae)I'j. It can be classified as listedin Table 1.The treatability (the efficiency of a watertreatment process) of a water is...

  11. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi


    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  12. Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir P. Deo


    Full Text Available The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals have been observed to reenter the built water environment contained in raw drinking water, and they remain detectable in finished drinking water at concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. The greatest promises for minimizing pharmaceutical contamination include source control (for example, inputs from intentional flushing of medications for safe disposal, and sewer overflows, and improving efficiency of treatment facilities.

  13. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas. (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B


    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  14. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content]. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin


    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  15. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweed Ulva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal


    Full Text Available Objective: To study Ulva linza (U. linza as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples of U. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series and 40K were investigated. Radiation dose rates in U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis for U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphic DNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation in Ulva tissues.

  16. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweedUlva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal; Eman Mohamed Fakhry; Dahlia Mohamed El-Maghraby


    Objective:To studyUlva linza (U. linza) as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples ofU. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U,232Th and40K) bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series,232Th series and40K) were investigated. Radiation dose rates inU. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis forU. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphicDNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation inUlva tissues.

  17. Natural Jordanian zeolite: removal of heavy metal ions from water samples using column and batch methods. (United States)

    Baker, Hutaf M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Younes, Hammad A


    The adsorption behavior of natural Jordanian zeolites with respect to Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) was studied in order to consider its application to purity metal finishing drinking and waste water samples under different conditions such as zeolite particle size, ionic strength and initial metal ion concentration. In the present work, a new method was developed to remove the heavy metal by using a glass column as the one that used in column chromatography and to make a comparative between the batch experiment and column experiment by using natural Jordanian zeolite as adsorbent and some heavy metals as adsorbate. The column method was used using different metal ions concentrations ranged from 5 to 20 mg/L with average particle size of zeolite ranged between 90 and 350 mum, and ionic strength ranged from 0.01 to 0.05. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for analysis of these heavy metal ions, the results obtained in this study indicated that zeolitic tuff is an efficient ion exchanger for removing heavy metals, in particular the fine particle sizes of zeolite at pH 6, whereas, no clear effect of low ionic strength values is noticed on the removal process. Equilibrium modeling of the removal showed that the adsorption of Cd(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Pb(2 + ), and Zn(2 + ) were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR). The sorption energy E determined in the DKR equation (9.129, 10.000, 10.541, and 11.180 kJ/mol for Zn(2 + ), Cu(2 + ), Cd(2 + ) and Pb(2 + ) respectively) which revealed the nature of the ion-exchange mechanism.

  18. Uranium redistribution under oxidizing conditions in Oklo natural reactor zone 2, Gabon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, H.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Murakami, T. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Gauthier-Lafaye, F. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France). Centre de Geochemie de la Surface


    This mineralogical study was completed to elucidate the relationships between uranium distribution and alteration products of the host rock of natural reactor zone clays just below the reactor core. Uraninite is preserved without any alteration in the reactor core. Uranium minerals are found to be present in the fractures in the reactor zone clays associated with iron-mineral veins, galena and Ti-bearing minerals. Uranium, for which the phases could not be identified, occurs in iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite grains in the reactor zone clays. Uranium is not associated with granular iron minerals occurring in the illite matrix of the reactor zone clays. The degree of crystallinity and uranium content of the three iron-bearing alteration products suggest that they formed under different conditions; the granular iron minerals, under alteration conditions where uranium was not mobilized while the iron-mineral veins and the iron-mineral rim of pyrite, under conditions in which uranium is mobilized after the formation of the granular iron minerals.

  19. On the Nature of Boundary Conditions for Flows with Moving Free Surfaces (United States)

    Renardy, Michael; Renardy, Yuriko


    We consider small perturbations of plane parallel flow between a wall and a moving free surface. The problem is posed on a rectangle with inflow and outflow boundaries. The usual boundary conditions are posed at the wall and the free surface, and the fluid satisfies the Navier-Stokes equations. We examine the nature of boundary conditions which can be imposed at the inflow and outflow boundaries in order to yield a well-posed problem. This question turns out to be more delicate than is generally appreciated. Depending on the precise situation and on the regularity required of the solution, boundary conditions at just one or both endpoints of the free surface need to be imposed. For example, we show that if the velocities at te inflow and outflow boundaries are prescribed, then the position of the free surface at the inflow boundary can be prescribed, but not at the outflow if an H1-solution is desired. Numerical simulations with the FIDAP package are used to illustrate our analytical results.

  20. Orientation of Sandhoppers Under Natural Conditions in Repeated Trials: an Analysis Using Longitudinal Directional Data (United States)

    D'elia, A.; Borgioli, C.; Scapini, F.


    Zonal recovery is a prompt escape towards the sea performed by sandhoppers under stressful environmental conditions. Differences in habitat features, meteorological conditions during the tests and morphological characteristics of the individuals are all factors affecting orientation. This paper deals with the temporal variation of the orientation of a sandhopper sample, taking into account the effect of some environmental and morphological variables on these changes. The directions chosen by single animals in repeated trials under natural conditions were analysed, using longitudinal circular data. The longitudinal analysis highlights several details about three different kinds of intrapopulation variation due to: sun, wind and eye left/right asymmetry. A clear link between the successive directional responses is demonstrated as well as modulation of behaviour with time: the animals stabilise orientation towards a certain direction in successive trials. The use of longitudinal sets of data in orientation studies produces a good synthesis of directional behaviour, due to several advantages of this kind of analysis. These include the fact that the association between successive behaviours and variability through repeated trials is taken into account; a progressive improvement, due to the integration of information from previous experiences, can be detected; the role of the main cues and factors affecting orientation is more accurately defined; and more parsimonious statistical models can be used to fit the data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Špoljar


    Full Text Available Tufa deposition and accompanying periphyton community were studied on artificial substrates, in karst Jankovac Stream (Papuk Nature Park, Croatia. Influence of environmental parameters on protozoans and metazoans in periphyton were assessed in two microhabitats, differed in flow velocity (fast 1.28  0.61 m s-1, medium 0.56  0.50 m s-1, and across different exposure period (one and two months. Measured environmental parameters indicated oligotrophic water condition. Samples collected in fast flow velocity reached significantly higher tufa deposition (0.26  0.04 mg cm-2 d-1 contrary to those in medium flow velocity (0.09  0.01 mg cm-2 d-1. Results of our study suggested that tufa deposition increased with temperature, flow velocity, amount of organic matter and algal biomass. In total, 26 taxa were identified on artificial substrate, among them 16 ciliate and 5 rotifer taxa. Most taxa recorded low abundance in periphyton, < 10 ind cm-2. Just few taxa achieved higher maximum abundances, i.e., ciliates: Chilodonella cucullulus (28 ind cm-2, Vorticella similis (68 ind cm-2 and rotifers: bdelloids (55 ind cm-2 and Dicranophorus forcipatus (64 ind cm-2. Periphyton community achieved statistically significant higher abundance in fast than in medium flow velocity microhabitats, with increasing effect through the longer exposure. We presume that oligotrophic conditions in karst running water facilitate tufa deposition. In this study we revealed microscopic freshwater organisms, often neglected in investigation, but very important in food webs as link to gastropods, crustaceans, insect larvae, juvenile and adult fish.

