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Sample records for natural tiling rocks

  1. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rates in commercially-used natural tiling rocks (granites)

    CERN Document Server

    Tzortzis, M; Christofides, S; Christodoulides, G

    2003-01-01

    The gamma radiation in samples of a variety of natural tiling rocks (granites) imported in Cyprus for use in the building industry was measured, employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The rock samples were pulverized, sealed in 1 litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory with a live-time between 10 and 14 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for Th-232 (range from 1 to 906 Bq/kg), U-238 (from 1 to 588 Bq/kg) and K-40 (from 50 to 1606 Bq/kg). Elemental concentrations mean values of (35.2 +- 8.4) ppm, (6.2 +- 1.8) ppm and (4.0 +- 0.2) % were deduced, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively. The total absorbed dose rates in air calculated from the concentrations of the three radionuclides, Th-232 and U-238 series and K-40, ranged from 7 to 1209 nGy/h for full utilization of the materials, from 4 to 605 nGy/h for half utilization and from 2 to 302 nGy/h for one quarter utilization. The total effective dose rates per pers...

  2. Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija M. Janković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tiles are one of the commonly used decorative building materials. Body of ceramic tiles is a mixture of different raw materials including clays, quartz materials and feldspat, and may be glazed or left unglazed. Due to the presence of zircon in the glaze, ceramic tiles can show natural radioactivity concentration significantly higher than the average values for building materials. This study presents a summary of results obtained by a survey which was consisted of measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in imported ceramic tile samples used in Serbia using a gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. Based on the obtained concentrations, gamma index, radium equivalent activity, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials.

  3. Utilization of hard rock dust with red clay to produce roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Shanjida Sultana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of rock dust to produce roof tiles and its effects on properties of tiles, mixed with red clay collected from Naogaon district of Bangladesh were investigated. After proper characterization of the raw materials, tiles were prepared with different percentages of rock dust (10-50% mixed with clay sintered from 850-1100 °C temperature. Rock dust has been found good for using as fluxing material after XRF study. The samples were tested for different properties such as water absorption, porosity, mechanical strength, linear shrinkage, and bulk density. The strength values have exceeded the minimum standard requirement for roof tiles with low water absorption in most samples. The results obtained made it possible to conclude about the possibility of producing roof tiles incorporating up to 40% of rock dust having better properties (lower water absorption 6.5%, strength value 31.97 MPa fired at 900 °C. Therefore these dust acts as a fluxing agent and reducing the sinteringtemperature of the clay material.

  4. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates in man-made tiles used as building materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, K; Hosoda, M; Suwankot, N; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Man-made tiles frequently used in Japan were collected, and activity concentrations and radon ((222)Rn) exhalation rates in these tiles were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built using these tiles were also carried out. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the man-made tiles were 31-170, 35-110 and 260-980 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The (222)Rn exhalation rates in the tiles were 8.8-21 μBq m(-2) s(-1). The ranges of experimental activity concentrations and (222)Rn exhalation rates were almost identical to those of natural rocks used as typical building materials in Japan. The maximum value of effective dose to inhabitants living in houses built with the man-made tiles was 0.14 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the ICRP Publication 103.

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity and mass attenuation coefficients of brick and roofing tile used in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, N., E-mail: nevzat.damla@batman.edu.tr [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Celik, A. [Giresun University, Department of Physics, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Celik, N. [Guemueshane University, Department of Physics Engineering, 29100 Guemueshane Turkey (Turkey); Yildirim, I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Forest Industry, 61080 Tranzon (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    In this study the distribution of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) in brick and roofing tile samples commonly used as building materials in Turkey was measured by using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations, radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), representative level index, indoor absorbed dose rate in air values and annual effective dose due to the intake of the above-mentioned radionuclides in the brick and roofing tile samples were estimated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The measured average activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were 34 {+-} 14, 34 {+-} 13 and 462 {+-} 175 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for brick samples. For roofing tile, the average activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured to be 34 {+-} 14, 33 {+-} 12 and 429 {+-} 161 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries. The Ra{sub eq} values of all samples were lower than the limit of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.a{sup -1} recommended by OECD. This study shows that the measured brick and roofing tile samples do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe to be used as building materials. Moreover, the experimental mass attenuation coefficients ({mu}/{rho}) of brick and roofing tile samples were determined in the energy range 80-1332 keV using the gamma ray transmission method. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It was found that the computed values and the experimental results of this work are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The chemical compositions and structural analysis (XRD) of the brick and roofing tile samples are also presented. - Highlights: > In this study, the distribution of natural

  6. Exterior wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing%外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海平

    2015-01-01

    the rock is basalt and other natural mineral as the main raw materials by high temperature melting into the fiber,adding proper amount of binder, good insulation, sound insulation,fire prevention effect. Rock wool construction and installation convenience,remarkable energy saving effect,has a very high price. In the construction process,we explored and summed up the wall rock wool insulation construction technology of ceramic tile facing,through the engineering practice,and achieved good economic and social benefits, and has broad application prospects.%岩棉是以玄武岩及其它天然矿石为主要原料经高温熔融成纤,加入适量粘接剂而成,具有良好的绝热、隔音、防火效果。岩棉施工及安装便利、节能效果显著,具有很高的性价比。在施工过程中,我们探索和总结出了外墙岩棉保温磁砖饰面施工技术,通过工程实践,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益,具有广阔的应用前景。

  7. Quantitative measurement of natural radioactivity in some roofing tile materials used in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosif, M A M

    2013-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in some roofing tile materials (granite, alabaster, marble, traditional and advanced ceramic) used in Upper Egypt is presented in this paper. Measurements were done by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl) 3" × 3"). The values of concentration of natural radionuclides were in the following ranges: 12-78.9 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 8.4-113.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 94.9-509 Bq kg(-1)for (40)K. The activity concentration index (I), the specific dose rates indoors ( ) and the annual effective dose (DE) due to gamma radiation were calculated for each investigated sample. The lowest value of I is 0.19 for alabaster, while the highest one is 0.88 for traditional and advanced ceramic. The ranges of DE are between 0.03 and 0.13 mSv, it is below the maximal permitted values, so that the examined materials could be used as roofing tiles in the construction of new buildings.

  8. Fractal Nature of the Electronic Structure of a Penrose Tiling Lattice in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tetsuo; Kamimura, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The one-electron energy spectrum of a Penrose tiling lattice in a magnetic field is studied with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We show the following remarkable results characteristic of a Penrose lattice. (1) The density of states in a magnetic field has a central peak with zero width at zero energy. It is shown that the zero-energy states correspond to the ring states in which wavefunction has nonvanishing amplitudes only at the sites circling the origin. (2) The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum shows a butterfly shape caused by Landau quantization. (3) The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum also shows a fractal nature. In particular it is characterized by two periods whose ratio is equal to the golden mean (1+\\sqrt{5})/2, and two periods comprising a Fibonacci sequence. We have clarified the origin of this fractal behavior of the energy spectrum analytically.

  9. Generalized quasiperiodic Rauzy tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Julien; Mosseri, Rémy

    2001-05-01

    We present a geometrical description of new canonical d-dimensional codimension one quasiperiodic tilings based on generalized Fibonacci sequences. These tilings are made up of rhombi in 2d and rhombohedra in 3d as the usual Penrose and icosahedral tilings. Thanks to a natural indexing of the sites according to their local environment, we easily write down, for any approximant, the sites coordinates, the connectivity matrix and we compute the structure factor.

  10. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO₂ and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  11. Low pore connectivity in natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO(2) and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  12. Seismic response to natural gas anomalies in crystalline rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and seismic reflection data of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main-hole (MH), and the anomalies of CH4, CO2, and He are correlated to the three-component seismic reflectors, especially in horizontal component profiles. However, the seismic response is dif-ficult to be explained as the porosity of crystalline rocks is only about 1% in well section where the gas anomalies occur. Seismic velocity measurement of the MH cores indicated that compared with wa-ter-saturated rock samples, seismic velocity (especially the S-wave) could be distinctly decreased by gas contained in tiny cracks despite of the low porosity, and then notable seismic response could be induced in gas-filled crystalline rocks. It could be predicated that if the porosity of certain rocks in the middle crust rose due to water-rock interaction and had natural gas filled, then there would be more probability for natural gas in top of the mid-crust to fill in the crystalline rocks with increased porosity. In such case, based on the decrease of Swave velocity in crystalline rocks, seismic method could be applied in the future to explore natural gas reservoirs in the middle crust.

  13. Seismic response to natural gas anomalies in crystalline rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG WenCai; JIN ZhenMin; YU ChangQing

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and seismic reflection data of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) main-hole (MH), and the anomalies of CH4, CO2, and He are correlated to the three-component seismic reflectors, especially in horizontal component profiles. However, the seismic response is difficult to be explained as the porosity of crystalline rocks is only about 1% in well section where the gas anomalies occur. Seismic velocity measurement of the MH cores indicated that compared with water-saturated rock samples, seismic velocity (especially the S-wave) could be distinctly decreased by gas contained in tiny cracks despite of the low porosity, and then notable seismic response could be induced in gas-filled crystalline rocks. It could be predicated that if the porosity of certain rocks in the middle crust rose due to water-rock interaction and had natural gas filled, then there would be more probability for natural gas in top of the mid-crust to fill in the crystalline rocks with increased porosity. In such case, based on the decrease of S-wave velocity in crystalline rocks, seismic method could be applied in the future to explore natural gas reservoirs in the middle crust.

  14. Deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The intracrystalline deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As in other phyllosilicates, the deformation of chlorite is dominated by the (001) slip plane. Slip along this plane is very easy through the generation an

  15. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.L.; Artur, A.C. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guedes, S. [Departamento de Cronologia e Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda No. 777, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martinelli, C.D. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. Such data were used to estimate Ra{sub eq}, H{sub ex} and I{sub {gamma}}, which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra{sub eq} and H{sub ex} in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces {approx}10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m{sup 2}/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (={sup 226}Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  16. On the threshold of flow in a tight natural rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P. G.; Main, I. G.; Clint, O. C.; Li, L.

    2012-02-01

    The behaviour of hydraulically ‘tight’ barrier rocks is a key determinant of the long-term integrity of potential underground storage sites for the waste products from low-carbon emission energy production technologies (including nuclear waste and CO2 captured from fossil fuels). Here we isolate the relationship between crack-induced permeability and porosity using an initially crack-free natural crystalline material. We vary secondary porosity from an initial value of zero, and demonstrate that the bulk permeability K varies with total connected porosity Φ above the percolation threshold Φc as K = K0(Φ - Φc)n, where n = 3.8 ± 0.4, i.e., similar to results obtained for higher porosity rocks, indicating universality of this scaling law. Close to the percolation threshold a modest change in total porosity from 1% to 5% or so results in a massive change in permeability of 7 orders of magnitude or more. The results are consistent with a continuum percolation model that reflects the microstructure of the pore/induced microcrack network in the natural material.

  17. Anthropogenic sources stimulate resonance of a natural rock bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.; Koper, Keith D.; Wood, John R.; Goddard, Kyler; Burlacu, Relu; Doyle, Sarah; Stanfield, Erik; White, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    The natural modes of vibration of bedrock landforms, as well as the sources and effects of stimulated resonance remain poorly understood. Here we show that seismic energy created by an induced earthquake and an artificial reservoir has spectral content coincident with the natural modes of vibration of a prominent rock bridge. We measured the resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah using data from two broadband seismometers placed on the span, and identified eight distinct vibrational modes between 1 and 6 Hz. A distant, induced earthquake produced local ground motion rich in 1 Hz energy, stimulating a 20 dB increase in measured power at the bridge's fundamental mode. Moreover, we establish that wave action on Lake Powell, an artificial reservoir, generates microseismic energy with peak power ~1 Hz, also exciting resonance of Rainbow Bridge. These anthropogenic sources represent relatively new energy input for the bridge with unknown consequences for structural fatigue.

  18. Nano-Sized Natural Colorants from Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, W. Y. W.; Ruznan, W. S.; Hamid, H. A.; Kadir, M. I. A.; Yusoh, M. K. M.; Ahmad, M. R.

    2010-03-01

    Colored rocks (lateritic) and soils (shales) are available in abundant all around Malaysia and they are from natural sources. The colorants will be useful if they can be transferred to substrates using dyeing, printing or brushing with acceptable fastness. First of all the rocks need to be crushed into powder form before coloration can take place. The sizes of the colorants particles obtained with coffee grinder were of 7-8 microns. They can be reduced to 3-5 micron using fluidized bed jetmill and to nano sizes with the help of planetary mono mill grinders. The experiment was conducted in both dyeing and printing of textiles using all three sizes (7-8 microns, 3-5 microns and nano sizes) of colorants on silk fabric. The colorants were applied on silk fabrics by dyeing and tie and dye techniques. In addition, the colorants can also be applied by brushing technique as in batik canting or batik block as well as silk screen printing. The evaluations of colored materials were based on the levelness of dyeing, fastness properties (washing, light and rubbing fastness) and color strength. The wash fastness testing shows that all colorants sizes have more or less the same fastness to washing but nano sized colorants produced better uniform dyes distribution (levelness of dyeing) and higher color strength.

  19. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  20. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  1. EBSD Characterization of Dendrites in Synthetic and Natural Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J. E.; Tiley, J.; Shiveley, A.; Knox, S.; Viswanathan, G.

    2011-12-01

    Arborescent crystals in igneous rocks are associated with extreme crystallization environments: the protoplanary disk (chondrules), Earth's ultramafic Archean mantle (komatiite), and terrestrial submarine-erupted lavas (pillow basalts), although the role of morphological instabilities in more mundane settings such as magma reservoirs of modern oceanic islands is increasingly appreciated (see Welsch et al., V16). Fundamentals of dendrite formation are presumably well understood: branching morphologies belie crystal growth conditions in which the driving force for solidification produces a kinetic roughening transition, transforming an atomically smooth crystal-liquid interface into a rough, adhesive interface capable of extremely rapid advancement. However, not since photomicrograhic advances made possible close observations of snow crystals (Nakaya 1936), has there been a more promising set of analytical tools to characterize dendrites in natural and synthetic materials in pursuit of new insights. We are investigating clinopyroxene (cpx) in the quenched top of Fe-rich tholeiitic lava (Munro Township, Northeast Ontario; Fig. 1) and a synthetic basalt of similar character (Hammer 2006) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), 3D reconstruction of optical serial sections, and TEM. Here we report intriguing phenomena observed with EBSD common to both samples. Severe thinning of dendrite trunks and repeated tip splitting destroys the self-similarity associated with classical dendrites and instead presages 'seaweed' morphology. Split tips manifest incremental trajectory deflections, producing gently arched trunks (Fig. 1A) as well as tightly curved (r, producing distinctive misorientation maps and pole figures (Fig. 1C). Parallel branches exhibit similar rotational trajectories, carving parallel arcs in the pole figure. The high incidence of side branching and tip splitting is consistent with very rapid growth velocity, associated with extremely high kinetic

  2. Low-Temperature Plasticity of Naturally Deformed Calcite Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optical, cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were conducted onfour groups of calcite fault rocks, a cataclastic limestone, cataclastic coarse-grained marbles from two fault zones, and afractured mylonite. These fault rocks show similar microstructural characteristics and give clues to similar processes ofrock deformation. They are characterized by the structural contrast between macroscopic cataclastic (brittle) andmicroscopic mylonitic (ductile) microstructures. Intragranular deformation microstructures (i.e. deformation twins, kinkbands and microfractures) are well preserved in the deformed grains in clasts or in primary rocks. The matrix materials areof extremely fine grains with diffusive features. Dislocation microstructures for co-existing brittle deformation andcrystalline plasticity were revealed using TEM. Tangled dislocations are often preserved at the cores of highly deformedclasts, while dislocation walls form in the transitions to the fine-grained matrix materials and free dislocations, dislocationloops and dislocation dipoles are observed both in the deformed clasts and in the fine-grained matrix materials. Dynamicrecrystallization grains from subgrain rotation recrystallization and subsequent grain boundary migration constitute themajor parts of the matrix materials. Statistical measurements of densities of free dislocations, grain sizes of subgrains anddynamically recrystallized grains suggest an unsteady state of the rock deformation. Microstructural andcathodoluminescence analyses prove that fluid activity is one of the major parts of faulting processes. Low-temperatureplasticity, and thereby induced co-existence of macroscopic brittle and microscopic ductile microstmctures are attributedto hydrolytic weakening due to the involvement of fluid phases in deformation and subsequent variation of rock rheology.During hydrolytic weakening, fluid phases, e.g. water, enhance the rate of dislocation slip and climb, and

  3. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  4. Experimentally determined rock-fluid interactions applicable to a natural hot dry rock geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, R.W.; Holley, C.E. Jr.; Tester, J.W.; Blatz, L.A.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is pursuing laboratory and field experiments in the development of the Hot Dry Rock concept of geothermal energy. The field program consists of experiments in a hydraulically fractured region of low permeability in which hot rock is intercepted by two wellbores. These experiments are designed to test reservoir engineering parameters such as: heat extraction rates, water loss rates, flow characteristics including impedance and buoyancy, seismic activity and fluid chemistry. Laboratory experiments have been designed to provide information on the mineral reactivity which may be encountered in the field program. Two experimental circulation systems have been built to study the rates of dissolution and alteration in dynamic flow. Solubility studies have been done in agitated systems. To date, pure minerals, samples of the granodiorite from the actual reservoir and Tijeras Canyon granite have been reacted with distilled water and various solutions of NaCl, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. The results of these experimental systems are compared to observations made in field experiments done in a hot dry rock reservoir at a depth of approximately 3 km with initial rock temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C.

  5. The ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Louis Rose-Dulcina, a technician from the ATLAS collaboration, works on the ATLAS tile calorimeter. Special manufacturing techniques were developed to mass produce the thousands of elements in this detector. Tile detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  6. Isoperimetric Pentagonal Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Ping Ngai; Li, Yifei; Mara, Michael; Morgan, Frank; Plata, Isamar Rosa; Shah, Niralee; Vieira, Luis Sordo; Wikner, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We identify least-perimeter unit-area tilings of the plane by convex pentagons, namely tilings by Cairo and Prismatic pentagons, find infinitely many, and prove that they minimize perimeter among tilings by convex polygons with at most five sides.

  7. Estimation of radiation hazard indices from natural radioactivity of some rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks from Egypt and Germany have been considered to measure γ-ray activity concentrations due to naturally occurring, potentially hazardous radonuclides 2266Ra, 232Th and 40K. The radiation hazard parameters including radiation equivalent activity, gamma-absorbed dose rate, and external and internal hazard indices have been estimated. The gamma-absorbed dose rates in air of rocks in Egypt range found that the radiation hazard indices in common igneous rocks are distinctly higher in acidic than in ultrabasic rocks. The results are discussed and compared with the corresponding published data.

  8. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  9. The mineralogy and chemistry of the German and Portuguese tiles used to face a historic building in the Amazon region and their natural susceptibility to tropical weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcondes L. da; Sanjad,Thais A.B.C.; Paiva,Rosildo S.

    2013-01-01

    During the 19th century, the most prominent buildings of the city of Belém were faced entirely with tiles manufactured in Portugal and Germany, which now exhibit distinct degrees of degradation. The Pinho mansion is one of the most important of these buildings and was selected for the investigation of the action of the tropical Amazonian climate on the degradation of the tiles. To achieve this objective, the tiles were mapped for organic and inorganic degradation, and samples were collected f...

  10. Tilings in topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Arenas

    1999-01-01

    pairwise-disjoint interiors. Tilings of ℝ2 have received considerable attention (see [2] for a wealth of interesting examples and results as well as an extensive bibliography. On the other hand, the study of tilings of general topological spaces is just beginning (see [1, 3, 4, 6]. We give some generalizations for topological spaces of some results known for certain classes of tilings of topological vector spaces.

  11. Features of the type Ⅲ-like source rock and its generated natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mother matter of Ordovician source are mainly sapropelic and generate oil in mature stage, since the high plants did not appear in Ordovician period, which is well known by internal and external scholars. Now we find a kind of Orodovician source rock generating mainly light oil and gas in mature stage during appraising source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The organic matters of this source rock are chiefly constructed by benthic brown algae in organisms (showing as macro algae), and are similar to humic source in hydrocarbon generation. The natural gas generated by this kind of source matters is obviously different from the sapropelic gas.

  12. Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pautze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings (CASTs is introduced. Its vertices are supported on the 2 n -th cyclotomic field. It covers a wide range of known aperiodic substitution tilings of the plane with finite rotations. Substitution matrices and minimal inflation multipliers of CASTs are discussed as well as practical use cases to identify specimen with individual dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n , i.e., the tiling contains an infinite number of patches of any size with dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n only by iteration of substitution rules on a single tile.

  13. Taylor–Socolar Hexagonal Tilings as Model Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yup Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor–Socolar tilings are regular hexagonal tilings of the plane but are distinguished in being comprised of hexagons of two colors in an aperiodic way. We place the Taylor–Socolar tilings into an algebraic setting, which allows one to see them directly as model sets and to understand the corresponding tiling hull along with its generic and singular parts. Although the tilings were originally obtained by matching rules and by substitution, our approach sets the tilings into the framework of a cut and project scheme and studies how the tilings relate to the corresponding internal space. The centers of the entire set of tiles of one tiling form a lattice Q in the plane. If XQ denotes the set of all Taylor–Socolar tilings with centers on Q, then XQ forms a natural hull under the standard local topology of hulls and is a dynamical system for the action of Q.The Q-adic completion Q of Q is a natural factor of XQ and the natural mapping XQ → Q is bijective except at a dense set of points of measure 0 in /Q. We show that XQ consists of three LI classes under translation. Two of these LI classes are very small, namely countable Q-orbits in XQ. The other is a minimal dynamical system, which maps surjectively to /Q and which is variously 2 : 1, 6 : 1, and 12 : 1 at the singular points. We further develop the formula of what determines the parity of the tiles of a tiling in terms of the coordinates of its tile centers. Finally we show that the hull of the parity tilings can be identified with the hull XQ; more precisely the two hulls are mutually locally derivable.

  14. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alina-Mihaela Badescu; Alexandra Saftoiu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that at such frequencies the scattering is negligible compared to absorptions. The effect of trapped water in different forms is also evaluated.

  15. Wang Tiles in Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagae, Ares

    2009-01-01

    Many complex signals in computer graphics, such as point distributions and textures, cannot be efficiently synthesized and stored. This book presents tile-based methods based on Wang tiles and corner tiles to solve both these problems. Instead of synthesizing a complex signal when needed, the signal is synthesized beforehand over a small set of Wang tiles or corner tiles. Arbitrary large amounts of that signal can then efficiently be generated when needed by generating a stochastic tiling, and storing only a small set of tiles reduces storage requirements. A tile-based method for generating a

  16. Binary Non-tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Coppersmith, Don

    2009-01-01

    A subset V of GF(2)^n is a tile if GF(2)^n can be covered by disjoint translates of V. In other words, V is a tile if and only if there is a subset A of GF(2)^n such that V+A = GF(2)^n uniquely (i.e., v + a = v' + a' implies that v=v' and a=a' where v,v' in V and a,a' in A). In some problems in coding theory and hashing we are given a putative tile V, and wish to know whether or not it is a tile. In this paper we give two computational criteria for certifying that V is not a tile. The first involves impossibility of a bin-packing problem, and the second involves infeasibility of a linear program. We apply both criteria to a list of putative tiles given by Gordon, Miller, and Ostapenko in that none of them are, in fact, tiles.

  17. Controlling entry in soft rock with natural support strength, strike sill, etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-jun; ZHAO Qing-biao; SUN Li-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Presented the concept of the natural support strength. The natural support strength, the strike sill, the multifunction retractors (developed by the author) and etc. were used with the technical measures to change the passive support to the initiative support,and the soft rock entry was supported. And its process is simple and less equipment is needed, and the cost is low and the advance rate is high, which can meet the requirements of actual mining. It solves many support difficult problems.

  18. Distances on Lozenge Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Fernique, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a structural property of the set of lozenge tilings of a 2n-gon is highlighted. We introduce a simple combinatorial value called Hamming-distance, which is a lower bound for the flipdistance (i.e. the number of necessary local transformations involving three lozenges) between two given tilings. It is here proven that, for n5, We show that there is some deficient pairs of tilings for which the flip connection needs more flips than the combinatorial lower bound indicates.

  19. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    lithosphere or subducted with oceanic crust and recycled through the mantle by plate tectonics. Insulation products have a chemical composition similar to average crustal rocks and participate in the natural rock cycle. However, these products need not accumulate in nature, inasmuch as old insulation...

  20. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for...

  1. Natural {gamma}-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, M. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. della Biocomunicazione; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Mineralogia, Petrografia e Geochimica; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare

    1995-04-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y{sup -1}. Comparison between these values and those computed from {gamma}-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author).

  2. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration.

  3. Tiled Multicore Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael B.; Lee, Walter; Miller, Jason E.; Wentzlaff, David; Bratt, Ian; Greenwald, Ben; Hoffmann, Henry; Johnson, Paul R.; Kim, Jason S.; Psota, James; Saraf, Arvind; Shnidman, Nathan; Strumpen, Volker; Frank, Matthew I.; Amarasinghe, Saman; Agarwal, Anant

    For the last few decades Moore’s Law has continually provided exponential growth in the number of transistors on a single chip. This chapter describes a class of architectures, called tiled multicore architectures, that are designed to exploit massive quantities of on-chip resources in an efficient, scalable manner. Tiled multicore architectures combine each processor core with a switch to create a modular element called a tile. Tiles are replicated on a chip as needed to create multicores with any number of tiles. The Raw processor, a pioneering example of a tiled multicore processor, is examined in detail to explain the philosophy, design, and strengths of such architectures. Raw addresses the challenge of building a general-purpose architecture that performs well on a larger class of stream and embedded computing applications than existing microprocessors, while still running existing ILP-based sequential programs with reasonable performance. Central to achieving this goal is Raw’s ability to exploit all forms of parallelism, including ILP, DLP, TLP, and Stream parallelism. Raw approaches this challenge by implementing plenty of on-chip resources - including logic, wires, and pins - in a tiled arrangement, and exposing them through a new ISA, so that the software can take advantage of these resources for parallel applications. Compared to a traditional superscalar processor, Raw performs within a factor of 2x for sequential applications with a very low degree of ILP, about 2x-9x better for higher levels of ILP, and 10x-100x better when highly parallel applications are coded in a stream language or optimized by hand.

  4. A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliev, M. A.; Blum, P; Chubarian, G.; Olsen, R.; Bennight, C.; Cobine, T.; Fackler, D.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mateo, Z.; Vasilieva, Y. B.

    2010-01-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to b...

  5. The nature of carbon material in the black shale rock mass of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon material is closely tied to ores of various origin lying in the carbon (black shale) rock masses of Kazakhastan. The nature of the carbon material in several gold fields is closely examined. Shungite, its paragenesis with ore materials and its role in the carbon and ore material processes, is described. The accumulation of shungite in zones determined to consist of ores, is looked at in terms of prospecting criteria.

  6. Tiling Lattices with Sublattices, II

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, David; Robins, Sinai

    2010-01-01

    Our earlier article proved that if $n > 1$ translates of sublattices of $Z^d$ tile $Z^d$, and all the sublattices are Cartesian products of arithmetic progressions, then two of the tiles must be translates of each other. We re-prove this Theorem, this time using generating functions. We also show that for $d > 1$, not every finite tiling of $Z^d$ by lattices can be obtained from the trivial tiling by the process of repeatedly subdividing a tile into sub-tiles that are translates of one another.

  7. Experimental alteration of artificial and natural impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, J.; Dypvik, H.; Aagaard, P.; Jahren, J.; Ferrell, R.E.; Horton, J. Wright

    2009-01-01

    The alteration or transformation of impact melt rock to clay minerals, particularly smectite, has been recognized in several impact structures (e.g., Ries, Chicxulub, Mj??lnir). We studied the experimental alteration of two natural impact melt rocks from suevite clasts that were recovered from drill cores into the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and two synthetic glasses. These experiments were conducted at hydrothermal temperature (265 ??C) in order to reproduce conditions found in meltbearing deposits in the first thousand years after deposition. The experimental results were compared to geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) of the same alteration and to original mineral assemblages in the natural melt rock samples. In the alteration experiments, clay minerals formed on the surfaces of the melt particles and as fine-grained suspended material. Authigenic expanding clay minerals (saponite and Ca-smectite) and vermiculite/chlorite (clinochlore) were identified in addition to analcime. Ferripyrophyllite was formed in three of four experiments. Comparable minerals were predicted in the PHREEQC modeling. A comparison between the phases formed in our experiments and those in the cores suggests that the natural alteration occurred under hydrothermal conditions similar to those reproduced in the experiment. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Natural fault and fracture network versus anisotropy in the Lower Paleozoic rocks of Pomerania (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluch, Anna; Rybak-Ostrowska, Barbara; Konon, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the anisotropy of rock fabric, geometry and distribution of the natural fault and fracture network play a crucial role in the exploration for unconventional hydrocarbon recourses. Lower Paleozoic rocks from Pomerania within the Polish part of Peri-Baltic Basin, as prospective sequences, can be considered a laboratory for analysis of fault and fracture arrangement in relation to the mineral composition of the host rocks. A microstructural study of core samples from five boreholes in Pomerania indicate that the Silurian succession in the study area is predominantly composed of claystones and mudstones interbedded with thin layers of tuffites. Intervals with a high content of detrital quartz or diagenetic silica also occur. Most of the Silurian deposits are abundant in pyrite framboids forming layers or isolated small concretions. Early diagenetic carbonate concretions are also present. The direction and distribution of natural faults and fractures have resulted not only from paleostress. Preliminary study reveals that the fault and fracture arrangement is related to the mechanical properties of the host rocks that depend on their fabric and mineralogical composition: subvertical fractures in mudstones and limestones show steeper dips than those within the more clayey intervals; bedding-parallel fractures occur within organic-rich claystones and along the boundaries between different lithologies; tuffites and radiolaria-bearing siliceous mudstones are more brittle and show denser nets of fractures or wider mineral apertures; and, fracture refraction is observed at competence contrast or around spherical concretions. The fault and fracture mineralization itself is prone to the heterogenity of the rock profile. Thus, fractures infilled with calcite occur in all types of the studied rocks, but mineral growth is syntaxial within marly mudstones because of chemical uniformity, and antitaxial within sillicous mudstones. Fractures infilled with quartz are

  9. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs.

  10. Leaching properties of natural aggregates. Rock materials and tills; Lakegenskaper foer naturballast. Bergmaterial och moraener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Annika; Bahr, Bo von; Andersson, Tove; Lax, Kaj; Aakesson, Urban [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this project is to produce leaching data for natural aggregates needed for assessment of the environmental impact of alternative materials aimed for use in for example road constructions. Both rock materials and tills are tested. The results shows that very little is leached from natural aggregate. A comparison with landfill criteria for inert waste and the Swedish regulations for drinking water shows that a few samples exceeds the criteria for fluoride ions. All other values are lower then these criteria, and a vast majority of the measurements are below the quantification limit.

  11. SITE-94. Natural elemental mass movement in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Smith, G.M.; Towler, P.A.; Savage, D. [QuantiSci, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify natural elemental fluxes at a location exhibiting typical characteristics of a site for a spent fuel repository in Sweden. The relevant pathways are considered to be: Groundwater transport; Glacial erosion; Non-glacial weathering; River transport. Calculations are made of elemental mass fluxes from a volume of rock equivalent to that which would hold a KBS-3 style repository. In addition, the radioactive flux associated with the natural series radionuclide mass fluxes from the repository are also calculated. These can be compared directly to performance assessment predictions of the releases from a repository. 88 refs, 13 figs, 24 tabs.

  12. Natural Radioactivity Measurements and Radiation Dose Estimation in Some Sedimentary Rock Samples in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Akkurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity existed since creation of the universe due to the long life time of some radionuclides. This natural radioactivity is caused by γ-radiation originating from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In this study, the gamma radiation has been measured to determine natural radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in collected sedimentary rock samples in different places of Turkey. The measurements have been performed using γ-ray spectrometer containing NaI(Tl detector and multichannel analyser (MCA. Absorbed dose rate (D, annual effective dose (AED, radium equivalent activities (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, and internal hazard index (Hin associated with the natural radionuclide were calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the sedimentary rock samples. The average values of absorbed dose rate in air (D, annual effective dose (AED, radium equivalent activity (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, and internal hazard index (Hin were calculated and these were 45.425 nGy/h, 0.056 mSv/y, 99.014 Bq/kg, 0.267, and 0.361, respectively.

  13. Stability Assessment of Natural Caves Using Empirical Approaches and Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.

    2017-08-01

    The stability of underground voids such as caves can be assessed, in an initial approximation, by geomechanical classifications such as the Barton Q index. From a geomechanical viewpoint, the stability of 137 large span natural caves was analyzed herein. The caves were graphically represented based on existing tunnel and underground graphs, according to width and rock quality index Q. Many natural caves analyzed by a tunnel-type engineering approach could result as apparently unstable when represented in empirical existing graphics and would require reinforcements incompatible with speleothems and large chamber heights. A new graph and equation are proposed herein for the maximum span, for the exclusive case of caves, resulting in a reliable representation of large stable natural caves. The main contribution is a new stability chart for natural caves, consisting of two zones: a zone where stable caves are represented and a zone where unstable caves and collapsed caves are located.

  14. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  15. Experimental determination of natural carbonate rock dissolution rates with a focus on temperature dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Jens; Hellevang, Helge; Haile, Beyene G.; Gleixner, Gerd; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    The denudation of carbonate rocks at landscape scale is controlled by factors like mineral composition, temperature, precipitation, runoff, fracture spacing and vegetation cover. Knowledge on carbonate denudation is important in order to understand landscape development and long-term terrestrial/marine carbon transport, but there are few laboratory studies done on weathering rates of natural carbonate rocks under the low temperatures relevant for glacial-interglacial periods. To enhance the understanding of carbonate dissolution kinetics we studied low-temperature dissolution reactions of various natural Triassic carbonate rocks belonging to the Lower Muschelkalk in Germany. We conducted batch and flow-through experiments investigating the direct correlation of dissolution rates with temperature, and to establish whether the fine-grained carbonate rocks (micrite) are more reactive than the coarser-grained sparitic limestones. By increasing the temperature from 5 to 26 °C far-from-equilibrium dissolution rates of micritic and sparitic limestone samples increased from 2.42 × 10- 07 to 10.88 × 10- 07 and 4.19 × 10- 07 to 7.74 × 10- 07 mol m- 2 s- 1, respectively (Specific Surface Areas (SSA) of about 0.006-0.01 m2/g). The dissolution rates of dolomite rock samples varied only slightly from 1.06 × 10- 07 to 2.02 × 10- 07 mol m- 2 s- 1 (SSA approximately 0.002 m2/g) in the temperature range 5-25 °C at circum-neutral pH. The obtained apparent activation energies are in the range of earlier experiments done at higher temperatures, but there is a distinct difference between the calcite in the micrite (~ 51 kJ/mol) and sparitic (~ 20-22 kJ/mol) lithologies, indicating that the dissolution mechanisms are not the same. Using these activation energies in modelling of natural carbonate denudation we see that there is a clear effect of changing temperature, but this is mostly through the increased solubility at lower temperatures and not through the increasing far

  16. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination...... sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six...

  17. XFEM modeling of hydraulic fracture in porous rocks with natural fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, ZhanLi; Zeng, QingLei; Gao, Yue; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2017-08-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) in porous rocks is a complex multi-physics coupling process which involves fluid flow, diffusion and solid deformation. In this paper, the extended finite element method (XFEM) coupling with Biot theory is developed to study the HF in permeable rocks with natural fractures (NFs). In the recent XFEM based computational HF models, the fluid flow in fractures and interstitials of the porous media are mostly solved separately, which brings difficulties in dealing with complex fracture morphology. In our new model the fluid flow is solved in a unified framework by considering the fractures as a kind of special porous media and introducing Poiseuille-type flow inside them instead of Darcy-type flow. The most advantage is that it is very convenient to deal with fluid flow inside the complex fracture network, which is important in shale gas extraction. The weak formulation for the new coupled model is derived based on virtual work principle, which includes the XFEM formulation for multiple fractures and fractures intersection in porous media and finite element formulation for the unified fluid flow. Then the plane strain Kristianovic-Geertsma-de Klerk (KGD) model and the fluid flow inside the fracture network are simulated to validate the accuracy and applicability of this method. The numerical results show that large injection rate, low rock permeability and isotropic in-situ stresses tend to lead to a more uniform and productive fracture network.