  2. Natural organic matter(NOM) removal from surface water by coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bao-yu; YUE Qin-yan


    Poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate(PACS) with different SO42-/Al3+ mole ratios and bacicity(γ) of 2.0 was synthesized using AlCl3· 6H2O, Al2 (SO4)3· 18H2O and Na2CO3 as raw materials. The effect of SO24-/Al3+ ratio on the performance of PACS for removal of natural organic matter(NOM) with humic-rich actual water was examined. It was found that PACS with SO42-/Al3+ mole ratio of 0.0664achieved the best NOM removal results and was selected to investigate its performance in comparison with PAC, FeCl3 and alum (Al2(SO4)3 ·18H2 O). The experimental results showed that the optimum NOM removals were achieved at pH 5.0-8.2 and the dose of about5.0 mg/L as Al both for the selected PACS and PAC, at pH 5.0-6.0 and the dose of about 7.0 mg/L as Fe for FeCl3, and at pH 5.0-7.0 and the dose of about 7.0 mg/L as Al for alum, respectively. At the optimum conditions, the selected PACS achieved the best NOM removal result, followed by PAC, FeCl3, and then alum. The concentration of residual aluminum in treated water by the selected PACS and PAC under the optimum coagulant conditions was approximately 115 μg/L, which can completely comply with the regulated limits.

  3. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting


    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering.

  4. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  5. An Empirical Analysis of Farm Adaptation Response to Water Security Using a Natural Policy Experiment (United States)

    Brady, M.


    The capacity of farm-level adaptation to mitigate the impacts of climate change in arid regions dominated by irrigated agriculture fed by snowpack is a critical challenge for developing accurate integrated engineering-economic modeling tools. Economic optimization models provide a valuable benchmark for the theoretical limit of adaptation given a set of clear objectives, conditions, and constraints. However, a major limitation to specifying tractable and accurate models is the large number of potential adaptation strategies that can be taken. There is a need for more empirical research that reveals preferred adaptation strategies in a way that identifies causal relationships. This research seeks to add to the empirical literature on adaptation by exploiting what in the econometric literature is called a "natural experiment" where a policy has isapplied to one group but not another in a way that is random relative to the variables of interest so as to reduce problems of bias in coefficient estimates caused by unobserved heterogeneity. The region of study is the Yakima Basin in Washington State which is a highly diverse region in terms of crop and irrigation technology. This creates significant complication for modeling adaptation since farmers have a wide array of choices including changing cropping patterns and irrigation technologies. Other strategies including water trading and deficit irrigation. Two irrigation districts in the Yakima Basin, Roza and Sunnyside, are adjacent to each other and are nearly identical in growing conditions. The difference is that Roza is severely curtailed during droughts while Sunnyside is not. With the availability of detailed field level data on cropping patterns, irrigation technologies, and land ownership this presents an opportunity to identify the effect of water security risk on farm-level decision making. Preliminary results show that after controlling for other features, a field in Roza is 5% more likely to have an efficient

  6. July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessinger, Mark [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)


    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

  7. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  8. Safety and coping strategy for high dam under complex natural conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xinqiang


    In respect to current situation and new challenges for high dam construction in China, safety problems are an- alyzed for high dam construction under complex natural conditions such as high elevation, cold area, high seismic inten- sity, large-seale landslide and high dam and huge reservoirs with dam types such as concrete surface rock-fill, asphalt concrete core, roller compacted concrete (RCC) arch dam and so on. From several aspects, including risk response measures for high dam, strengthening safety awareness for high dam design and construction, improving high dam con- struetion technique, intelligent dam safety management system based on IT, developing dam rehabilitation and mainte- nance technologies, useful dam safety and coping strategy is proposed.

  9. Acoustic streaming enhances the Multicyclic CO2 capture of natural limestone at Ca-looping conditions. (United States)

    Valverde, J M; Ebri, J M P; Quintanilla, M A S


    The Ca-Looping (CaL) process, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO at high temperatures, is a viable technology to achieve high CO2 capture efficiencies in both precombustion and postcombustion applications. In this paper we show an experimental study on the multicyclic CO2 capture of a natural limestone in a fixed bed at CaL conditions as affected by the application of a high-intensity acoustic field. Our results indicate that sound promotes the efficiency of CO2 sorption in the fast carbonation phase by enhancing the gas-solids mass transfer. The fundamentals of the physical mechanism responsible for this effect (acoustic streaming) as well as the technical feasibility of the proposed technique allows envisaging that sonoprocessing will be beneficial to enhance multicyclic CO2 capture in large-scale applications.

  10. Fortification of immune and homeostatic surveillance in cancer-like and cancer conditions the natural way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Vassiliadis


    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis, a non-lethal cancer-like inflammatory condition, and cancer share common features, with the major being the inability of the organism to confront the cause of disease initiation due to an incompetent immune and homeostatic surveillance, respectively. In addition, and to a degree, both diseases can be detected by identical diagnostic tools and treatment can be successfully achieved by a number of common substances found in nature that can fortify the organism’s defense mechanisms to combat disease. Thus, this commentary focuses on and discusses the remedial action pine bark extracts (Pycnogenol®, almond skins, Agaricus Blazei murrill, oleuropein and oleocanthal may have on a destabilized organism that fails to combat illness by its own. Such a similarity in diagnosis and treatment may become as an alternative approach to create models of investigation for both diseases.

  11. The nature of lithium battery materials under oxygen evolution reaction conditions. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Carlton, Christopher; Risch, Marcel; Surendranath, Yogesh; Chen, Shuo; Furutsuki, Sho; Yamada, Atsuo; Nocera, Daniel G; Shao-Horn, Yang


    Transition-metal oxide and phosphate materials, commonly used for lithium battery devices, are active as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts under alkaline and neutral solution conditions. Electrodes composed of LiCoO(2) and LiCoPO(4) exhibit progressive deactivation and activation for OER catalysis, respectively, upon potential cycling at neutral pH. The deactivation of LiCoO(2) and activation of LiCoPO(4) are coincident with changes in surface morphology and composition giving rise to spinel-like and amorphous surface structures, respectively. The amorphous surface structure of the activated LiCoPO(4) is compositionally similar to that obtained from the electrodeposition of cobalt oxide materials from phosphate-buffered electrolyte solutions. These results highlight the importance of a combined structural and electrochemical analysis of the materials surface when assessing the true nature of the OER catalyst.