  18. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  19. Fitness landscapes in natural rocks system evolution: A conceptual DFT treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Duley; Jean-Louis Vigneresse; Pratim Kumar Chattaraj

    2012-01-01

    The chemical reactivity descriptors, such as electronegativity, hardness and electrophilicity of major oxides computed from density functional theory are reported in this paper. These parameters are plotted within a fitness landscape diagram, showing that the principles of minimum electrophilicity (MEP) and maximum hardness (MHP) act as guides towards the region of higher stability. The diagrams indicate the trends and the parameters that control the evolution of natural rocks. Application of the principle S-bearing copper compounds shows the possible and preferred combinations of elements, that give rise to compounds observed during ore formation.

  20. Natural Materials for Thermal Insulation: Mulch and Lava-Rock Characterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Aurélien; Adams, Craig; Medina, Mario; Miranville, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    ICRET 2014 - Hong Kong; International audience; This paper reports on the thermal characterization, via the thermal conductivity, of natural materials, such as mulch and lava rock and their usefulness as building insulation. Experiments were carried out using a scale one monitored wall (i.e. heat flux and temperature sensors) exposed to a heating source on one side and to an air conditioned space on the other. The wall system was composed of an 8.85 cm thick cavity, where the mulch and lava r...

  1. Fixed Point and Aperiodic Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Bruno; Shen, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    An aperiodic tile set was first constructed by R.Berger while proving the undecidability of the domino problem. It turned out that aperiodic tile sets appear in many topics ranging from logic (the Entscheidungsproblem) to physics (quasicrystals) We present a new construction of an aperiodic tile set that is based on Kleene's fixed-point construction instead of geometric arguments. This construction is similar to J. von Neumann self-reproducing automata; similar ideas were also used by P. Gacs in the context of error-correcting computations. The flexibility of this construction allows us to construct a ``robust'' aperiodic tile set that does not have periodic (or close to periodic) tilings even if we allow some (sparse enough) tiling errors. This property was not known for any of the existing aperiodic tile sets.

  2. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  3. Natural Gamma Radiation in Rocks from Kerri-Kerri Formation, Northeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachama, Y. D.; Ahmed, A. L.; Lawal, K. M.; Arabi, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    In a study on uranium favourability in Nigeria, it was suggested that the Kerri-Kerri Formation located in the Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria is a potential host of uranium mineralization, hence the need to assess the level of natural gamma radiation from the rocks of the area. Laboratory γ-ray spectrometric analysis was carried out with a HPGe detector by (EG & G Ortec Inc.) at the Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Thirty six (36) rock samples were collected from the study area from which nine (9) composite samples were formed for the laboratory γ-ray analysis. The mean concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were 26.9988 Bq/kg, 61.9131 Bq/kg and 91.7042 Bq/kg respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 15.646 nGyh-1 which is lower than the world average value of 51.5 nGyh-1. The average internal and external hazard indices were found to be 0.404 and 0.331 respectively which are lower than the acceptable limits of value was 122.60 Bq kg-1 which is well within and less the permissible limit of 370 Bq kg-1. Since the radiological hazard parameters are all lower than the permissible limits, the study area can be considered as safe due to natural gamma radiation and the rocks of the area can be used safely for building and construction purposes.

  4. Modeling of Immiscible, Two-Phase Flows in a Natural Rock Fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2009-01-01

    One potential method of geologically sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) is to inject the gas into brine-filled, subsurface formations. Within these low-permeability rocks, fractures exist that can act as natural fluid conduits. Understanding how a less viscous fluid moves when injected into an initially saturated rock fracture is important for the prediction of CO2 transport within fractured rocks. Our study examined experimentally and numerically the motion of immiscible fluids as they were transported through models of a fracture in Berea sandstone. The natural fracture geometry was initially scanned using micro-computerized tomography (CT) at a fine volume-pixel (voxel) resolution by Karpyn et al. [1]. This CT scanned fracture was converted into a numerical mesh for two-phase flow calculations using the finite-volume solver FLUENT® and the volume-of-fluid method. Additionally, a translucent experimental model was constructed using stereolithography. The numerical model was shown to agree well with experiments for the case of a constant rate injection of air into the initially water-saturated fracture. The invading air moved intermittently, quickly invading large-aperture regions of the fracture. Relative permeability curves were developed to describe the fluid motion. These permeability curves can be used in reservoir-scale discrete fracture models for predictions of fluid motion within fractured geological formations. The numerical model was then changed to better mimic the subsurface conditions at which CO2 will move into brine saturated fractures. The different fluid properties of the modeled subsurface fluids were shown to increase the amount of volume the less-viscous invading gas would occupy while traversing the fracture.

  5. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  6. A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

    2010-01-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

  7. A new natural gamma radiation measurement system for marine sediment and rock analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, M. A.; Blum, P.; Chubarian, G.; Olsen, R.; Bennight, C.; Cobine, T.; Fackler, D.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mateo, Z.; Vasilieva, Y. B.

    2011-11-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are possible at rates of a few counts per second.

  8. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  9. Analysis of tiling array expression studies with flexible designs in Bioconductor (waveTiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuf Kristof

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing statistical methods for tiling array transcriptome data either focus on transcript discovery in one biological or experimental condition or on the detection of differential expression between two conditions. Increasingly often, however, biologists are interested in time-course studies, studies with more than two conditions or even multiple-factor studies. As these studies are currently analyzed with the traditional microarray analysis techniques, they do not exploit the genome-wide nature of tiling array data to its full potential. Results We present an R Bioconductor package, waveTiling, which implements a wavelet-based model for analyzing transcriptome data and extends it towards more complex experimental designs. With waveTiling the user is able to discover (1 group-wise expressed regions, (2 differentially expressed regions between any two groups in single-factor studies and in (3 multifactorial designs. Moreover, for time-course experiments it is also possible to detect (4 linear time effects and (5 a circadian rhythm of transcripts. By considering the expression values of the individual tiling probes as a function of genomic position, effect regions can be detected regardless of existing annotation. Three case studies with different experimental set-ups illustrate the use and the flexibility of the model-based transcriptome analysis. Conclusions The waveTiling package provides the user with a convenient tool for the analysis of tiling array trancriptome data for a multitude of experimental set-ups. Regardless of the study design, the probe-wise analysis allows for the detection of transcriptional effects in both exonic, intronic and intergenic regions, without prior consultation of existing annotation.

  10. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in sedimentary rocks from Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure concentrations and distributions of natural radionuclides occurring mentary rock samples from Eastern Desert (Um El-Huetat), Nile Valley (Gebel Owina) and from southwest Sinai (Wadi Ghweiba) were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The samples under investigation (clay, shale and sandstone) were used as raw materials in the construction industry (bricks, ceramics, cement, fillers, etc.). Though the sediments of Egypt have already been investigated in the geological and mineralogical aspects, it is necessary to investigate the natural radioactivity in order to complete their classification. The average concentration values of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in the surveyed samples were 47 ± 7,21± 5, 393±19 Bq.kg-1 (clay); 23 ± 5, 30 ± 6, 563 ± 24 Bq.kg-1(shale); and 17 ± 4, 14 ± 4, 299 ± 17 Bq.kg-1 (sandstone), respectively. All sediment samples have radium equivalent natural radionuclides present in the samples have been computed and compared with the global averages. In terms of the radiation safety, the natural radioactivity of the sediment in Egypt is below the recommended limits of the gamma dose rate. Therefore, they can be used for all kinds of public buildings.

  11. Natural radioactivity measurements in the granite rock of quarry sites, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Hamzah, S.; Idi, Bello. Y.

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in the granite rocks of selected quarry sites in Johor state, Malaysia and their possible radiological effects. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the areas of study indicated varying values of 238U, 232Th and 40K. The highest values of 238U and 232Th concentrations (67±1 and 85±2 Bq kg-1, respectively) were observed at Kamad Quarry (IJM), whereas the highest value of 40K concentration (722±18 Bq kg-1) was detected in Kim Seng Quarry, while the values of activity concentration are lower in Hanson Quarry Products (Kulai) (25±0.5 for 238U, 24±0.5 for 232Th and 429±11 for 40K). Overall, 40K has the highest concentration in the granite rocks of the quarry sites, followed by 232Th and the least for 238U. The radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 94 and 239 Bq kg-1, the absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range between 47 and 112 nGy h-1, and effective dose ranged from 58 to 137 μSv h-1. Moreover, the internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity.

  12. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahi, S M; Sroor, A; Mohamed, Gehan Y; El-Gendy, N S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population.

  13. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  14. Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to analyze the stability of a natural rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Mastrorocco, Giovanni; Seddaiu, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a rotary wing RPAS for monitoring the stability of a natural rock slope in the municipality of Vecchiano (Pisa, Italy). The slope under investigation is approximately oriented NNW-SSE and has a length of about 320 m; elevation ranges from about 7 to 80 m a.s.l.. The hill consists of stratified limestone, somewhere densely fractured, with dip direction predominantly oriented in a normal way respect to the slope. Fracture traces are present in variable lengths, from decimetre to metre, and penetrate inward the rock versant with thickness difficult to estimate, often exceeding one meter in depth. The intersection between different fracture systems and the slope surface generates rocky blocks and wedges of variable size that may be subject to phenomena of gravitational instability (with reference to the variation of hydraulic and dynamic conditions). Geometrical and structural info about the rock mass, necessary to perform the analysis of the slope stability, were obtained in this work from geo-referenced 3D point clouds acquired using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. In particular, a terrestrial laser scanning was carried out from two different point of view using a Leica Scanstation2. The laser survey created many shadows in the data due to the presence of vegetation in the lower parts of the slope and limiting the feasibility of geo-structural survey. To overcome such a limitation, we utilized a rotary wing Aibotix Aibot X6 RPAS geared with a Nikon D3200 camera. The drone flights were executed in manual modality and the images were acquired, according to the characteristics of the outcrops, under different acquisition angles. Furthermore, photos were captured very close to the versant (a few meters), allowing to produce a dense 3D point cloud (about 80 Ma points) by the image processing. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee the necessary spatial accuracy to the process of images exterior

  15. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Synthetic and Natural Rock Properties in Support of the NEESROCK Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S.; Smith, S.; Maclaughlin, M.; Wartman, J.; Applegate, K. N.; Gibson, M. D.; Arnold, L.; Keefer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Seismically induced rock slope failures are one of the most dangerous and least understood of all seismic hazards. The NEESROCK project, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Washington, Montana Tech, and the University of Maine, is supported by the National Science Foundation through its Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. The overall goal of the project is to advance our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the rock-slope failure process by integrating centrifuge physical modeling and distinct element numerical simulations in order to develop more advanced predictive tools and analysis procedures. Centrifuge experiments will calibrate and verify the numerical models. A fundamental component of this project and the primary focus of the Montana Tech research is laboratory testing of the synthetic materials used in the centrifuge models and comparison of these materials with natural rock specimens. Properties such as strength of the intact material, the geometry and strength of material interfaces, and the material's response to deformation and wave propagation are being studied with laboratory experiments that include tilt table tests, direct shear tests, laser scanning of the interface surfaces, unconfined compression tests, ultrasonic velocity tests, and free-free resonant column tests. The numerical modeling portion of the study is being used to simulate selected laboratory tests to investigate the abilities of the distinct element programs (Itasca's Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) and Particle Flow Code (PFC) software) to simulate the material behavior in the laboratory. Direct shear test results, in particular, are used to validate the performance of the joint constitutive models in UDEC. The experimental ultrasonic velocity tests, in combination with unconfined compression tests, are being used to investigate the relationship between static and dynamic modulus values for the project material as

  16. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstein Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. Results We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn from O(n2logn. For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Conclusion Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that

  17. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in rocks and beach sands from Ezine region (Canakkale), Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Güngör, Y; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Karacik, Z

    2007-06-01

    This paper represents the first reports on the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Kestanbol granitic pluton and surrounding rocks, and coastal region of the Ezine town. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were calculated, and in situ gamma dose rates were measured. The high-activity concentrations were measured in the pluton and sands, which was originated mainly from the pluton, due to the presence of zircon, allanite, monazite, thorite, uranothorite and apatite. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are 174.78, 204.69 and 1171.95 Bq kg(-1) for pluton, and 290.36, 532.04 and 1160.75 Bq kg(-1) for sands, respectively. (137)Cs in Ezine region ranged from 0-6.57 Bq kg(-1). The average absorbed dose rate for the granitic and sand samples were calculated to be 251.6 and 527.92 nGy h(-1), respectively. The maximum contribution to the total absorbed gamma dose rate in air was due to the (232)Th (52.3% for pluton and 67.1% for sands). The Raeq activities of the pluton and sands are higher than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials.

  19. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  20. Tiled QR factorization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwmeester, Henricus; Langou, Julien; Robert, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work revisits existing algorithms for the QR factorization of rectangular matrices composed of p-by-q tiles, where p >= q. Within this framework, we study the critical paths and performance of algorithms such as Sameh and Kuck, Modi and Clarke, Greedy, and those found within PLASMA. Although neither Modi and Clarke nor Greedy is optimal, both are shown to be asymptotically optimal for all matrices of size p = q^2 f(q), where f is any function such that \\lim_{+\\infty} f= 0. This novel and important complexity result applies to all matrices where p and q are proportional, p = \\lambda q, with \\lambda >= 1, thereby encompassing many important situations in practice (least squares). We provide an extensive set of experiments that show the superiority of the new algorithms for tall matrices.

  1. Radiation defects and energy storage in natural polycrystalline rock salt. Results of an in-situ test in the Permian rock salt of the Asse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T. [Institut fuer Tieflagerung, Braunschweig (Germany); Celma, A.G.; Haas, J.B.M. de [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands); Pederson, L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Radiation damage development and the corresponding energy storage in pure undeformed single crystals have frequently been studied in laboratory experiments, however little is known of irradiation experiments on natural rock salt (polycrystalline, deformed and impure) under geological conditions. The relevance of these parameters to the defect formation was revealed by a joint United States/Federal Republic of Germany in-situ test in the Asse Mine. Natural rock salt was heated and irradiated using Co-60 sources. Calculations of the amount of halite expected to be decomposed by radiolysis during the experiment were performed using the 1985 version of the Jain-Lidiard model. Qualitative agreement between theory and analyses was found for all the performed analyses. Quantitative and qualitative deviations of the natural samples behaviour from that of single undeformed crystals were observed and attributed to the influence of sulfatic admixtures, polycrystallinity and strain on radiation damage development and anneal. Special chemical methods, such as iodometric titration and uv-visible spectroscopy were applied in order to measure the hypochlorite ion, which forms in irradiated salt. Composite samples located closet to the Co-60 source averaged 0,4 micromoles neutral chlorine atoms per gram salt, a factor of two more than from other positions. Uv-vis analyses revealed more than a factor of ten greater neutral chlorine concentrations in coloured halite. Similarly, optical absorption measurements indicated a factor of ten difference in sodium metal colloid concentrations.

  2. Specific activities of natural rocks and soils at quaternary intraplate volcanism north of Sana’a, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Shaban; El-Kamel, Abd El-Hadi; Abbady, Abd El-Bast; Saleh, Imran Issa; El-Mageed, Abdallah Ibrahim Abd

    2012-01-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in rocks and soil of 32 samples collected from locations at North Sana′a in Yemen was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in rocks and soils samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K were determined and expressed in Bq/kg. The results showed that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of 21.79 ± 3.1, 19.5 ± 2.6 and 399.3 ± 16 Bq/kg, respectively, for rocks. For soil, the corresponding values were 48.2 ± 4.4, 41.7 ± 4.5 and 939.1 ± 36 Bq/kg, respectively. Also, the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclide content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The dose rates at 1 m above the ground from terrestrial sources were 38.39 and 86.89 nGy/h for rocks and surface soil, respectively, which present no significant health hazards to humans. PMID:22363113

  3. Hydrogen isotope composition of natural gases from the Tarim Basin and its indication of depositional environments of the source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU QuanYou; DAI JinXing; LI Jian; ZHOU QingHua

    2008-01-01

    By measuring carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions for C1, C2 and C3 of 74 gas samples, natural gases from the Tarim Basin can be divided into six groups on the basis of their origins: (1) coal-type gas derived from coal measures; (2) coal-type gas generated from the T-J lacustrine mudstones; (3) oil-type gas derived from the Cambrian and low Ordovician marine source rocks; (4) oil-type gas from the source rocks deposited in the marine -transitional facies; (5) mixing gas between gas derived from the Carboniferous transitional source rocks and the Mesozoic humic gas, and (6) mixing gases of of methane in natural gases originating from different type kerogens are affected by both palaeo-environments of the source rock formation (kerogen types) and thermal maturity, with sedimentary environment (kerogen type) as the main controlling factor. Under the similar thermal maturity, the hydrogen isotope composition of methane is more enriched in deuterium in marine environments than lacustrine one. With the increase of thermal maturity and the increase of carbon atomic numbers of environment of the source rock formation. The partial reversal of hydrogen isotopes for gaseous alkanes would be related to the microbial oxidation, mixing of sapropelic and humic gases and / or mixing of gases from similar kerogen sources with various thermal maturities. In the oil-type gas, the sul

  4. Quantifying porosity and permeability of fractured carbonates and fault rocks in natural groundwater reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Reza; Wolfmayr, Mariella; Bauer, Helene; Decker, Kurt

    2017-04-01

    This study presents porosity and permeability data for a suite of different carbonate rocks from two major groundwater reservoirs in eastern Austria that supply more than 60% of Vienna`s drinking water. Data includes a set of lithologically different, unfractured host rocks, fractured rocks with variable fracture intensities, and fault rocks such as dilation breccias, different cataclasites and dissolution-precipitation fault rocks. Fault rock properties are of particular importance, since fault zones play an important role in the hydrogeology of the reservoirs. The reservoir rocks are exposed at two major alpine karst plateaus in the Northern Calcareous Alps. They comprise of various Triassic calcareous strata of more than 2 km total thickness that reflect facies differentiation since Anisian times. Rocks are multiply deformed resulting in a partly dense network of fractures and faults. Faults differ in scale, fault rock content, and fault rock volumes. Methods used to quantify the porosity and permeability of samples include a standard industry procedure that uses the weight of water saturated samples under hydrostatic uplift and in air to determine the total effective (matrix and fracture) porosity of rocks, measurements on plugs with a fully automated gas porosity- and permeameter using N2 gas infiltrating plugs under a defined confining pressure (Coreval Poro 700 by Vinci technologies), and percolation tests. The latter were conducted in the field along well known fault zones in order to test the differences in fractured rock permeability in situ and on a representative volume, which is not ensured with plug measurements. To calculate hydraulic conductivity by the Darcy equation the measured elapsed time for infiltrating a standard volume of water into a small borehole has been used. In general, undisturbed host rock samples are all of low porosity (average around 1%). The open porosity of the undisturbed rocks belonging to diverse formations vary from 0

  5. Tiling a Rectangle with Polyominoes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A polycube in dimension $d$ is a finite union of unit $d$-cubes whose vertices are on knots of the lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^d$. We show that, for each family of polycubes $E$, there exists a finite set $F$ of bricks (parallelepiped rectangles) such that the bricks which can be tiled by $E$ are exactly the bricks which can be tiled by $F$. Consequently, if we know the set $F$, then we have an algorithm to decide in polynomial time if a brick is tilable or not by the tiles of...

  6. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3).

  7. Efeito da adição de resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades tecnológicas e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado Effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste on the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de rochas ornamentais gera grandes quantidades de resíduos sólidos na forma de pós finos. Estes resíduos, quando descartados no ambiente, provocam impacto ambiental negativo. Foi feito um estudo sobre a influência de um resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado. Foi preparada uma série de massas cerâmicas contendo até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Peças cerâmicas foram preparadas por prensagem uniaxial e sinterizadas entre 1190 e 1250 ºC em um ciclo de queima rápida. As seguintes propriedades tecnológicas foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água, massa específica aparente, e tensão de ruptura a flexão. A evolução da microestrutura e a análise de fases foram acompanhadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e difração de raios X. Os resultados mostraram que adições de até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental causaram variações significativas na generalidade das propriedades tecnológicas da massa cerâmica de referência. A microestrutura das peças cerâmicas também foi influenciada com a incorporação do resíduo estudado. Os resultados também mostram que a substituição de feldspato sódico por resíduo de rocha ornamental nas massas cerâmicas tende a melhorar a qualidade do piso cerâmico.The ornamental rock industries generate huge amounts of solid wastes (fine powders. These wastes as disposed in the environment generate negative environmental impacts. In this work a study was done on the influence of an ornamental rock waste in the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified floor tile. A series of ceramic pastes were prepared with additions of up to 30 wt% of waste. Ceramic pieces were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered between 1190 and 1250 ºC using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density

  8. Coxeter Pairs, Ammann Patterns and Penrose-like Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Latham

    2016-01-01

    We identify a precise geometric relationship between: (i) certain natural pairs of irreducible reflection groups ("Coxeter pairs"); (ii) self-similar quasicrystalline patterns formed by superposing sets of 1D quasi-periodically-spaced lines, planes or hyper-planes ("Ammann patterns"); and (iii) the tilings dual to these patterns ("Penrose-like tilings"). We use this relationship to obtain all irreducible Ammann patterns and their dual Penrose-like tilings, along with their key properties in a simple, systematic and unified way, expanding the number of known examples from four to infinity. For each symmetry, we identify the minimal Ammann patterns (those composed of the fewest 1d quasiperiodic sets) and construct the associated Penrose-like tilings: six in 2D, five in 3D and one in 4D. These include the original Penrose tiling, the three other previously known Penrose-like tilings, and eight that are new. We also complete the enumeration of the quasicrystallographic space groups corresponding to the irreducibl...

  9. Natural radioactivity content in groundwater of Mt. Etna’s eastern flank and gamma background of surrounding rocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kozłowska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waters of Mt. Etna are the main source of drinking water for the local population and are also distributed in municipal supply systems to neighbouring areas. Radioactivity in underground waters and surrounding rocks from the eastern flank of Mt.Etnawas investigated on the basis of 9 water and 8 rocks samples from 12 localities altogether. Three samples were from water drainage galleries and six from water wells. All water intakes are used for consumption. Activity concentration of uranium isotopes 234,238U, radium isotopes 226,228Ra and radon 222Rn were determined with the use different nuclear spectrometry techniques. The determination of uranium isotopes was carried out with the use of alpha spectrometry. The measurements of radium and radon activity concentration in water were performed with the use of a liquid scintillation technique. Additionally, rocks surrounding the intakes were examined with gamma spectrometry. All water samples showed uranium concentration above Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA, with the highest total uranium (234U + 238U activity concentration equal to 149.2±6 mBq/L. Conversely, all samples showed radium isotopes activity concentrations below MDA. Radon activity concentration was within the range from 2.91±0.36 to 21.21±1.10 Bq/L, hence these waters can be classified as low – radon waters. Gamma natural background of the rocks surrounding the water sampling sites was found on the same levels as other volcanic rocks of Italy.

  10. Quantitative Determination of Noa (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in Rocks : Comparison Between Pcom and SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Amodeo, Francesco; Giorgis, Ilaria; Vitaliti, Martina

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of NOA (Naturally Occurring Asbestos) in a rock or soil matrix is complex and subject to numerous errors. The purpose of this study is to compare two fundamental methodologies used for the analysis: the first one uses Phase Contrast Optical Microscope (PCOM) while the second one uses Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The two methods, although they provide the same result, which is the asbestos mass to total mass ratio, have completely different characteristics and both present pros and cons. The current legislation in Italy involves the use of SEM, DRX, FTIR, PCOM (DM 6/9/94) for the quantification of asbestos in bulk materials and soils and the threshold beyond which the material is considered as hazardous waste is a concentration of asbestos fiber of 1000 mg/kg.(DM 161/2012). The most used technology is the SEM which is the one among these with the better analytical sensitivity.(120mg/Kg DM 6 /9/94) The fundamental differences among the analyses are mainly: - Amount of analyzed sample portion - Representativeness of the sample - Resolution - Analytical precision - Uncertainty of the methodology - Operator errors Due to the problem of quantification of DRX and FTIR (1% DM 6/9/94) our Asbestos Laboratory (DIATI POLITO) since more than twenty years apply the PCOM methodology and in the last years the SEM methodology for quantification of asbestos content. The aim of our research is to compare the results obtained from a PCOM analysis with the results provided by SEM analysis on the base of more than 100 natural samples both from cores (tunnel-boring or explorative-drilling) and from tunnelling excavation . The results obtained show, in most cases, a good correlation between the two techniques. Of particular relevance is the fact that both techniques are reliable for very low quantities of asbestos, even lower than the analytical sensitivity. This work highlights the comparison between the two techniques emphasizing strengths and weaknesses of

  11. Natural radionuclides in the rocks of the Valle del Cervo Pluton in Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Lucia; Fumagalli, Marco; Carnevale, Mauro; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; Colombo, Annita; Tunesi, Annalisa; De Capitani, Luisa; Rusconi, Rosella

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of the gamma radiation in Valle del Cervo Pluton was performed by determining U and Th contents in the main rock types cropping out over the entire area and pertaining to the granitic complex, syenitic complex and monzonitic complex. In particular, syenitic rocks were largely used as building and ornamental materials (e.g. Sienite della Balma). All the samples are fresh and do not present joints or fractures filled with U minerals. In the crushed samples the activity of uranium varies from 346 to 764 Bq/kg. Concentration of thorium varies from 202 to 478 Bq/kg. For all the analysed rocks uranium activity is higher than thorium one. The lowest value of radioactive concentration is referred to rocks of the granitic complex. The most active rocks are syenites. The data confirm the high activities of Valle del Cervo rock types, strongly connected with high K content of the source magma (geochemical signature); on the contrary, the activity seems to be not related to the location of the samples.

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in rocks and their relationships with the geological structure of Johor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnour, I A; Wagiran, H; Ibrahim, N; Hamzah, S; Elias, M S; Laili, Z; Omar, M

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) and their radiological hazard effect in rocks collected from the state of Johor, Malaysia were determined by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector. The highest values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations (67±6, 85±7 and 722±18 Bg kg(-1), respectively) were observed in the granite rock. The lowest concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th (2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 2±0.1 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th) were observed in gabbro rock. The lowest concentration of (40)K (45±2 Bq kg(-1)) was detected in sandstone. The radium equivalent activity concentrations for all rock samples investigated were lower than the internationally accepted value of 370 Bq kg(-1). The highest value of radium equivalent in the present study (239±17 Bq kg(-1)) was recorded in the area of granite belonging to an acid intrusive rock geological structure. The absorbed dose rate was found to range from 4 to 112 nGy h(-1). The effective dose ranged from 5 to 138 μSv h(-1). The internal and external hazard index values were given in results lower than unity. The purpose of this study is to provide information related to radioactivity background levels and the effects of radiation on residents in the study area under investigation. Moreover, the relationships between the radioactivity levels in the rocks within the geological structure of the studied area are discussed.

  13. Hydrogen isotope composition of natural gases from the Tarim Basin and its indication of depositional environments of the source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By measuring carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions for C1, C2 and C3 of 74 gas samples, natural gases from the Tarim Basin can be divided into six groups on the basis of their origins: (1) coal-type gas derived from coal measures; (2) coal-type gas generated from the T-J lacustrine mudstones; (3) oil-type gas derived from the Cambrian and low Ordovician marine source rocks; (4) oil-type gas from the source rocks deposited in the marine-transitional facies; (5) mixing gas between gas derived from the Carboniferous transitional source rocks and the Mesozoic humic gas, and (6) mixing gases of thermal genetic gas and little deep gas in the Southwest depression of the Tarim Basin. The δ D values of methane in natural gases originating from different type kerogens are affected by both palaeo-environments of the source rock formation (kerogen types) and thermal maturity, with sedimentary environment (kerogen type) as the main controlling factor. Under the similar thermal maturity, the hydrogen isotope composition of methane is more enriched in deuterium in marine environments than lacustrine one. With the increase of thermal maturity and the increase of carbon atomic numbers of gaseous alkanes, the hydrogen isotopes become enriched in deuterium. The δ D values of ethane and propane (δ D2, δ D3) are controlled mainly by thermal maturity and to a lesser degree by sedimentary environment of the source rock formation. The partial reversal of hydrogen isotopes for gaseous alkanes would be related to the microbial oxidation, mixing of sapropelic and humic gases and / or mixing of gases from similar kerogen sources with various thermal maturities. In the oil-type gas, the sulfate reduction reaction would result in the reversed order of δ D1 and δ D2 (e.g. δ D1>δ D2).

  14. Effects of fluids on rock deformation and fault slip: From nature to societal impact (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the effects of fluid-rock interaction on rock and fault mechanical behaviour is central not only to understanding natural tectonic and seismogenic processes, and phenomena such as resource trapping, but also to evaluating the impact of industrial operations in the Earth's crust. These include activities ranging from extraction of geo-energy to geological storage of fuels, CO2 and wastes. For the assessment of both natural and induced geohazards, a physics-based approach to quantifying rock mechanical behaviour is unmissable. Microstructural studies of rocks deformed naturally in the mid and upper crust, or at seismogenic depths in subduction zones, show widespread evidence for brittle deformation (cataclasis), dissolution-precipitation transfer, fluid-related reactions producing weak minerals, and dilatation/cementation of fractures, cracks and pores. In addition, experimental work on rocks and simulated fault gouges has shown that the presence of water strongly influences their mechanical and transport properties. This implies the operation of fluid-assisted deformation mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking and diffusive mass transfer (pressure solution). More recently, other fluid-coupled deformation processes have been recognised, in rocks from peridotites and granites to sandstones, limestones and shales. In this lecture, I will give an overview of progress in this area. I will address the physics of pressure solution and stress corrosion cracking and how they contribute to the deformation and compaction of sandstone, carbonate and evaporite rocks in the mid and upper crust, under natural conditions and in the context of deformation caused by geo-resources production and geo-storage. New results on how these processes are affected by pore fluid salinity, gas content and CO2 activity will also be considered, as will data on the effects of mineral-fluid reactions and associated volume changes on rock deformation, fracturing and transport

  15. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  16. Ultra-deep Subduction of Continental Crust: Evidence from Natural Rocks and Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Green, H. W.

    2005-12-01

    Much of what we know about the deep subduction of continental crust is gained from study of the mineralogy of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks incorporated within continent-continent collision belts. UHPM rocks of metasedimentary origin were only recently recognized due to discovery of coesite, diamond, titanite inferred to have contained six-fold coordinated Si before exsolution of coesite, and TiO2 with alpha-PbO2 structure. Modern seismic tomography provides remarkable images that suggest lithospheric plates are subducted to the core-mantle boundary and may remain there stagnated during long geological times; the presence of continental material within such plates cannot be excluded. The mineral phase transformations possible within deeply subducted continental crust have been the subject of intensive laboratory experimentation during the last decade. Though many new UHP minerals were synthesized at P~ 6 to >20 GPa (e.g., wadeite, topaz-OH, phase Egg, K- and Na-hollandite) in the KNASH, KASH and ASH chemical systems, none except topaz-OH has yet been identified in UHPM rocks. The microstructural evidence of former majoritic garnet decompression is proven only for garnet peridotite, whereas no evidence of such structures has been reported yet from diamondiferous felsic rocks. It is not clear if this is because the UHPM minerals of felsic rocks are easily lost during retrograde metamorphism, or if this is because garnets crystallized in the felsic systems do not contain a large majoritic component at high pressures. There is no clear indication of what portion of subducted continental crust is returned back to Earth's surface, and what fraction may have become more dense than mantle rocks and sunk down to the mantle transition zone and even deeper. Is there any connection between mantle plumes and deeply subducted continental rocks? The UHPM discipline would also benefit from new experiments designed to reproduce decompression structures of UHP minerals

  17. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  18. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  19. Natural electromagnetic radiation of edge part of seam with rock burst hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Shabarov, A.N.; Frid, V.I. (VNIMI (USSR))

    1989-04-01

    Describes experimental use of measurement of electromagnetic radiation from rocks as a method of forecasting rock burst hazards. The experiments were performed at a Severokuzbassugol' mine using an EG-9 remote recording instrument developed by VNIMI. No boreholes are required; the instrument sensors are situated at 2-10 m intervals along the roadway. The experimental recordings were made in a face entry during hydraulic stress relief treatment of the coal. High levels of electromagnetic radiation correlated with high drill fines yields to indicate a high rock burst hazard level. A hazard zone that was found was rendered safe by drilling 2 sets of 90 mm diameter boreholes fanning out into the zone, first to a depth of 6 m, then to 12 m.

  20. Brane Tilings and Specular Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay

    2012-01-01

    We study a new duality which pairs 4d N=1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. They are represented by brane tilings and are worldvolume theories of D3 branes at Calabi-Yau 3-fold singularities. The new duality identifies theories which have the same combined mesonic and baryonic moduli space, otherwise called the master space. We obtain the associated Hilbert series which encodes both the generators and defining relations of the moduli space. We illustrate our findings with a set of brane tilings that have reflexive toric diagrams.

  1. The Nature of Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Constraints From Field and Rock Physics Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, N. I.; Okaya, D.; Meltzer, A.

    2006-12-01

    Compared with mantle seismic anisotropy studies, which have been active for almost five decades, anisotropy of the crystalline crust has been only rarely studied. Seismic anisotropy within continental tectonic provinces is however important because it provides earth scientists with a powerful tool for measuring and quantifying deformation within the crust. Preferred mineral alignment observed in metamorphic terranes produced during metamorphism by recrystallization is associated with planar structures such as slaty cleavage, schistosity, and gneissic layering. These structures are often pervasive for tens to hundreds of kilometers in major collision zones and produce significant compressional wave seismic anisotropy as well as shear wave splitting. Observations of crustal anisotropy within (1) slates of the chlorite subzone of the Haast schist terrane of South Island, New Zealand, (2) prehnite-pumpellite to lower greenschist facies slates and phyllites of the Taiwan Slate Belt, (3) greenschist faces phyllites and metagraywackes of the Valdez Group Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, and (4) amphibolite facies quartzofeldspathic gneisses, approaching granulite grade, within the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif demonstrate that crustal anisotropy is not limited to rocks of any particular metamorphic grade and thus can be present at all crustal levels. Laboratory studies of compressional and shear wave velocities provide important constraints on the magnitudes and symmetries of anisotropies at various crustal levels within these orogenic zones. Although compositional layering can produce anisotropy, preferred mineral orientation of highly anisotropic single crystals, resulting from metamorphic recrystallization, is the major contributor. Most metamorphic rocks show significant compressional and shear wave anisotropy. Anisotropy is a particularly important parameter in low grade pelitic rocks such as phyllite and slate and can be as high as 20%. For the medium grade

  2. VNIR reflectance spectroscopy of natural carbonate rocks: implication for remote sensing identification of fault damage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Mari, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian; Demurtas, Matteo; Massironi, Matteo; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) is a common technique used to study the mineral composition of Solar System bodies from remote sensed and in-situ robotic exploration. In the VNIR spectral range, both crystal field and vibrational overtone absorptions can be present with spectral characteristics (i.e. albedo, slopes, absorption band with different positions and depths) that vary depending on composition and texture (e.g. grain size, roughness) of the sensed materials. The characterization of the spectral variability related to the rock texture, especially in terms of grain size (i.e., both the size of rock components and the size of particulates), commonly allows to obtain a wide range of information about the different geological processes modifying the planetary surfaces. This work is aimed at characterizing how the grain size reduction associated to fault zone development produces reflectance variations in rock and mineral spectral signatures. To achieve this goal we present VNIR reflectance analysis of a set of fifteen rock samples collected at increasing distances from the fault core of the Vado di Corno fault zone (Campo Imperatore Fault System - Italian Central Apennines). The selected samples had similar content of calcite and dolomite but different grain size (X-Ray Powder Diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopes analysis). Consequently, differences in the spectral signature of the fault rocks should not be ascribed to mineralogical composition. For each sample, bidirectional reflectance spectra were acquired with a Field-Pro Spectrometer mounted on a goniometer, on crushed rock slabs reduced to grain size sensing analysis in the VNIR spectral range can be applied to identify the spatial distribution and extent of fault core and damage zone domains for industrial and seismic hazard applications. Moreover, the spectral characterization of carbonate-built rocks can be of great interest for the surface

  3. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement.