  12. Reaction of tangerines genotypes to Elsinoe fawcettii under natural infection conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Claro de Souza


    Full Text Available A citrus scab disease, caused by Elsinoe fawcettii, is currently found in all citrus areas throughout Brazil. Thatbeing, given the importance of this casual agent, the behavior of tangerines and hybrids influenced by this pathogen wasevaluated under natural infection conditions. This study was performed with plants around 15 years old without irrigation;100 fruits of three plants were collected during harvest season, using a grade scale varying from 0 (absence of symptoms to6 (severe symptoms the level of disease severity was determined. Among the cultivars, citrus scab resistance was observedin Citrus deliciosa, C. tangerina, C. nobilis; a mandarin hybrid (C. nobilis x C. deliciosa and a satsuma hybrid (C. unshiu xC. sinensis. Among

  13. Experimental investigation of the influence of electric field on frost layer growth under natural convection condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of direct current (DC) electric field on the thickness and mass of frost on a cold vertical plate was investigated. The photos of frost layer growth were taken with and without the presence of electric field, and results showed that the electric field has a strong influence on the frost thickness. The influences of cold plate temperature and ambient temperature on frost thickness and frost mass were also investigated under the natural convection condition with electric field. Experimental results demonstrated that the cold plate temperature has very strong effect on the frost layer thickness, but its influence on frost mass is minor; the influence of ambient temperature on the frost mass is more obvious than that on the frost thickness.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer dedicated to the extraction of glyphosate in natural waters. (United States)

    Puzio, K; Claude, B; Amalric, L; Berho, C; Grellet, E; Bayoudh, S; Nehmé, R; Morin, Ph


    Three molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been synthesized in order to bind efficiently glyphosate (GLY) in natural waters (mineral and underground). Since the target analyte is polar and hydrophilic, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds have been favored with two templates (phenylphosphonic acid and diethyl(α-aminobenzyl)-phosphonic acid) and two functional monomers (1-allyl-2-thiourea and methacrylic acid). MIPs have been assessed by comparison of the recoveries obtained with MIP and NIP (non imprinted polymer) by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The selectivity of MIP versus NIP was satisfactory for the three imprinted polymers with a very straightforward protocol: conditioning of 250 mg of MIP or NIP packed in 3-mL polypropylene cartridges with 3 mL Milli-Q water, loading of Milli-Q water (15 mL) spiked with 5 mg L(-1) of GLY and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and elution by 3 mL NH4OH (10mM) or 3 mL HCl (100mM). SPE fractions were directly analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Thus, the recoveries of both analytes were greater than 80% for all MIPs and less than 25% for most NIPs. Moreover, the MIP prepared with 1-allyl-2-thiourea as functional monomer and phenylphosphonic acid as template displayed a capacity of 0.033 μmol/mg for GLY. However, the substitution of Milli-Q water by mineral water caused the decrease of MIP recoveries, for that, a pretreatment of the sample by ionic exchange resins was set up and succeeded in improving recoveries (about 50% for GLY and 25% for AMPA). Then, groundwaters were spiked with low concentrations of GLY and AMPA (0.5 μgL(-1)) and directly percolated through MIP cartridges. The extractions were carried out by triplicate and the elution fractions were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed no retention of AMPA but a total retention of GLY by MIP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Araújo Barbosa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil. Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP, body length (BL, rump height (RH, height at withers (HW, hip height (HH, depth (DP, distance between the ilia (DI (cm and rib-eye area (REA were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  16. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas


    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  17. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India. (United States)

    Hayer, S S; Ranjan, R; Biswal, J K; Subramaniam, S; Mohapatra, J K; Sharma, G K; Rout, M; Dash, B B; Das, B; Prusty, B R; Sharma, A K; Stenfeldt, C; Perez, A; Rodriguez, L L; Pattnaik, B; VanderWaal, K; Arzt, J


    The goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in October 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (Farm A) and adult dairy cattle (Farm B). Subsequent to the outbreak, FMD virus (FMDV) asymptomatic carriers were identified in both herds by seroreactivity to FMDV non-structural proteins and detection of FMDV genomic RNA in oropharyngeal fluid. Carriers' seroreactivity and FMDV genome detection status were subsequently monitored monthly for 23 months. The mean extinction time of the carrier state was 13.1 ± 0.2 months, with extinction having occurred significantly faster amongst adult dairy cattle at Farm B compared to younger animals at Farm A. The rate of decrease in the proportion of carrier animals was calculated to be 0.07 per month. Seroprevalence against FMDV non-structural proteins decreased over the course of the study period, but was found to increase transiently following repeated vaccinations. These data provide novel insights into viral and host factors associated with the FMDV carrier state under natural conditions. The findings reported herein may be relevant to field veterinarians and governmental regulatory entities engaged in FMD response and control measures.

  18. Mining microbial metatranscriptomes for expression of antibiotic resistance genes under natural conditions (United States)

    Versluis, Dennis; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Ramiro Garcia, Javier; Leimena, Milkha M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Zhang, Jing; Öztürk, Başak; Nylund, Lotta; Sipkema, Detmer; Schaik, Willem Van; de Vos, Willem M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smidt, Hauke; Passel, Mark W. J. Van


    Antibiotic resistance genes are found in a broad range of ecological niches associated with complex microbiota. Here we investigated if resistance genes are not only present, but also transcribed under natural conditions. Furthermore, we examined the potential for antibiotic production by assessing the expression of associated secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters. Metatranscriptome datasets from intestinal microbiota of four human adults, one human infant, 15 mice and six pigs, of which only the latter have received antibiotics prior to the study, as well as from sea bacterioplankton, a marine sponge, forest soil and sub-seafloor sediment, were investigated. We found that resistance genes are expressed in all studied ecological niches, albeit with niche-specific differences in relative expression levels and diversity of transcripts. For example, in mice and human infant microbiota predominantly tetracycline resistance genes were expressed while in human adult microbiota the spectrum of expressed genes was more diverse, and also included β-lactam, aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance genes. Resistance gene expression could result from the presence of natural antibiotics in the environment, although we could not link it to expression of corresponding secondary metabolites biosynthesis clusters. Alternatively, resistance gene expression could be constitutive, or these genes serve alternative roles besides antibiotic resistance.

  19. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba


    Full Text Available Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii a handheld scale; and (iii a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  20. Necessary conditions for the planning on the natural gas market; Condicoes necessarias para o planejamento no mercado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de; Iootty, Mariana


    In 2004, the natural gas agents discovered a radical change in the sector panoram. Since 1998, when the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline was inaugurated, the market situation was a supply excess. The major problem of the distributors and the PETROBRAS was how to accelerate the market development to accomplish with the contract for buying natural gas compromised with Bolivia. From 2004 on progressively, the supply insurance occupied the discussions agenda. The agents discovered to be real the risks of the supply not to follow the demand.