  4. Analysis of Thick Sandwich Shells with Embedded Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Smith, C.; Lumban-Tobing, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) is an advanced technology demonstrator of an all-composite ground combat vehicle. The CAV upper hull is made of a tough light-weight S2-glass/epoxy laminate with embedded ceramic tiles that serve as armor. The tiles are bonded to a rubber mat with a carefully selected, highly viscoelastic adhesive. The integration of armor and structure offers an efficient combination of ballistic protection and structural performance. The analysis of this anisotropic construction, with its inherent discontinuous and periodic nature, however, poses several challenges. The present paper describes a shell-based 'element-layering' technique that properly accounts for these effects and for the concentrated transverse shear flexibility in the rubber mat. One of the most important advantages of the element-layering technique over advanced higher-order elements is that it is based on conventional elements. This advantage allows the models to be portable to other structural analysis codes, a prerequisite in a program that involves the computational facilities of several manufacturers and government laboratories. The element-layering technique was implemented into an auto-layering program that automatically transforms a conventional shell model into a multi-layered model. The effects of tile layer homogenization, tile placement patterns, and tile gap size on the analysis results are described.

  5. Duality properties between spectra and tilings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and tilings play an important role in analysis and geometry respectively.The relations between spectra and tilings have bafied the mathematicians for a long time.Many conjectures,such as the Fuglede conjecture,are placed on the establishment of relations between spectra and tilings,although there are no desired results.In the present paper we derive some characteristic properties of spectra and tilings which highlight certain duality properties between them.

  6. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  9. FIBONACCI TILINGS IN FASHION DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZLACHEVA Zlatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci sequence is a symbol of beauty and harmony and by this reason geometrical objects in its proportions are used in the design. There are some versions of Fibonacci series tiling, which are constructed with equilateral geometrical figures – squares or triangles, as the sides’ lengths are equal to the numbers of the Fibonacci series, or the lengths of the sides of the squares or equilateral triangles are each to other in proportions, which are equal to Fibonacci sequence. The paper presents design of ladies’ dresses with the both ways of constructing of Fibonacci tilings with squares, the variants in a spiral pattern and the variant with squares which are put side by side, and the version of Fibonacci tiling with triangles in form of double spiral named Fibonacci rose. Nine models of ladies’ dresses are shown. As a result of the use of Fibonacci tilings for designing of aesthetic, beautiful and harmonic clothing, it can be concluded that in fashion design Fibonacci squares and Fibonacci rose can be used in different ways of color combinations, proportions toward the clothing sizes, and as a frame of creations of design elements. The different position, proportions and color combinations of use of Fibonacci squares and Fibonacci rose in fashion design according to the body type and size can cover some bodily defects and enhance the beautiful forms.

  10. Microstructures in naturally deformed Upper Rotliegend salt rocks from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mareike; Hammer, Jörg; Mertineit, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Permian and Meso-/Cenozoic salt formations are represented in wide parts of the German geologic underground (Reinhold & Hammer 2016). They are of interest for cavern storage of oil and gas as well as of renewable energies (in form of compressed air or hydrogen). For industrial exploration purposes, more detailed data about the composition, barrier properties, as well as the genesis and deformation of the rocks is needed. In central Northern Germany, salt rocks from the Upper Rotliegend are implemented in diapir structures together with salt formations from the Zechstein. Rotliegend salt rocks are characterized by halite that contains patches of detrital material which account for 5 to 60 vol.% of the rock. They show a characteristic red to purple color. Drill cores containing Rotliegend halite rocks from different locations were investigated in this study by using petrographical and microstructural methods. The halite shows different fabric types: (i) euhedral to hypidiomorphic grains with grain sizes up to several millimeters, (ii) polygonal grains with smaller grain sizes between 0.1 and 3 mm, and (iii) fibrous halite. Halite grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions, especially around the contact to detrital material. Subgrains in halite are abundant in all investigated samples and show average sizes between 140 µm and 217 µm. These correspond to average differential stresses of 1 MPa to 1.45 MPa (Carter et al. 1993, Schléder & Urai 2005). The detrital material consists of clasts of quartz, feldspar, mica, carbonates and metal oxides with grain sizes of clay to silt fraction. In some samples, the detrital components show internal deformation by folding and fracturing. Depending on the location, different quantities of authigenic evaporite minerals, like carbonate and anhydrite, formed. Fractures are filled with halite, anhydrite and celestine. The different types of halite fabric are an indication of locally different deformational behavior of the

  11. Triangular dissections, aperiodic tilings and Jones algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The Brattelli diagram associated with a given bicolored Dynkin-Coxeter graph of type A_n determines planar fractal sets obtained by infinite dissections of a given triangle. All triangles appearing in the dissection process have angles that are multiples of \\pi/ (n+1). There are usually several possible infinite dissections compatible with a given n but a given one makes use of n/2 triangle types if n is even. Jones algebra with index [ 4 \\ \\cos^2{\\pi \\over n+1}]^{-1} (values of the discrete range) act naturally on vector spaces associated with those fractal sets. Triangles of a given type are always congruent at each step of the dissection process. In the particular case n=4, there are isometric and the whole structure lead, after proper inflation, to aperiodic Penrose tilings. The other "tilings" associated with other values of the index are discussed and shown to be encoded by equivalence classes of infinite sequences (with appropriate constraints) using only n/2 digits (if n is even) and generalizing the ...

  12. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I., E-mail: mageed39@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); El-Kamel, A.H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, South Valley University (Egypt); Saleh, I.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education-Toor Albaha, University of Aden (Yemen)

    2011-06-15

    The natural radioactivities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 232}Th and the fallout of {sup 137}Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6{+-}4, 127{+-}6.7, and 1742.8{+-}62 Bq/kg), (55{+-}4, 121{+-}6.6, and 2341{+-}78 Bq/kg), (212.8{+-}8.7, 109 {+-}5.5, and 32.4{+-}4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1{+-}3, 22.3{+-}2.9 and 190.9{+-}15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4{+-}4.5, 58.2{+-}5.1, and 822.7{+-}31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of {sup 137}Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1{+-}0.1 to 23.2{+-}1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  13. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-mageed, A. I.; El-Kamel, A. H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A. M. M.; Saleh, I. I.

    2011-06-01

    The natural radioactivities of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th and the fallout of 137Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4, 127±6.7, and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4, 121±6.6, and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7, 109 ±5.5, and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1±3, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5, 58.2±5.1, and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  14. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  15. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  16. Gamma-ray measurements of naturally occurring radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tzortzis, M; Christofides, S; Christodoulides, G

    2003-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the terrestrial gamma radiation in all the predominant types of geological rock formations appearing in Cyprus was measured. Soil samples were collected from each rock type, sealed in 1-litre plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory for 24 hours each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for Th-232 (range from 1.3 to 52.8 Bq/kg), U-238 (from 0.9 to 90.3 Bq/kg) and K-40 (from 13 to 894 Bq/kg). Elemental concentrations mean values of (2.8 +- 0.7) ppm, (1.3 +- 0.3) ppm and (0.6 +- 0.1) % were extracted, for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range of 0.1-50 nGy/h, depending on the geological features, with an overall mean value of (14.7 +- 7.3) nGy/h. The corresponding effective dose rates per person outdoors were estimated to be between 0.1 and 61.4 microSv/y, assuming a 20% occupancy factor.

  17. Local adaptation in the rock pocket mouse (Chaetodipus intermedius): natural selection and phylogenetic history of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, H E; Krenz, J G; Nachman, M W

    2005-02-01

    Elucidating the causes of population divergence is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Rock pocket mice, Chaeotdipus intermedius, are an ideal system in which to study intraspecific phenotypic divergence because of the extensive color variation observed within this species. Here, we investigate whether phenotypic variation in color is correlated with local environmental conditions or with phylogenetic history. First, we quantified variation in pelage color (n=107 mice) and habitat color (n=51 rocks) using a spectrophotometer, and showed that there was a correlation between pelage color and habitat color across 14 sampled populations (R2=0.43). Analyses of mtDNA sequences from these same individuals revealed strong population structure in this species across its range, where most variation (63%) was partitioned between five geographic regions. Using Mantel tests, we show that there is no correlation between color variation and mtDNA phylogeny, suggesting that pelage coloration has evolved rapidly. At a finer geographical scale, high levels of gene flow between neighboring melanic and light populations suggest the selection acting on color must be quite strong to maintain habitat-specific phenotypic distributions. Finally, we raise the possibility that, in some cases, migration between populations of pocket mice inhabiting different lava flows may be responsible for similar melanic phenotypes in different populations. Together, the results suggest that color variation can evolve very rapidly over small geographic scales and that gene flow can both hinder and promote local adaptation.

  18. The nature of organic records in impact excavated rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, W.; Bromiley, G. D.; Sephton, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Impact ejected rocks are targets for life detection missions to Mars. The Martian subsurface is more favourable to organic preservation than the surface owing to an attenuation of radiation and physical separation from oxidising materials with increasing depth. Impact events bring materials to the surface where they may be accessed without complicated drilling procedures. On Earth, different assemblages of organic matter types are derived from varying depositional environments. Here we assess whether these different types of organic materials can survive impact events without corruption. We subjected four terrestrial organic matter types to elevated pressures and temperatures in piston-cylinder experiments followed by chemical characterisation using whole-rock pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data reveal that long chain hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter (types I and II; mainly microbial or algal) are unresistant to pressure whereas aromatic hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter types (types III and IV; mainly land plant, metamorphosed or degraded, displaying some superficial chemical similarities to abiotic meteoritic organic matter) are relatively resistant. This suggests that the impact excavated record of potential biology on Mars will be unavoidably biased, with microbial organic matter underrepresented while metamorphosed, degraded or abiotic meteoritic organic matter types will be selectively preserved. PMID:27492071

  19. The nature of organic records in impact excavated rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, W.; Bromiley, G. D.; Sephton, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Impact ejected rocks are targets for life detection missions to Mars. The Martian subsurface is more favourable to organic preservation than the surface owing to an attenuation of radiation and physical separation from oxidising materials with increasing depth. Impact events bring materials to the surface where they may be accessed without complicated drilling procedures. On Earth, different assemblages of organic matter types are derived from varying depositional environments. Here we assess whether these different types of organic materials can survive impact events without corruption. We subjected four terrestrial organic matter types to elevated pressures and temperatures in piston-cylinder experiments followed by chemical characterisation using whole-rock pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data reveal that long chain hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter (types I and II; mainly microbial or algal) are unresistant to pressure whereas aromatic hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter types (types III and IV; mainly land plant, metamorphosed or degraded, displaying some superficial chemical similarities to abiotic meteoritic organic matter) are relatively resistant. This suggests that the impact excavated record of potential biology on Mars will be unavoidably biased, with microbial organic matter underrepresented while metamorphosed, degraded or abiotic meteoritic organic matter types will be selectively preserved.

  20. Ceramic tiles: above and beyond traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available At present ceramic tiles are already being marketed with characteristics and performance features that make them products whose applications go far beyond traditional tile uses. These are not just future possibilities: their industrial and commercial reality already makes them immediately serviceable in multiple environments. And this is precisely the key concept in these new tile applications: their features make them useable for wholly different functions – functions till now reserved for other products – or, in certain cases, for entirely novel functions. In addition, the functionalities involved are destined to improve aspects directly related to the quality of life, conditions of habitability or, for instance, to using such a vital natural source of energy as solar radiation. It should, therefore, be stressed that these new generations of ceramic tiles are to be considered part of the range of architectural elements for both external and internal uses, since, as the following will show, they provide the surfaces they clad with a broad spectrum of properties and functions without detriment to the aesthetic qualities, always so characteristic, of ceramic tile. To illustrate the above, the present paper describes three new families of ceramic products. These groups of products are conceptually different and many-sided, which makes them serviceable as functional elements in different contexts.

    En estos momentos, ya hay en el mercado baldosas cerámicas dotadas de características y prestaciones que hacen de ellas productos con aplicaciones que van mucho más allá de los usos a que tradicionalmente han estado asociadas. No se trata tan sólo de posibilidades futuras, sino de productos con una realidad industrial y comercial, que permite su implantación inmediata en los diferentes ámbitos en los que pueden desarrollar su funcionalidad. Y este es precisamente el concepto clave de estas nuevas aplicaciones de las baldosas cer

  1. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  2. Non-Commutative Geometrical Aspects and Topological Invariants of a Conformally Regular Pentagonal Tiling of the Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria

    automatically has finite local complexity. In this thesis we give a construction of the continuous and discrete hull just from the combinatorial data. For the discrete hull we construct a C-algebra and a measure. Since this tiling possesses no natural R2 action by translation, there is no a priori reason......, and therefore we cannot study it with the usual tiling theory. The appeal of the tiling is that all the tiles are conformally regular pentagons. But conformal maps are not allowable under finite local complexity. On the other hand, the tiling can be described completely by its combinatorial data, which rather...... to expect that the K-theory of the C-algebra of the tiling is the same as the K-theory or cohomology of the hull. So it would be very interesting to know the outcome. For the continuous hull, we compute its K-theory and an absolute continuous invariant measure...

  3. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure and distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sands associated with plutonic rocks of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Koroneos, Antonios; Christofides, Georgios; Stoulos, Stylianos

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th and 40K along beaches of Greece associated with plutonic rocks. They range from 6-940, 1-2292, 5-10143, 5-9953 and 27-1319 Bq/kg respectively, with some of them representing the highest values of natural radioactivity measured in sediments in Greece. The investigated beaches include Sithonia peninsula (Chalkidiki, N. Greece), some islands of the Aegean Sea (Mykonos, Paros, Naxos, Serifos, Ikaria), the area of Kavala (N. Greece), Samothraki island, NE Chalkidiki and Maronia (NE Greece). Several of these places are associated with high touristic activity such as Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Serifos, Ikaria, Sithonia and Kavala. The (% wt.) heavy magnetic fraction (HM) (allanite, amphibole, mica, clinopyroxene, magnetite and hematite), the heavy non-magnetic fraction (HNM) (monazite, zircon, titanite and apatite) and the total heavy fraction (TH), were correlated with the concentrations of the measured radionuclides in the bulk samples. The heavy fractions seem to control the activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th of all the samples, showing some local differences in the main 238U and 232Th mineral carrier. The measured radionuclides in the beach sands were normalized to the respective values measured in the granitic rocks, which are their most probable parental rocks, so as to provide data upon their enrichment or depletion. The highest values of the equivalent dose have been reported in Mykonos, Naxos, Kavala and Sithonia. The annual equivalent dose which should be limited to at least 1 mSv y-1, varies between 0.003 and 0.759 mSv y-1 for tourists and from 0.012 to 3.164 mSv y-1 for local people working on the beach.

  4. Observations of 3-D transverse dispersion and dilution in natural consolidated rock by X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Maartje; Bijeljic, Branko; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Sam

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of transverse dispersion for dilution and mixing of solutes but most observations have remained limited to two-dimensional sand-box models. We present a new core-flood test to characterize solute transport in 3-D natural-rock media. A device consisting of three annular regions was used for fluid injection into a cylindrical rock core. Pure water was injected into the center and outer region and a NaI solution into the middle region. Steady state transverse dispersion of NaI was visualized with an X-ray medical CT-scanner for a range of Peclét numbers. Three methods were used to calculate Dt: (1) fitting an analytical solution, (2) analyzing the second-central moment, and (3) analyzing the dilution index and reactor ratio. Transverse dispersion decreased with distance due to flow focusing. Furthermore, Dt in the power-law regime showed sub-linear behavior. Overall, the reactor ratios were high confirming the homogeneity of Berea sandstone.

  5. The human impact on natural rock reserves using basalt, anorthosite, and carbonates as raw materials in insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Clausen, Anders U.; Hansen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 ...... materials serve as excellent source materials for new products. Moreover, current production lines exploit more than 30 natural and 20-30 synthetic source materials that circumvent regional depletion and contribute to the recycling of other industrial materials.......Typical crustal rocks such as basalt, limestone, and anorthosite are used in stone wool insulation products. The raw materials for stone wool production are not specific to any rare mineral source but depend upon the mixture of materials having the correct chemical composition, exemplified by 40 wt...... exploration. Globally, anorthositic provinces comprise smaller volumes than do limestone or basalt, but still occur in sufficient amounts to supply for the production of insulation materials indefinitely. An evaluation of the modern consumption rates and reserves shows that the crustal inventories...

  6. Optical properties of the new TileCal scintillating tiles. Comparison with 1999 production.

    CERN Document Server

    Zenine, A

    2000-01-01

    A few samples of the scintillating tiles made of BASF polystyrol for ATLAS Tile Calorimeter have been measured with a radioactive source. The results are represented in comparison with the first 1999 year batch produced of PSM-115 polystyrene.

  7. Thermal insulation attaching means. [adhesive bonding of felt vibration insulators under ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved isolation system is provided for attaching ceramic tiles of insulating material to the surface of a structure to be protected against extreme temperatures of the nature expected to be encountered by the space shuttle orbiter. This system isolates the fragile ceramic tiles from thermally and mechanically induced vehicle structural strains. The insulating tiles are affixed to a felt isolation pad formed of closely arranged and randomly oriented fibers by means of a flexible adhesive and in turn the felt pad is affixed to the metallic vehicle structure by an additional layer of flexible adhesive.

  8. Tetromino tilings and the Tutte polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper

    2007-02-01

    We consider tiling rectangles of size 4m × 4n by T-shaped tetrominoes. Each tile is assigned a weight that depends on its orientation and position on the lattice. For a particular choice of the weights, the generating function of tilings is shown to be the evaluation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial ZG(Q, v) (known also to physicists as the partition function of the Q-state Potts model) on an (m - 1) × (n - 1) rectangle G, where the parameter Q and the edge weights v can take arbitrary values depending on the tile weights.

  9. Tetromino tilings and the Tutte polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 100, 91405 Orsay (France); Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-02-16

    We consider tiling rectangles of size 4m x 4n by T-shaped tetrominoes. Each tile is assigned a weight that depends on its orientation and position on the lattice. For a particular choice of the weights, the generating function of tilings is shown to be the evaluation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial Z{sub G}(Q, v) (known also to physicists as the partition function of the Q-state Potts model) on an (m - 1) x (n - 1) rectangle G, where the parameter Q and the edge weights v can take arbitrary values depending on the tile weights.

  10. Soils Alive! From Tiny Rocks to Composting. Cycling Back to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert L.; And Others

    This environmental sourcebook contains activities focusing on the living and nonliving components of soil and their relationship to the earth's natural cycles. The materials contained in this guide are for use with youth ages ten and older and are designed to stimulate a sense of stewardship for the environment through group discussion, role…

  11. Soils Alive! From Tiny Rocks to Composting. Cycling Back to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert L.; And Others

    This environmental sourcebook contains activities focusing on the living and nonliving components of soil and their relationship to the earth's natural cycles. The materials contained in this guide are for use with youth ages ten and older and are designed to stimulate a sense of stewardship for the environment through group discussion, role…

  12. Estimation of fluid flow and mass transport properties in a natural fracture using laboratory testing system on mass transport in fractured rock (LABROCK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Naoto; Uchida, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Satou, Hisashi [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The understanding of mass transport and fluid flow properties in natural rock fractures is important for safety assessment of geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The authors developed advanced tracer test equipment in which a 50-cm cubic scale rock sample was feasible. The mass transport and fluid flow properties in a single fracture were also examined. The relation among hydraulic, transport and mass balance apertures of a natural single fracture were obtained. Heterogeneity of the aperture distribution was evident, as was the possibility of some major flow line perpendicular to the flow direction. Additionally, the relation between normal stress and each aperture was also obtained by loading normal stress on the fracture. In future, measuring the aperture distribution and establishing the model considering fluid flow and mass transport properties in natural rock fractures will be conducted. (author)

  13. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX 3DB ABINGDON, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 {mu}m of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  14. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cserti, Jozsef; Szechenyi, Gabor [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); David, Gyula, E-mail: cserti@elte.hu [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary)

    2011-05-27

    The electric resistance between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistors that is a periodic tiling of space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagome, diced and decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to the random walk problem or to electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  15. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    CERN Document Server

    Cserti, Jozsef; David, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    Electric resistances between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistor networks that is a periodic tiling of the space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several and non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagom\\'e, the diced and the decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to random walk problem or electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  16. Multi-isotope tracing of CO2 leakage and water-rock interaction in a natural CCS analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Lions, Julie; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Humez, Pauline; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Millot, Romain; Pauwels, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Natural analogues of CO2 accumulation and, potentially, leakage, provide a highly valuable opportunity to study (1) geochemical processes within a CO2-reservoir and the overlying aquifers or aquicludes, i.e. gas-water-rock interactions, (2) geology and tightness of reservoirs over geological timescales, (3) potential or real leakage pathways, (3) impact of leakage on shallow groundwater resources quality, and (4) direct and indirect geochemical indicators of gas leakage (Lions et al., 2014, Humez et al., 2014). The Florina Basin in NW Macedonia, Greece, contains a deep CO2-rich aquifer within a graben structure. The graben filling consists of highly heterogeneous Neogene clastic sediments constituted by components from the adjacent massifs including carbonates, schists, gneiss as well as some ultramafic volcanic rocks. Clay layers are observed that isolate hydraulically the deep, partly artesian aquifer. Organic matter, in form of lignite accumulations, is abundant in the Neogene series. The underlying bedrocks are metamorphic carbonates and silicate rocks. The origin of the CO2 accumulation is controversial (deep, partially mantle-derived D'Allessandro et al., 2008 or resulting from thermal decomposition of carbonates, Hatziyannis and Arvanitis, 2011). Groundwaters have been sampled from springs and borewells over 3 years at different depths. First results on major, minor and trace elements give evidence of water-rock interaction, mainly with carbonates but also with ultramafic components but do not indicate that CO2-seepage is the principal driver of those processes (Gemeni et al., submitted). Here we present isotope data on a selection of groundwaters (δ2H , δ18O, δ13CTDIC, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ7Li). Stable isotopes of water indicate paleo-recharge for some of the groundwaters, limited exchange with gaseous CO2 and, in one case, possibly thermal exchange processes with silicates. Sr isotope ratios vary between marine ratios and radiogenic values indicating

  17. Nondeterministic self-assembly of two tile types on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, S.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembly is ubiquitous in nature, particularly in biology, where it underlies the formation of protein quaternary structure and protein aggregation. Quaternary structure assembles deterministically and performs a wide range of important functions in the cell, whereas protein aggregation is the hallmark of a number of diseases and represents a nondeterministic self-assembly process. Here we build on previous work on a lattice model of deterministic self-assembly to investigate nondeterministic self-assembly of single lattice tiles and mixtures of two tiles at varying relative concentrations. Despite limiting the simplicity of the model to two interface types, which results in 13 topologically distinct single tiles and 106 topologically distinct sets of two tiles, we observe a wide variety of concentration-dependent behaviors. Several two-tile sets display critical behaviors in the form of a sharp transition from bound to unbound structures as the relative concentration of one tile to another increases. Other sets exhibit gradual monotonic changes in structural density, or nonmonotonic changes, while again others show no concentration dependence at all. We catalog this extensive range of behaviors and present a model that provides a reasonably good estimate of the critical concentrations for a subset of the critical transitions. In addition, we show that the structures resulting from these tile sets are fractal, with one of two different fractal dimensions.

  18. Synthetic flux as a whitening agent for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues dos Santos, Geocris, E-mail: geocris.rodrigues@gmail.com [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Salvetti, Alfredo Roque [Departamento De Física, Universidade Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil); Cabrelon, Marcelo Dezena [INNOVARE Inteligência Em Cerâmica, 13566-420 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Morelli, Márcio Raymundo [Departamento De Engenharia Dos Materiais, Universidade Federal De São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The synthetic flux acts as a whitening agent of firing color in raw material ceramics. • The raw material ceramics have high levels of the iron oxides and red color. • The different process obtained red color clays with hematite and illite phases. • The whiteness ceramic obtained herein can be used in a porcelain tile industry. - Abstract: A synthetic flux is proposed as a whitening agent of firing color in tile ceramic paste during the sinterization process, thus turning the red firing color into whiteness. By using this mechanism in the ceramic substrates, the stoneware tiles can be manufactured using low cost clays with high levels of iron oxides. This method proved to be an economical as well as commercial strategy for the ceramic tile industries because, in Brazil, the deposits have iron compounds as mineral component (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in most of the raw materials. Therefore, several compositions of tile ceramic paste make use of natural raw materials, and a synthetic flux in order to understand how the interaction of the iron element, in the mechanism of firing color ceramic, occurs in this system. The bodies obtained were fired at 1100 °C for 5 min in air atmosphere to promote the color change. After the heating, the samples were submitted to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that the change of firing color occurs because the iron element, which is initially in the crystal structure of the hematite phase, is transformed into a new crystal (clinopyroxenes phase) formed during the firing, so as to make the final firing color lighter.

  19. Latest news from the Tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Costanzo, D

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter will be installed in the central region of ATLAS with an inner radius of 2.28 m, an outer radius of 4.25 m, a total length of about 12 m and a weight of about 2300 tons. The calorimeter is mechanically divided in one central barrel and two extended barrels, with a gap in between for the services of the internal part of ATLAS. The construction of the calorimeter is advanced, and installation in the ATLAS pit is foreseen to start in December 2003. After mechanical assembly the modules are instrumented with all the optical components. Scintillating tiles are inserted into the slots, and the read-out Wave Length Shifting fibers are coupled to scintillators and bundled to achieve the quasi-projective cell geometry of the calorimeter. The final modules are stored in bldg 185, shown in the first photo, and in bldg 175 at CERN. The barrel modules are mechanically assembled in Dubna and then transported to CERN to be optically instrumented, while the extended barrels are constructed in t...

  20. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  1. Tiling Problems on Baumslag-Solitar groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aubrun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We exhibit a weakly aperiodic tile set for Baumslag-Solitar groups, and prove that the domino problem is undecidable on these groups. A consequence of our construction is the existence of an arecursive tile set on Baumslag-Solitar groups.

  2. Shaving Ceramic Tiles To Final Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ernest

    1992-01-01

    Combination of template and routing tool cuts ceramic tiles to final dimensions. Template guides router along precisely defined planes to accurately and uniformly shave chamfers on edge of tiles. Legs of template temporarily bonded to workpiece by double-backed adhesive tape. Adaptable to in-situ final machining of other nominally flat, narrow surfaces.

  3. Optimal Partial Tiling of Manhattan Polyominoes

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Finding an efficient optimal partial tiling algorithm is still an open problem. We have worked on a special case, the tiling of Manhattan polyominoes with dominoes, for which we give an algorithm linear in the number of columns. Some techniques are borrowed from traditional graph optimisation problems.

  4. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, Andrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's last radial layer can assist in muon tagging using Level-1 muon trigger. It can help in the rejection of fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for Phase-0 upgrade ATLAS program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal third layer signal for assisting the muon trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3 (Tile-Muon Trigger). This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger at TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) to provide (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap sector logic blocks.

  5. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing concern about extreme mass movements from combined ice-rock avalanches in glaciated environments areas in the light of increasing settlement activities in mountains and their forelands. Recent devastating events, such as those from Huascaran (Peru) in 1970 or Kolka (Caucasus) in 2002, have been an eye-opener in terms of the large run-out-distances and their hazard potential. At the same time there is a variety of topographic settings and distinct triggers of ice and rock failures, which leads in turn to a broad spectrum of multi-phase processes, such as the possible propagation of rock-ice-masses onto glacial surfaces with subsequent debris flows. These events are often not directly observable, and a sound interpretation of the sedimentary record is needed. However, the origin and process dynamics of giant debris accumulations in different mountain regions of the world is discussed increasingly controversially. In the last decade a lot of debris accumulations, which were classified formerly as moraines, were reinterpreted as products of mass movements. In this context, the study presented here, focuses on a case example from the upper Chapursan Valley at the Afghan-Pakistan border (Karakoram Range, Pakistan). The Chapursan Valley floor and the adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travelers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. Geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants were carried out to unravel the origin of the hummocky terrain. The results show

  6. Performance of the TilePPr demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter Pre-processor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the off-detector electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the on-detector electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the on-detector electronics.

  7. Consistency and Derangements in Brane Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on $N$ D$3$-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  8. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... renovation due to damage of the glazing from the presence of salts. These tiles were severely contaminated with both chlorides and nitrates, and one of the tiles also contained sulphates though at a low concentration. The charge transfer was too low in the experiments to obtain full desalination...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  10. Analysis of Fracturing Network Evolution Behaviors in Random Naturally Fractured Rock Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, B.

    2016-11-01

    Shale gas has been discovered in the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China. Due to the weak tectonic activities in the shale plays, core observations indicate abundant random non-tectonic micro-fractures in the producing shales. The role of micro-fractures in hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development is currently poorly understood yet potentially critical. In a series of scaled true triaxial laboratory experiments, we investigate the interaction of propagating fracturing network with natural fractures. The influence of dominating factors was studied and analyzed, with an emphasis on non-tectonic fracture density, injection rate, and stress ratio. A new index of P-SRV is proposed to evaluate the fracturing effectiveness. From the test results, three types of fracturing network geometry of radial random net-fractures, partly vertical fracture with random branches, and vertical main fracture with multiple branches were observed. It is suggested from qualitative and quantitative analysis that great micro-fracture density and injection rate tend to maximum the fracturing network; however, it tends to decrease the fracturing network with the increase in horizontal stress ratio. The function fitting results further proved that the injection rate has the most obvious influence on fracturing effectiveness.

  11. Experimental results on rock resistivity and its applications in monitoring and predicting natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Baolin

    2017-04-01

    There have been many earthquakes occurring in Chinese Mainland. These earthquakes, especially large earthquakes, often cause immeasurable loss. For instance, the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake killed 70, 000 people and caused 17, 000 people missing. It is well known that this earthquake was not predicted. Why? Were there no precursors? After analyzing the geo-electrical resistivity recording at Chengdu station which is only about 36 km to the epicenter, we find that resistivity had changed abnormally very significantly along NE direction but no outstanding abnormal changes had been observed along NW direction before the earthquake. Perhaps this non-consistent changes result in that this earthquake was not predicted. However, in another standpoint, can another observation way be found to supplement the current geo-electrical resistivity observation in Chinese Mainland in order to improve the probability of catching the precursor? This motivates us to conduct experiments in lab and field. Apparent resistivity data are acquired along three common-midpoint measuring lines during the fixed-rate uniaxial compression on two sets of dry man-made samples and a Magnetite sample. We construct the relative resistivity change images (RRCIs). Our results indicate that all RRCIs show a trending change with stress: with the increase of stress, the resistivity-decreased region (RDR) in the RRCIs shrinks/expands, while the resistivity-increased region (RIR) expands/shrinks gradually, which is in agreement with the field experimental results of earthquake monitoring (Feng et al., 2001). Our results encourage us to conclude that the trending changes in RRCI with stress could probably become a useful indicator in monitoring and predicting earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and large-scale geologic movements. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant 41574083).

  12. U.S. Geological Survey research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed with natural acid-rock drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed along the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. It contains an unmined mineral deposit typical of many hydrothermal mineral deposits in the intermountain west, composed primarily of pyrite with trace metals including copper and molybdenum. Springs and the trunk stream have a natural pH value of 3 to 4. The U.S. Geological Survey began integrated research activities at the site in 2003 with the objective of better understanding geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic controls on naturally occurring acid-rock drainage in alpine watersheds. Characterizing the role of groundwater was of particular interest because mountain watersheds containing metallic mineral deposits are often underlain by complexly deformed crystalline rocks in which groundwater flow is poorly understood. Site infrastructure currently includes 4 deep monitoring wells high in the watershed (300– 1,200 ft deep), 4 bedrock (100–170 ft deep) and 5 shallow (10–30 ft deep) monitoring wells along the trunk stream, a stream gage, and a meteorological station. Work to date at the site includes: geologic mapping and structural analysis; surface sample and drill core mineralogic characterization; geophysical borehole logging; aquifer testing; monitoring of groundwater hydraulic heads and streamflows; a stream tracer dilution study; repeated sampling of surface and groundwater for geochemical analyses, including major and trace elements, several isotopes, and groundwater age dating; and construction of groundwater flow models. The unique dataset collected at Handcart Gulch has yielded several important findings about bedrock groundwater flow at the site. Most importantly, we find that bedrock bulk permeability is nontrivial and that bedrock groundwater apparently constitutes a substantial fraction of the hydrologic budget. This means that bedrock groundwater commonly may be an underappreciated component of the hydrologic system in studies of

  13. Evaluation of the nature, origin and potentiality of the subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the nature and origin of the source rock potentiality of subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well. This target was achieved throughout the evaluation of total organic carbon, rock Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance for fifteen cutting samples and three extract samples collected from Khatatba, Alam El Bueib and Kharita formations in the studied well. The result revealed that the main hydrocarbon of source rocks, for the Middle Jurassic (Khatatba Fm. is mainly mature, and has good capability of producing oil and minor gas. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Alam El Bueib Fm. are mature, derived from mixed organic sources and have fair to good capability to generate gas and oil. Kharita Formation of immature source rocks originated from terrestrial origin and has poor to fair potential to produce gas. This indicates that Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations take the direction of increasing maturity far away from the direction of biodegradation and can be considered as effective source potential in the Melleiha G-1x well.

  14. Investigation of carbonate rocks appropriate for the production of natural hydraulic lime binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, George; Panagopoulos, George; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Christidis, George; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Cement industry is facing growing challenges in conserving materials and conforming to the demanding environmental standards. Therefore, there is great interest in the development, investigation and use of binders alternatives to Portland cement. Natural hydraulic lime (NHL) binders have become nowadays materials with high added value, due to their advantages in various construction applications. Some of them include compatibility, suitability, workability and the versatility in applications. NHL binders are made from limestones which contain sufficient argillaceous or siliceous components fired at relatively low temperatures, with reduction to powder by slaking with or without grinding. This study is focused in developing technology for small-scale production of cementitious binders, combining the knowledge and experience of geologists and mineral resources engineers. The first step of investigation includes field techniques to the study the lithology, texture and sedimentary structure of Neogene carbonate sediments, from various basins of Crete Island, Greece and the construction of 3D geological models, in order to determine the deposits of each different geological formation. Sampling of appropriate quantity of raw materials is crucial for the investigation. Petrographic studies on the basis of the study of grain type, grain size, types of porosity and depositional texture, are necessary to classify effectively industrial mineral raw materials for this kind of application. Laboratory tests should also include the study of mineralogical and chemical composition of the bulk raw materials, as well as the content of insoluble limestone impurities, thus determining the amount of active clay and silica components required to produce binders of different degree of hydraulicity. Firing of the samples in various temperatures and time conditions, followed by X-ray diffraction analysis and slaking rate tests of the produced binders, is essential to insure the

  15. DNA-Tile Structures Induce Ionic Currents through Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfrich, Kerstin; Zettl, Thomas; Meijering, Anna E C; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Kocabey, Samet; Liedl, Tim; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-05-13

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures have been used to create man-made transmembrane channels in lipid bilayers. Here, we present a DNA-tile structure with a nominal subnanometer channel and cholesterol-tags for membrane anchoring. With an outer diameter of 5 nm and a molecular weight of 45 kDa, the dimensions of our synthetic nanostructure are comparable to biological ion channels. Because of its simple design, the structure self-assembles within a minute, making its creation scalable for applications in biology. Ionic current recordings demonstrate that the tile structures enable ion conduction through lipid bilayers and show gating and voltage-switching behavior. By demonstrating the design of DNA-based membrane channels with openings much smaller than that of the archetypical six-helix bundle, our work showcases their versatility inspired by the rich diversity of natural membrane components.

  16. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Program

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414625; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers arising from background radiation (slow charged particles - protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The TileCal main activity for the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program (2013-2014) was the activation of the TileCal outermost D-layer signal for assisting the Level-1 Muon Trigger at 1.0<|η|<1.3. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger within the TileCal upgrade activities, focusing on the new on-detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) providing (receive and digitize) the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon end-cap sector logic blocks.

  17. Tiling solutions for optimal biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems, from cells to organisms, must respond to the ever-changing environment in order to survive and function. This is not a simple task given the often random nature of the signals they receive, as well as the intrinsically stochastic, many-body and often self-organized nature of the processes that control their sensing and response and limited resources. Despite a wide range of scales and functions that can be observed in the living world, some common principles that govern the behavior of biological systems emerge. Here I review two examples of very different biological problems: information transmission in gene regulatory networks and diversity of adaptive immune receptor repertoires that protect us from pathogens. I discuss the trade-offs that physical laws impose on these systems and show that the optimal designs of both immune repertoires and gene regulatory networks display similar discrete tiling structures. These solutions rely on locally non-overlapping placements of the responding elements (genes and receptors) that, overall, cover space nearly uniformly.

  18. Mathematical algorithm development and parametric studies with the GEOFRAC three-dimensional stochastic model of natural rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Violeta M.; Sousa, Rita; Murrihy, Brian; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results from research conducted at MIT during 2010-2012 on modeling of natural rock fracture systems with the GEOFRAC three-dimensional stochastic model. Following a background summary of discrete fracture network models and a brief introduction of GEOFRAC, the paper provides a thorough description of the newly developed mathematical and computer algorithms for fracture intensity, aperture, and intersection representation, which have been implemented in MATLAB. The new methods optimize, in particular, the representation of fracture intensity in terms of cumulative fracture area per unit volume, P32, via the Poisson-Voronoi Tessellation of planes into polygonal fracture shapes. In addition, fracture apertures now can be represented probabilistically or deterministically whereas the newly implemented intersection algorithms allow for computing discrete pathways of interconnected fractures. In conclusion, results from a statistical parametric study, which was conducted with the enhanced GEOFRAC model and the new MATLAB-based Monte Carlo simulation program FRACSIM, demonstrate how fracture intensity, size, and orientations influence fracture connectivity.

  19. The utilization of rock phosphate (natural defluorinated calcium phosphate or NDCP in laying hens diet to replace dicalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimentwas conducted to study the utilization of local rock phosphate or natural defluorinated calcium phosphate (NDCP as phosphorus source for layer chickens by using the imported dicalcium phosphate (DCP as a reference. Eight experimental diets consisted of 2 source of phosphorus (DCP and NDCP and 4 dietary total P levels (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% were formulated. Each diet was fed to 24 pullets (6 replicates with 4 birds each from 20 weeks of age to 14 weeks of egg production. Observations were made on feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, mortality, egg quality, Ca and P retention and ash content of tibial bones . Results showed no significant effect of different source and level of phosphorus tested on egg production (% HD, feed consumption, egg weight and mortality rates . Egg shell thickness was depressed in NDCP diet as compared with DCP, however this only occurred at firstmonth of production. It is concluded that the NDCP can be used in layers diet to replace DCP as phosphorus source. The relative biological value of phosphorus inNDCP is 96% for layers.

  20. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos.

  1. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  2. Introductory Tiling Theory for Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Tiling theory is an elegant branch of mathematics that has applications in several areas of computer science. The most immediate application area is graphics, where tiling theory has been used in the contexts of texture generation, sampling theory, remeshing, and of course the generation of decorative patterns. The combination of a solid theoretical base (complete with tantalizing open problems), practical algorithmic techniques, and exciting applications make tiling theory a worthwhile area of study for practitioners and students in computer science. This synthesis lecture introduces the math

  3. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user to p...

  4. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio;

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row pr...

  5. Shake table testing of structural clay tile infilled frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fowler, J.J. [Carpenter Wright Engineers, Knoxville, TN (United States); Flanagan, R.D. [Lockheed Martin, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-03-08

    Two steel frames with structural clay tile infills were tested under simulated seismic loads in both the out-of-plane and in-plane direction. Out-of-plane testing showed that infill panels separate from their bounding frame, and respond at their own natural frequency during a seismic excitation. Due to arching, the panels remain stable. In-plane seismic testing showed similar behavior patterns to previous static testing. The natural frequency was adequately predicted using a piecewise linear equivalent strut analytical method. The structure was then subjected to over one thousand cycles of loading using a sine sweep before failure.

  6. Real-Time Texture Synthesis Using s-Tile Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xue; You-Sheng Zhang; Ju-Lang Jiang; Min Hu; Xin-Dong Wu; Rong-Gui Wang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of generating a set of texture tiles from samples, which can be seamlessly tiled into arbitrary size textures in real-time. Compared to existing methods, our approach is simpler and more advantageous in eliminating visual seams that may exist in each tile of the existing methods, especially when the samples have elaborate features or distinct colors. Texture tiles generated by our approach can be regarded as single-colored tiles on each orthogonal direction border, which are easier for tiling and more suitable for sentence tiling. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.

  7. High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

  8. Tectonic Setting and Nature of the Provenance of Sedimentary Rocks in Lanping Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin: Evidence from Geochemistry of Sandstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志明; 刘家军; 胡瑞忠; 何明勤; 刘玉平; 李朝阳

    2003-01-01

    The geochemical composition of sandstones in the sedimentary basin is controlled mainly by the tectonic setting of the provenance,and it is therefore possible to reveal the tectonic setting of the provenance and the nature of source rocks in terms of the geochemical composition of sandstones. The major elements,rare-earth elements and trace elements of the MesozoicCenozoic sandstones in the Lanping Basin are studied in this paper,revealing that the tectonic settings of the provenance for Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Lanping Basin belong to a passive continental margin and a continental island arc. Combined with the data on sedimentary facies and palaeogeography,it is referred that the eastern part of the basin is located mainly at the tectonic setting of the passive continental margin before Mesozoic,whereas the western part may be represented by a continental island arc. This is compatible with the regional geology data. The protoliths of sedimentary rocks should be derived from the upper continental crust,and are composed mainly of felsic rocks,mixed with some andesitic rocks and old sediment components. Therefore,the Lanping Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin is a typical continental-type basin. This provides strong geochemical evidence for the evolution of the paleo-Tethys and the basin-range transition.

  9. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  10. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cuciuc, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the readout system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The calorimeter performance and its stability has been evaluated with the rich sample of collision data in 2011 but also with calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and splash events. Results on the absolute energy scale calibration precision, on the energy and timing uniformity, on the time resolution and on the synchronization precision are presented...

  12. 2011 Las Conchas Post Fire Tile Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set consists of an orthophotography tile index based on multi-spectral (red, green, blue, near-infrared) digital aerial imagery, collected and processed by...

  13. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... and glaze, where salt crystals were clearly identified by SEM-EDX before desalination. The concentrations of chloride and especially nitrate were very high in the tiles (around 280 mmol Cl−/kg and 450 mmol NO3−/kg respectively). Both anions were successfully removed to below 6 mmol/kg during...... was initially very low, but nevertheless, sulfate removal started at the point where chloride and nitrate concentrations were very low in the tiles. Investigating the interface between biscuit and glaze after the treatment showed no signs of crystallized salts, so also in this important point, the desalination...

  14. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chomont, Arthur Rene; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  15. Applied physics: The virtues of tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratzl, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A cracked metal film on an elastic substrate has been shown to provide ultrahigh sensitivity in detecting mechanical vibrations. The result draws inspiration from principles of tiling that apply to many biological systems. See Letter p.222

  16. GIBS Web Map Tile Service (WMTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The WMTS implementation standard provides a standards-based solution for serviing digital maps using predefined image tiles. Through the constructs of the...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5182 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1\\% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. The results demonstrate a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is well within the design expectations.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of muons and single hadrons from proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  19. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...... and glaze, where salt crystals were clearly identified by SEM-EDX before desalination. The concentrations of chloride and especially nitrate were very high in the tiles (around 280 mmol Cl−/kg and 450 mmol NO3−/kg respectively). Both anions were successfully removed to below 6 mmol/kg during...... was initially very low, but nevertheless, sulfate removal started at the point where chloride and nitrate concentrations were very low in the tiles. Investigating the interface between biscuit and glaze after the treatment showed no signs of crystallized salts, so also in this important point, the desalination...

  20. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  1. On reconfigurable tiled multi-core programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Kenneth C.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2009-01-01

    For a generic flexible efficient array antenna receiver platform a hierarchical reconfigurable tiled architecture has been proposed. The architecture provides a flexible reconfigurable solution, but partitioning, mapping, modelling and programming such systems remains an issue. A semantic model has

  2. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  3. Effect of DNA Hairpin Loops on the Twist of Planar DNA Origami Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Lei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The development of scaffolded DNA origami, a technique in which a long single-stranded viral genome is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides, represents an important milestone in DNA nanotechnology. Recent findings have revealed that two-dimensional (2D)DNA origami structures based on the original design parameters adopt a global twist with respect to the tile plane, which may be because the conformation of the constituent DNA (10.67 bp/turn) deviates from the natural B-type helical twist (10.4 bp/turn). Here we aim to characterize the effects of DNA hairpin loops on the overall curvature of the tile and explore their ability to control, and ultimately eliminate any unwanted curvature. A series of dumbbell-shaped DNA loops were selectively displayed on the surface of DNA origami tiles with the expectation that repulsive interactions among the neighboring dumbbell loops and between the loops and the DNA origami tile would influence the structural features of the underlying tiles. A systematic, atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of how the number and position of the DNA loops influenced the global twist of the structure was performed, and several structural models to explain the results were proposed. The observations unambiguously revealed that the first generation of rectangular shaped origami tiles adopt a conformation in which the upper right (corner 2) and bottom left (corner 4) corners bend upward out of the plane, causing linear superstructures attached by these corners to form twisted ribbons. Our experimental observations are consistent with the twist model predicted by the DNA mechanical property simulation software CanDo. Through the systematic design and organization of various numbers of dumbbell loops on both surfaces of the tile, a nearly planar rectangular origami tile was achieved. PMID:22126326

  4. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  5. Detector Control System of Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is to describe the Detector Control System (DCS) implementation for Tile Calorimeter sub-detector. It describes hardware layout and software components for main, infrastructure related and sub-detector calibration systems. It discusses implementation of the top level software Finite State Machine (FSM)and discusses state models of FSM objects. Presentation shows usage of Configuration and Conditions Data Bases, for Tile Calorimeter DCS.

  6. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  7. On the structure of quadrilateral brane tilings

    CERN Document Server

    de Medeiros, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Brane tilings provide the most general framework in string and M-theory for matching toric Calabi-Yau singularities probed by branes with superconformal fixed points of quiver gauge theories. The brane tiling data consists of a bipartite tiling of the torus which encodes both the classical superpotential and gauge-matter couplings for the quiver gauge theory. We consider the class of tilings which contain only tiles bounded by exactly four edges and present a method for generating any tiling within this class by iterating combinations of certain graph-theoretic moves. In the context of D3-branes in IIB string theory, we consider the effect of these generating moves within the corresponding class of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories in four dimensions. Of particular interest are their effect on the superpotential, the vacuum moduli space and the conditions necessary for the theory to reach a superconformal fixed point in the infrared. We discuss the general structure of physically admissible quadrilateral b...

  8. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  9. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  10. The magmatic plumbing system beneath El Hierro (Canary Islands): constraints from phenocrysts and naturally quenched basaltic glasses in submarine rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-05-01

    A thermobarometric and petrologic study of basanites erupted from young volcanic cones along the submarine portions of the three El Hierro rift zones (NE-Rift, NW-Rift and S-Ridge) has been performed to reconstruct magma plumbing and storage beneath the island. Mineral-melt thermobarometry applied to naturally quenched glass and clinopyroxene rims yields pressures ranging from 350 to 1070 MPa with about 80% of the calculated pressures being in the range of 600-800 MPa. This corresponds to a depth range of 19-26 km, implying that the main level of final crystal fractionation is within the uppermost mantle. No systematic dependence between sample locality and fractionation pressures could be observed. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystals in the rocks are complexly zoned and have, on an inter-sample as well as on an intra-sample scale, highly variable core and rim compositions. This can best be explained by mixing of multiply saturated (olivine, magnetite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite), moderately evolved magmas with more mafic magmas being either only saturated with olivine + spinel or with olivine + spinel + clinopyroxene. The inter-sample differences indicate derivation from small, isolated magma chambers which have undergone distinct fractionation and mixing histories. This is in contrast to oceanic intraplate volcanoes situated on plumes with high melt supply rates, e.g. Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where magma is mainly transported through a central conduit system and stored in a shallow magma chamber prior to injection into the rift zones. The plumbing system beneath El Hierro rather resembles the magma storage systems beneath, e.g. Madeira or La Palma, indicating that small, intermittent magma chambers might be a common feature of oceanic islands fed by plumes with relatively low fluxes, which results in only limited and periodic magma supply.

  11. The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash evaluated by some weathering indices for natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues consists of complicated phenomena. This makes it difficult to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash, which was relevant interactively to pH neutralization and formation of secondary minerals. In this study, mineralogical weathering indices for natural rock profiles were applied to fresh/landfilled MSWI bottom ash to investigate the relation of these weathering indices to landfill time and leaching concentrations of component elements. Tested mineralogical weathering indices were Weathering Potential Index (WPI), Ruxton ratio (R), Weathering Index of Parker (WIP), Vogt's Residual Index (V), Chemical Index of Alternation (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alternation (PIA), Silica-Titania Index (STI), Weathering Index of Miura (Wm), and Weatherability index of Hodder (Ks). Welch's t-test accepted at 0.2% of significance level that all weathering indices could distinguish fresh and landfilled MSWI bottom ash. However, R and STI showed contrasted results for landfilled bottom ash to theoretical expectation. WPI, WIP, Wm, and Ks had good linearity with reclamation time of landfilled MSWI bottom ash. Therefore, these four indices might be applicable as an indicator to identify fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash and to estimate weathering time. Although WPI had weak correlation with leachate pH, other weathering indices had no significant correlation. In addition, all weathering indices could not explain leaching concentration of Al, Ca, Cu, and Zn quantitatively. Large difficulty to modify weathering indices correctly suggests that geochemical simulation including surface sorption, complexation with DOM, and other mechanisms seems to be the only way to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass-deformed Brane Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo; Hanany, Amihay; Morales, Jose Francisco; Pacifici, Daniel Ricci; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    We study renormalization group flows among N=1 SCFTs realized on the worldvolume of D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau singularities, thus admitting a brane tiling description. The flows are triggered by masses for adjoint or vector-like pairs of bifundamentals and are generalizations of the Klebanov-Witten construction of the N=1 theory for the conifold starting from the N=2 theory for the C^2/Z_2 orbifold. In order to preserve the toric condition pairs of masses with opposite signs have to be switched on. We offer a geometric interpretation of the flows as complex deformations of the Calabi-Yau singularity preserving the toric condition. For orbifolds, we support this interpretation by an explicit string amplitude computation of the gauge invariant mass terms generated by imaginary self-dual 3-form fluxes in the twisted sector. In agreement with the holographic a-theorem, the volume of the Sasaki-Einstein 5-base of the Calabi-Yau cone always increases along the flow.

  13. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  14. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  15. Osmium isotope and highly siderophile element constraints on ages and nature of meteoritic components in ancient lunar impact rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Becker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, Au) and 187Os/188Os isotope compositions have been determined for 67 subsamples of six lunar impact rocks from the Apollo 14, 16 and 17 landing sites, and the lunar meteorite Dar al Gani (DaG) 400 using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). We report the first Re-Os isochron age on a lunar impact melt rock. 187Re-187Os isotope systematics for Apollo 16 sample 67935 define an isochron age of 4.21 ± 0.13 Ga (MSWD = 1.5), which is interpreted to reflect localized partitioning processes between solid metal-liquid metal as this rock melted. The new age adds further constraints on the significance of pre-4.0 Ga basin forming impacts on the Moon and possible mixing of ancient impactor compositions in lunar impact rocks. Linear correlations displayed by subsamples of a given impact rock in plots of HSE versus Ir concentrations are explained by dilution processes through essentially HSE-free anorthositic lunar crustal target rocks or binary mixing between a high HSE meteoritic end-member and a low HSE end-member composition. Slope-derived HSE ratios and 187Os/188Os of the meteoritic component in granulitic impactites 67915, 67955 and 79215 are similar to slightly volatile element depleted carbonaceous chondrites. Suprachondritic ratios of Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, and Pd/Ir for Apollo 14 impact melt rock 14310 are similar to ratios observed for other Apollo 14 samples and Apollo 17 poikilitic impact melt rocks. Apollo 16 poikilitic and subophitic impact melt rocks 60315 and 67935 show slightly subchondritic Os/Ir and suprachondritic ratios of 187Os/188Os, Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir, Rh/Ir, Pd/Ir and Au/Ir. Their strongly fractionated HSE compositions are similar to some members of the IVA iron meteorite group and provide further evidence for an iron meteorite impactor component in Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. The range of chondritic

  16. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miličević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  17. The tile assembly model is intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, David; Patitz, Matthew J; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M; Woods, Damien

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is "intrinsic" in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out by T, with each tile of T represented by an m x m "supertile" of U. Our construction works for the full aTAM at any temperature, and it faithfully simulates the deterministic or nondeterministic behavior of each T. Our construction succeeds by solving an analog of the cell differentiation problem in developmental biology: Each supertile of U, starting with those in the seed assembly, carries the "genome" of the simulated system T. At each location of a potential supertile in the self-assembly of U, a decision is made whether and how to express this genome, i.e., whether to generate a supertile and, if so, which tile of T it will represent. This decision must ...

  18. Tiled WMS/KML Server V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  19. The Mu3e Tile Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Hans Patrick

    2015-05-06

    The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} with a sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays. An observation of such a decay would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. Achieving the targeted sensitivity requires a high precision detector with excellent momentum, vertex and time resolution. The Mu3e Tile Detector is a highly granular sub-detector system based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout, and aims at measuring the timing of the muon decay products with a resolution of better than 100 ps. This thesis describes the development of the Tile Detector concept and demonstrates the feasibility of the elaborated design. In this context, a comprehensive simulation framework has been developed, in order to study and optimise the detector performance. The central component of this framework is a detailed simulation of the SiPM response. The simulation model has been validated in several measurements and shows good agreement with the data. Furthermore, a 16-channel prototype of a Tile Detector module has been constructed and operated in an electron beam. In the beam tests, a time resolution up to 56 ps has been achieved, which surpasses the design goal. The simulation and measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed Tile Detector design and show that the required detector performance can be achieved.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  1. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  2. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  4. Optimising the bioreceptivity of porous glass tiles based on colonization by the alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V., E-mail: v.ferrandiz@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BU (United Kingdom); Bond, T., E-mail: t.bond@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zhen.zhang14@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BU (United Kingdom); Melchiorri, J., E-mail: jpmelchiorri@gmail.com [ARBOREA Research, Bessemer Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Green façades on buildings can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. An option to obtain green facades is through the natural colonisation of construction materials. This can be achieved by engineering bioreceptive materials. Bioreceptivity is the susceptibility of a material to be colonised by living organisms. The aim of this research was to develop tiles made by sintering granular waste glass that were optimised for bioreceptivity of organisms capable of photosynthesis. Tiles were produced by pressing recycled soda-lime glass with a controlled particle size distribution and sintering compacted samples at temperatures between 680 and 740 °C. The primary bioreceptivity of the tiles was evaluated by quantifying colonisation by the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), which was selected as a model photosynthetic micro-organism. Concentrations of C. vulgaris were measured using chlorophyll-a extraction. Relationships between bioreceptivity and the properties of the porous glass tile, including porosity, sorptivity, translucency and pH are reported. Capillary porosity and water sorptivity were the key factors influencing the bioreceptivity of porous glass. Maximum C. vulgaris growth and colonisation was obtained for tiles sintered at 700 °C, with chlorophyll-a concentrations reaching up to 11.1 ± 0.4 μg/cm{sup 2} of tile. Bioreceptivity was positively correlated with sorptivity and porosity and negatively correlated with light transmittance. The research demonstrates that the microstructure of porous glass, determined by the processing conditions, significantly influences bioreceptivity. Porous glass tiles with high bioreceptivity that are colonised by photosynthetic algae have the potential to form carbon-negative façades for buildings and green infrastructure. - Highlights: • Porous tiles made by sintering waste glass at variable temperatures • Bioreceptivity assessed by measuring colonisation by the algae C. vulgaris • Tiles sintered at 700 °C gave

  5. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  6. Ceramic tile glazes: design, trends and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredini, T. [Modena Univ. (Italy). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to describe the state of the art of glazes for applications in ceramic tile industry. A glaze for application in ceramic tile industry must satisfy certain requirements, which may be divided into two large groups, one in relation to its preparation and industrial utilisation and the other specific of the product utilisation. In order to design glaze compositions certain aspects must be taken into account. Viscosity and surface tension of the melt matching the body requirements, linear thermal expansion, nucleation and crystal growth processes occurring during firing, durability and optical properties must be designed and adjusted in the industrial practice. Glass-ceramic systems are the more suitable compositions for innovative glazes for fast firing of wall and floor tiles. (orig.)

  7. Tile vaulting in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. López López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New interactive equilibrium methods for the design and analysis of masonry structures have facilitated the construction of masonry structures with a formal language well beyond what is typically associated with compression-only architecture. These developments have also rekindled interest in tile vaulting, and led to a rediscovery of this traditional building technique. To ensure that tile vaults with new, complex shapes can still be built economically, the construction processes involved in the realisation of these structures have adapted. For example, cheaper and simpler falsework systems have been introduced. In addition, a wide variety of materials have been experimented with to be able to build more sustainable vaulted structures with local resources. This paper presents a review of the latest innovations in tile vaulting, based on the most representative works of the past few years with respect to shape, construction method and the use of materials.

  8. Improved Tiled Bitmap Forensic Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Badgujar, G. N. Dhanokar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Computer network world, the needs for securityand proper systems of control are obvious and findout the intruders who do the modification andmodified data. Nowadays Frauds that occurs incompanies are not only by outsiders but also byinsiders. Insider may perform illegal activity & tryto hide illegal activity. Companies would like to beassured that such illegal activity i.e. tampering hasnot occurred, or if it does, it should be quicklydiscovered. Mechanisms now exist that detecttampering of a database, through the use ofcryptographically-strong hash functions. This papercontains a survey which explores the various beliefsupon database forensics through differentmethodologies using forensic algorithms and toolsfor investigations. Forensic analysis algorithms areused to determine who, when, and what data hadbeen tampered. Tiled Bitmap Algorithm introducesthe notion of a candidate set (all possible locationsof detected tampering(s and provides a completecharacterization of the candidate set and itscardinality. Improved tiled bitmap algorithm willcover come the drawbacks of existing tiled bitmapalgorithm.

  9. Crosslinking in viral capsids via tiling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarock, R; Hendrix, R W

    2006-06-07

    A vital part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence protects the viral genome. It has been shown in Twarock [2004. A tiling approach to vius capsids assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477-482] that the surface structures of viruses with icosahedrally symmetric capsids can be modelled in terms of tilings that encode the locations of the protein subunits. This theory is extended here to multi-level tilings in order to model crosslinking structures. The new framework is demonstrated for the case of bacteriophage HK97, and it is shown, how the theory can be used in general to decide if crosslinking, and what type of crosslinking, is compatible from a mathematical point of view with the geometrical surface structure of a virus.

  10. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beavers, J.E. [MS Technology, Inc. (United States)

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  11. Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. Pt. 1: Experimental investigations in pelitic sediment rocks. - Pt. 2: Geochemical investigations on redistribution of volatile hydrocarbons in the overburden of natural gas reservoirs; Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. T. 1: Experimentelle Untersuchungen in pelitischen Sedimentgesteinen. - T.2: Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Umverteilung leichtfluechtiger Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten von Erdgaslagerstaetten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leythaeuser; Konstanty, J.; Pankalla, F.; Schwark, L.; Krooss, B.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Schloemer, S.

    1997-09-01

    New methods and concepts for the assessment of sealing properties of cap rocks above natural gas reservoirs and of the migration behaviour of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins were developed and tested. The experimental work comprised the systematic assesment of gas transport parameters on representative samples of pelitic rocks at elevated pressure and temperature conditions, and the characterization of their sealing efficiency as cap rocks overlying hydrocarbon accumulations. Geochemical case histories were carried out to analyse the distribution of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in the overburden of known natural gas reservoirs in NW Germany. The results were interpreted with respect to the sealing efficiency of individual cap rock lithologies and the type and extent of gas losses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Beurteilung der Abdichtungseigenschaften von Caprocks ueber Gaslagerstaetten und des Migrationsverhaltens niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in Sedimentbecken wurden neue Methoden und Konzepte entwickelt und angewendet. In experimentellen Arbeiten erfolgte die systematische Bestimmung von Gas-Transportparametern an repraesentativen Proben pelitischer Gesteine unter erhoehten Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen und die Charakterisierung ihrer Abdichtungseffizienz als Deckschicht ueber Kohlenwasserstofflagerstaetten. In geochemischen Fallstudien wurde die Verteilung niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten ueber bekannten Erdgaslagerstaetten in NW-Deutschland analysiert und im Hinblick auf die Abdichtungseffizienz einzelner Caprock-Lithologien bzw. Art und Ausmass von Gasverlusten interpretiert. (orig.)

  12. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Primoz; Hocevar, Ana

    2009-03-01

    We study 2D polygonal tilings as models of the en-face structure of single-layer biological tissues. Using numerical simulations, we explore the phase diagram of equilibrium tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter convex polygons whose energy is independent of their shape. We identify 3 distinct phases, which are all observed in simple epithelial tissues: The disordered phase of polygons with 4-9 sides, the hexatic phase, and the hexagonal phase with perfect 6-fold coordination. We quantify their structure using Edwards' statistical mechanics of cellular systems.

  13. Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Final Technical Status Report For DOTC 10-01-INIT-017 Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile Reporting Period: 13 May 2015 Ordnance...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report: Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OTA # W15QKN-09-9...1001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Herbst /Diana-Lynn 5d. PROJECT NUMBER DOTC-11-01-INIT017 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  14. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Glaze is lost from tiles in tile panels due to presence of soluble salts and this means loss of important heritage. The present paper discusses the possibility to apply electro-desalination. An in-situ test has not been performed yet, but encouraging results have been obtained with different parts...... of the system. Single tiles, a variety of porous stones and the mortar on the back of a tile have all been electro-desalinated successfully in laboratory scale. Thus individually, all parts of the wall with tile panel can be electro-desalinated. The interface between mortar and tile can be problematic....... In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...

  15. A new manufacturing plant for fired color tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoZhoumin

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the new manufacturing plant for fired colour tile designed by Xian Research and Design Institute for Nei Mongolia Yinshan Ceramic Ltd. Company. The plant with an annual capacity of 10million fired color tiles.

  16. Mechanical behavior of idealized, stingray-skeleton-inspired tiled composites as a function of geometry and material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, A K; Seidel, R; Naumann, J; Guiducci, L; Hosny, A; Fratzl, P; Weaver, J C; Dunlop, J W C; Dean, M N

    2017-02-28

    Tilings are constructs of repeated shapes covering a surface, common in both manmade and natural structures, but in particular are a defining characteristic of shark and ray skeletons. In these fishes, cartilaginous skeletal elements are wrapped in a surface tessellation, comprised of polygonal mineralized tiles linked by flexible joints, an arrangement believed to provide both stiffness and flexibility. The aim of this research is to use two-dimensional analytical models to evaluate the mechanical performance of stingray skeleton-inspired tessellations, as a function of their material and structural parameters. To calculate the effective modulus of modeled composites, we subdivided tiles and their surrounding joint material into simple shapes, for which mechanical properties (i.e. effective modulus) could be estimated using a modification of traditional Rule of Mixtures equations, that either assume uniform strain (Voigt) or uniform stress (Reuss) across a loaded composite material. The properties of joints (thickness, Young's modulus) and tiles (shape, area and Young's modulus) were then altered, and the effects of these tessellation parameters on the effective modulus of whole tessellations were observed. We show that for all examined tile shapes (triangle, square and hexagon) composite stiffness increased as the width of the joints was decreased and/or the stiffness of the tiles was increased; this supports hypotheses that the narrow joints and high tile to joint stiffness ratio in shark and ray cartilage optimize composite tissue stiffness. Our models also indicate that, for simple, uniaxial loading, square tessellations are least sensitive and hexagon tessellations most sensitive to changes in model parameters, indicating that hexagon tessellations are the most "tunable" to specific mechanical properties. Our models provide useful estimates for the tensile and compressive properties of 2d tiled composites under uniaxial loading. These results lay groundwork

  17. Nature of extracellular signal that triggers RhoA/ROCK activation for the basal internal anal sphincter tone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Phillips, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    The extracellular signal that triggers activation of rho-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK), the major molecular determinant of basal internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone, is not known. Using human IAS tissues, we identified the presence of the biosynthetic machineries for angiotensin II (ANG II), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). These end products of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (ANG II) and arachidonic acid (TXA2 and PGF2α) pathways and their effects in human IAS vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) were studied. A multipronged approach utilizing immunocytochemistry, Western blot analyses, and force measurements was implemented. Additionally, in a systematic analysis of the effects of respective inhibitors along different steps of biosynthesis and those of antagonists, their end products were evaluated either individually or in combination. To further describe the molecular mechanism for the IAS tone via these pathways, we monitored RhoA/ROCK activation and its signal transduction cascade. Data showed characteristically higher expression of biosynthetic machineries of RAS and AA pathways in the IAS compared with the RSM. Additionally, specific inhibition of the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway caused ~80% decrease in the IAS tone, whereas that of RAS lead to ~20% decrease. Signal transduction studies revealed that the end products of both AA and RAS pathways cause increase in the IAS tone via activation of RhoA/ROCK. Both AA and RAS (via the release of their end products TXA2, PGF2α, and ANG II, respectively), provide extracellular signals which activate RhoA/ROCK for the maintenance of the basal tone in human IAS.

  18. Natural gas accumulations in low-permeability Tertiary, and Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) rock, Uinta Basin, Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D.; Wandrey, C.J.; Pitman, J.K.; Nuccio, V.F.; Schmoker, J.W.; Rice, D.D.; Johnson, R.C.; Dolton, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report characterizes Upper Cretaceous Campanian and Maastrichtian, and lower Tertiary gas-bearing rocks in the Uinta Basin with special emphasis on those units that contain gas in reservoirs that have been described as being tight. The report was prepared for the USDOE whose Western Tight Gas Sandstone Program cofunded much of this research in conjunction with the US Geological Survey`s Evolution of Sedimentary Basins, and Onshore Oil and Gas Programs. (VC)

  19. Natural gas accumulations in low-permeability Tertiary, and Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) rock, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D.; Wandrey, C.J.; Pitman, J.K.; Nuccio, V.F.; Schmoker, J.W.; Rice, D.D.; Johnson, R.C.; Dolton, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report characterizes Upper Cretaceous Campanian and Maastrichtian, and lower Tertiary gas-bearing rocks in the Uinta Basin with special emphasis on those units that contain gas in reservoirs that have been described as being tight. The report was prepared for the USDOE whose Western Tight Gas Sandstone Program cofunded much of this research in conjunction with the US Geological Survey's Evolution of Sedimentary Basins, and Onshore Oil and Gas Programs. (VC)

  20. X-ray imaging by partially coherent synchrotron light. Application to metallic alloys, tooth dentin and natural rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabler, Simon Andreas

    2007-10-09

    The hard spectrum which is available on the BAMline at Berlin's synchrotron BESSY offers the rare opportunity to perform high-resolution X-ray imaging experiments with a partially coherent beam. This thesis work reports on the development of a new tomography system, including Fresnel-propagated imaging, and its application to three specific materials science problems from the fields of engineering materials, biology and earth science. Static and dynamic 2D and 3D images were recorded from a variety of aluminum-based alloys. Coarsening of particle agglomerates (at high solid volume fraction) in liquid solution, as well as rheological properties of semi-solid alloys are thus characterized. Dentin is characterized by a quasi-parallel arrangement of micrometer-sized tubules. This work shows how high-resolution 3D images of water-immersed tooth dentin are recorded, and detailed simulations of the optical wave propagation reveal that Fresnel-images contain additional information about the dense cuff of peritubular dentin surrounding the tubules. The cuff thickness can be extrapolated from the interference fringes that form the propagated images of tubules. Absorption and Fresnel-propagated X-ray tomography are applied to measure samples of different rocks before and after mechanical compression nondestructively. In a first approach, limestone and greywacke are investigated, representing two sedimentary rocks of different grain size. Basalt and granite are tested in a second approach to compare different rock types. Development of cracks is observed in all materials, leading to fracture when increasing mechanical load is applied. In this work, relatively small mm-sized samples are used in order to test a classical fracture model wherein micro-flaws initiate the formation of larger cracks. For the first time, Fresnel-propagated imaging is applied to rock samples, highlighting micrometer-sized intergranular porosity as well as different material phases. The latter is

  1. The Corona Limit of Penrose Tilings Is a Regular Decagon

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunobu

    2016-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Papers; International audience; We define and study the corona limit of a tiling, by investigating the signal propagations on cellular automata (CA) on tilings employing the simple growth CA. In particular, the corona limit of Penrose tilings is the regular decagon.

  2. Penetration dynamics of AP8 in thin ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Khoe, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of thin ceramic tiles with AP8 (WC core, 7,62 mm) at 1000 m/s velocity has been studied experimentally and numerically. “Thin” ceramic tiles refers here to ratio of the tile thickness (t) to the projectile diameter, (d), t/d@ 1, as they are both in the same order. The method applied

  3. Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sam

    This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

  4. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  5. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  6. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  7. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  9. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  12. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  14. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  15. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Simon

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Detector performances with respect to electronic noise and cell response are presented. In addition, an overview of the partially overlapping calibration systems is given.

  16. PCI Opens Tile Adhesives Plant in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 22nd, 2007 BASF celebrated the inauguration of Asia's first PCI tilead hesives plant in Foshan, Guangdong Province. The plant is designed to provide a platform for the transfer of cutting-edge tiling systems technologies and solutions from Germany to China to benefit local construction chemicals sector.

  17. Brane Tilings, M2-branes and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Davey, John

    2011-01-01

    Brane Tilings represent one of the largest classes of superconformal theories with known gravity duals in 3+1 and also 2+1 dimensions. They provide a useful link between a large class of quiver gauge theories and their moduli spaces, which are the toric Calabi-Yau (CY) singularities. This thesis includes a discussion of an algorithm that can be used to generate all brane tilings with any given number of superpotential terms. All tilings with at most 8 superpotential terms have been generated using an implementation of this method. Orbifolds are a subject of central importance in string theory. It is widely known that there may be two or more orbifolds of a space by a finite group. Abelian Calabi-Yau orbifolds of the form $\\BC^3 / \\Gamma$ can be counted according to the size of the group $|\\Gamma|$. Three methods of counting these orbifolds will be given. A brane tiling together with a set of Chern Simons levels is sufficient to define a quiver Chern-Simons theory which describes the worldvolume theory of the ...

  18. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinwei, L

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg(-1) for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg(-1) for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra(eq) values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The values of H(ex) and H(in) calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra(eq) value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg(-1).

  19. Split Tiling for GPUs: Automatic Parallelization Using Trapezoidal Tiles to Reconcile Parallelism and Locality, avoiding Divergence and Load Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Albert; Grosser, Tobias; Kelly, Paul H. J.; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, P.; Verdoolaege, Sven

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Tiling is a key technology to increase data reuse in computation kernels. For computations structured as one sequential outer "time" loop enclosing a set of parallel inner loops, the option of tiling only the parallel inner loops is generally not profitable because it does not enable enough data reuse. To combine parallelism and locality, several tiling algorithms propose to tile the time loop together with one or more of the parallel inner loops. However, all these al...