  1. Infiltration-soil moisture redistribution under natural conditions: experimental evidence as a guideline for realizing simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morbidelli


    Full Text Available The evolution in time, t, of the experimental soil moisture vertical profile under natural conditions is investigated in order to address the corresponding simulation modelling. The measurements were conducted in a plot with a bare silty loam soil. The soil water content, θ, was continuously monitored at different depths, z, using a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR system. For each profile four buriable three-rod waveguides were inserted horizontally at different depths (5, 15, 25 and 35 cm. In addition, we used sensors of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, evaporation and rain as supports for the application of selected simulation models, as well as for the detection of elements leading to their improvement. The results indicate that, under natural conditions, very different trends of the θ(z,t function can be observed in the given fine-textured soil, where the formation of a sealing layer over the parent soil requires an adjustment of the simulation modelling commonly used for hydrological applications. In particular, because of the considerable variations in the shape of the moisture content vertical profile as a function of time, a generalization of the existing models should incorporate a representation of the variability in time of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost soil. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the observed shape of θ(z can be appropriately reproduced by adopting this approach, however the observed rainfall rate and the occurrence of freeze-thaw cycles with high soil moisture contents have to be explicitly incorporated.

  2. Infiltration-soil moisture redistribution under natural conditions: experimental evidence as a guideline for realizing simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morbidelli


    Full Text Available The evolution in time, t, of the experimental soil moisture vertical profile under natural conditions is investigated in order to address the corresponding simulation modelling. The measurements were conducted in a plot with a bare silty loam soil. The soil water content, θ, was continuously monitored at different depths, z, using a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR system. Four buriable three-rod waveguides were inserted horizontally at different depths (5, 15, 25 and 35 cm. In addition, we used sensors of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, evaporation and rain as supports for the application of selected simulation models, as well as for the detection of elements leading to their improvement. The results indicate that, under natural conditions, very different trends of the θ(z, t function can be observed in the given fine-textured soil, where the formation of a sealing layer over the parent soil requires an adjustment of the simulation modelling commonly used for hydrological applications. In particular, because of the considerable variations in the shape of the moisture content vertical profile as a function of time, a generalization of the existing models should incorporate a first approximation of the variability in time of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, K1s, of the uppermost soil. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the observed shape of θ(z, t can be appropriately reproduced by adopting the proposed approach with K1s kept constant during each rainfall event but considered variable from event to event, however the observed rainfall rate and the occurrence of freeze-thaw cycles with high soil moisture contents have to be explicitly incorporated in a functional form for K1s(t.

  3. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.


    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  4. Trace Metal-Humic Complexes in Natural Waters: Insights From Speciation Experiments (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Salters, V.; Sonke, J.


    The DOM cycle is intimately linked to the cycling and bioavailability of trace metals in aqueous environments. The presence or absence of DOM in the water column can determined whether trace elements will be present in limited quantities as a nutrient, or in surplus quantities as a toxicant. Humic substances (HS), which represent the refractory products of DOM degradation, strongly affect the speciation of trace metals in natural waters. To simulate metal-HS interactions in nature, experiments must be carried out using trace metal concentrations. Sensitive detection systems such as ICP-MS make working with small (nanomolar) concentrations possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE-ICP-MS) has recently been identified as a rapid and accurate method to separate metal species and calculate conditional binding constants (log K_c) of metal-humic complexes. CE-ICP-MS was used to measure partitioning of metals between humic substances and a competing ligand (EDTA) and calculate binding constants of rare earth element (REE) and Th, Hf, and Zr-humic complexes at pH 3.5-8 and ionic strength of 0.1. Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments to validate the CE-ICP-MS method were performed to separate the metal-HS and metal-EDTA species by partitioning due to size exclusion via diffusion through a 1000 Da membrane. CE-ICP-MS experiments were also conducted to compare binding constants of REE with humic substances of various origin, including soil, peat, and aquatic DOM. Results of our experiments show an increase in log K_c with decrease in ionic radius for REE-humic complexes (the lanthanide contraction effect). Conditional binding constants of tetravalent metal-humic complexes were found to be several orders of magnitude higher than REE-humic complexes, indicating that tetravalent metals have a very strong affinity for humic substances. Because thorium is often used as a proxy for the tetravalent actinides, Th-HS binding constants can allow us

  5. ROBUST hot wire probe efficiency for total water content measurements in glaciated conditions (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Lilie, Lyle; Weber, Marc; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter


    During the two High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC, Dezitter et al. 2013)/High Ice Water Content (HIWC, Strapp et al., 2016a) international flight campaigns that investigated deep convection in the tropics, the French Falcon 20 research aircraft was equipped with two different devices measuring the Total Water Content (TWC): - the IKP-2 (Isokinetic Probe, Davison et al. 2008, 2016), - and the hot wire ROBUST probe (Strapp et al. 2008; Grandin et al. 2014). The IKP-2 probe is an evaporator that has been specifically designed to measure high ice water content (Strapp et al. 2016b) with a collection efficiency near unity. It has undergone extensive performance assessment in liquid and glaciated conditions in several wind tunnels. The Robust probe was initially developed by Science Engineering Associates to estimate high ice water content in a high speed wind tunnel, in harsh conditions where other hot-wires had been observed to suffer failures. It was known at the outset that, like other hot-wire TWC probes, it would measure only a quasi-constant fraction of the true ice water content. Early wind tunnel and flight experience with the ROBUST probe revealed that this fraction was the order of 40% for ice crystals. During the HAIC/HIWC campaigns (Leroy et al. 2016, 2017), supercooled liquid water conditions were documented according to a detailed analysis of a Rosemount Ice detector (RICE) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) measurements, and were found to be rare. Thus, the HAIC/HIWC dataset represents a unique opportunity to study in more detail the ROBUST efficiency in glaciated conditions, using the IKP-2 values as a comparative reference. Comparison of IKP-2 and ROBUST measurements will show that the ROBUST behavior differs between low (below 1.5 g/m3) and high (above 2 g/m3) ice content conditions and is also sensitive to temperature. The sensitivity of the ROBUST collection efficiency to ice particles size could also be explored as optical imaging probes were part of the

  6. Succession of the sea-surface microlayer in the Baltic Sea under natural and experimentally induced low-wind conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stolle


    Full Text Available The sea-surface microlayer (SML is located within the boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The high spatial and temporal variability of the SML's properties, however, have hindered a clear understanding of interactions between biotic and abiotic parameters at or across the air-water interface. Among the factors changing the physical and chemical environment of the SML, wind speed is an important one. In order to examine the temporal effects of minimized wind influence, SML samples were obtained from the southern Baltic Sea and from mesocosm experiments in a marina to study naturally and artificially calmed sea surfaces. Organic matter concentrations as well as abundance, 3H-thymidine incorporation, and the community composition of bacteria in the SML (bacterioneuston compared to the underlying bulk water (ULW were analyzed. In all SML samples, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen were only slightly enriched and showed low temporal variability, whereas particulate organic carbon and nitrogen were generally greatly enriched and highly variable. This was especially pronounced in a dense surface film (slick that developed during calm weather conditions as well as in the artificially calmed mesocosms. Overall, bacterioneuston abundance and productivity correlated with changing concentrations of particulate organic matter. Moreover, changes in the community composition in the field study were stronger in the particle-attached than in the non-attached bacterioneuston. This implies that decreasing wind enhances the importance of particle-attached assemblages and finally induces a succession of the bacterial community in the SML. Eventually, under very calm meteorological conditions, there is an uncoupling of the bacterioneuston from the ULW.