  20. Quartz preferred orientation in naturally deformed mylonitic rocks (Montalto shear zone-Italy): a comparison of results by different techniques, their advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Eugenio; Punturo, Rosalda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Kern, Hartmut; Pezzino, Antonino; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Goswami, Shalini; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2016-12-01

    In the geologic record, the quartz c-axis patterns are widely adopted in the investigation of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of naturally deformed rocks. To this aim, in the present work, four different methods for measuring quartz c-axis orientations in naturally sheared rocks were applied and compared: the classical universal stage technique, the computer-integrated polarization microscopy method (CIP), the time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction analysis , and the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural analysis and CPO patterns of quartz, together with the ones obtained for feldspars and micas in mylonitic granitoid rocks, have been then considered to solve structural and geological questions related to the Montalto crustal scale shear zone (Calabria, southern Italy). Results obtained by applying the different techniques are discussed, and the advantages as well as limitations of each method are highlighted. Importantly, our findings suggest that patterns obtained by means of different techniques are quite similar. In particular, for such mylonites, a subsimple shear (40% simple shear vs 60% pure shear) by shape analysis of porphyroclasts was inferred. A general tendency of an asymmetric c-maximum near to the Z direction (normal to foliation) suggesting dominant basal slip, consistent with fabric patterns related to dynamically recrystallization under greenschist facies, is recognized. Rhombohedral slip was likely active as documented by pole figures of positive and negative rhombs (TOF), which reveal also potential mechanical Dauphiné twinning. Results showed that the most complete CPO characterization on deformed rocks is given by the TOF (from which also other quartz crystallographic axes can be obtained as well as various mineral phases may be investigated). However, this use is restricted by the fact that (a) there are very few TOF facilities around the world and (b) there is loss of any domainal reference, since TOF is a

  1. Mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar isotopic changes in Kreyenhagen Shale whole rocks and <2 μm clay fractions during natural burial and hydrous-pyrolysis experimental maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauer, N.; Lewan, M. D.; Dolan, M. P.; Chaudhuri, S.; Curtis, J. B.

    2014-04-01

    Progressive maturation of the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale from the San Joaquin Basin of California was studied by combining mineralogical and chemical analyses with K-Ar dating of whole rocks and bearing minerals of the rocks. The Al/K ratio of the naturally matured rocks is essentially constant for the entire depth sequence, indicating that there is no detectable variation in the crystallo-chemical organization of the K-bearing alumino-silicates with depth. No supply of K from outside of the rock volumes occurred, which indicates a closed-system behavior for it. Conversely, the content of the total organic carbon (TOC) content decreases significantly with burial, based on the progressive increasing Al/TOC ratio of the whole rocks. The initial varied mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and their sources and depositional settings give scattered results that homogenize progressively during burial due to increased authigenesis, and concomitant increased alteration of the detrital material. Hydrous pyrolysis was intended to alleviate the problem of mineral and chemical variations in initially deposited rocks of naturally matured sequences. However, experiments on aliquots from thermally immature Kreyenhagen Shale outcrop sample did not mimic the results from naturally buried samples. Experiments conducted for 72 h at temperatures from 270 to 365 °C did not induce significant changes at temperatures above 310 °C in the mineralogical composition and K-Ar ages of the rock and heated the most at 365 °C for 216 h. This slight decrease in age outlines some loss of radiogenic 40Ar, together with losses of organic matter as oil, gas, and aqueous organic species. Large amounts of smectite layers in the illite-smectite mixed layers of the pyrolyzed outcrop source rock, the pore system is no longer wetted by water and smectite to illite conversion ceases. Experimental attempts to evaluate the smectite conversion to illite should preferentially use low-TOC rocks to avoid

  2. Use of Natural Tracers for Understanding Porewater Residence Time and Solute Transport: Challenges Encountered in Paleozoic Rocks of the Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, T. A.; Celejewski, M.; Clark, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geoscience programs that focus on long-term waste management in the geosphere commonly aim to develop a conceptual model that explains porewater residence time and the mechanisms and time scales for solute transport. Diffusion is the dominant transport process in low-permeability rocks so measurement of rock diffusion properties is important, but measurements at the laboratory scale can be highly variable due to changes in lithology, porosity, confining pressure and pore-fluid composition at scales of cm to 10's of m. The natural analogue approach, using tracers such as Cl, Br, 18O and 2H that commonly display conservative behaviour, provides a means to scale up the results of laboratory measurements to understand the larger-scale controls on porewater residence time and solute transport. The principal challenge in applying this approach is the difficulty of obtaining high-quality tracer concentration data from porewater in low-permeability rocks. Additional insight into solute transport and reaction processes could be gained by collecting data for the concentrations of major cations but these data are even more difficult to obtain. Using data from the geoscience site characterization for the Ontario Power Generation proposed Deep Geologic Repository at the Bruce site in southwest Ontario, this presentation will illustrate some of the problems with standard methods for obtaining porewater compositional data . Methods such as core squeezing and advective displacement simply do not work because the permeability and the water content are too low. The crush-leach method has been used but is susceptible to artifacts from dissolution of soluble minerals (halite, anhydrite, gypsum and celestite), ion exchange and difficulty in assigning a porosity value to specific solutes. In order to overcome these limitations and improve the outcome from the natural analogue approach, a new method has been developed that extracts porewater directly into hydrophyllic cellulosic paper by

  3. Solving Vertex Cover Problem Using DNA Tile Assembly Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA tile assembly models are a class of mathematically distributed and parallel biocomputing models in DNA tiles. In previous works, tile assembly models have been proved be Turing-universal; that is, the system can do what Turing machine can do. In this paper, we use tile systems to solve computational hard problem. Mathematically, we construct three tile subsystems, which can be combined together to solve vertex cover problem. As a result, each of the proposed tile subsystems consists of Θ(1 types of tiles, and the assembly process is executed in a parallel way (like DNA’s biological function in cells; thus the systems can generate the solution of the problem in linear time with respect to the size of the graph.

  4. ATLAS rewards Russian supplier for scintillating tile production

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Supplier Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's tile calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule. Representatives of the firm are seen here receiving the award at a ceremony held in the collaboration's tile calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one tile calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, tile calorimeter project leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN tile calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia.

  5. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  6. Material properties of hollow clay tile and existing mortar characterization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butala, M.B.; Jones, W.D.

    1993-10-01

    Several Buildings at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant were constructed (circa 1950) using unreinforced hollow clay tile (UHCT) masonry walls, which act as shear walls to resist lateral forces. A comprehensive test program, managed by the Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), is under way to determine material properties of existing hollow clay tile walls that will be used to help determine the structural strength of those buildings. This paper presents the results of several types of material property tests of 4-in.- and 8-in.-thick hollow clay tiles. These tests include determination of weight, size, void area, net area and gross area, initial rate of absorption, absorption, modules of rupture, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength. The tests were performed on old, reclaimed tiles and new tiles. A total of 336 tiles were tested. The stress-strain relationship for 40 specimens was also obtained. All testing was performed in accordance with ASTM standards and procedures developed by CNPE. This paper also presents the results of an investigation of mortar removed from the existing walls. The mortar characterization study was performed by Testwell Craig Materials Consultants (TCMC) under subcontract to MMES. Petrographic and chemical investigations were conducted on 18 mortar samples removed from four buildings at the plant. The primary purpose of the investigations was to evaluate the properties of existing mortar and provide a similar specification for the mortar to be used for construction of test specimens and test walls for the test program. The study showed variability in the mortars among buildings and among different locations within a building; it was concluded that an average mortar mix conforming to ASTM type N proportioned by volume of Portland cement, hydrated lime, and Tennessee river sand would be used to conduct further laboratory studies of masonry assemblages.

  7. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  8. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  9. In-situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil or rock formations by directed and controlled crystallisation of natural occuring minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenbalg, G. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2003-07-01

    The main idea of the technology that will be summarized in the paper is to use crystallisation processes similar to those occurring in nature to seal flow paths or to immobilise contaminants. Solutions supersaturated with gypsum, barite, calcium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide or iron hydroxide are brought into soil or rock formations and a directed precipitation leads to a reduction of the permeability as well as to safe immobilisation of heavy metals. The preparation of oversaturated solutions is possible, for example, by the use of precipitation inhibitors. These prevent a spontaneous precipitation during the mixing process. Temporarily stable solutions are obtained. For example, in the presence of 250 mg/l precipitation inhibitor it is possible to synthesise solutions containing up to 40 g/l dissolved CaSO{sub 4}. The resulting solutions are completely clear and have a viscosity similar to water. Decomposition and adsorption processes lead to a gradual reduction of the stability of the inhibitors. As a result, gypsum crystallisation occurs. If this process takes place in rock or soil formations, covering of reactive mineral surfaces or sealing of the treated area is achieved. The generation of acid rock drainage is prevented. In a similar way it is possible to generate solutions resulting in the targeted precipitation of BaSO{sub 4} or Calcite. Modified preparation ways offer the synthesis of clear, temporarily stable solutions of Ca(OH){sub 2} Al(OH){sub 3} or Fe(OH){sub 3}. The paper summarises the fundamentals of the technology as well as the results of first large scale applications to immobilise heavy metals in a former uranium mine in Germany. Approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of a BaSO{sub 4} forming solution were brought into an acidity generating rock formation. An in-situ fixation of heavy metals was achieved. Further applications of directed crystallisation processes for sealing of porous rock formations as well as for the in-situ construction of

  10. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  11. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  12. Tiling by rectangles and alternating current

    KAUST Repository

    Prasolov, M. V.

    2011-04-01

    This paper is on tilings of polygons by rectangles. A celebrated physical interpretation of such tilings by R.L. Brooks, C.A.B. Smith, A.H. Stone and W.T. Tutte uses direct-current circuits. The new approach of this paper is an application of alternating-current circuits. The following results are obtained: •a necessary condition for a rectangle to be tilable by rectangles of given shapes;•a criterion for a rectangle to be tilable by rectangles similar to it but not all homothetic to it;•a criterion for a "generic" polygon to be tilable by squares. These results generalize those of C. Freiling, R. Kenyon, M. Laczkovich, D. Rinne, and G. Szekeres. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Tile-in-ONE.cern.ch

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella Gomes, Andressa; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, Fernando; Solans, Carlos; Solodkov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter assesses the quality of data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks are then performed by running several tools and systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration’s requirements and do not necessarily builds an effective connection among them. Thus, a program is usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a unique platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract th...

  14. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  15. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  16. Mapping Signal Processing Kernels to Tiled Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    attractive alternatives to monolithic computer architecture designs because they allow a larger design to be built from smaller modules and limit the...Computer Architectures. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 2(4):289–308, November 1984. [12] Steven Swanson, Ken Michelson , Andrew Schwerin, and...Program MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHPEC 2004-3 JML 28 Sep 2004 Tiled Architectures • Monolithic single-chip architectures are becoming rare in the industry

  17. Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Wallentowitz, Stefan; Wagner, Philipp; Tempelmeier, Michael; Wild, Thomas; Herkersdorf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Manycore System-on-Chip include an increasing amount of processing elements and have become an important research topic for improvements of both hardware and software. While research can be conducted using system simulators, prototyping requires a variety of components and is very time consuming. With the Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip (OpTiMSoC) we aim at building such an environment for use in our and other research projects as prototyping platform. This paper describes the project goal...

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  19. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  20. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  1. 岩石单轴压缩试验Kaiser效应实质的研究%NATURE OF KAISER EFFECT OF ROCKS UNDER UNIAXIAL CYCLIC LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊运晓

    2000-01-01

    Past experimental evidence indicates that rock on certain conditions exhibits the Kaiser effect(KE)when it is loaded,and the KE of rock has ability to remember its maximum previous state parameters including stress,axial strain and transverse strain.At the same time the accuracy of state parameters′ KE is different with loading stages.Recent experiment indicates that rock also has ability to remember its maximum previous physical parameters such as bulk strain,Young′s module and Poisson′s ratio.“Young′s module memory”which is of both accuracy and stability shows the best among the three physical parameters.Furthermore,the experiment result shows“Young′s module memory”not to be affected by time factor.It demonstrates that the nature of Kaiser effect is memory of its previous physical behavior.%岩石Kaiser效应具有记忆先前应力、纵向应变和横向应变的能力,记忆的准确程度随加载阶段不同而不同。为了解Kaiser效应的记忆实质,通过岩石单轴压缩试验确定Kaiser效应对体积应变、弹性模量和泊松比三项物性参数的记忆能力。结果表明,岩石Kaiser效应具有记忆先前物性参数的能力,其中尤以对弹性模量的记忆能力表现为最好,而且受时间因素影响不大,说明岩石Kaiser效应的实质是对其内部物理特性的记忆。

  2. Eficiência agronômica de fosfato natural reativo na cultura da soja Agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock evaluated in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência agronômica relativa de uma fonte de fósforo na cultura de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill.]. O superfosfato triplo foi a fonte-padrão, e o fosfato natural reativo Arad foi a fonte testada, ambos aplicados em diferentes doses, em área total ou no sulco de semeadura. Em outubro de 2004, o experimento foi instalado em Balsas, MA, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa e baixa disponibilidade de fósforo, conduzido com soja cultivar BRS Sambaíba por três safras (2004/2005 a 2006/2007; a terceira safra foi conduzida sob efeito residual das aplicações anteriores. De forma geral, não foram observadas diferenças quanto à localização da fonte-padrão, ao passo que a localização do fosfato natural reativo Arad reduziu significativamente a eficiência. Quando aplicado a lanço, nos dois primeiros cultivos, o fosfato natural reativo Arad resultou em aproximadamente 76% de eficiência agronômica relativa, o que demonstra média viabilidade agronômica. Sob efeito residual, a aplicação localizada do superfosfato triplo resultou em resposta semelhante à verificada com a aplicação anual desta fonte, entretanto, o aumento na eficiência agronômica relativa foi mais acentuado, quando ambas as fontes foram aplicadas a lanço.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness of the application of broadcasted and banded phosphorus rates, testing a standard source (triple superphosphate and Arad phosphate rock in a soybean crop, in the Balsas, MA, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in October 2004, on a Typic Hapludox, clayey texture and very low available phosphorus, conducted with soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], cultivar BRS Sambaíba], for three consecutive harvests (2004/2005 to 2006/2007. The third harvest was carried out on residual effect of the previous applications. In general, it was not observed any differences related to the

  3. Preferential flow paths and heat pipes: Results from laboratory experiments on heat-driven flow in natural and artificial rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1997-06-01

    Water flow in fractures under the conditions of partial saturation and thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. Water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages at Yucca Mountain and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize liquid flow in glass fracture models, a transparent epoxy fracture replica, and a rock/replica fracture assembly. Spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed in seven of these experiments to evaluate heat-pipe formation. Depending on the fracture apertures and flow conditions, various flow regimes were observed including continuous rivulet flow for high flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for low flow rates and wide apertures. These flow regimes were present in both fracture models and in the replica of a natural fracture. Heat-pipe conditions indicated by low thermal gradients were observed in five experiments. Conditions conducive to heat-pipe formation include an evaporation zone, condensation zone, adequate space for vapor and liquid to travel, and appropriate fluid driving forces. In one of the two experiments where heat pipe conditions were not observed, adequate space for liquid-vapor counterflow was not provided. Heat pipe conditions were not established in the other, because liquid flow was inadequate to compensate for imbibition and the quantity of heat contained within the rock.

  4. Monomer-dimer tatami tilings of square regions

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the number of monomer-dimer tilings of an $n\\times n$ square grid, with $mtiles meet at any point is $m2^m+(m+1)2^{m+1}$, when $m$ and $n$ have the same parity. In addition, we present a new proof of the result that there are $n2^{n-1}$ such tilings with $n$ monomers, which divides the tilings into $n$ classes of size $2^{n-1}$. The sum of these tilings over all monomer counts has the closed form $2^{n-1}(3n-4)+2$ and, curiously, this is equal to the sum of the squares of all parts in all compositions of $n$. We also describe two algorithms and a Gray code ordering for generating the $n2^{n-1}$ tilings with $n$ monomers, which are both based on our new proof.

  5. Operating experience of the tile carrier transfer facility during the JET remote tile exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, P.; Patel, B.; Davies, N.; Middleton, R.; Mills, S.; Palmer, J.; Pedrick, L.; Wilson, D.W. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hurd, F. [NET Team, Garching (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    During the Remote Tile Exchange shutdown at JET, the purpose built Tile Carrier Transfer Facility (TCTF) has been successfully used for the remote removal and storage of activated, tritiated and beryllium contaminated torus components. The short boom, end effector and tine arrangement was also used during the installation of the new Gas Box Divertor. Tritium levels required the use of techniques and practices which were successful in confining contamination and allowed the declassification of work areas. A holding area and posting facilities enabled ancillary equipment / tool logistics to be managed efficiently. This article presents and describes all the equipment used and reports the operational experience. (authors)

  6. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Builders School, Ceramic Tile Setting 3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…

  7. Investigation on the permeability characteristics of bedded salt rocks and the tightness of natural gas caverns in such formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wei; Muhammad, N.; Chen, Jie; Spiers, C.J.; Peach, C.J.; Deyi, Jiang; Li, Yinping

    In China, the salt formations close to the lower reaches of the large natural gas routes and the main gas consuming regions are all bedded structures. The presences of non-halite or low-halite mudstone interlayers and interfaces (salt-interlayer) in these bedded salt formations increase the concern

  8. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  9. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  10. Tiling a figure using a height in a tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remila, E. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Roanne, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    We first give a new presentation of an algorithm from Thurston of tiling with lozenges formed from two cells of the triangular lattice A. Secondly we extend the method to get a linear algorithm of tiling with leaning dominoes (parallelograms formed from four cells of {Lambda}) and triangles (formed from four cells of {Lambda}). Thirdly, we produce a quadratic algorithm of tiling with leaning dominoes.

  11. Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Paul; Trifonov, Valery; Rozowsky, Joel S; Schubert, Falk; Emanuelsson, Olof; Karro, John; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-02-01

    A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences.

  12. The research progress of tiling array technology and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG XianYu; WANG Jun; CHI XueBin

    2008-01-01

    Tiling array technology was improved from microarray technology. Over the past five years, tiling array has become an important tool for gathering genome information. Its features of high density and high throughput allow people to probe into life from the whole-genome level. This paper is a survey of tiling array technology and its applications. In addition, some typical algorithms for identifying expressed probe signals are described and compared.

  13. The exact solution of an octagonal rectangle triangle random tiling

    CERN Document Server

    De Gier, J; Gier, Jan de; Nienhuis, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the recently published exact solution of a random tiling model possessing an eight-fold symmetric phase. The solution is obtained using Bethe Ansatz and provides closed expressions for the entropy and phason elastic constants. Qualitatively, this model has the same features as the square-triangle random tiling model. We use the method of P. Kalugin, who solved the Bethe Ansatz equations for the square-triangle tiling, which were found by M. Widom.

  14. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  15. Natural radioactivity levels in soils, rocks and water at a mining concession of Perseus gold mine and surrounding towns in Central Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanu, A; Adukpo, O K; Tettey-Larbi, L; Lawluvi, H; Kpeglo, D O; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, R A; Kansaana, C; Amoah, P A; Efa, A O; Ibrahim, A D; Agyeman, B; Kpodzro, R; Agyeman, L

    2016-01-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials prior to processing of gold ore within and around the new eastern concession area of Perseus Mining (Ghana) Limited were carried out to ascertain the baseline radioactivity levels. The study was based on situ measurements of external gamma dose rate at 1 m above ground level as well as laboratory analysis by direct gamma spectrometry to quantify the radionuclides of interest namely; (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, rock, ore samples and gross alpha/beta analysis in water samples. The average absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above sampling point using a radiation survey metre was determined to be 0.08 ± 0.02 μGyh(-1) with a corresponding average annual effective dose calculated to be 0.093 ± 0.028 mSv. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in the soil, rock, and ore samples were 65.1 ± 2.2, 71.8 ± 2.2 and 1168.3 Bqkg(-1) respectively resulting in an average annual effective dose of 0.91 ± 0.32 mSv. The average Radium equivalent activity value was 257.8 ± 62.4 Bqkg(-1) in the range of 136.6-340.2 Bqkg(-1). The average values of external and internal indices were 0.7 ± 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2 respectively. The average gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in the water samples were determined to be 0.0032 ± 0.0024 and 0.0338 ± 0.0083 Bql(-1) respectively. The total annual effective dose from the pathways considered for this study (gamma ray from the soil, rock and ore samples as well as doses determined from the gross alpha/beta activity concentration in water samples) was calculated to be 0.918 mSv. The results obtained in this study shows that the radiation levels are within the natural background radiation levels found in literature and compare well with similar studies for other countries and the total annual effective dose is below the ICRP recommended level of 1 mSv for public exposure control.

  16. Procreating Tiles of Double Commutative-Step Digraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-qin Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Double commutative-step digraph generalizes the double-loop digraph. A double commutative-step digraph can be represented by an L-shaped tile, which periodically tessellates the plane. Given an initial tile L(l, h,x, y), Agniló et al. define a discrete iteration L(p) = L(l + 2p, h + 2p, x + p, y + p),p = 0, 1, 2,…, over L-shapes (equivalently over double commutative-step digraphs), and obtain an orbit generated by L(l, h, x, y),which is said to be a procreating k-tight tile if L(p)(p= 0, 1, 2,… ) are all k-tight tiles. They classify the set of L-shaped tiles by its behavior under the above-mentioned discrete dynamics and obtain some procreating tiles of double commutative-step digraphs. In this work, with an approach proposed by Li and Xu et al., we define some new discrete iteration over L-shapes and classify the set of tiles by the procreating condition. We also propose some approaches to find infinite families of realizable k-tight tiles starting from any realizable k-tight L-shaped tile L(l, h, x, y), 0≤|y - x|≤ 2k + 2. As an example, we present an infinite family of 3-tight optimal double-loop networks to illustrate our approaches.

  17. Talk about Han eaves tile art in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽艺

    2015-01-01

    The Han Dynasty is the first in the history of the unified and powerful country. It is a huge momentum has also affected the development of art, especially the art of eaves tile. Pattern of Han eaves tile is the art of the Chinese nation in the classic, rich artistic value for tile study of traditional ceramic art is very necessary in China. Through the research on Eave Tile Art, can be in-jected into the power of ceramic art in China's new development.

  18. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  19. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  20. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  1. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  2. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management.

  3. Detection of ionizing radiations by studying ceramic tiles materials using thermoluminescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, H. C.; Murthy, K. V. R.; Purohit, R. U.

    2017-05-01

    Natural background radiation comes from two primary sources: cosmic radiation and terrestrial sources. Our natural environment has both livings and non-livings like - Sun, Moon, Sky, Air, Water, Soil, Rivers, Mountains, Forests, besides plants and animals. The worldwide average background dose for a human being is about 2.4 millisievert (mSv) per year. This exposure is mostly from cosmic radiation and natural radionuclides in the environment. The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system. This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create secondary radiation, including X-rays, muons, protons, alpha particles, pions, electrons, and neutrons. The present study discusses the utility of ceramic tiles as radiation dosimeters in case of nuclear fallout. Many flooring materials most of them are in natural form are used to manufacture floor tiles for household flooring purpose. Many natural minerals are used as the raw materials required for the manufacturing ceramic ware. The following minerals are used to manufacturing the ceramic tiles i.e. Quartz, Feldspar, Zircon, Talc, Grog, Alumina oxide, etc. Most of the minerals are from Indian mines of Gujarat and Rajasthan states, some of are imported from Russian subcontinent. The present paper reports the thermoluminescence dosimetry Study of Feldspar and Quartz minerals collected from the ceramic tiles manufacturing unit, Morbi. The main basis in the Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) is that TL output is directly proportional to the radiation dose received by the phosphor and hence provides the means of estimating unknown radiations from environment.

  4. Preparation of high performance ceramic tiles using waste tile granules and ceramic polishing powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gong-xun; SU Da-gen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to reusing waste tile granules (TG) and ceramic polishing powder (PP) to produce high performance ceramic tiles. We studied formulations each with a TG mass fraction of 25.0% and a different PP mass fraction between 1.0% and 7.0%. The formulations included a small amount of borax additive of a mass fracton between 0.2%and 1.2%. The effects of these industrial by-products on compressive strength, water absorption and microstructure of the new ceramic tiles were investigated. The results indicate that the compressive strength decreases and water absorption increases when TG with a mass fraction of 25.0% are added. Improvement of the compressive strength may be achieved when TG (up to 25.0%)and PP (up to 2.0%) are both used at the same time. In particular, the compressive strength improvement can be maximized and water absorption reduced when a borax additive of up to 0.5% is used as a flux. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that a certain amount of fine PP granules and a high content of fluxing oxides from borax avail the formation of glassy phase that fills up the pores in the new ceramic tiles, resulting in a dense product with high compressive strength and low water absorption.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Shima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities.

  6. Tiling a Pyramidal Polycube with Dominoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bodini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of pyramidal polycubes, namely the piling-up of bricks of a non-increasing size, generalizes in ℝ n the concept of trapezoidal polyominoes. In the present paper, we prove that n-dimensional dominoes can tile a pyramidal polycube if and only if the latter is balanced, that is, if the number of white cubes is equal to the number of black ones for a chessboard-like coloration, generalizing the result of [BC92] when n=2

  7. Sewage sludge ash characteristics and potential for use in bricks, tiles and glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Ciarán J; Dhir, Ravindra K; Ghataora, Gurmel S

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) and its use in ceramic applications pertaining to bricks, tiles and glass ceramics have been assessed using the globally published literature in the English medium. It is shown that SSA possesses similar chemical characteristics to established ceramic materials and under heat treatment achieves the targeted densification, strength increases and absorption reductions. In brick and tile applications, technical requirements relating to strength, absorption and durability are achievable, with merely manageable performance reductions with SSA as a partial clay replacement. Fluxing properties of SSA facilitate lower firing temperatures during ceramics production, although reductions in mix plasticity leads to higher forming water requirements. SSA glass ceramics attained strengths in excess of natural materials such as granite and marble and displayed strong durability properties. The thermal treatment and nature of ceramic products also effectively restricted heavy metal leaching to low levels. Case studies, predominantly in bricks applications, reinforce confidence in the material with suitable technical performances achieved in practical conditions.

  8. The Production and Qualification of Scintillator Tiles for the ATLAS Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Alexa, C; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Andresen, X; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosi, F; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu; Calvet, D; Cardeira, C; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Costello, J; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Da Silva, P; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; Diakov, E; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Drake, G; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Feng, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Flix, J; Francavilla, P; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Gouveia, J; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Hill, N; Holmgren, S; Hruska, I; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Konsnantinov, V; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lapin, V; LeCompte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lourtie, P; Lovas, L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nikitine, I; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Palan, B; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Pereira, A; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Pod, E; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, a L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramalho, M; Ramstedt, M; Raposeiro, L; Reis, J; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsau, V; Rusakovich, N; Sada Costa, J; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Speckmeyer, P; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tischenko, M; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vellidis, C; Ventura, F; Vichou, I; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zaytsev, Yu; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zilka, B

    2007-01-01

    The production of the scintillator tiles for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented. In addition to the manufacture and production, the properties of the tiles will be presented including light yield, uniformity and stability.

  9. Alteraciones superficiales desarrolladas en rocas de ambientes urbanos y naturales Superficial alterations developed on rocks in urban and natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Ponce

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se investiga el desarrollo de costras y pátinas encontradas en algunas obras provenientes de sectores urbanos y otras de áreas naturales. En el primer caso se seleccionaron monumentos funerarios del cementerio de la Recoleta y el palacio del Congreso Nacional, en tanto que en el segundo el sector de Los Pizarrones en el Parque Nacional Talampaya. Para los estudios, se emplearon técnicas de microscopia óptica, difracción de rayos X y microscopia electrónica con análisis por microsonda. Los monumentos pertenecientes al ámbito de la Recoleta seleccionados para este trabajo, corresponden a Nicolás Avellaneda, Olivera de Pignetto y Luis María Campos. Las diferencias encontradas entre los monumentos radica en las condiciones de exposición (intemperie o resguardada a las que contribuyen acciones biológicas, antropogénicas y de polución ambiental. De manera similar, el palacio del Congreso Nacional ubicado en el sector céntrico de la ciudad también revela que la caliza de sus fachadas, desarrolla costras como en los monumentos de Recoleta aunque con alguna variación de su composición mineral. La acción biológica se manifiesta en los contenidos encontrados de P, S y Si. El ejemplo de Los Pizarrones como área natural muestra el desarrollo de una pátina con importante acción biológica, pero sin la detección de elementos metálicos propios de zonas urbanas. De lo expuesto, se concluye que las alteraciones superficiales de las rocas obedecen a factores que dependen de su ubicación urbana o natural, de la acción biológica y la actividad antrópica en diferentes manifestaciones.A geoscientific study was accomplished to evaluate suitability for urban developments the in carboniferous basin of the Turbio River. This research included the characterization of natural resources: soil, water and landscape; the evaluation of natural and anthropic hazardous areas and the loss of farming and green lands. The implied

  10. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  11. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  12. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  13. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  14. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  15. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  16. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile LaserII Calibration System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00124895; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The new laser calibration system of the ATLAS Tile hadron calorimeter is presented. The perfomances of the calibration and monitor tools internal to the laser system are given in terms of operation time stability. The use of the laser system in the normal Tile calibration procedures is also described.

  18. Optimized design and assessment of whole genome tiling arrays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, S.; Nielsen, F.G.G.; Kurtz, S.; Huynen, M.A.; Birney, E.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Flicek, P.

    2007-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Recent advances in microarray technologies have made it feasible to interrogate whole genomes with tiling arrays and this technique is rapidly becoming one of the most important high-throughput functional genomics assays. For large mammalian genomes, analyzing oligonucleotide tiling arra

  19. The house, the tile stove and the climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The tile stove was invented in the North Alpine area between the 8th and 10th century. Apart from convection air heating and clay cupola ovens, this system provided the only possibility for a smoke-free heated living room. The innovation of the tile stove heating system itself did not reach...

  20. Study on Karst Rock Desertification by Human-Nature Interaction: A Case Study of Fengshan County of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Su, C.; Zhang, R.; Shi, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Rocky desertification is a process of soil erosion leading to the bareness of bedrock, and is a kind of typical natural disaster in karst areas, which seriously constrains the developments of local society and economy. This paper studies the impact of human activities on the changes of rocky desertification. With the interpretation of remote sensing images of Fengshan County, GuangXi, China covering 1990, 1995 and 2005, this paper analyzes the relationship of the changes of social and economic index (including population density, agricultural population, rural per capital net income, and farmland) and the changes of rocky desertification in recent 15 years. The results indicate that: in recent 15 years, the average annual growth rate of rocky desertification, rate of change of population density, agricultural population, rural per capita net income, and farmland area are 8.7375 km2 /year, 0.7 person/km2.year, 1153 person/year, 85 Yuan/year, and -269.1 ha/year, respectively. The first three of social and economic indicators at different degrees of growth, show a positive correlation with rocky desertification change. However, farmland area, which has been diminishing, shows a negative correlation with rocky desertification. The influence of human activities for karst rocky desertification can be regarded as population growth - steep slope reclamation - the destruction of vegetation - erosion - rocky desertification - poverty.

  1. A study of cathodoluminescence and trace element compositional zoning in natural quartz from volcanic rocks: mapping titanium content in quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, William P; MacRae, Colin M; Wilson, Nick C; Torpy, Aaron; Lee, Cin-Ty A; Student, James J; Thomas, Jay B; Vicenzi, Edward P

    2012-12-01

    This article concerns application of cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy to volcanic quartz and its utility in assessing variation in trace quantities of Ti within individual crystals. CL spectroscopy provides useful details of intragrain compositional variability and structure but generally limited quantitative information on element abundances. Microbeam analysis can provide such information but is time-consuming and costly, particularly if large numbers of analyses are required. To maximize advantages of both approaches, natural and synthetic quartz crystals were studied using high-resolution hyperspectral CL imaging (1.2-5.0 eV range) combined with analysis via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Spectral intensities can be deconvolved into three principal contributions (1.93, 2.19, and 2.72 eV), for which intensity of the latter peak was found to correlate directly with Ti concentration. Quantitative maps of Ti variation can be produced by calibration of the CL spectral data against relatively few analytical points. Such maps provide useful information concerning intragrain zoning or heterogeneity of Ti contents with the sensitivity of LA-ICPMS analysis and spatial resolution of electron microprobe analysis.

  2. Tiling for Performance Tuning on Different Models of GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chang; Jenkins, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    The strategy of using CUDA-compatible GPUs as a parallel computation solution to improve the performance of programs has been more and more widely approved during the last two years since the CUDA platform was released. Its benefit extends from the graphic domain to many other computationally intensive domains. Tiling, as the most general and important technique, is widely used for optimization in CUDA programs. New models of GPUs with better compute capabilities have, however, been released, new versions of CUDA SDKs were also released. These updated compute capabilities must to be considered when optimizing using the tiling technique. In this paper, we implement image interpolation algorithms as a test case to discuss how different tiling strategies affect the program's performance. We especially focus on how the different models of GPUs affect the tiling's effectiveness by executing the same program on two different models of GPUs equipped testing platforms. The results demonstrate that an optimized tiling...

  3. Modular Interactive Tiles for Rehabilitation – Evidence and Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2010-01-01

    years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients both in hospital, rehabilitation centre and in their private home. In all test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find......We developed modular interactive tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We report on evidence for elderly training. We tested the modular interactive tiles for an extensive period of time (4...... the playful use of modular interactive tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform the rehabilitation. Also, test data suggest that some playful exercises on the tiles demand an average heart rate of 75% and 86% of the maximum heart rate....

  4. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  5. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  6. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  7. Níveis de radioatividade natural decorrente do radônio no complexo rochoso da Serra de São Vicente, SP Levels of natural radon-radioactivity in the São Vicente, SP, rock massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Lima Marques

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar monitoração passiva e integrada do radônio em várias amostras de águas, solos e locais fechados do complexo rochoso da Serra de São Vicente, SP, com o intuito de avaliar a distribuição de ocorrência deste gás radioativo naquele local. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A técnica utilizada consistiu em expor detectores plásticos policarbonatos (SSNTD do tipo Makrofol E, na geometria de copo fechado, ao radônio emanado das amostras de águas coletadas dos solos e ao acumulado em ambientes internos (residências e cavidades nas rochas existentes no complexo rochoso de São Vicente. RESULTADOS: Os valores obtidos para os teores de radônio variaram entre 8,1 e 36 Bq/l para as fontes de água natural, entre 68 e 610 Bq/m³ nas residências, entre 0,41 e 3,46 kBq/m³nos solos e entre 0,72 e 5,85 kBq/m³ nas cavidades do Maciço de São Vicente. CONCLUSÃO: Para algumas residências e na maioria das fontes de água estudadas, os teores de radônio encontrados neste trabalho estiveram acima dos limites máximos propostos por organismos internacionais. Recomenda-se, portanto, que ações de intervenção sejam implementadas para a dissipação do radônio, tanto nessas residências como durante a coleta das águas para fins de consumo.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a passive and time-integrated radon monitoring in several soil and water samples and indoor environments of the São Vicente, SP, rock massif with the purpose of evaluating the presence and distribution of that radioactive gas in this region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The technique employed consisted of exposing Makrofol E-type polycarbonate plastic detectors (SSNTD, using the closed cup method, to radon emanated from ground water samples and to the gas accumulated inside indoor environments (dwellings and inside rock cavities existing in the São Vicente rock massif. RESULTS: The radon concentration values obtained ranged from 8.1 to 36 Bq/l in natural

  8. Elliptically distributed lozenge tilings of a hexagon

    CERN Document Server

    Betea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a 4 parameter family of elliptic weights on tilings of a hexagon introduced by Borodin, Gorin and Rains, and generalize some of their results. In the process, we connect the combinatorics of the model with the theory of elliptic special functions. We first analyze some properties of the measure and introduce canonical coordinates that are useful for combinatorially interpreting results. We then show how the computed $n$-point function (called the elliptic Selberg density) and transitional probabilities connect to the theory of $BC_n$-symmetric multivariate elliptic special functions and difference operators discovered by Rains. In particular, the difference operators intrinsically capture the combinatorial model under study, while the elliptic Selberg density is a generalization (deformation) of probability distributions pervasive in the theory of random matrices and interacting particle systems. Based on quasi-commutation relations between elliptic difference operators, we cons...

  9. Tiling a unit square with 8 squares

    CERN Document Server

    Praton, Iwan

    2011-01-01

    Put n nonoverlapping squares inside the unit square. Let f(n) and g(n) denote the maximum values of the sum of the edge lengths of the n small squares, where in the case of f(n) the maximum is taken over all arbitrary packings of the unit square, and in the case of g(n) it is taken over all tilings of the unit square (i.e., the total area of the n small squares is 1). Benton and Tyler asked for which values of n we have f(n)=g(n). We show that f(8)>g(8). More precisely, we show that g(8)=13/5; it is known that f(8) is at least 8/3.

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  12. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  13. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  14. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  15. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  16. Zeolitisation of Neogene sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks exposed in Paipa (Boyacá, in the Colombian Andes: simulating their natural formation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Ortíz Fredy Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the synthesis of zeolites from Neogene sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks exposed around the Sochagota Lake, Paipa (Boyacá. Two synthesis methods were used: conventional hydrothermal treatment and alkaline fusion followed by hydrothermal reaction. Both raw materials and synthesised zeolytic products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Several zeolytic phases were synthesised, including faujasite (FAU, phillipsite(PHI and sodalite (SOD. The results showed that the alkaline fusion approach was more efficient regarding hydrothermal conversion of the raw materials than conventional hydrothermal treatment, taking into accountthat zeolytic products having a higher degree of crystallinity and few impurities were obtained in this way. This study was aimed at applying experimental mineralogy to a laboratory simulation of the geological conditions in which zeolites can occur as the basis for defining criteria for exploring natural zeolites in Colombia, with prospects for the profitable exploitation of these mineral resources in different parts of Colombia

  17. Natural radioisotopes. The ''atomic clock'' for the age determination of rocks and archeological discoveries; Natuerliche Radioisotope. Die ''Atomuhr'' fuer die Bestimmung des absoluten Alters von Gesteinen und archaeologischen Funden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiometric age determination based on natural radionuclides. Organic (carbon containing) materials can be dated up to an age of 60.000 years using C-14. The methods used for radiometric dating of rocks and minerals include the radioactive decay series of U-238, U-235, Th -232, but also the beta decay of Rb-87 to Sr-87 or K-40 to Ar-40. The absolute age of rocks is not necessarily identical with the radiometric dating result, since geological processes could influence the radionuclide ratio.

  18. Fixed-point tile sets and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Bruno; Shen, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An aperiodic tile set was first constructed by R. Berger while proving the undecidability of the domino problem. It turned out that aperiodic tile sets appear in many topics ranging from logic (the Entscheidungsproblem) to physics (quasicrystals). We present a new construction of an aperiodic tile set that is based on Kleene's fixed-point construction instead of geometric arguments. This construction is similar to J. von Neumann self-reproducing automata; similar ideas were also used by P. Gacs in the context of error-correcting computations. This construction it rather flexible, so it can be used in many ways: we show how it can be used to implement substitution rules, to construct strongly aperiodic tile sets (any tiling is far from any periodic tiling), to give a new proof for the undecidability of the domino problem and related results, characterize effectively closed 1D subshift it terms of 2D shifts of finite type (improvement of a result by M. Hochman), to construct a tile set which has only complex ti...

  19. Influence of Polymer Restraint on Ballistic Performanceof Alumina Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.S. Reddy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the influence of confinement ofalumina ceramic tiles through polymer restraint, on its ballistic performance. Tiles of 99.5 per centpurity alumina were subjected to ballistic impact against 7.62 mm armour piercing projectiles atvelocities of about 820 m/s. The tiles of size 75 mm x 75 mm x 7 mm were confined on both facesby effectively bonding varying numbers of layers of polymer fabrics. These were then bondedto a 10 mm thick fibre glass laminate as a backing using epoxy resin. High performance polyethyleneand aramid polymer fabrics were used in the current set of experiments for restraining the tiles.Comparative effects of confinement on energy absorption of tiles with varied number of layersof fabrics were evaluated. It was observed that by providing effective confinement to the tile,energy absorption could be doubled with increase in areal density by about 13 per cent.Photographs of the damage and the effects of restraint on improvement in energy absorptionof ceramic tiles are presented and discussed.

  20. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  1. Passive cooling of porous tile used on external wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆; 刘庆开; 夏煦

    2009-01-01

    The porous tiles under the dry and wet conditions were studied. The simplified mathematical model was put forward to simulate the procedure of moisture evaporating for the densely porous tile. The results show that the capability of passive cooling of the porous tile is more than 5 ℃ with moisture content of 30% in Yangtze river region. Through the comparison between the measuring and simulating data,it can be proved that the simplified math model can be fully used to the engineering application,which provides a reference to explore the thermal performance of other porous material.

  2. Modular Interactive Tiles for Rehabilitation – Evidence and Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2010-01-01

    We developed modular interactive tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We report on evidence for elderly training. We tested the modular interactive tiles for an extensive period of time (4...... years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients both in hospital, rehabilitation centre and in their private home. In all test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find...

  3. Monte Carlo estimation of the number of tatami tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the way Japanese tatami mats are placed on the floor, we consider domino tilings with a constraint and estimate the number of such tilings of plane regions. We map the system onto a monomer-dimer model with a novel local interaction on the dual lattice. We use a variant of the Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo method and the multi-parameter reweighting technique to study the model. The properties of the quantity are studied beyond exact enumeration and combinatorial method. The logarithm of the number of the tilings is linear in the boundary length of the region for all the regions studied.

  4. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  5. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  6. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  7. The Art of Space Filling in Penrose Tilings and Fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Le, San

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating designs into the tiles that form tessellations presents an interesting challenge for artists. Creating a viable MC Escher like image that works esthetically as well as functionally requires resolving incongruencies at a tile's edge while constrained by its shape. Escher was the most well known practitioner in this style of mathematical visualization, but there are significant mathematical shapes to which he never applied his artistry. These shapes can incorporate designs that form images as appealing as those produced by Escher, and our paper explores this for traditional tessellations, Penrose Tilings, fractals, and fractal/tessellation combinations. To illustrate the versatility of tiling art, images were created with multiple figures and negative space leading to patterns distinct from the work of others.

  8. REFINABLE DISTRIBUTIONS SUPPORTED ON SELF-AFFINE TILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaiXinrong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,some conditions which assure the compactly supported refinable distributions supported on a self-affine tile to be Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures or absolutely continuous measures with respect to Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures are given.

  9. Correlation and principal component analysis in ceramic tiles characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of ceramic wall and floor tiles on the basis of their quality parameters: breaking force, flexural strenght, absorption and shrinking. Principal component analysis was applied in order to detect potential similarities and dissimilarities among the analyzed tile samples, as well as the firing regimes. Correlation analysis was applied in order to find correlations among the studied quality parameters of the tiles. The obtained results indicate particular differences between the samples on the basis of the firing regimes. However, the correlation analysis points out that there is no statistically significant correlation among the quality parameters of the studied samples of the wall and floor ceramic tiles.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. III 45008

  10. Utilization of red mud in the manufacture of ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, N.F.; Shater, M.O. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Abadir, M.F.; Ibrahim, O.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Red mud, which is a pollutant residue from the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore, was utilized as an additive to a well blended mixture of three Egyptian clays, feldspar, quartz and grog. This was added in gradual proportions to study its effect on the vitrification properties of fired samples. Samples were moulded under a pressure of 20.7 MPa and fired at temperatures ranging from 950 C to 1100 C for soaking periods up to three hours. Compressive strength was determined as function of percent red mud added and firing temperature. A semi-exponential relation was established between strength and apparent porosity. 50 x 50 mm tiles containing 70% red mud addition and fired at 1100 C for one hour were tested. They were found to match the standards required for glazed wall tiles bodies. Tiles fired at 1100 C for 3 hours were compatible with the standards for glazed floor tiles. (orig.)

  11. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  12. Natural analogs in the host rock salt. Pt. 1. General study (2011). Pt. 2. Detail studies (2012-2013); Natuerliche Analoga im Wirtsgestein Salz. T. 1. Generelle Studie (2011). T. 2. Detailstudien (2012-2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasser, Thomas; Fahrenholz, Christine; Kull, Herbert; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Heike; Noseck, Ulrich; Schoenwiese, Dagmar; Wolf, Jens

    2014-12-15

    The first part of the project ISIBELII on natural analogs in the host rock salt included a summary of available studies on the topic to be used in a safety analysis for a final repository for heat generating radioactive waste. In 2012 the results of the preliminary safety analysis Gorleben was available, including results on the fracturing of anhydrite, the formation of cryogenic gaps and the influence of earthquakes. The requirements for the barrier system have been modified due to the safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes valid since 2010. For containers the functionality gas to be demonstrated for 500 years. The following issues are covered: natural analogs for the integrity demonstration of the geological barrier, natural analogs for the integrity demonstration of geotechnical barriers, natural analogs for the evaluation of release scenarios. The detail studies include anhydrite fracturing, salt grit compaction, chemical composition of fluid inclusions, thermal stability of salt rock, mechanical stability of salt rock, influence of earthquakes, qualified closures, iron corrosion, and microbial processes.

  13. Aerodynamic heat transfer to RSI tile surfaces and gap intersections. [Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunavant, J. C.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of aerothermal heating tests of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array, performed on the sidewall of a Mach-10 hypersonic tunnel. In particular, the heating characteristics of the tile array, such as they result from heating inside the tile-expansion-space providing gaps between individual tiles, are investigated. The results include the finding that heating on the upstream face of a tile is strongly affected by the interacting longitudinal gap flow.

  14. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Porcelain Tile Using Ultrasonics

    OpenAIRE

    KURAMA, Semra; Eren, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound affords a very useful and versatile non-destructive method, using a large application area, for evaluating the microstructure and mechanical properties of materials. In this study, porcelain tiles were sintered at different temperatures to change their porosity. Following this, the time of flight of both longitudinal and shear waves was measured through the tile. The time of flight of ultrasonic waves was measured using a contact ultrasonic transducer operating on a pulse-echo mode...

  15. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerdá Alberich, L., E-mail: lcerdaal@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010–2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  16. Ternary and senary representations using DNA double-crossover tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byeonghoon; Son, Junyoung; Kim, Junghoon; Hwang, Si Un; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Min Hyeok; Kim, Byung-Dong; Chang, Iksoo; Liu, Wing Kam; Kim, Moon Ki; Park, Sung Ha

    2016-01-01

    The information capacity of double-crossover (DX) tiles was successfully increased beyond a binary representation to higher base representations. By controlling the length and the position of DNA hairpins on the DX tile, ternary and senary (base-3 and base-6) digit representations were realized and verified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, normal mode analysis (NMA) was carried out to study the mechanical characteristics of each structure.

  17. Numerical optimization of tungsten monoblock tile in EAST divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiahua [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ding, Fang, E-mail: fding@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Mao, Hongmin; Luo, Guangnan; Hu, Zhenhua; Xu, Feng; Niu, Guojian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A method based on Kriging model and Uniform Design is developed and applied to the geometry optimization of EAST W tile. • An optimized chamfering geometry is obtained and significantly reduces the maximum temperature on W monoblock. • The incident angle of plasma flux has a strong impact on the optimized chamfering geometry. - Abstract: The ITER-like tungsten divertor with toroidally symmetric 1 mm × 1 mm chamfers on monoblock tiles has been installed in EAST in 2014. Hot spots were experimentally observed mostly along the toridial facing gaps between two columns of W/Cu monoblock units, which are often aggravated by installation misalignment. These hot spots can significantly degrade the power handling capability of W divertor and need to be alleviated. A numerical optimization model for tile chamfering design is built based on the finite element method (FEM), in which the numerical experiments are designed by the uniform table. The calculation results in ANSYS for these experiments are then processed employing the code Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments (DACE) in which the Kriging method is adopted to reconstruct a response surface. The optimum geometry can be derived from the minimum point on the surface. The results show that, under 200 MW/m{sup 2} parallel heat flux with an inclination angle of 3° with respect to tile surface, the maximum temperature on W tile with a 0.5 mm misalignment can be decreased to 2084 °C by adopting an optimized single-sided chamfer, 1.8 times lower than 1 mm × 1 mm symmetrically chamfered tile. The optimum chamfering geometry has a strong dependence on the inclination angle of plasma flux to tile surface. As a result, the monoblock tiles in a flat cassette module need to be chamfered differently to adapt to the varied inclination angles.

  18. Lacunae infills for in situ treatment of historic glazed tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marta T.; Esteves, Lurdes; Ferreira, Teresa A.; Candeias, António; Tennent, Norman H.; Rodrigues, José Delgado; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of current conservation materials and methods together with those adopted in the past is essential to aid research and improve or develop better conservation options. The infill and painting of tile lacunae are subjected to special requirements mainly when used in outdoor settings. A selection of the most commonly used materials was undertaken and performed based on inquiries to practitioners working in the field. The infill pastes comprised organic (epoxy, polyester), inorganic (slaked lime, hydraulic lime and zinc hydroxychloride) and mixed organic-inorganic (slaked lime mixed with a vinylic resin) binders. The selected aggregates were those most commonly used or those already present in the commercially formulated products. The infill pastes were characterised by SEM, MIP, open porosity, water absorption by capillarity, water vapour permeability, thermal and hydric expansibilities and adhesion to the ceramic body. Their performance was assessed after curing, artificial ageing (salt ageing and UV-Temp-RH cycles) and natural ageing. The results were interpreted in terms of their significance as indicators of effectiveness, compatibility and durability.

  19. Data Quality system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Nemecek, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. It is subdivided into a large central barrel and two smaller lateral extended barrels. Each barrel consists of 64 wedges, made of iron plates and scintillating tiles. Two edges of each scintillating tile are air-coupled to wave-length shifting fibres which collect the scintillating light and transmit it to photo-multipliers. The total number of channels is about 10000. An essential part of the TileCal detector is the Data Quality (DQ) system. The DQ system is designed to check the status of the electronic channels. It is designed to provide information at two levels - online and offline. The online TileCal DQ system monitors continuously the data while they are recorded and provides a fast feedback. The offline DQ system allows a detailed study, if needed it provides corrections to be applied to the recorded data and it allows to validate the data for physics analysis. In addition to the check of physics...

  20. Preparation and characterization of photo chromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atay, B.; Goktas, A.; Dogan, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photo catalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photo chromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photo chromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photo chromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 {mu}m was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photo chromic ceramic tiles with high photo chromic activity such as reversibly color change between {delta}E= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photo chromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (Author) 13 refs.

  1. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes of TileCal, requiring an automated system. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCa...

  2. Influence de la nature chimique et minéralogique des argiles et du processus de fabrication sur la qualité des carreaux céramiques Influence of chemical and mineralogical nature of clay and manufacturing process on the quality of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude correspond à une approche pluridisciplinaire menée en étroite collaboration entre des géologues, des chimistes et des industriels de la céramique. Les résultats confirment l’étroite relation existante entre la composition des argiles et la qualité du produit céramique final. Les briquettes obtenues, dans les mêmes conditions, à partir de deux argiles marocaines assez différentes du point de vue chimique et minéralogique, présentent des caractéristiques technologiques bien distinctes. l’utilisation d’adjuvants minéraux, bien sélectionnés, contribue à l’équilibrage des argiles brutes et conduit à une nette amélioration de la qualité du produit céramique, notamment une réduction de leur retrait à la cuisson et une augmentation de leur résistance à la flexion. Concernant l’effet du processus de fabrication, l’application de l’engobe et de l’émail, s’avère être à l’origine de bombement des carreaux lors de la cuisson, en raison vraisemblablement de la différence des coefficients de dilatation des deux milieux argile et émail. This study is conducted in a multidisciplinary collaboration between geologists, chemists and industrial ceramics. The results confirm the close ralatioship existing between the composition of clays and quality of the finished ceramic pieces. The obtained specimens, under the same conditions, from two moroccan clays that are different on the chimico-mineralogical point of view, present distinct technological characteristics. The use of well selected mineral adjuvants, contributes to the balancing of raw clays and leads to a marked improvement in the quality of the ceramic product, including a reduction on their firing shrinkage and an increase of flexural strength. Concerning the effect of the manufacturing process, the application of the glaze, turns out to be the cause of bulging tiles during firing, probably because of the difference in thermal

  3. 天然岩沥青对沥青路用性能的影响研究%Research on Influences of Natural Rock Asphalt on Road Performances of Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓光; 金年生; 林立; 杨真子

    2015-01-01

    采用布敦岩沥青及国产青川岩沥青分别对基质沥青进行改性,应用动态剪切流变试验、低温弯曲梁流变试验及旋转薄膜老化试验,全面研究岩沥青类型及掺量对沥青的高温流变性能、低温流变性能和抗老化性等路用性能的影响。试验结果表明:岩沥青的掺加对基质沥青的路用性能具有良好的改善作用;对于不同类型岩沥青,沥青的高温流变性能均随着岩沥青掺量的不断增大而不断改善,低温流变性能则略有降低,抗老化性能不断增强;在相同岩沥青掺量条件下,国产青川岩沥青对沥青的高温性能、低温性能及抗老化性能等路用性能的改善效果均优于布敦岩沥青。%This paper modifies matrix asphalt by means of Buton Rock Asphalt and domestic Qingchuan natural rock asphalt,respectively,and thoroughly searches the influences of types and proportions of rock asphalt on road performances such as high -temperature rheological property, low -temperature rheological property and aging resistance,etc.by means of dynamic shear rheometer test,low -temperature bending beam rheological test and rotating thin film aging test.The test results show that mixture of rock asphalt can well improve road performance of matrix asphalt;for different types of rock asphalt,the high -temperature rheological property of asphalt is continuously improved with continuous increase of proportion of rock asphalt,while the low -temperature rheological property slightly decrease, and the aging resistance enhances continuously;under the condition of the same proportion of rock asphalt,domestic Qingchuan rock asphalt exhibits effect of improvement for road performance including high -temperature property,low -temperature property and aging resistance,etc.superior to Buton Rock Asphalt.

  4. Implementation of Trigger Tiles for ALFA Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rehaag, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) experiment was designed to accurately measure the luminosity of the intersecting proton beams at the ATLAS interaction point [1]. However, the ALFA experiment has shifted its primary purpose from luminosity measurement to elastic and inelastic proton collisions. This change was the result of difficulty in fitting parameters in the region governed by Coulomb scattering. The operational principle for luminosity measurement with ALFA relied on detecting elastic proton collisions, so the detector is suited to its role in proton collision measurements. The ALFA detector consists of several sensitive components, including the main detector (MD), overlap detectors (ODs) and trigger tiles. A diagram of the ALFA detector is shown in Figure 1. The main detector is composed of layers of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 cross section scintillating fibres with an active area of 0.48 × 0.48 mm2, which are directed diagonally across the detector with 64 fibres in each layer. The 20 total layers ar...

  5. Programmable disorder in random DNA tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-03-01

    Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network—random loops, mazes and trees—on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution. Using simple molecular building blocks and robust experimental conditions, we demonstrate control of a wide range of properties of the random networks, including the branching rules, the growth directions, the proximity between adjacent networks and the size distribution. Much as combinatorial approaches for generating random one-dimensional chains of polymers have been used to revolutionize chemical synthesis and the selection of functional nucleic acids, our strategy extends these principles to random two-dimensional networks of molecules and creates new opportunities for fabricating more complex molecular devices that are organized by DNA nanostructures.

  6. Dawsonite and other carbonate veins in the Cretaceous Izumi Group, SW Japan: a natural support for fracture self-sealing in mud-stone cap-rock in CGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi [Institute for Geo-Resources and environment, GSJ, AISI, 1-1-1 Higashi, Central 7, Tsukuba, ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Take, Shuji [Kishiwada Nature Club, c/o Kishiwada City Natural History Museum, Sakai-Machi 5-6, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0072 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Dawsonite-bearing carbonate veins are abundant in a compact mud-stone layer of the lower part of the Izumi Group, SW Japan. The mode of occurrence of the veins probably indicates fracturing and mineral sealing associated with upwelling of CO{sub 2}-rich fluid evolved in the reservoir beneath. The carbonate veins studied here can be a natural support to fracturing and healing of mud-stone cap-rock in the CO{sub 2} geological storage. (authors)

  7. The mineralogy and chemistry of the German and Portuguese tiles used to face a historic building in the Amazon region and their natural susceptibility to tropical weathering Mineralogia e química de azulejos Alemães e Portugueses de prédios históricos na região Amazônica e sua susceptibilidade natural à degradação tropical (intemperismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes L. da Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, the most prominent buildings of the city of Belém were faced entirely with tiles manufactured in Portugal and Germany, which now exhibit distinct degrees of degradation. The Pinho mansion is one of the most important of these buildings and was selected for the investigation of the action of the tropical Amazonian climate on the degradation of the tiles. To achieve this objective, the tiles were mapped for organic and inorganic degradation, and samples were collected for analysis. The minerals were determined by XRD, the chemical composition by classical wet methods and SEM/EDS, and the microorganisms under the microscope. The results show that the German and Portuguese tiles are quite different in their composition. While both ceramic bodies are composed of SiO2 and Al2O3, CaO was found only in the Portuguese tile. The low Na2O and K2O contents indicate the addition of materials to reduce the fusion temperature. SiO2 and PbO are the main constituents of the glaze, with CoO and FeO being added as pigment. The ceramic body of the German tiles is constituted of quartz, mullite, and cristobalite, in contrast with the Portuguese tiles, which are made of quartz, gehlenite, diopside, calcite, and feldspars. The glazes are XRD-amorphous. The chemical and mineralogical differences between the German and Portuguese tiles indicate that they were produced from different raw materials under distinct thermal processes. The most prominent weathering-related modifications are the thin layers (German tiles, oxidation stains, dark stains, the detachment of the tile (Portuguese tiles, loss of the glaze and powdering of the ceramic body (Portuguese tiles through the establishment of Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta.. The distinct degradation patterns of the tiles exposed to the tropical Amazon climate are a consequence of their distinct mineralogy and chemistry.As proeminentes edificações da cidade de Belém foram revestidas durante o s

  8. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  9. Treatment with Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Increases the Proinvasive Nature of SW620 Cells on 3D Collagen Type 1 Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vishnubhotla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using tissue density as a mechanism to diagnose a tumor has been around for centuries. However, this concept has not been sufficiently explored in a laboratory setting. Therefore, in this paper, we observed the effects of cell density and extracellular matrix (ECM density on colon cancer invasion and proliferation using SW620 cells. We also attempted to inhibit ROCK-I to determine its effect on cell invasion and proliferation using standard molecular biology techniques and advanced imaging. Increasing cell seeding density resulted in a 2-fold increase in cell invasion as well as cell proliferation independent of treatment with Y-27632. Increasing collagen I scaffold density resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in cell proliferation while treatment with Y-27632 attenuated this effect although 1.5 fold increase in cell invasion was observed in ROCK inhibited samples. Intriguingly, ROCK inhibition also resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in cell invasion within 3D collagen scaffolds for cells seeded at lower densities. We show in this paper that ROCK-I inhibition leads to increased invasion within 3D collagen I microenvironments. This data suggests that although ROCK inhibitors have been used clinically to treat several medical conditions, its effect largely depends on the surrounding microenvironment.

  10. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David

    1988-01-01

    Comparative lab spectra and Thematic Mapper imagery investigations at 3 Tertiary calderas in southern Nevada indicate that desert varnish is absorbant relative to underlying host rocks below about 0.7 to 1.3 microns, depending on mafic affinity of the sample, but less absorbant than mafic host rocks at higher wavelengths. Desert varnish occurs chiefly as thin impregnating films. Distribution of significant varnish accumulations is sparse and localized, occurring chiefly in surface recesses. These relationships result in the longer wavelength bands and high 5/2 values over felsic units with extensive desert varnish coatings. These lithologic, petrochemical, and desert varnish controlled spectral responses lead to characteristic TM band relationships which tend to correlate with conventionally mappable geologic formations. The concept of a Rock-Varnish Index (RVI) is introduced to help distinguish rocks with a potentially detectable varnish. Felsic rocks have a high RVI, and those with extensive desert varnish behave differently, spectrally, from those without extensive varnish. The spectrally distinctive volcanic formations at Stonewall Mountain provide excellent statistical class segregation on supervised classification images. A binary decision rule flow-diagram is presented to aid TM imagery analysis over volcanic terrane in semi-arid environments.

  11. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  12. "DEAR ROCK, WHAT'S YOUR DESTINY? Ancient and modern uses of rocks in industry, building and art."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The project is for students of first grade of secondary school. The activity is a game, virtual or real of associations between rock and soil samples with their uses in industry, building and art. The students, alone or in a team, have to form pairs having available various samples of rocks, soils and building materials as bags of cement, tiles.. They have images of colonnades, staircases of famous churches, cave paintings and colors. The project is multidisciplinary. During the activity, the teachers of art and technical education are involved with and the teacher of sciences. The game can be used as an introduction for the rocks' classification. The inquiry in team, is a good way to learn the several uses of mineral resources.

  13. 近红外光谱对天然岩石中矿物成分含量测定的研究%The research of determining the content of mineral composition in natural rock by near-infrared spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪达峰

    2014-01-01

    It is important to use scientific and efficient method to detect the content of mineral composition in natural rock for the ratio-nal use of mineral.In this paper,near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometer is used to obtain the near infrared diffuse reflection spectrum information of the simulate natural rock samples mixed by the rock powder of kaolin,white mica and montmorillonite.Standard normalization method is employed to pre-process the spectral data,Random forests is also adopted to establish mathematical model. The predictions of minimum root mean square error of the 3 kinds of rock composition are:0.0880,0.0956 and 0.1212.The experimental results show that to determine the content of various mineral composition in natural rock by near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrum is feasible,which provides theory basis for the rapid detection of rock components in the future.%使用科学而高效的方法检测天然岩石中矿物成分对于矿物的合理利用有重要的影响。文章使用近红外漫反射光谱仪获取由高岭土、白云母和蒙脱石3种岩石矿物粉末混合成的模拟天然岩石样本的近红外漫反射光谱信息,通过标准归一化的方法对光谱数据进行预处理,采用随机森林进行数学建模,对岩石样本的组成成分进行预测,预测得到3种岩石成分最小均方根误差分别为:0.0880,0.0956,0.1212。实验结果表明应用近红外漫反射光谱来测定天然岩石中各种矿物成分的含量是可行的,为今后岩石成分的快速检测提供了理论依据。

  14. Role of igneous rocks in the development of the gas outburst-prone nature of the black coal seams in the Mecsek area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemedi Varga, Z.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the rank and structural conditions of coal seams the role of volcanic dykes is primordial from the point of view of the development of gas outburst of coal seams. The Mesco-Cenozoic volcanism of the Mecsek Mountains (South Transdanubia) is reviewed including the areal distribution of volcanics. The rock types and their frequency of occurrence are described with special emphasis to the contact metamorphism produced by the interaction of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The possibilities of gas migration as a function of the tectonic conditions are outlined exemplified by the Komlo region most famous for its gas outburst events.

  15. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  16. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  17. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  18. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  19. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  20. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  1. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter DCS for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pedro Martins, Filipe Manuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    TileCal is one of the ATLAS subdetectors operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is taking data since 2010. Seventy thousand (70000) parameters are used for control and monitoring purposes, requiring an automated system. The Detector Control System (DCS) was developed to ensure the coherent and safe operation of the whole ATLAS detector. The TileCal DCS is mainly responsible for the control and monitoring of the high and low voltage systems but it also supervises the detector infrastructure (cooling and racks), calibration systems, data acquisition and safety. During the first period of data taking (Run 1, 2010-12) the TileCal DCS allowed a smooth detector operation and should continue to do so for the second period (Run 2) that started in 2015. The TileCal DCS was updated in order to cope with the hardware and software requirements for Run 2 operation. These updates followed the general ATLAS guidelines on the software and hardware upgrade but also the new requirements from the TileCal detector. ...

  2. Picturing the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  3. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  4. Consolidation and upgrades of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation of the status of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the EYETS and before starting 2017 data-taking. Updates on the upgrade of the readout system such as doubling the RODs output links and the number of processing units (PUs) are being worked on at the moment as well as items concerning the maintenance of the detector which involves issues such as cooling leaks and consolidation of the Low Voltage Power Supplies, which are being replaced if necessary. Other updates include works on the Tile calibration, in particular on the Cesium system. In addition, the whole Tile readout electronics is being replaced for Phase-II and it is being tested in Test Beam area.

  5. Interlaced particle systems and tilings of the Aztec diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Benjamin J

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of domino tilings of the Aztec diamond, a weighted particle system is defined on $N$ lines, with line $j$ containing $j$ particles. The particles are restricted to lattice points from 0 to $N$, and particles on successive lines are subject to an interlacing constraint. It is shown that marginal distributions for this particle system can be computed exactly. This in turn is used to give unified derivations of a number of fundamental properties of the tiling problem, for example the evaluation of the number of distinct configurations and the relation to the GUE minor process. An interlaced particle system associated with the domino tiling of a certain half Aztec diamond is similarly defined and analyzed.

  6. Monte Carlo estimation of the number of tatami tilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenji; Higuchi, Saburo

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the way Japanese tatami mats are placed on the floor, we consider domino tilings with a constraint and estimate the number of such tilings of plane regions. We map the system onto a monomer-dimer model with a novel local interaction on the dual lattice. We make use of a variant of the Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo method where data for ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic models are combined to make a single family of histograms. The properties of the density of states is studied beyond exact enumeration and combinatorial methods. The logarithm of the number of the tilings is linear in the boundary length of the region for all the regions studied.

  7. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  8. Web system to support analysis of the Tile Calorimeter commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidantchik, C.; Faria, A.; Grael, F. F.; Ferreira, F. G.; Galvão, K. K.; Dotti, A.; Solans, C.; Price, L.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the set of computer systems that support the data analysis and quality control during the Tile Calorimeter commissioning phase. The Tile Commissioning Web System (TCWS) encapsulates the steps to retrieve information, execute programs, access the outcomes, register statements and verify the equipment status. TCWS integrates different applications, each one presenting a particular view of the commissioning process. The TileComm Analysis stores plots and analysis results, provides equipment-oriented visualization, collects information regarding the equipment performance, and outlines its status in each test. The Timeline application provides the equipment status history in a chronological way. The Web Interface for Shifters supports monitoring tasks by managing test parameters, graphical views of the detector's performance, and information status of all equipment that was used in each test. The DCS Web System provides a standard way to verify the behaviour of power sources and the cooling system.

  9. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Piva, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles.

  10. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Reflection Imaging of Acoustic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kilcullen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brewster angle reflection imaging apparatus is demonstrated which is capable of detecting hidden water-filled voids in a rubber tile sample. This imaging application simulates a real-world hull inspection problem for Royal Canadian Navy Victoria-class submarines. The tile samples represent a challenging imaging application due to their large refractive index and absorption coefficient. With a rubber transmission window at approximately 80 GHz, terahertz (THz sensing methods have shown promise for probing these structures in the laboratory. Operating at Brewster’s angle allows for the typically strong front surface reflection to be minimized while also conveniently making the method insensitive to air-filled voids. Using a broadband THz time-domain waveform imaging system (THz-TDS, we demonstrate satisfactory imaging and detection of water-filled voids without complicated signal processing. Optical properties of the tile samples at low THz frequencies are also reported.

  11. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  13. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  14. Efficient oligonucleotide probe selection for pan-genomic tiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization is a fast and cost-effective method for detecting, genotyping, and comparing the genomic sequence of unknown bacterial isolates. This method, as with all microarray applications, requires adequate coverage of probes targeting the regions of interest. An unbiased tiling of probes across the entire length of the genome is the most flexible design approach. However, such a whole-genome tiling requires that the genome sequence is known in advance. For the accurate analysis of uncharacterized bacteria, an array must query a fully representative set of sequences from the species' pan-genome. Prior microarrays have included only a single strain per array or the conserved sequences of gene families. These arrays omit potentially important genes and sequence variants from the pan-genome. Results This paper presents a new probe selection algorithm (PanArray that can tile multiple whole genomes using a minimal number of probes. Unlike arrays built on clustered gene families, PanArray uses an unbiased, probe-centric approach that does not rely on annotations, gene clustering, or multi-alignments. Instead, probes are evenly tiled across all sequences of the pan-genome at a consistent level of coverage. To minimize the required number of probes, probes conserved across multiple strains in the pan-genome are selected first, and additional probes are used only where necessary to span polymorphic regions of the genome. The viability of the algorithm is demonstrated by array designs for seven different bacterial pan-genomes and, in particular, the design of a 385,000 probe array that fully tiles the genomes of 20 different Listeria monocytogenes strains with overlapping probes at greater than twofold coverage. Conclusion PanArray is an oligonucleotide probe selection algorithm for tiling multiple genome sequences using a minimal number of probes. It is capable of fully tiling all genomes of a species on

  15. High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

  16. Tile Calorimete Pre-Assembly Summary and Barrel Assembly Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Proudfoot, J; Liablin, M V; Topilin, N D

    2004-01-01

    The barrel survey results from the pre-assembly in Building 185 are reviewed. From these and the models developed to calculate the cylinder geometry we propose a minimal modification to the shimming plan for the barrel calorimeter assembly in the Atlas cavern. At the precision of this calculation, we expect the tile calorimeter to be almost entirely within it design envelope. The focus of this note is the radial envelope. Based on the pre-assembly experience the tile calorimeter will fit comfortably within its envelope along the beam line.

  17. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  18. 40Ar* loss in experimentally deformed muscovite and biotite with implications for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, M.; Stunitz, H.; Bourgeix, A.-L.; Lee, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of deformation on radiogenic argon (40Ar*) retentivity in mica are described from high pressure experiments performed on rock samples of peraluminous granite containing euhedral muscovite and biotite. Cylindrical cores, ???15mm in length and 6.25mm in diameter, were drilled from granite collected from the South Armorican Massif in northwestern France, loaded into gold capsules, and weld-sealed in the presence of excess water. The samples were deformed at a pressure of 10kb and a temperature of 600??C over a period 29 of hours within a solid medium assembly in a Griggs-type triaxial hydraulic deformation apparatus. Overall shortening in the experiments was approximately 10%. Transmitted light and secondary and backscattered electron imaging of the deformed granite samples reveals evidence of induced defects and for significant physical grain size reduction by kinking, cracking, and grain segmentation of the micas.Infrared (IR) laser (CO2) heating of individual 1.5-2.5mm diameter grains of muscovite and biotite separated from the undeformed granite yield well-defined 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 311??2Ma (2??). Identical experiments on single grains separated from the experimentally deformed granite yield results indicating 40Ar* loss of 0-35% in muscovite and 2-3% 40Ar* loss in biotite. Intragrain in situ ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages (??4-10%, 1??) of deformed muscovites range from 309??13 to 264??7Ma, consistent with 0-16% 40Ar* loss relative to the undeformed muscovite. The in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages of deformed biotite vary from 301 to 217Ma, consistent with up to 32% 40Ar* loss. No spatial correlation is observed between in situ 40Ar/39Ar age and position within individual grains. Using available argon diffusion data for muscovite the observed 40Ar* loss in the experimentally treated muscovite can be utilized to predict average 40Ar* diffusion dimensions. Maximum 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained by UV laser ablation overlap those

  19. Motion of rock masses on slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the different ways of how rock masses (stones, rocks, and blocks move along slopes and for each different way of motion (free fall, bouncing, rolling, sliding, slowing down, lubrication, fluidizationadequatedynamicequationsaregiven.Knowingthe kinematics and dynamics of travelling rock masses is necessary for mathematical modeling of motion and by this an assessment of maximal possible rockfall runout distances as an example of a sudden and hazardeous natural phenomenon, threatening man and his property, especially in the natural environment.