  7. Improvised purification methods for obtaining individual drinking water supply under war and extreme shortage conditions. (United States)

    Kozlicic, A; Hadzic, A; Bevanda, H


    Supplying an adequate amount of drinking water to a population is a complex problem that becomes an extremely difficult task in war conditions. In this paper, several simple methods for obtaining individual supplies of drinking water by filtration of atmospheric water with common household items are reported. Samples of atmospheric water (rain and snow) were collected, filtered, and analyzed for bacteriological and chemical content. The ability of commonly available household materials (newspaper, filter paper, gauze, cotton, and white cotton cloth) to filter water from the environmental sources was compared. According to chemical and biological analysis, the best results were obtained by filtering melted snow from the ground through white cotton cloth. Atmospheric water collected during war or in extreme shortage conditions can be purified with simple improvised filtering techniques and, if chlorinated, used as an emergency potable water source.

  8. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment. (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D


    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  9. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.


    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  10. Stability of engineered nanomaterials in complex aqueous matrices: Settling behaviour of CeO2 nanoparticles in natural surface waters. (United States)

    Van Koetsem, Frederik; Verstraete, Simon; Van der Meeren, Paul; Du Laing, Gijs


    The stability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex aqueous matrices is a key determinant of their fate and potential toxicity towards the aquatic environment and human health. Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as CeO2 ENPs, are increasingly being incorporated into a wide range of industrial and commercial applications, which will undoubtedly result in their (unintentional) release into the environment. Hereby, the behaviour and fate of CeO2 ENPs could potentially serve as model for other nanoparticles that possess similar characteristics. The present study examined the stability and settling of CeO2 ENPs (7.3±1.4 nm) as well as Ce(3+) ions in 10 distinct natural surface waters during 7d, under stagnant and isothermal experimental conditions. Natural water samples were collected throughout Flanders (Belgium) and were thoroughly characterized. For the majority of the surface waters, a substantial depletion (>95%) of the initially added CeO2 ENPs was observed just below the liquid surface of the water samples after 7d. In all cases, the reduction was considerably higher for CeO2 ENPs than for Ce(3+) ions (CeO2 ENPs (R(2)≥0.998) and Ce(3+) ions (R(2)≥0.812) from the water column, at least in case notable sedimentation occurred over time. Solution-pH appeared to be a prime parameter governing nanoparticle colloidal stability. Moreover, the suspended solids (TSS) content also seemed to be an important factor affecting the settling rate and residual fraction of CeO2 ENPs as well as Ce(3+) ions in natural surface waters. Correlation results also suggest potential association and co-precipitation of CeO2 ENPs with aluminium- and iron-containing natural colloidal material. The CeO2 ENPs remained stable in dispersion in surface water characterized by a low pH, ionic strength (IS), and TSS content, indicating the eventual stability and settling behaviour of the nanoparticles was likely determined by a combination of physicochemical parameters. Finally, ionic

  11. Growth and Eco-Physiological Performance of Cotton Under Water Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-yan; Isoda Akihiro; LI Mao-song; WANG Dao-long


    A cotton cultivar Xinluzao 8 was grown under four levels of water stress treatments (normal irrigation, slight, mild and severe water stress) from the initial reproductive growth stage in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, in 2002, to evaluate the growth and eco-physiological performances. Under water stress conditions, the transpiration ability decreased while the leaf temperature increased. Although the relative leaf water content decreased as water stress increased, the differences among the treatments were small, indicating that cotton has high ability in maintaining water in leaf. The stomatal density increased as water stress increased, while the maximum stomatal aperture reduced only in the severest stressed plants.The time of the maximum stomatal aperture was delayed in the mild and severe stressed plants. When severe stress occurred, the stomata were kept open until the transpiration decreased to nearly zero, suggesting that the stomata might not be the main factor in adjusting transpiration in cotton. Cotton plant has high adaptation ability to water stress conditions because of decrease in both stomatal conductance and hydraulic conductance from soil-to-leaf pathway. The actual quantum yield of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) decreased under water stress conditions, while the maximum quantum yield of PS Ⅱ did not vary among treatments, suggesting that PS Ⅱ would not be damaged by water stress. The total dry weight reduced as water stress increased.

  12. Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda. (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel


    In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yinshui; Nie Songlin; Zhu Yuquan; He Xiaofeng; Li Zhuangyun


    Experimental investigations are made on the effects of operating conditions on the flow characteristics of throttle when tap water is used as the working media. The researched throttles include cone poppet valve, ball valve, disc valve and dumping orifice. Operating condition includes poppet lift, working media, back pressure, medium temperature, etc. Because the vapourous pressure of water is much higher than that of oil, cavitation is easier to occur in water hydraulic elements and systems, so the effects of operating conditions on the cavitation characteristics of throttle are also researched.

  14. Detecting text in natural scene images with conditional clustering and convolution neural network (United States)

    Zhu, Anna; Wang, Guoyou; Dong, Yangbo; Iwana, Brian Kenji


    We present a robust method of detecting text in natural scenes. The work consists of four parts. First, automatically partition the images into different layers based on conditional clustering. The clustering operates in two sequential ways. One has a constrained clustering center and conditional determined cluster numbers, which generate small-size subregions. The other has fixed cluster numbers, which generate full-size subregions. After the clustering, we obtain a bunch of connected components (CCs) in each subregion. In the second step, the convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to classify those CCs to character components or noncharacter ones. The output score of the CNN can be transferred to the postprobability of characters. Then we group the candidate characters into text strings based on the probability and location. Finally, we use a verification step. We choose a multichannel strategy to evaluate the performance on the public datasets: ICDAR2011 and ICDAR2013. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves a superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art text detection algorithms.

  15. Persistence of dengue virus RNA in dried Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to natural tropical conditions. (United States)

    Bangs, Michael J; Pudiantari, Ratna; Gionar, Yoyo R


    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue viruses, a group of four serotypic single-stranded RNA viruses. Dengue virus RNA can be readily detected in fresh or dried infected mosquitoes by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The current study examined the persistence and limit of dengue virus RNA detection in infected Ae. aegypti killed and exposed to natural ambient tropical conditions of temperature and humidity. Under relatively harsh conditions, dengue RNA retained sufficient integrity to be detected in dried mosquitoes up to 13 wk after exposure to relatively high ambient temperatures (26.3-31.7 degrees C) and relative humidity (49.4-69.9%). These findings confirm that the necessity for testing either fresh or frozen mosquitoes is not a prerequisite when using RT-PCR as the viral detection method, and under particular epidemiological circumstances it allows for a more convenient means of conducting vector-virus surveillance activities where collection methods and logistics may preclude immediate testing or access to a cold chain.

  16. New collector efficiency equation for colloid filtration in both natural and engineered flow conditions (United States)

    Nelson, Kirk E.; Ginn, Timothy R.


    A new equation for the collector efficiency (η) of the colloid filtration theory (CFT) is developed via nonlinear regression on the numerical data generated by a large number of Lagrangian simulations conducted in Happel's sphere-in-cell porous media model over a wide range of environmentally relevant conditions. The new equation expands the range of CFT's applicability in the natural subsurface primarily by accommodating departures from power law dependence of η on the Peclet and gravity numbers, a necessary but as of yet unavailable feature for applying CFT to large-scale field transport (e.g., of nanoparticles, radionuclides, or genetically modified organisms) under low groundwater velocity conditions. The new equation also departs from prior equations for colloids in the nanoparticle size range at all fluid velocities. These departures are particularly relevant to subsurface colloid and colloid-facilitated transport where low permeabilities and/or hydraulic gradients lead to low groundwater velocities and/or to nanoparticle fate and transport in porous media in general. We also note the importance of consistency in the conceptualization of particle flux through the single collector model on which most η equations are based for the purpose of attaining a mechanistic understanding of the transport and attachment steps of deposition. A lack of sufficient data for small particles and low velocities warrants further experiments to draw more definitive and comprehensive conclusions regarding the most significant discrepancies between the available equations.

  17. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe


    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying...... water needs for supply, purification, distribution, and treatment of wastewater requires energy sources. Water and energy utilities are however regulated without a specific focus on the interdependency of the two sectors and the possibilities to ensure sustainable use of the resources and reduction...... of greenhouse gasses by a better coordination. The article explains the possibilities of sustainable consumption and production of energy in the water utilities. It highlights EU legal framework that makes coordination at national level possible, and it gives examples and concludes on the obstacles...

  18. Sunlight-induced photochemical decay of oxidants in natural waters: implications in ballast water treatment. (United States)

    Cooper, William J; Jones, Adam C; Whitehead, Robert F; Zika, Rod G


    The transport and discharge of ship ballast water has been recognized as a major vector for the introduction of invasive species. Chemical oxidants, long used in drinking water and wastewater treatment, are alternative treatment methods for the control of invasive species currently being tested for use on ships. One concern when a ballasted vessel arrives in port is the adverse effects of residual oxidant in the treated water. The most common oxidants include chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), bromine (HOBr/OBr-), ozone (03), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the sunlight-mediated photochemical decomposition of these oxidants. Sunlight photodecomposition was measured at various pH using either distilled water or oligotrophic Gulf Stream water for specific oxidants. For selected oxidants, quantum yields at specific wavelengths were obtained. An environmental photochemical model, GCSOLAR, also provided predictions of the fate (sunlight photolysis half-lives) of HOCI/OCl-, HOBr/OBr-, ClO2, and NH2Cl for two different seasons at latitude 40 degrees and in water with two different concentrations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. These data are useful in assessing the environmental fate of ballast water treatment oxidants if they were to be discharged in port.

  19. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming; Wu, Jingyi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics (China); Shiochi, Sumio [Daikin Industries Ltd. (Japan)


    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module for water-cooled VRF is developed and embedded in the software of EnergyPlus. After modeling and testing the new module, on the basis of a typical office building in Shanghai with water-cooled VRF system, the monthly and seasonal cooling energy consumption and the breakdown of the total power consumption are analyzed. The simulation results show that, during the whole cooling period, the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system consumes about 20% more power than the water-cooled VRF system does. The power comparison between the water-cooled VRF system and the air-cooled VRF system is performed too. All of these can provide designers some ideas to analyze the energy features of this new system and then to determine a better scheme of the air conditioning system. (author)

  20. Impact of snowmaking on alpine water resources management under present and climate change conditions. (United States)

    Vanham, D; Fleischhacker, E; Rauch, W


    Owing to less natural snow reliability as a result of climate change on the one hand, and the demand of higher standards by winter tourists on the other hand, the production of artificial snow in ski resorts has increased substantially during the last 20 years and is likely to increase further in future. Little research has been conducted on the impact of snowmaking as a water demand stakeholder on a regional water balance. In this paper, a regional water balance (water demand-water resources) is analysed for the greater Kitzbueheler Region in the Austrian Alps, for the current situation and a future climate change scenario (2 degrees C warming). For this temperature rise a significant reduction in natural snow cover duration and snow accumulation is predicted, an effect that increases with lower altitudes and differs between the winter months. Due to the shortening of the winter season, a change in seasonality of river flows and available water resources (ground and surface water) occurs. Both increase in winter, and decrease in spring. The water demand for improvement snowmaking increases, especially in the month of March. However, December proved to be the critical month due to the large amounts of water required for base snowmaking both now and in future. These results stress the necessity of reservoir storage for base snowmaking on a regional level. Water availability during other months but winter is sufficient to fill these reservoirs.

  1. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006 (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll


    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  2. Water Age Responses to Weather Conditions in a Hyper-Eutrophic Channel Reservoir in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du


    Full Text Available Channel reservoirs have the characteristics of both rivers and lakes, in which hydrodynamic conditions and the factors affecting the eutrophication process are complex and highly affected by weather conditions. Water age at any location in the reservoir is used as an indicator for describing the spatial and temporal variations of water exchange and nutrient transport. The hyper-eutrophic Changtan Reservoir (CTR in Southern China was investigated. Three weather conditions including wet, normal, and dry years were considered for assessing the response of water age by using the coupled watershed model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model Environmental Fluid Hydrodynamic Code (EFDC. The results showed that the water age in CTR varied tremendously under different weather conditions. The averaged water ages at the downstream of CTR were 3 d, 60 d, and 110 d, respectively in the three typical wet, normal, and dry years. The highest water ages at the main tributary were >70 d, >100 d, and >200 d, respectively. The spatial distribution of water ages in the tributaries and the reservoir were mainly affected by precipitation. This paper provides useful information on water exchange and transport pathways in channel reservoir, which will be helpful in understanding nutrient dynamics for controlling algal blooms.