  20. Tritium profiles in tiles from the first wall of fusion machines and techniques for their detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzhorn, R.-D.; Bekris, N.; Hellriegel, W.; Noppel, H.-E.; Naegele, W.; Ziegler, H.; Rolli, R.; Werle, H.; Haigh, A.; Peacock, A

    2000-06-01

    Tritium profiles on a TFTR graphite tile exposed to D-D plasmas and a JET graphite tile from the first tritium campaigns were examined by full combustion, thermogravimetry and thermal desorption. Combustion measurements revealed that >98.9% of the tritium is trapped in a layer <50 {mu}m thick, the remainder being spread throughout the tile. The tritium distribution on the tile surface is not homogeneous. A significant fraction resides in the gaps between tiles. Graphite disks from the plasma-exposed side of JET tiles heated up to 1100 deg. C under a helium stream containing 0.1% hydrogen showed the highest tritium release rate at {approx}850 deg. C. The agreement between tritium measurements by full combustion and thermal release was reasonably good. Tritium on graphite tiles was released to >95% under a stream of moist air at about 400 deg. C. A large fraction of tritium can be removed from the tile surface with adhesive tape.

  1. Automatic Defect Detection and Classification Technique from Image: A Special Case Using Ceramic Tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, G M Atiqur

    2009-01-01

    Quality control is an important issue in the ceramic tile industry. On the other hand maintaining the rate of production with respect to time is also a major issue in ceramic tile manufacturing. Again, price of ceramic tiles also depends on purity of texture, accuracy of color, shape etc. Considering this criteria, an automated defect detection and classification technique has been proposed in this report that can have ensured the better quality of tiles in manufacturing process as well as production rate. Our proposed method plays an important role in ceramic tiles industries to detect the defects and to control the quality of ceramic tiles. This automated classification method helps us to acquire knowledge about the pattern of defect within a very short period of time and also to decide about the recovery process so that the defected tiles may not be mixed with the fresh tiles.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 19. Leaching Characteristics of Composited Materials from Mine Waste-Rock Piles and Naturally Altered Areas near Questa, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Sutley, Stephen J.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Livo, K. Eric; Verplanck, Philip L.; Adams, Monique G.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to compare and contrast the leachability of metals and the acidity from individual mine waste-rock piles and natural erosional scars in the study area near Questa, New Mexico. Surficial multi-increment (composite) samples less than 2 millimeters in diameter from five waste-rock piles, nine erosional-scar areas, a less-altered site, and a tailings slurry-pipe sample were analyzed for bulk chemistry and mineralogy and subjected to two back-to-back leaching procedures. The first leaching procedure, the U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test (FLT), is a short-duration leach (5-minute shaking and 10-minute settling) and is intended to leach readily soluble materials. The FLT was immediately followed by an 18-hour, end-over-end rotation leaching procedure. Comparison of results from the back-to-back leaching procedures can provide information about reactions that may take place upon migration of leachates through changing geochemical conditions (for example, pH changes), both within the waste-rock and scar materials and away from the source materials. For the scar leachates, the concentrations of leachable metals varied substantially between the scar areas sampled. The scar leachates have low pH (pH 3.2-4.1). Under these low-pH conditions, cationic metals are solubilized and mobile, but anionic species, such as molybdenum, are less soluble and less mobile. Generally, metal concentrations in the waste-rock leachates did not exceed the upper range of those metal concentrations in the erosional-scar leachates. One exception is molybdenum, which is notably higher in the waste-rock leachates compared with the scar leachates. Most of the waste-rock leachates were at least mildly acidic (pH 3.0-6.2). The pH values in the waste-rock leachates span a large pH range that includes some pH-dependent solubility and metal-attenuation reactions. An increase in pH with leaching time and agitation indicates that there is pH-buffering capacity in some of the

  3. Comparison of greenhouse and {sup 32}P isotopic laboratory methods for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified rock phosphates in some acid soils of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Bennoah, E. [Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: F.Zapata@iaea.org; Fardeau, J.C. [Departement Environnement et Agronomie, INRA, Versailles (France)

    2002-05-15

    Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major constraints for normal plant growth and crop yields in the acid soils of Ghana and therefore addition of P inputs is required for sustainable crop production. This is often difficult, if not impossible for small-scale farmers due to the high cost of mineral P fertilizers and limited access to fertilizer supplies. Direct application of finely ground phosphate rocks (PRs) and their modified forms have been recommended as alternatives for P fertilization. The direct application of the natural and modified PRs to these acid soils implies the need to predict their agronomic effectiveness of the PRs in the simplest and most cost-effective manner. In this study the classical greenhouse pot experiment was compared to the {sup 32}P isotopic kinetics laboratory method for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified Togo PR in six highly weathered Oxisols from southwest Ghana. In the {sup 32}P isotopic kinetics laboratory experiment the six soil samples were each fertilised at the rate of 50 mg P kg{sup -1} soil in the form of triple superphosphate (TSP), Togo PAPR-50%, and Togo PR, respectively. Controls without P amendment were also included. Isotopic exchange kinetics experiments were carried out on two sets of samples, immediately after P fertilizer additions (without incubation) and after 6 weeks of incubation under wet conditions and at a room temperature of 25 deg C. In the greenhouse pot experiment, P fertilizers in the form of Togo PR, Togo PAPR, Mali PR and TSP were each applied to the six soils at rates equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 120 kg P ha{sup -1}, respectively. The P fertilizers were mixed with the soils and maize (Zea mays L.) variety Obatanpa was grown for 42 days before harvest. The isotopic kinetics data of the control samples indicated that 5 of the studied soils had very low P fertility status as reflected by their low P concentrations in solution (C{sub P}<0.02 mg P l{sup -1}) and low

  4. Development Of An Improved Concrete Roman Tile Alternative Roofing System Using Waste Raw Materials Paper amp Saw Dust As Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since the early civilizations in China Neolithic and the Middle East humans have recognized the dual desirable roles of clay tiles as roofing material which remain valid today - First it was an effective means to shed water from buildings and secondly it reduced the spread of fire. The Standard Double Roman tile SDRT was the first roof tile to be mass produced in South Africa. The Double Roman can trace its shape back to Roman engineering principles where it was discovered that arches have an ability to withstand greater pressures as the arch distributes the weight more evenly down to the base of the structure. However after the initial introduction of the concrete tile to Nigerian roofing market architects began to express displeasure with its unusually heavier weight than other competing roofing materials. Suggestions were made to original manufacturers for product improvement by reducing the overall product weight. Concrete tiles are composite materials made from mixture of Portland cement sharp sand smooth sand and natural fibre. Bolyn Industries 7 has established that a mix ratio by volume of 1cement112sharp sand112smooth sand with some fibre makes a good concrete tile product. The sharp sand provides strength while smooth sand provides smoothness to the concrete surface. This study seeks to improve the current Double Roman product by reducing its overall product weight which is currently at about 5.0 kg to about 4.0 kg. Going by the previous experience with Polycrete invention 2 it is hereby conceived that replacement of smooth sand with lighter waste materials such as paper or saw dust in the concrete tile constituents may achieve the desired product weight reduction. The study investigates the most economic mix ratio of the concrete tile constituents to achieve the desirable engineering properties of light weight strength durability water tightness and rust-proofness. Results with preliminary mix trials indicate that replacement

  5. The nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, J. V.; Noble, D. D.; Hsu, L. C.; Hutsinpiller, A.

    1986-01-01

    Four LANDSAT thematic mapping scenes in southern Nevada were requested at two different acquisition times in order to assess the effect of vegetation on the signature of the volcanic units. The remote sensing data acquisition and analysis portion are nearly completed. The LANDSAT thematic mapping data is of good quality, and image analysis techniques are so far successful in delineating areas with distinct spectral characteristics. Spectrally distinct areas were correlated with variations in surface coating and lithologies of the volcanic rocks.

  6. Nature and origin of secondary mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David M.; Chenevey, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) genetic, spectral, and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery relationship between desert varnish and tertiary volcanic host rocks, southern Nevada; (2) reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada, using multispectral thermal infrared imagery; (3) interregional comparisons of desert varnish; and (4) airborne scanner (GERIS) imagery of the Kane Springs Wash Volcanic Center, Lincoln County, Nevada.

  7. Optimization of the uniformity of light yield from scintillator tiles read out directly by silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Danilov, M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Mironov, D., E-mail: dima.mironov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskiy, E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The scintillator tiles with direct readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been studied. The SiPM is placed inside the dimple machined in the center of the big face of 30×30×3 mm{sup 3} tile. The different dimple geometries were studied. The tiles with the optimal dimple design show the uniformity of response comparable to the tiles with fiber readout. The direct-readout approach provides a reasonable way for the construction of supermultichannel calorimeters.

  8. Automatic Defect Detection and Classification Technique from Image: A Special Case Using Ceramic Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, G. M. Atiqur; Hossain, Md. Mobarak

    2009-01-01

    Quality control is an important issue in the ceramic tile industry. On the other hand maintaining the rate of production with respect to time is also a major issue in ceramic tile manufacturing. Again, price of ceramic tiles also depends on purity of texture, accuracy of color, shape etc. Considering this criteria, an automated defect detection and classification technique has been proposed in this report that can have ensured the better quality of tiles in manufacturing process as well as pr...

  9. Bulk Universality for Random Lozenge Tilings Near Straight Boundaries and for Tensor Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    We prove that the asymptotic of the bulk local statistics in models of random lozenge tilings is universal in the vicinity of straight boundaries of the tiled domains. The result applies to uniformly random lozenge tilings of large polygonal domains on triangular lattice and to the probability measures describing the decomposition in Gelfand-Tsetlin bases of tensor products of representations of unitary groups. In a weaker form our theorem also applies to random domino tilings.

  10. Path-dependency and path-making in the energy system in the spanish ceramic tile cluster; La evolucion energetica del sector espanol de baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Mallol, G.; Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyses how energy consumption and energy efficiency evolved in the Spanish ceramic tile industry in the 20th century and explores the emerging possibilities in the 21st century. In the last century, the tile industry undertook three radical transitions by switching from traditional biomass fuels to liquid hydrocarbon fuels (fuel oil and gas oil), and subsequently to gas fuels, mainly involving natural gas. Although it is difficult to obtain the information that enable the real energy efficiency in manufacturing plants to be reliably evaluated, the available data indicate that a high degree of efficiency has been achieved with current manufacturing technologies. Consequently, significant developments in this sense are not expected, even though efforts are still being made to reduce energy consumption in the production process. However, environmental regulations and impacts, and the emerging new energy sources based on agricultural biomass could open up new avenues for energy supply in the Spanish ceramic tile cluster. (Author)

  11. On eaves tiles adornment of ancient building in south of Yunnan%滇南古建瓦当装饰文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇坚

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the origins and development of eaves tiles adornment in the south of Yunnan ancient building, illustrates the types and distribution of the eaves tiles adornment, analyzes the implied meanings of those tiles with lines of long lifespan, animal life, plants and abstract patterns, and proves the historical traces of harmonious development between human being and nature at the area.%介绍了滇南古建瓦当的起源与发展历程,对瓦当装饰的类型及分布地点进行了阐述,分析了寿字纹瓦当、虫兽纹瓦当、植物纹瓦当及抽象纹瓦当的图案寓意,见证了古滇南地区人与自然和谐发展的历史轨迹。

  12. Construction of the discrete hull for the combinatorics of a regular pentagonal tiling of the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The article A “regular” pentagonal tiling of the plane by P. L. Bowers and K. Stephenson, Conform. Geom. Dyn. 1, 58–86, 1997, defines a conformal pentagonal tiling. This is a tiling of the plane with remarkable combinatorial and geometric properties. However, it doesn’t have finite local complexi...

  13. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  14. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  15. US National Grid - Minnesota 1000 meter Tile

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The United States National Grid (USNG) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric referencing system derived from the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) that is being...

  16. Arctic circles, domino tilings and square Young tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Romik, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The arctic circle theorem of Jockusch, Propp, and Shor asserts that uniformly random domino tilings of an Aztec diamond of high order are frozen with asymptotically high probability outside the "arctic circle" inscribed within the diamond. A similar arctic circle phenomenon has been observed in the limiting behavior of random square Young tableaux. In this paper, we show that random domino tilings of the Aztec diamond are asymptotically related to random square Young tableaux in a more refined sense that looks also at the behavior inside the arctic circle. This is done by giving a new derivation of the limiting shape of the height function of a random domino tiling of the Aztec diamond that uses the large-deviation techniques developed for the square Young tableaux problem in a previous paper by Pittel and the author. The solution of the variational problem that arises for domino tilings is almost identical to the solution for the case of square Young tableaux by Pittel and the author. The analytic techniques...

  17. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter central barrel assembly and installation.

    CERN Multimedia

    nikolai topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  18. Granularity of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter studied through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Hernandez, Anabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A small study, done through simulations, of the energy resolution of ATLAS Tile Calorimeter dependence on granularity is presented. The results could indicate that finer granularity of the calorimeter gives better energy resolution, although it would require better statistics to be sure.

  19. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  20. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  1. Drainage water management effects on tile dicharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainage water management (DWM) has received considerable attention as a potential best management practice for improving water quality in tile drained landscapes. However, only a limited number of studies have documented the effectiveness of DWM in mitigating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. ...

  2. Phosphorus modeling in tile drained agricultural systems using APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus losses through tile drained systems in agricultural landscapes may be causing the persistent eutrophication problems observed in surface water. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the state of the science in the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model related to surf...

  3. Hardware Algorithms For Tile-Based Real-Time Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the GRAphics AcceLerator (GRAAL) framework for developing embedded tile-based rasterization hardware for mobile devices, meant to accelerate real-time 3-D graphics (OpenGL compliant) applications. The goal of the framework is a low-cost, low-power, high-performance

  4. Hardware Algorithms For Tile-Based Real-Time Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the GRAphics AcceLerator (GRAAL) framework for developing embedded tile-based rasterization hardware for mobile devices, meant to accelerate real-time 3-D graphics (OpenGL compliant) applications. The goal of the framework is a low-cost, low-power, high-performance d

  5. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  6. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  7. Composite definition features using the eastern ornament in ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper was asked a series of questions for the study of composition of the artistic shaping of ceramic tile with oriental ornaments and how to use in interior design. Particular attention is paid to individual elements of ornament and use them in areas such as kitchens, bathrooms, hookah area, cafe and more.

  8. Properties of Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Laterite Roof Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Omuya RAHEEM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of work on the possibility of using of Rice Husk Ash (RHA in the production of clay roof tiles. The pozzolana content of the ash was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF to confirm the key elements of RHA as a good pozzolanic material. The tiles were produced by moulding clay-RHA blends of various proportions of RHA used in wooden moulds. The percentages by weight of RHA added to various mixes were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% RHA and the tiles were fired at 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C in an electric furnace. The water absorption, density, permeability and Transverse Breaking Stress (TBS of the roof tile produced were tested using manual TBS testing apparatus and weighing balances. The relative trends of the properties tested were dependent on pozzolanic property of RHA and since the sum of the active pozzolanas - SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 present in the ash is 86.01% and meets 70% minimum recommend by ASTM C618-92a for Class F pozzolana. Most optimal results were obtained at 15% RHA and 900°C temperature for water absorption, density, permeability and Transverse Breaking Stress (TBS.

  9. Fragment and particle size distribution of impacted ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Weerheijm, J.; Ditzhuijzen, C.; Tuinman, I.

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation of ceramic tiles under ballistic impact has been studied. Fragments and aerosol (respirable) particles were collected and analyzed to determine the total surface area generated by fracturing (macro-cracking and comminution) of armor grade ceramics. The larger fragments were collect

  10. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  11. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  12. A Tiled-Table Convention for Compressing FITS Binary Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Pence, William; White, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    This document describes a convention for compressing FITS binary tables that is modeled after the FITS tiled-image compression method (White et al. 2009) that has been in use for about a decade. The input table is first optionally subdivided into tiles, each containing an equal number of rows, then every column of data within each tile is compressed and stored as a variable-length array of bytes in the output FITS binary table. All the header keywords from the input table are copied to the header of the output table and remain uncompressed for efficient access. The output compressed table contains the same number and order of columns as in the input uncompressed binary table. There is one row in the output table corresponding to each tile of rows in the input table. In principle, each column of data can be compressed using a different algorithm that is optimized for the type of data within that column, however in the prototype implementation described here, the gzip algorithm is used to compress every column.

  13. Analysis of failures of waterproofing cladding layers of terracotta tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koláčný Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on one of the most important roof cladding layers – the waterproofing cladding layer of terracotta tiles. Its detailed analysis covers the main waterproofing cladding layers in terms of their material characteristics and installation methods. The article concludes by formulating principles for the correct design of the main waterproofing layer/construction.

  14. Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

    2007-01-01

    Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the

  15. Evaluation of the cool-down behaviour of ITER FW beryllium tiles for an early failure detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the first wall in ITER foresees several hundred thousand beryllium tiles, which are bonded to the water-cooled CuCrZr supporting structure. Due to the nature of a Tokamak reactor this bonding is faced to thermal fatigue. Since the failure of a single tile might already have a major impact on the operability of ITER, comprehensive high heat flux tests are performed on prototypes prior to the acceptance of manufacturing procedures. For a deeper understanding of the temperature curves, which were and will be measured by IR devices of these first wall prototypes, thermo-mechanical FEM simulations shall demonstrate the possibilities of an early bonding failure detection. Hereby, the maximum temperatures for each cycle as well as the cool-down behaviour are the input data.

  16. Seismic shake table testing program for hollow clay tile wall evaluation at DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.; Stone, N.E. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Bennett, R.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    A seismic test facility located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been refurbished after shutdown since 1985. The facility shake table is being recertified in order to provide seismic testing capability to an extensive multi-year evaluation program of hollow clay tile walls in buildings at the DOE site in Oak Ridge. The program, directed by teh Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., the managing contractor for DOE in Oak Ridge, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the recertification efforts for the seismic test facility, and results of facility and specimen testing to data are discussed and plans for future testing are reviewed. Features and capabilities of the shake table are presented. The dynamic testing of masonry structures is reviewed, and a hollow clay tile wall testing program is projected based on the shake table capability. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  18. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: a synthesis of seismic experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot-Dry-Rock System; attenuation of high-frequency shear waves in the lithosphere; a new kinematic source model for deep volcanic tremors; ground motion in the near-field of a fluid-driven crack and its interpretation in the study of shallow volcanic tremor; low-velocity bodies under geothermal areas; and operation of event recorders in Mt. St. Helens and Newberry Peak with preliminary results from them. (MHR)

  19. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1981-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)

  20. A new read-out architecture for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will increase of order five to seven times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. TileCal will undergo an upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal read-out electronics will be redesigned introducing a new read-out strategy. The new TileCal read-out architecture is presented including a description of the main electronics modules and some preliminary results obtained with the first demonstrator system.

  1. Nature and Significance of Igneous Rocks Cored in the State 2-14 Research Borehole: Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Charles T.; Elders, Wilfred A.

    1988-11-01

    The State 2-14 research borehole of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project penetrated 3.22 km of Pleistocene to Recent sedimentary rocks in the Salton Sea geothermal system, located in the Salton Trough of southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico. In addition, three intervals of igneous rocks were recovered; a silicic tuff and two sills of altered diabase. The chemical composition of the silicic tuff at 1704 m depth suggests that it is correlative with the Durmid Hill tuff, cropping out 25 km NW of the geothermal system. In turn, both of these tuffs may be deposits of the Bishop Tuff, erupted from the Long Valley caldera of central California at 0.7 Ma. The diabases are similar to basaltic xenoliths found in the nearby Salton Buttes rhyolite domes. These diabase are interpreted as hypabyssal intrusions resulting from magmatism due to rifting of the Salton Trough as part of the East Pacific Rise/Gulf of California transtensional system. The sills apparently intruded an already developed geo-thermal system and were in turn altered by it.

  2. 天然岩石单轴压裂过程磁组构响应实验研究%A Laboratory Research on Magnetic Fabric Response of Natural Rock Samples in the Process of Uniaxial Compression to Rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何耀宇; 宋选民; 李斌; 李自红; 刘力强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,the authors select natural rock samples as research objects ,test and analyze the variation of rock magnetic fabrics at different pressures and its relationship with stress‐strain in laboratory .Meanwhile ,acoustic emission experiments are carried out to monitor the internal micro‐fracture events and deformation process of samples as the pressure increases . The results show that the response of magnetic fabrics on stress‐strain is obvious for igneous rock samples from Xiye rock mass ,in which magnetite is the main magnetic mineral .The responses mainly exhibit the slight enhancement of the degrees of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility PJ , significant increase of the shape factor T‐value and rapid rotation of susceptibility spindle ,w hich are essentially in agreement with the conclusions drawn from synthetic samples with magnetite as the main magnetic mineral .The results can provide reference and theoretical basis for the further study of the relationship between the magnetic structure and the stress‐strain in the rock and the interpretation of the magnetic structure .%首次以天然岩石样品为研究对象,对不同压力下岩石磁组构的变化特征及其与应力应变的关系进行了实验研究,监测了试件在压力不断增强的过程中内部微破裂事件及变形破坏过程。试验结果表明,以磁铁矿为主要载磁矿物的岩体(火成岩)样品,岩石磁组构对应力应变的响应较为明显,主要表现为在压力不断增强的过程中,磁化率各向异性度 PJ 的微弱增强,形状因子 T值明显升高,磁化率主轴的快速旋转。本结果与前人利用人工合成的磁铁矿为载磁矿物的样品得出的研究结论基本一致。本研究结果可为天然岩石磁组构变化与应力应变关系的深入研究及磁组构构造意义的解释提供理论依据。

  3. Rock damage caused by underground excavation and meteorite impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The intent of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the origin of fractures in rock. The man-made fracturing from engineering activities in crystalline rock as well as the fracturing induced by the natural process of meteorite impacts is studied by means of various characterization methods. In contrast to engineering induced rock fracturing, where the goal usually is to minimize rock damage, meteorite impacts cause abundant fracturing in the surrounding bedrock. In a rock mass ...

  4. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1979-09-01

    An interpretation theory based on the fluid-filled crack model of geothermal systems is being developed and tested against a variety of data from various geothermal areas. Progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) analysis and interpretation of seismic data obtained from the bore holes at the LASL Hot Dry Rock geothermal site. (2) Collection, analysis and interpretation of data on deep volcanic tremors at the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory. (3) Development of a new method for determining seismic attenuation at frequencies higher than 1HZ, and initiation of a cooperative work with Mexican seismologists on the attenuation measurements at various geothermal areas in Baja, California using the method. (4) Installation of 3-component digital event-recorders at four stations in the Newberry Peak volcano, Oregon. (5) Developing a computer program for calculating seismic motion generated by the vibration of fluid-filled crack in a layered medium.

  5. 40Ar* loss in experimentally deformed muscovite and biotite with implications for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael; Stunitz, Holger; Bourgiex, Anne-Lise; Lee, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of deformation on radiogenic argon (40Ar*) retentivity in mica are described from high pressure experiments performed on rock samples of peraluminous granite containing euhedral muscovite and biotite. Cylindrical cores, ~15 mm in length and 6.25 mm in diameter, were drilled from granite collected from the South Armorican Massif in northwestern France, loaded into gold capsules, and weld-sealed in the presence of excess water. The samples were deformed at a pressure of 10 kb and a temperature of 600 degrees C over a period 29 of hours within a solid medium assembly in a Griggs-type triaxial hydraulic deformation apparatus. Overall shortening in the experiments was approximately 10%. Transmitted light and secondary and backscattered electron imaging of the deformed granite samples reveals evidence of induced defects and for significant physical grain size reduction by kinking, cracking, and grain segmentation of the micas.

  6. Study on supporting technology for roadways of soft rock mass in natural caving method%自然崩落法采场软破围岩巷道支护技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明建; 单强; 严荣富

    2014-01-01

    As for the problem of intense roadway layout, long time existence, large mining influence and great maintenance difficulty in the mine with natural caving mining method, a comprehensive me-thod including field investigation, laboratory test,theoretical analysis, underground roadway test and deformation measurement has been used to analyze the deformation failure characteristics and support difficulties. With the guidance of confining pressure restored reinforcement theory, the active and pas-sive combined support system of the surrounding rock is put forward, and mudsill, roof-contacted filling and other enhanced support techniques are adopted. The industrial test shows that the roadway deforma-tion can be controlled within 80 mm after support provided. This proposes support technology can ef-fectively control the surround rock deformation in soft rock roadway, which ensures the safety and fea-sibility of natural caving method in soft rock.%针对自然崩落法采场巷道布置密集、存在时间长、采动影响大、维护难度大等特点,采用现场调研、室内试验、理论分析、井下巷道试验与变形实测等综合手段,分析软破围岩巷道变形破坏特征和支护难点。以围压恢复加固理论为指导,提出了被动和主动联合支护体系,采用增设底梁和提高充填接顶等全封闭强化支护措施。现场实施结果表明,巷道收敛量能够控制在80 mm以内,实现了对巷道围岩变形的有效控制,维护高应力环境软破围岩巷道的稳定性,为自然崩落法采矿奠定基础。

  7. Antagonistic perception of a rock-mass as geomorphosite and/or mineral resource with specific concern of natural stone for heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Prior to industrial era, the quarrying of natural stone was primarily local (the stone has been used very close to its extraction in most of the cases), small scale, occasional (the stone has been extracted only when needed for specific construction, permanent operations were much rarer than nowadays) but long-term (the quarrying activity at one site persisted over centuries very often). The landscape affected by such quarrying (as we can observe it at present) gained numerous new values (e.g., increased morphological contrast, succession of wildlife habitat, etc.) that are often appreciated more than the presence of valuable mineral resource - natural stone. If these site were claimed natural monuments or gained another type of environmental protection, any further extraction of natural stone is prohibited. However, if the specific site was used for extraction of natural stone that has been used for construction which later became cultural heritage object, the antagonistic perception of the site might appear - the site might be protected as a geomorphosite but, at the same time, it can be a source of unique natural stone required for the restoration of cultural heritage objects. This paper, along with above mentioned basic relationships, provides some real examples connected with the difficulties to find the extractable source of natural stone for restoration of iconic cultural heritage objects - specifically search for sources of Carboniferous arkoses to be used for replacement of the decayed ashlars at the Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague (Czech Republic).

  8. Study of the effect of nano surface morphology on the stain-resistant property of ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S. P.; Hung, J. K.; Liu, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, six types of commercially available ceramic tiles, including nano-structured ceramic tiles and regular ceramic tiles, were selected to investigate the effect of surface morphology on their stain-resistant property. The stain-resistant efficiencies of various ceramic tiles with nano-size surface were measured in order to determine the appropriate method for testing ceramic tiles with nano-structure surface.

  9. BoxLib with Tiling: An AMR Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weiqun; Day, Marcus; Nguyen, Tan; Shalf, John; Unat, Didem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in BoxLib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and the current model for parallelization will not be sufficient. We describe a new version of BoxLib in which the tiling constructs are embedded so that BoxLib-based applications can easily realize expected performance gains without extra effort on the part of the application developer. We also discuss a path forward to enable future versions of BoxLib to take advantage of NUMA-aware optimizations using the TiDA portable library.

  10. A third-order phase transition in random tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Colomo, F

    2013-01-01

    We consider the domino tilings of an Aztec diamond with a cut-off corner of macroscopic square shape and given size, and address the bulk properties of tilings as the size is varied. We observe that the free energy exhibits a third-order phase transition when the cut-off square, increasing in size, reaches the arctic ellipse---the phase separation curve of the original (unmodified) Aztec diamond. We obtain this result by studying the thermodynamic limit of certain nonlocal correlation function of the underlying six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the so-called emptiness formation probability (EFP). We consider EFP in two different representations: as a tau-function for Toda chains and as a random matrix model integral. The latter has a discrete measure and a linear potential with hard walls; the observed phase transition shares properties with both Gross-Witten-Wadia and Douglas-Kazakov phase transitions.

  11. Readiness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for LHC collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector has undergone extensive testing in the experimental hall since its installation in late 2005. The readout, control and calibration systems have been fully operational since 2007 and the detector successfully collected data from the LHC single beams in 2008 and first collisions in 2009. This paper gives an overview of the Tile Calorimeter performance as measured using random triggers, calibration data, data from cosmic ray muons and single beam data. The detector operation status, noise characteristics and performance of the calibration systems are presented, as well as the validation of the timing and energy calibration carried out with minimum ionising cosmic ray muons data. The calibration systems' precision is well below the design of 1%. The determination of the global energy scale was performed with an uncertainty of 4%.

  12. Hadronic Shower Development in Iron-Scintillator Tile Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, P; Anderson, K; Barreira, G; Benetta, R; Berglund, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S; Caloba, L; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colaço, F; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, J; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Evans, H; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Gallas, E; Gaspar, M; Gil, I; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Gomes, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hansen, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hébrard, C; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jon-And, K; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Kopikov, S; Kukhtin, V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurzbauer, W; Kuzmin, M; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; López-Amengual, J M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S; Marroquin, F; Martins, J P; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Munar, A; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Orteu, S; Park, I C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Patriarca, J; Pereira, A; Perlas, J A; Petit, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Poggioli, L; Price, L; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rosnet, P; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovich, N; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sonderegger, P; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephens, R; Suk, M; Tang, F; Tas, P; Thaler, J; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varandas, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Wagner, D; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zúñiga, J

    2000-01-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of hadronic showers detected by a prototype of the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile Hadron Calorimeter have been investigated. This calorimeter uses a unique longitudinal configuration of scintillator tiles. Using a fine-grained pion beam scan at 100 GeV, a detailed picture of transverse shower behavior is obtained. The underlying radial energy densities for four depth segments and for the entire calorimeter have been reconstructed. A three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been developed. The results presented here are useful for understanding the performance of iron-scintillator calorimeters, for developing fast simulations of hadronic showers, for many calorimetry problems requiring the integration of a shower energy deposition in a volume and for future calorimeter design.

  13. Detector Control System of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Ribeiro, G; Santos, H; Vinagre, F

    2011-01-01

    The main task of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter Detector Control System (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the calorimeter. All actions initiated by the operator, as well as all errors, warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The Tile calorimeter DCS controls and monitors mainly the low voltage and high voltage power supply systems, but it is also interfaced with the infrastructure (cooling system and racks), the calibration systems, the data acquisition system, configuration and conditions databases and the detector safety system. The system has been operational since the beginning of LHC operation and has been extensively used in the operation of the detector. In the last months effort was directed to the implementation of automatic recovery of power supplies after trips. Current status, results and latest developments will be presented.

  14. Methylation profiling using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and tiling array hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development and plays a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. It is dynamically changed during germline development. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is an efficient, cost-effective method for locus-specific and genome-wide analysis. Methylated DNA fragments are enriched by a 5-methylcytidine-recognizing antibody, therefore allowing the analysis of both CpG and non-CpG methylation. The enriched DNA fragments can be amplified and hybridized to tiling arrays covering CpG islands, promoters, or the entire genome. Comparison of different methylomes permits the discovery of differentially methylated regions that might be important in disease- or tissue-specific expression. Here, we describe an established MeDIP protocol and tiling array hybridization method for profiling methylation of testicular germ cells.

  15. Slipping properties of ceramic tiles / Quantification of slip resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjek, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Regarding the research and application of ceramic tiles there is a great importance of defining precisely the interaction and friction between surfaces. Measuring slip resistance of floor coverings is a complex problem; slipperiness is always interpreted relatively. In the lack of a consistent and clear EU standard, it is practical to use more method in combination. It is necessary to examine the structure of materials in order to get adequate correlation. That is why measuring techniques of surface roughness, an important contributor to slip resistance and cleaning, is fundamental in the research. By comparing the obtained test results, relationship between individual methods of analysis and values may be determined and based on these information recommendations shall be prepared concerning the selection and application of tiles.

  16. Hadronic shower development in Iron-Scintillator Tile Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Barreira, G.; Benetta, R.; Berglund, S.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Blucher, E.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Borisov, O.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burdin, S.; Caloba, L.; Carvalho, J.; Casado, P.; Castillo, M.V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Chadelas, R.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Chlachidze, G.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Colaco, F.; Cologna, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Crouau, M.; Daudon, F.; David, J.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Downing, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Engstroem, M.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Evans, H.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrer, A.; Flaminio, V.; Gallas, E.; Gaspar, M.; Gil, I.; Gildemeister, O.; Glagolev, V.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gonzalez De La Hoz, S.; Grabski, V.; Grauges, E.; Grenier, P.; Hakopian, H.; Haney, M.; Hansen, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Hebrard, C.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.; Huston, J.; Ivanyushenkov, Yu.; Jon-And, K.; Juste, A.; Kakurin, S.; Karapetian, G.; Karyukhin, A.; Kopikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurzbauer, W.; Kuzmin, M.; Lami, S.; Lapin, V.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lebedev, A.; Leitner, R.; Li, J.; Lomakin, Yu.; Lomakina, O.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopez Amengual, J.M.; Maio, A.; Malyukov, S.; Marroquin, F.; Martins, J.P.; Mazzoni, E.; Merritt, F.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, Ll.; Montarou, G.; Munar, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M. E-mail: marzio.nessi@cern.ch; Onofre, A.; Orteu, S.; Park, I.C.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paoletti, R.; Patriarca, J.; Pereira, A.; Perlas, J.A.; Petit, P.; Pilcher, J.; Pinhao, J.; Poggioli, L.; Price, L.; Proudfoot, J.; Pukhov, O.; Reinmuth, G.; Renzoni, G.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romance, J.B.; Romanov, V.; Ronceux, B.; Rosnet, P.; Rumyantsev, V.; Russakovich, N.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Santos, J.; Sawyer, L.; Says, L.-P.; Seixas, J.M.; Sellden, B.; Semenov, A.; Shchelchkov, A.; Shochet, M.; Simaitis, V. [and others

    2000-03-21

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of hadronic showers detected by a prototype of the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile Hadron Calorimeter have been investigated. This calorimeter presents a unique longitudinal configuration of scintillator tiles. Using a fine-grained pion beam scan at 100 GeV, a detailed picture of transverse shower behaviour is obtained. The underlying radial energy densities for the four depth segments and for the entire calorimeter have been reconstructed. A three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrisation has been developed. The results presented here are useful for understanding the performance of iron-scintillator calorimeters, for developing fast simulations of hadronic showers, for many calorimetry problems requiring the integration of a shower energy deposition in a volume and for future calorimeters design.

  17. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  18. Cellular Uptake of Tile-Assembled DNA Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Kocabey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based nanostructures have received great attention as molecular vehicles for cellular delivery of biomolecules and cancer drugs. Here, we report on the cellular uptake of tubule-like DNA tile-assembled nanostructures 27 nm in length and 8 nm in diameter that carry siRNA molecules, folic acid and fluorescent dyes. In our observations, the DNA structures are delivered to the endosome and do not reach the cytosol of the GFP-expressing HeLa cells that were used in the experiments. Consistent with this observation, no elevated silencing of the GFP gene could be detected. Furthermore, the presence of up to six molecules of folic acid on the carrier surface did not alter the uptake behavior and gene silencing. We further observed several challenges that have to be considered when performing in vitro and in vivo experiments with DNA structures: (i DNA tile tubes consisting of 42 nt-long oligonucleotides and carrying single- or double-stranded extensions degrade within one hour in cell medium at 37 °C, while the same tubes without extensions are stable for up to eight hours. The degradation is caused mainly by the low concentration of divalent ions in the media. The lifetime in cell medium can be increased drastically by employing DNA tiles that are 84 nt long. (ii Dyes may get cleaved from the oligonucleotides and then accumulate inside the cell close to the mitochondria, which can lead to misinterpretation of data generated by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. (iii Single-stranded DNA carrying fluorescent dyes are internalized at similar levels as the DNA tile-assembled tubes used here.

  19. Performance of the upgraded small angle tile calorimeter at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1998-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with so- called "shashlik" technique, $9 allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure, in order to make it possible to determine the direction of the showering particle. Presented here are some results demonstrating the performance of the $9 calorimeter and of these tracking detectors at LEP. (5 refs).

  20. Boxlib with tiling: an adaptive mesh refinement software framework

    OpenAIRE

    Unat, Didem; Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Day, M.; Nguyen, T.; Shalf, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in boxlib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and t...