  3. Investigation of natural biofilms formed during the production of drinking water from surface water embankment filtration. (United States)

    Emtiazi, Farahnaz; Schwartz, Thomas; Marten, Silke Mareike; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter; Obst, Ursula


    Populations of bacteria in biofilms from different sites of a drinking water production system were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed changing DNA band patterns, suggesting a population shift during bank filtration and processing at the waterworks. In addition, common DNA bands that were attributed to ubiquitous bacteria were found. Biofilms even developed directly after UV disinfection (1-2m distance). Their DNA band patterns only partly agreed with those of the biofilms from the downstream distribution system. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in biofilms were analysed using PCR and Southern blot hybridisation (SBH). Surface water appeared to have a direct influence on the composition of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system. In spite of preceding filtration and UV disinfection, opportunistic pathogens such as atypical mycobacteria and Legionella spp. were found in biofilms of drinking water, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected sporadically. Enterococci were not found in any biofilm. Bacterial cell counts in the biofilms from surface water to drinking water dropped significantly, and esterase and alanine-aminopeptidase activity decreased. beta-glucosidase activity was not found in the biofilms. Contrary to the results for planktonic bacteria, inhibitory effects were not observed in biofilms. This suggested an increased tolerance of biofilm bacteria against toxic compounds.

  4. Ecophysiological performance of a threatened shrub under restored and natural conditions in a harsh tropical mountaintop environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana A. B. Castro


    Full Text Available Ecophysiological responses of plants are useful for monitoring the success of ecological restoration projects that target species conservation. In this study we evaluated the ecophysiological traits of individuals of Chamaecrista semaphora from a natural population and from a site under restoration. Water potential and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were measured both in adult and young plants of the two populations. No difference in water potential was found between sites, but individuals in the restored site had higher water potential at predawn. Adults in the natural site presented lower daily values of potential quantum yield, indicating the occurrence of photoinhibition. Individuals in the restored site also presented higher maximum relative electron transport rate (ETRMAX. No difference was found in leaf carbon isotope discrimination values (σ13C between plants growing in restored and natural sites, suggesting similar water use efficiency. These results indicate that C. semaphora individuals in the restored site had similar or better photosynthetic and water economy performances than individuals at the natural site. Methodologies traditionally employed to assess stress response of plants, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence and procedures used to evaluate the efficiency of water use, allowed us to verify the success of restoration procedures using an endangered species.

  5. Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular subchannel in Zirconia-water nanofluid (United States)

    Tandian, N. P.; Alkharboushi, A. A. K.; Kamajaya, K.


    Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2 concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper.

  6. Farmer Resettlements and Water Energy Stresses Arising From Aggravating Drought Conditions in Mahaweli River Watershed, Sri Lanka (United States)

    Thabrew, L.


    Climate change is expected to cause significant changes in water quantity and water quality in river basins throughout the world, with particularly significant impacts in developing regions. Climate change effects are often exacerbated by other simultaneous activities in developing countries, such as population growth, reliance on subsistence agriculture, and expanding provision of electricity. Each of these activities requires access to readily-available freshwater. For example, population growth requires more water for irrigation as food production needs increase. Additionally, water is needed for generating electricity in hydropower facilities as well as other facilities, which require water to run steam turbines or to cool facilities. As such, many developing countries face the real and immediate need to anticipate and adapt to climatic stresses on water resources in both the agricultural and residential sectors. Water withdrawal in both of these sectors is largely driven by individual behaviors, such as electricity use in the home and irrigation practices on farmland, aggregated at the household, community, and regional level. Our ongoing project in Sri Lanka focuses on understanding aforementioned issues in coupled natural and human systems in the Mahaweli River Watershed (MWR) to inform decision-makers to streamline policies and strategies for effective adaptation to worsening drought conditions. MWR produces more than 60% of the rice demand and nearly 40% of the energy requirement of the country. Although irrigation is currently the sector that withdraws the most water, with government plans for resettling farmer communities and developing new urban centers in the region by 2030, electricity production is expected to compete for water against irrigation in the future. Thus, understanding the water-energy nexus is crucial to planning for conservation and efficiency. Through a pilot survey conducted by our interdisciplinary research team, in five locations in

  7. Comparison of Pb, Cd Adsorption to Surface Coatings Developed in Natural Waters with that in Plant Effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; LI Yu; HUA Xiu-yi; ZHANG Jing-jing


    The comparative studies of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings(Fe, Mn, Al oxides, organic materials, and associated minerals), which were developed on glass slides in five natural and two technical waters(plant effluents), were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25 ℃ and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimating the equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. The results show that the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings mentioned above varied widely. There was a systemic increase in the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings with increasing the contents of Mn and Fe oxides in the surface coatings in significant correlation, respectively, not only highlighting the relative importance of the metal oxide fraction for Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings developed in natural and technical water samples, but also implying the same adsorption mechanisms of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings developed both in natural and technical water samples.

  8. Geological conditions of formation of beaches and natural medical assessment of their use in the resort and recreational purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storchak O.V.


    Full Text Available In assessing the territory waters and coast, their possible use in resort and recreational purposes, apply the criteria of terapeutic beaches subject to simultaneous patients stayin the bich,as well as geomorphological, hydrological and geological conditions.

  9. Repeated examination of natural sapovirus infections in pig litters raised under experimental conditions. (United States)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Hansen, Mette Sif; Johnsen, Christina K; Jungersen, Gregers; Böttiger, Blenda


    Porcine sapovirus, belonging to the family Caliciviridae, is an enteric virus that is widespread in the swine industry worldwide. A total of 14 sapovirus genogroups have been suggested and the most commonly found genogroup in swine is genogroup III (GIII). The goal of the present experiment was to examine the presence of sapovirus in 51 naturally infected pigs at two different time points. The pigs were kept under experimental conditions after weaning. Previous studies on sapovirus have primarily been of a cross sectional nature, typically prevalence studies performed on farms and abattoirs. In the present study, faecal samples, collected from each pig at 5½ weeks and 15-18 weeks of age, were analysed for sapovirus by reverse transciptase polymerase chain reaction and positive findings were genotyped by sequencing. At 5½ weeks of age, sapovirus was detected in the majority of the pigs. Sequencing revealed four different strains in the 5½ week olds-belonging to genogroups GIII and GVII. Ten to 13 weeks later, the virus was no longer detectable from stools of infected pigs. However, at this time point 13 pigs were infected with another GIII sapovirus strain not previously detected in the pigs studied. This GIII strain was only found in pigs that, in the initial samples, were virus-negative or positive for GVII. At 5 weeks of age 74 % of the pigs were infected with sapovirus. At 15-18 weeks of age all pigs had cleared their initial infection, but a new sapovirus GIII strain was detected in 25 % of the pigs. None of the pigs initially infected with the first GIII strain were reinfected with this new GIII strain, which may indicate the presence of a genogroup-specific immunity.

  10. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey. (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H


    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less.

  11. The occurrence and geochemistry of fluoride in some natural waters of Kenya (United States)

    Gaciri, S. J.; Davies, T. C.


    In recent years the acquisition of considerable additional data on the hydrogeochemical behaviour of fluoride in natural waters of Kenya has been made possible by extensive surface-water and groundwater sampling campaigns as well as by improvements in analytical techniques. Ultimately, the principal source of fluoride relates to emissions from volcanic activity associated with the East African Rift System. Through various intermediate steps, but also directly, fluoride passes into the natural water system and components of the food chain. Ingestion by man is mainly through drinking water and other beverages. River waters in Kenya generally have a fluoride concentration lower than the recommended level (1.3 ppm) for potable water, thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. Groundwaters and lake waters show considerably higher fluoride contents, resulting in the widespread incidence of fluorosis in areas where groundwater is the major source of drinking water, and lake fish is a regular component of the diet. This paper presents a synthesis of the data so far obtained on the sources and distribution of fluoride in the hydrological system of Kenya, examines the extent of fluorine toxicity and puts forward recommendations to combat or minimise the problem.

  12. Forced and natural convective drying of trehalose/water thin films: implication in the desiccation preservation of Mammalian cells. (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Fowler, Alex; Bhowmick, Sankha


    Trehalose is believed to offer desiccation protection to mammalian cells by forming stable glassy matrices. The goal of the current study was to explore the desiccation kinetics of thin films of trehalose-water solution under forced and natural convective conditions and to investigate the thermophysical state of mammalian cells at the bottom of the thin film. We developed a finite difference model based on the mass and energy conservation equations coupled to the water transport model from the cells. The boundary conditions were obtained from correlations or experimental measurements and the Gordon-Taylor equation was used to predict the glass transition temperature at every location. Results indicated that there are three distinct regimes for drying for both forced and natural convection, characterized by the slope of the moisture content plot as a function of time. Our results also indicate that the surface of the solution reached the glassy state in less than 10 min for the Reynolds (forced) numbers explored and approximately 30 min for some Rayleigh (natural convective) numbers; however, significant water was trapped at this instant. Larger drying force hastened quicker glass formation but trapped more water. The numerical model was capable of predicting the drying kinetics for the dilute region accurately, but deviated while predicting the other regimes. Based on these experimental validations of the model, the osmotic response of different cells located at the bottom of the solution with orders of magnitude difference in their membrane permeability (Lp) was predicted. The results suggested that extracellular glass formed around cells at the bottom of a trehalose-water solution by the propagation of glass into the solution; however it takes more than an order of magnitude time (approximately 7 min to >100 min for forced convective drying) to remove sufficient water to form glass around cells from the time when the first surface glass is formed. This is

  13. The nature of water within bacterial spores: protecting life in extreme environments (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Friedline, Anthony; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm M.; Thomas, Kieth J., III


    The bacterial spore is a formidable container of life, protecting the vital contents from chemical attack, antimicrobial agents, heat damage, UV light degradation, and water dehydration. The exact role of the spore components remains in dispute. Nevertheless, water molecules are important in each of these processes. The physical state of water within the bacterial spore has been investigated since the early 1930's. The water is found two states, free or bound, in two different areas, core and non-core. It is established that free water is accessible to diffuse and exchange with deuterated water and that the diffusible water can access all areas of the spore. The presence of bound water has come under recent scrutiny and has been suggested the water within the core is mobile, rather than bound, based on the analysis of deuterium relaxation rates. Using an alternate method, deuterium quadrupole-echo spectroscopy, we are able to distinguish between mobile and immobile water molecules. In the absence of rapid motion, the deuterium spectrum of D2O is dominated by a broad line, whose line shape is used as a characteristic descriptor of molecular motion. The deuterium spectrum of bacterial spores reveals three distinct features: the broad peak of immobilized water, a narrow line of water in rapid motion, and a signal of intermediate width. This third signal is assigned this peak from partially deuterated proteins with the spore in which N-H groups have undergone exchange with water deuterons to form N-D species. As a result of these observations, the nature of water within the spore requires additional explanation to understand how the spore and its water preserve life.

  14. Natural gas purification using a porous coordination polymer with water and chemical stability. (United States)

    Duan, Jingui; Jin, Wanqin; Krishna, Rajamani


    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs), constructed by bridging the metals or clusters and organic linkers, can provide a functional pore environment for gas storage and separation. But the rational design for identifying PCPs with high efficiency and low energy cost remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a new PCP, [(Cu4Cl)(BTBA)8·(CH3)2NH2)·(H2O)12]·xGuest (PCP-33⊃guest), which shows high potential for purification of natural gas, separation of C2H2/CO2 mixtures, and selective removal of C2H2 from C2H2/C2H4 mixtures at ambient temperature. The lower binding energy of the framework toward these light hydrocarbons indicates the reduced net costs for material regeneration, and meanwhile, the good water and chemical stability of it, in particular at pH = 2 and 60 °C, shows high potential usage under some harsh conditions. In addition, the adsorption process and effective site for separation was unravelled by in situ infrared spectroscopy studies.

  15. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification. (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara


    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  16. Release of iodine from organic matter in natural water by K2S2O8 oxidation for 129I determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Haijun; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per;


    measurement of 129I. The chemical oxidative method to release iodine from organic matter in natural water was investigated using anion exchange chromatography and CHCl3 extraction methods. K2S2O8 was confirmed to be an ideal oxidative reagent for decomposing organic matters and converting organic iodine...... to inorganic form. More than 95% of iodine in natural water can be separated by solvent extraction after oxidation under optimal conditions, and the isotopic exchange of iodine in inorganic and organic forms was well completed during the oxidation, being able to result in an identical 129I/127I ratio...... as in the original water. Our works indicate that the reported chemical oxidation method is a suitable approach for releasing organic associated iodine in natural water to allow separation of iodine and preparation of the AgI target for AMS measurement....

  17. Screening of lettuce germplasm for agronomic traits under low water conditions (United States)

    After a preliminary screening of over 3,500 varieties, we selected 200 cultivars of butterhead, cos, crisphead, leaf, and stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) to test under high water (150% ET) and low water (50% ET) conditions in the field, and tracked com...

  18. QTL mapping of protein content and seed characteristics under water-stress conditions in sunflower. (United States)

    Ebrahimi, A; Maury, P; Berger, M; Calmon, A; Grieu, P; Sarrafi, A


    The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions controlling seed protein content, kernel and hull weights, and seed density in water-stress conditions in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiments consisted of a split-plot design (water treatment and recombinant inbred lines) with thre