  1. Natural gas in the 21st century. Part 1. Rock-solid trust in the future of the Dutch natural gas trading company Nederlandse Gasunie; Gas in de 21ste eeuw. Deel 1. Rotsvast vertrouwen in de toekomst van Gasunie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikke, R. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In this first part of a new series experts in the field of the natural gas market in the Netherlands are interviewed about their opinion on the consequences of and developments after the new Dutch Natural Gas Law ('Gaswet') has come into effect. In this article the general manager of the natural gas trading company Gasunie answers questions on the natural gas market and the position of Gasunie in that market. He also expresses his personal interest in domotics.

  2. CERN Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  3. The effect of manufacturing variables on radiation doses from porcelain tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, J H; Strydom, R

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the radiological properties of glazed ceramic tiles. This study was conducted to describe the radiological properties of porcelain tiles and how they were affected by variations in the manufacturing parameters. The data showed that the majority of the uranium in the tiles was attributable to the addition of zircon while less than half of the thorium in the tile was attributable to the added zircon, and the remainder came from other minerals in the formulation. The effects of firing temperatures and compressive strengths of the tiles are presented and show that higher firing temperatures increase radon emanation, while higher compressive strengths reduce radon emanation. The study also described how the addition of zircon to the tile formulation affected the radiological exposures that could be received by a member of the public from the use of such porcelain tiles. A dose assessment was conducted based on 23 different types of tile formulation. Screening procedures for building materials have been described in European Commission documents, and these limit the addition of zircon in a porcelain tile to approximately 9% by mass. The dose assessment reported in this study showed that 20% zircon could be added to a porcelain tile without exceeding the prescribed dose limits.

  4. Online Detection Approach for Rectangle Ceramic Tile Based on Sequenced Scenery Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Image based ceramic tile detection is a way to labor liberation in the production process of ceramic tile. Shapes of ceramic tiles studied in this study are rectangle with different sizes. Many existed researches are based on a situation that only a piece of tile goes through special rail one time, resulting in one or less piece of tile hold in the image from CCD sensor. But in fact, multiple tiles with the same sizes run in a row simultaneously at most factories’ rails, and a 'scenery' image is obtained from CCD sensor. And the image processing method based on close-up images is not satisfied in such cases. To detect different rectangle ceramic tiles online according to a sequence of scenery images, this study provide a vector corner method to decide the rectangle tiles with known size information, and a valley detection method via key-image-frames strategy to distinguish the first row in images. Finally, our Online Approach for Rectangle Tile Detection (OARTD was embedded into a detection system and applied to a factory; testing results validated its good performance. Indeed, the use of such an automatic system, to control a tile plant for shape classifying has a good prospect.

  5. Defect detection for end surface of ferrite magnetic tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayuan; Wang, Yuwei; Wang, Keyi

    2016-09-01

    A visual automatic detection method is proposed for defect detection on end surface of ferrite magnetic tile to tackle the disadvantages generated by human work which has low efficiency and unstable accuracy. Because the defects on end surface of ferrite magnetic tile with dark colors and low contrasts are negative for defect detection, uniform illumination is provided by LED light source and a dedicated optical system is designed to extract defects conveniently. The approach uses comparison of the fitting and actual edge curves to detect defects mainly with most defects located on the edge. Firstly improved adaptive median filter is used as the image preprocessing. Subsequently the appropriate threshold is calculated by Otsu algorithm based on the extreme points in the gray-level histogram to segment the preprocessing image. Then the Sobel operator can be used to extract the edge of end surface precisely. Finally through comparing the ideal fitting and actual edge curves of end surface, to detect the defects with some relevant features. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme could detect defects on the end surface of ferrite magnetic tile efficiency and accurately with 93.33% accuracy rate, 2.30% false acceptance rate and 8.45% correct rejection rate.

  6. Orion EFT-1 Catalytic Tile Experiment Overview and Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Giovanni; Amar, Adam; Hyatt, Andrew; Rezin, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and results of a surface catalysis flight experiment flown on the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle during Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1). Similar to previous Space Shuttle catalytic tile experiments, the present test consisted of a highly catalytic coating applied to an instrumented TPS tile. However, the present catalytic tile experiment contained significantly more instrumentation in order to better resolve the heating overshoot caused by the change in surface catalytic efficiency at the interface between two distinct materials. In addition to collecting data with unprecedented spatial resolution of the "overshoot" phenomenon, the experiment was also designed to prove if such a catalytic overshoot would be seen in turbulent flow in high enthalpy regimes. A detailed discussion of the results obtained during EFT1 is presented, as well as the challenges associated with data interpretation of this experiment. Results of material testing carried out in support of this flight experiment are also shown. Finally, an inverse heat conduction technique is employed to reconstruct the flight environments at locations upstream and along the catalytic coating. The data and analysis presented in this work will greatly contribute to our understanding of the catalytic "overshoot" phenomenon, and have a significant impact on the design of future spacecraft.

  7. A brief introduction to tiling microarrays: principles, concepts, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetre, Christophe; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2013-01-01

    Technological achievements have always contributed to the advancement of biomedical research. It has never been more so than in recent times, when the development and application of innovative cutting-edge technologies have transformed biology into a data-rich quantitative science. This stunning revolution in biology primarily ensued from the emergence of microarrays over two decades ago. The completion of whole-genome sequencing projects and the advance in microarray manufacturing technologies enabled the development of tiling microarrays, which gave unprecedented genomic coverage. Since their first description, several types of application of tiling arrays have emerged, each aiming to tackle a different biological problem. Although numerous algorithms have already been developed to analyze microarray data, new method development is still needed not only for better performance but also for integration of available microarray data sets, which without doubt constitute one of the largest collections of biological data ever generated. In this chapter we first introduce the principles behind the emergence and the development of tiling microarrays, and then discuss with some examples how they are used to investigate different biological problems.

  8. Study on use of MSWI fly ash in ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiying, Zhang; Youcai, Zhao; Jingyu, Qi

    2007-03-06

    In this work, MSWI (municipal solid waste incineration) fly ash is used as a blending in production of ceramic tile by taking advantage of its high contents of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and CaO. Besides, macro-performance and microstructure of the product as well as its leaching toxicity in practical application were studied by means of XRD, IR and SEM analysis, and leaching toxicity and sequential chemical extraction analysis of the product. It is found that when 20% fly ash is added, the product registers a high compressive strength of 18.6MPa/cm(2) and a low water absorption of 7.4% after being sintered at 960 degrees C. It is found that the glazed tile shows excellent resistance against leaching, in accordance with HVEP stand, of heavy metals with Cdproduct and can hardly be extracted. Leaching toxicity of heavy metals in the product, especially Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd, is substantially reduced to less than one-tenth of that in fly ash. In addition, specifications of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd are largely changed and only a small portion of these heavy metals exists in soluble phases. These results as a whole suggest that the use of MSWI fly ash in ceramic tile constitutes a potential means of adding value.

  9. Calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter using muons

    CERN Document Server

    van Woerden, M C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. TileCal , together with the electromagnetic calorimeter, provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. Cosmic rays muons and muon events produced by scraping 450 GeV protons in one collimator of the LHC machine have been used to test the calibration of the calorimeter. The analysis of the cosmic rays data shows: a) the response of the third longitudinal layer of the Barrel differs from those of the first and second Barrel layers by about 3-4%, respectively and b) the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at beam tests using electrons are found to range between -3% and +1%. In the case of the scraping beam data, the responses of all the layer pairs were found to be consisten...

  10. Functionalization of ceramic tile surface by sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondioli, F; Taurino, R; Ferrari, A M

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this investigation was the surface functionalization of industrial ceramic tiles by sol-gel technique to improve at the same time the cleanability of unglazed surfaces. This objective was pursued through the design and preparation of nanostructured coating that was deposited on polished unglazed tiles by air-brushing. In particular TiO(2)-SiO(2) binary film with 1, 2 or 5wt% of titania were prepared by using tetraethoxysilane and titania nanoparticles as precursors. The obtained films were characterized by scratch tests to verify the adhesion of the coatings to the polished tiles. To mainly evaluate the effect of the thermal treatment (temperature range 100-600 degrees C) on the photocatalicity of the coatings, the films were studied under UV exposure by contact angle measurements and cleanability test. Particular attention has been paid to preserve the aesthetical aspect of the final product and the obtained hue variation was evaluated by means of UV-visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis.

  11. Biofilm formation on the surface of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Zamparelli, M; Schiavoni, G; Del Piano, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the formation of biofilm on the surface of ceramic tiles, widely present in public and private buildings, using six parallel flow chambers. Our flow system was conceived and made to compare biofilm results by parallel distributed rectangular tiles. The tiles, divided into two identical A and B sections, were placed within the flow chambers. Biofilm formation was performed after 72 h and was quantified by viable counts of bacteria. Average viable counts ranged from 1.1x10(7) to 7.3x10(7) cfu cm(-2) and from 1.1x10(7) to 5.8x10(7) cfu cm(-2) respectively for biofilm A and B sections. As statistical analysis does not show significant differences, we can conclude that biofilms obtained were so similar to each other that they confirmed the system reproducibility. Our next step will be to use our system to study Legionella pneumophila and to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial agents.

  12. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian

  13. 庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物资源及开发利用%Resources of Rock Bryophytes Plant and Their Exploitation and Utilizations in Lushan Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋满珍; 刘昊; 聂宏; 詹选怀

    2015-01-01

    The rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province were studied to provide scientific basis for utilization and protection of rock bryophytes plants resources .Characteristics and their exploitation and utilizations of rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Mountain were analyzed using field investigation and lit-erature materials including Flora of Jiangxi ,Moss Flora of China .The result showed that there were 64 species of rock bryophytes plants resources in Lushan Nature Reserve ,belonging to 41 genera and 29 families ,among which there were 39 species belonging to 27 genera and 15 families were found for Musci ,25 species belonging to 14 genera and 14 families were found for hepaticae .According to the checklist ,the main families were Pottiaceae ,Thuidiaceae ,Br-chyrtheciaceae ,Frullaniaceae ,Pore1laceae;And the main genera were Barbula ,Frullania ,Porella ,Thuidium ,Rhyn-chostegiella ,Herberta .The temperate elements took up a predominant position (34.38% ) ,the East-Asia elements and the tropic elements had a high inverse proportion ,taking up 26.56% and 23.43% of total species respectively .The rock bryophytes resources in Lushan Nature Reserve showed rich diversity at the aspects of species composition ,com-plex geographic components ,the transition characteristics from north to south .And their greening ,road slope and ec-ological restoration had the development and utilization of great value .%调查分析江西省庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物资源特征 ,为岩生苔藓植物合理开发利用及保护提供参考.通过野外调查和查阅《江西植物志》、《中国苔藓植物志》等文献资料 ,分析庐山岩生苔藓植物资源特征及开发利用.庐山自然保护区岩生苔藓植物有29科41属64种 ,其中藓类植物15科27属39种 ,苔类植物14科14属25种.在科属组成分析中 ,丛藓科 Pottiaceae、羽藓科 Thuidiaceae、青藓科 Brchyrtheciaceae

  14. Aplicação de fosfato natural e reciclagem de fósforo por milheto, braquiária, milho e soja Rock phosphate fertilization and phosphorus recycling by pearl millet, Brachiaria sp., corn and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, comparativamente, a capacidade extratora de P da soja (Glycine max, milho (Zea mays, braquiária brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, submetidos a diferentes doses do fertilizante fosfatado natural fosforita Alvorada, em condições controladas. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, corrigido e adubado com N, K e micronutrientes. As espécies foram cultivadas em vasos de 18 dm³ por 50 dias em casa de vegetação, com aplicação de 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de P2O5. As quantidades de fosfato natural foram calculadas com base na teor total de P2O5. O milho, ao contrário da soja, respondeu positivamente ao aumento da dose de P2O5 via fosforita Alvorada. A Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, apesar da menor produção de matéria seca em relação ao milheto, apresentou alta eficiência na absorção de P, mesmo com o fornecido deste nutriente por meio de fonte pouco solúvel. O milheto apresentou-se como importante espécie de cobertura do solo, graças ao alto potencial para produção de fitomassa e reciclagem de P num intervalo de tempo relativamente curto (50 dias.The objective of this experiment was to compare the ability of soybean (Glycine max, corn (Zea mays, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum for P-uptake, at different levels of the Alvorada natural rock phosphate, under controlled conditions. The soil used was a dystrophic Hapludalf (180 g kg-1 clay, which was limed and fertilized with N, K and micronutrients. The crops were grown in 18 dm³ pots for 50 days in a greenhouse, at different P2O5 rates (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. The amount of rock phosphate was calculated based on the total P2O5 content. Contrasting to soybean, there was a positive response of maize to higher P2O5 doses. The dry matter production by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu was lower than that observed for pearl millet, but it still

  15. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  16. Retrosynthetic Analysis-Guided Breaking Tile Symmetry for the Assembly of Complex DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Siyu; Tian, Cheng; Yu, Guimei; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2016-10-11

    Current tile-based DNA self-assembly produces simple repetitive or highly symmetric structures. In the case of 2D lattices, the unit cell often contains only one basic tile because the tiles often are symmetric (in terms of either the backbone or the sequence). In this work, we have applied retrosynthetic analysis to determine the minimal asymmetric units for complex DNA nanostructures. Such analysis guides us to break the intrinsic structural symmetries of the tiles to achieve high structural complexities. This strategy has led to the construction of several DNA nanostructures that are not accessible from conventional symmetric tile designs. Along with previous studies, herein we have established a set of four fundamental rules regarding tile-based assembly. Such rules could serve as guidelines for the design of DNA nanostructures.

  17. Light Distribution in the E3 and E4 Scintillation Counters of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is an important component of the ATLAS calorimetry because they play a crucial role in the search for new particles. The E3 and E4 are crack scintillators of TileCal that extend into the gap region between the EM barrel and EM endcaps. They thus sample the energy of the EM showers produced by particles interacting with the dead material in the EM calorimeters and with the inner detector cables. This project focuses on the study of the light collection uniformity in the E3 and E4 scintillating tiles using low energy electrons as the ionising particles. It is important to have uniform light response in the tiles because it would ensure a good energy resolution for the dead region. However, many factors affect the uniform light collection within the scintillating tiles.

  18. Polyominoes and Polyiamonds as Fundamental Domains of Isohedral Tilings with Rotational Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisaku Nakamura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe computer algorithms that produce the complete set of isohedral tilings by n-omino or n-iamond tiles in which the tiles are fundamental domains and the tilings have 3-, 4-, or 6-fold rotational symmetry. The symmetry groups of such tilings are of types p3, p31m, p4, p4g, and p6. There are no isohedral tilings with p3m1, p4m, or p6m symmetry groups that have polyominoes or polyiamonds as fundamental domains. We display the algorithms’ output and give enumeration tables for small values of n. This expands earlier works [1,2] and is a companion to [3].

  19. Flow through the tile gaps in the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis and is verified against available experimental data. This model derives the tile-gap pressure field from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is also given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculations. Finally recommendations are made concerning additional analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions.

  20. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  1. A Complete Set of Firmware for the TileCal Read-Out Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, A; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; González, V; Higón, E; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Salvachúa, B; Sanchís, E; Solans, C; Torres, J; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic tile calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The Read-Out Driver (ROD) is the main component of the TileCal back-end electronics. The ROD is a VME 64x 9u board with multiple programmable devices which requires a complete set of firmware. This paper describes the firmware and functionalities of all these programmable devices, especially the DSP Processing Units daughterboards where the data processing takes place.

  2. Tests and analyses for the mechanical and thermal qualification of the new RFX first wall tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccaria, P. E-mail: pierluigi.zaccaria@igi.cnr.it; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D

    2003-09-01

    The graphite tiles of the RFX first wall were modified to achieve a more uniform power deposition on the plasma facing surface and to give housing to a large number of in-vessel probes. These design requirements led to a substantial reduction of the tile thickness with respect to the original design. For this reason, the new first wall tiles had to be carefully qualified both from the mechanical and thermal point of view, carrying out experimental tests and analyses.

  3. Numerical investigation of the spatial scale and time dependency of tile drainage contribution to stream flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas W.; Arenas, Antonio A.; Schilling, Keith E.; Weber, Larry J.

    2016-07-01

    Tile drainage systems are pervasive in the Central U.S., significantly altering the hydrologic system. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of tile drainage systems on streamflow. A physically based coupled hydrologic model was applied to a 45 km2 agricultural Iowa watershed. Tile drainage was incorporated though an equivalent porous medium approach, calibrated though numerical experimentation. Experimental results indicated that a significant increase in hydraulic conductivity of the equivalent medium layer was needed to achieve agreement in total outflow with an explicit numerical representation of a tiled system. Watershed scale analysis derived the tile drainage contribution to stream flow (QT/Q) from a numerical tracer driven analysis of instream surface water. During precipitation events tile drainage represented 30% of stream flow, whereas during intervals between precipitations events, 61% of stream flow originated from the tile system. A division of event and non-event periods produced strong correlations between QT/Q and drainage area, positive for events, and negative for non-events. The addition of precipitation into the system acted to saturate near surface soils, increase lateral soil water movement, and dilute the relatively stable instream tile flow. Increased intensity precipitation translated the QT/Q relationship downward in a consistent manner. In non-event durations, flat upland areas contributed large contributions of tile flow, diluted by larger groundwater (non-tile) contribution to stream flow in the downstream steeper portion of the watershed. Study results provide new insights on the spatiotemporal response of tile drainage to precipitation and contributions of tile drainage to streamflow at a watershed scale, with results having important implications for nitrate transport.

  4. Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Van Horne; Cecilia Murniati; Jon D. H. Gaffney; Maggie Jesse

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and...

  5. Tritium profiles in tiles from the first wall of fusion machines and techniques for their detritiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, R.-D.; Bekris, N.; Hellriegel, W.; Noppel, H.-E.; Nägele, W.; Ziegler, H.; Rolli, R.; Werle, H.; Haigh, A.; Peacock, A.

    2000-06-01

    Tritium profiles on a TFTR graphite tile exposed to D-D plasmas and a JET graphite tile from the first tritium campaigns were examined by full combustion, thermogravimetry and thermal desorption. Combustion measurements revealed that >98.9% of the tritium is trapped in a layer 95% under a stream of moist air at about 400°C. A large fraction of tritium can be removed from the tile surface with adhesive tape.

  6. A Global User-Driven Model for Tile Prefetching in Web Geographical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaoming; Chong, Yanwen; Zhang, Hang; Tan, Xicheng

    2017-01-01

    A web geographical information system is a typical service-intensive application. Tile prefetching and cache replacement can improve cache hit ratios by proactively fetching tiles from storage and replacing the appropriate tiles from the high-speed cache buffer without waiting for a client's requests, which reduces disk latency and improves system access performance. Most popular prefetching strategies consider only the relative tile popularities to predict which tile should be prefetched or consider only a single individual user's access behavior to determine which neighbor tiles need to be prefetched. Some studies show that comprehensively considering all users' access behaviors and all tiles' relationships in the prediction process can achieve more significant improvements. Thus, this work proposes a new global user-driven model for tile prefetching and cache replacement. First, based on all users' access behaviors, a type of expression method for tile correlation is designed and implemented. Then, a conditional prefetching probability can be computed based on the proposed correlation expression mode. Thus, some tiles to be prefetched can be found by computing and comparing the conditional prefetching probability from the uncached tiles set and, similarly, some replacement tiles can be found in the cache buffer according to multi-step prefetching. Finally, some experiments are provided comparing the proposed model with other global user-driven models, other single user-driven models, and other client-side prefetching strategies. The results show that the proposed model can achieve a prefetching hit rate in approximately 10.6% ~ 110.5% higher than the compared methods.

  7. Combustion gas cleaning in the ceramic tile industry: technical guide; Nettoyage des fumees de combustion dans l'industrie ceramique: guide technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezaun, F.J. [ENAGAS-Grupo Gas Natural (Spain); Mallol, G.; Monfort, E. [instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC (Spain); Busani, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l' Amiente, ARPA (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This document presents a summary of a technical guide drawn up on combustion gas cleaning systems in ceramic frit and tile production. The guide describes the method to be followed for selecting the best possible solutions for reducing pollutant concentrations in different emission sources, in accordance with current regulatory requirements and the CET recommendation. There are three sources of combustion gas air emissions that need to be cleaned in ceramic tile and frit production and they are usually related to the following process stages: slip spray drying, tile firing and frit melting. The different nature of the emissions means that different substances will need to be cleaned in each emission. Thus, in spray drying and frit melting, the only species to be cleaned are suspended particles, while in tile firing, it is also necessary to reduce the fluorine concentration. The systems analysed in this guide are mainly wet cleaning systems, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. In the study, the efficiency of these cleaning systems is compared at each emission source from a technical and economic point of view, and concrete solutions are put forward in each case, together with a list of suppliers of the technologies involved. (authors)

  8. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  9. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  10. Natural infections with Pigeon Paramyxovirus-1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the USA: Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Lankton, Julia S.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed pathological findings and to a lesser extent epidemiological data from 70 free-ranging columbiforms naturally infected with Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) from 25 different PPMV-1 mortality events in columbiforms in the USA. In a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks, we carried out immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein to determine the tissue distribution of the virus.

  11. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  12. Aperiodic compression and reconstruction of real-world material systems based on Wang tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doškář, Martin; Novák, Jan; Zeman, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents a concept to compress and synthesize complex material morphologies that is based on Wang tilings. Specifically, a microstructure is stored in a set of Wang tiles and its reconstruction is performed by means of a stochastic tiling algorithm. A substantial part of the study is devoted to the setup of optimal parameters of the automatic tile design by means of parametric studies with statistical descriptors at heart. The performance of the method is demonstrated on four two-dimensional two-phase target systems, monodisperse media with hard and soft disks, sandstone, and high porosity metallic foam.

  13. Self-assembly of fully addressable DNA nanostructures from double crossover tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Tong; Zhang, Suoyu; Bai, Tanxi; Mi, Yongli; Wei, Bryan

    2016-09-19

    DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) are two proven approaches to self-assemble finite-size complex DNA nanostructures. The construction elements appeared in structures from these two methods can also be found in multi-stranded DNA tiles such as double crossover tiles. Here we report the design and observation of four types of finite-size lattices with four different double crossover tiles, respectively, which, we believe, in terms of both complexity and robustness, will be rival to DNA origami and SST structures.

  14. Ceramic-ceramic shell tile thermal protection system and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Smith, Marnell (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Zimmerman, Norman B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A ceramic reusable, externally applied composite thermal protection system (TPS) is proposed. The system functions by utilizing a ceramic/ceramic upper shell structure which effectively separates its primary functions as a thermal insulator and as a load carrier to transmit loads to the cold structure. The composite tile system also prevents impact damage to the atmospheric entry vehicle thermal protection system. The composite tile comprises a structurally strong upper ceramic/ceramic shell manufactured from ceramic fibers and ceramic matrix meeting the thermal and structural requirements of a tile used on a re-entry aerospace vehicle. In addition, a lightweight high temperature ceramic lower temperature base tile is used. The upper shell and lower tile are attached by means effective to withstand the extreme temperatures (3000 to 3200F) and stress conditions. The composite tile may include one or more layers of variable density rigid or flexible thermal insulation. The assembly of the overall tile is facilitated by two or more locking mechanisms on opposing sides of the overall tile assembly. The assembly may occur subsequent to the installation of the lower shell tile on the spacecraft structural skin.

  15. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  16. Preparation and characterization of photochromic effect for ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atay, B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tile industry is developing due to the technological researches in scientific area and new tiles which are not only a traditional ceramic also have many multiple functionalities have been marketed nowadays. These tiles like photocatalytic, photovoltaic, antibacterial and etc. improve the quality of life and provide lots of benefits such as self cleaning, energy production, climate control. The goal of this study was to enhance the photochromic function on ceramic tiles which is the attitude of changing color in a reversible way by electromagnetic radiation and widely used in many areas because of its aesthetic and also functional properties. High response time of photochromic features of ceramic tiles have been achieved by employing of polymeric gel with additives of photoactive dye onto the ceramic surface. Photochromic layer with a thickness of approximately 45- 50 µm was performed by using spray coating technique which provided homogeneous deposition on surface. Photochromic ceramic tiles with high photochromic activity such as reversibly color change between ΔE= 0.29 and 26.31 were obtained successfully. The photochromic performance properties and coloring-bleaching mechanisms were analyzed by spectrophotometer. The microstructures of coatings were investigated both by stereo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

    La industria de baldosa cerámica se está desarrollando debido a las investigaciones tecnológicas en el área científica y los nuevos azulejos no son sólo de cerámica tradicional, sino que también tienen múltiples funcionalidades que son valiosas en el mercado hoy en día. Estos azulejos tipo fotocatalítico, fotovoltáico, anti-bacteriano, entre otros, mejoran la calidad de vida y proporcionan muchos beneficios como la limpieza fácil o de uno mismo, la producción energética y el control del clima. La meta de este estudio es realzar la función fotocrómatica en las baldosas cerámicas y la

  17. Creep characteristics of plagioclase hornblende rock under natural and water-saturated conditions in deep underground%自然与饱水状态下深部斜长角闪岩蠕变特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春阳; 曹平; 汪亦显; 宁果果

    2013-01-01

    通过金川深部斜长角闪岩单轴压缩蠕变实验,选取典型蠕变曲线,发现该岩石黏弹性、黏塑性变形较瞬时变形偏小,卸载后弹性后效不显著.在5.1 MPa轴向应力下,自然状态的岩样近似纯弹性特征.饱水状态下岩样瞬时强度σ’b和长期强度σ’∝总体低于自然状态,且σ’∝已接近深部高地应力,因此,对于深部节理、裂隙很发育的岩体,应特别注意巷道排水,防止围岩因长期强度降低而导致巷道变形和破坏.自然与饱水状态下岩样瞬时弹性应变εme、瞬时塑性应变εmp随应力增大而增加,但增速逐渐放缓,饱水状态下塑性变形更显著;相同应力下,饱水状态岩样蠕变量大于自然状态,应变速率也总体快于自然状态,2种状态的蠕变速率在20~30 h时都逐渐稳定,且速率曲线随应力增大,微裂隙压密,彼此逐渐靠近,岩样处于相对硬化阶段;当轴向应力达到66.3 MPa后,饱水状态蠕变速率有相对加速趋势,速率曲线随应力增大先往左下移动,再朝右上移动,而自然状态蠕变速率曲线总体向右上移动.最后,通过蠕变数据分析,推导γ=ασk型经验方程,对蠕变试验数据进行回归拟合,拟合结果证明该蠕变经验模型的正确性.金川矿区斜长角闪岩蠕变实验研究为分析深部巷道该类围岩流变稳定性及支护方案优化等提供有效帮助.%According to plagioclase-hornblende rock in Jinchuan deep underground mine uniaxial compression creep test results, after selection typical creep curves, it is found that viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation are significantly less than instantaneous deformation, elastic after-effect is not obvious after unloading. Under 5.1 MPa of uniaxial stress, rock samples show pure elastic properties in natural condition. Under water condition, both instantaneous uniaxial compressive strength σ'b and long-term strength σξx are generally lower than nature condition,

  18. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.

    1981-08-01

    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  19. Componentes volátiles de mamey (mammea americana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Lucía Morales; William Arguello; Gustavo García; Iván Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Los componentes volátiles del aroma de mamey (Mammea americana L), fueron extraídos utilizando el método de destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultánea con solvente orgánico. El extracto fue prefraccionado por cromatografía en columna en silica gel con gradiente discontinuo Pentano: Éter etílico para obtener tres fracciones que fueron analizadas por CGAR y CGAR-EM. Se detectaron 34 compuestos, de los cuales fueron identificados 22, siendo los componentes mayoritarios: Furfural (7...

  20. Componentes volátiles de mamey (mammea americana l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Alicia Lucía; Arguello, William; García, Gustavo; Herrera, Iván

    2010-01-01

    Los componentes volátiles del aroma de mamey (Mammea americana L), fueron extraídos utilizando el método de destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultánea con solvente orgánico. El extracto fue prefraccionado por cromatografía en columna en silica gel con gradiente discontinuo Pentano: Éter etílico para obtener tres fracciones que fueron analizadas por CGAR y CGAR-EM. Se detectaron 34 compuestos, de los cuales fueron identificados 22, siendo los componentes mayoritarios: Furfural (7...

  1. Disk-like Tiles Derived from Complex Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LUO; Zuo Ling ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    For each positive integer k, the radix representation of the complex numbers in the base-k + i gives rise to a lattice self-affine tile Tk in the plane, which consists of all the complex numbers that can be expressed in the form ∑j≥1 dj(-k + i)-j, where dj ∈ {0, 1,2,……,k2}. We prove that Tk is homeomorphic to the closed unit disk {z ∈ C: |z| ≤ 1} if and only if k ≠ 2.

  2. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance for the phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sellapillay, Kevissen

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the internship is focused on trying to assess the performance of the upgraded geometry of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. To do this, we use Monte Carlo generated samples for the upgraded geometry and from the current geometry, then we derive the pT response and resolution. The second part of the study is an analysis of the sensitivity of the two different geometries to a new heavy boson that would decay into a top quark pair $Z^{\\prime} \\rightarrow t\\bar{t}$.

  3. A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display

    KAUST Repository

    Kooima, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the value of autostereoscopy for 3D displays in public contexts, we pursue the goal of large-scale, high-resolution, immersive virtual reality using lenticular displays. Our contributions include the scalable tiling of lenticular displays to large fields of view and the use of GPU image interleaving and application optimization for real-time performance. In this context, we examine several ways to improve group-viewing by combining user tracking with multi-view displays. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  4. Numerical Study of the Effect of Natural Gas Saturation on the Reservoir Rocks' Elastic Parameters%天然气饱和度对岩石弹性参数影响的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜黎明; 孙建孟; 刘学锋; 王海涛

    2012-01-01

    The variation law of the effect of natural gas saturation on the reservoir rocks' elastic parameters, such as elastic moduli, P-wave and S-wave velocities, Lame constant, Poisson's ratio, is studied based on 3D digital cores. The results show that gas saturation of reservoir rocks has little influence on S-wave velocity and the S-wave velocity increases slowly with the increase of gas saturation. The elastic parameters, such as Lame constant, Poisson's ratio, P-wave velocity, the ratio of P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity, decrease as the gas saturation increases, Moreover, they are changed sharply when the sandstone contains very small amount of gas. After comparing the change ratios of the elastic parameters with the variation of gas saturation, it is found the Lame constant is most sensitive to the variation of gas saturation, followed by Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus and the ratio of P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity. Through this study, the parameter which is sensitive to change of gas saturation can be used to calculate gas saturation of reservoir rocks in order to improve the calculation accuracy.%基于三维数字岩心,对岩石的弹性模量、纵横波速度、拉梅常数、泊松比等参数随不同含气饱和度变化规律进行数值研究.研究结果表明岩石的含气饱和度对横波速度影响不大,含气饱和度的增加将引起横波速度的缓慢增加.岩石的拉梅常数、泊松比、纵波速度、弹性模量和纵横波速度比随含气饱和度的增加而减小,当含气饱和度较低时,它们随含气饱和度增加急剧降低.将各弹性参数随含气饱和度的变化率进行比较,发现对天然气饱和度变化最敏感的参数是拉梅常数,其次是泊松比、体积模量和纵横波速度比等.该研究有助于选取对天然气饱和度变化敏感的参数计算储层的含气饱和度,从而提高计算精度.

  5. Fossils, rocks, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  6. Natural fracturing of rocks: application to the Ahnet basin (Algeria); Fracturation naturelle des roches: application au bassin de l`Ahnet (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badsi, M.

    1998-07-06

    In the Ahnet basin, the production seems to be unrelated to lithological variations in the reservoirs. In these large anticline structures, located in the central Ahnet basin, the presence of gas has been proven, but only a few production wells have been moderately successful. This inconsistency is probably related to the spatial distribution of fracturing throughout the reservoir. In order to investigate several hypothesis, we used several approach to solve problems posed by the interpreter: namely understanding the deformation process, predicting the fractured zones and building the discrete model of fracture network. This approach combines several methods, including sand box modelling, numerical modelling and Statistics rules, often related with fractal behaviour of faults families, have been used for extrapolating observations from seismic or from wells. The numerical tools and sand box analysis have allowed us to answer to the questions related to the formation of this large anticlines in the Ahnet basin and suggest a probable origin of the variation in the spatial distribution of natural fractures. The deterministic predictions of small-scale faults use probabilistic approaches for spatial interpolation assuming implicitly relationship between detected large faults and unresolved small faults. The statistical modelling is used to carry out analysis of the spatial variation of mean fracture attributes at the global scale (a few kilometers) and a 3D stochastic modelling of the fracture system at the local scale (a few ten of meters). (author) 139 refs.

  7. Rock Plasticity from Microtomography and Upscaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Reem Freij-Ayoub; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb

    2015-01-01

    We present a workflow for upscaling of rock properties using microtomography and percolation theory. In this paper we focus on a pilot study for assessing the plastic strength of rocks from a digital rock image. Firstly, we determine the size of mechanical representative volume ele-ment (RVE) by using upper/lower bound dissipation computations in accordance with thermody-namics. Then the mechanical RVE is used to simulate the rock failure at micro-scale using FEM. Two cases of different pressures of linear Drucker-Prager plasticity of rocks are computed to com-pute the macroscopic cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the rock. We also detect the criti-cal exponents of yield stress for scaling laws from a series of derivative models that are created by a shrinking/expanding algorithm. We use microtomographic data sets of two carbonate samples and compare the results with previous results. The results show that natural rock samples with irregular structures may have the critical exponent of yield stress different from random models. This unex-pected result could have significant ramifications for assessing the stability of solid materials with internal structure. Therefore our pilot study needs to be extended to investigate the scaling laws of strength of many more natural rocks with irregular microstructure.

  8. SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS HADRONIC TILE CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    Do Amaral Coutinho, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    "The Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are readout by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read-out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using an Optimal Filtering reconstruction algorithm, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Currently the ATLAS detector and the LHC are undergoing an upgrade program tha...

  9. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  10. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carvalho, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Sforza, M C; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Costanzo, D; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Crouau, M; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; And, K J; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Korolkov, I Ya; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lambert, D; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Amengual, J M L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Montarou, G; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M J; Pantea, D; Pallin, D; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Price, L E; Pribyl, L; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Reinmuth, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevich, I S; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Da Silva, P; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tsulaia, V; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2006-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. The construction phase of the calorimeter is nearly complete, and most of the effort now is directed toward the final assembly and commissioning in the underground experimental hall. The layout of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described, first with a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last few years a comprehensive test-beam program has been followed in order to establish the calorimeter electromagnetic energy scale, to study its uniformity, and to compare real data to Monte Carlo simulation. The test-beam setup and first results from the data are described. During the test-beam period in 2004, lasting several months, data have been acquired with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected in the test-beam are crucial in order to study...

  11. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, C

    2004-01-01

    The tile calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. Almost all the work to build the calorimeter has been completed and most of the effort is now directed toward the final assembly and testing in the experimental area. The lay-out of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described after a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last years a lot of work has also been put in the test accomplish the tests on beam to set the electromagnetic scale, to study its uniformity and to acquire data to tune the detector simulation. The test beam setup and selected results obtained from the acquired data are described. In this last year a few months long test on beam has been carried out acquiring data with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected at the test on beam are crucial to study the algorithms to reco...

  12. Response of the ATLAS tile calorimeter prototype to muons

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Angelini, C; Astvatsaturov, A R; Autiero, D; Badaud, F; Barreira, G; Berglund, S R; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Blaj, C; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Calôba, L P; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colaço, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Crouau, M; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; Dugne, J J; De, K; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Evans, H; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; Grabskii, V; Haney, M; Hakopian, H H; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Liba, I; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Marroquin, F; Martins, J P; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, E; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Montarou, G; Muanza, G S; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Onofre, A; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Patriarca, J; Pereira, A; Perlas, J A; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sanders, H; Santos, J; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M

    1996-01-01

    A study of high energy muons traversing the ATLAS hadron Tile calorimeter in the barrel region in the energy range between 10 and 300~GeV is presented. Both test beam experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations are given and show good agreement. The Tile calorimeter capability of detecting isolated muons over the above energy range is demonstrated. A signal to background ratio of about 10 is expected for the nominal LHC luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2} sec^{-1}$). The photoelectron statistics effect in the muon shape response is shown. The e/mip ratio is found to be $ 0.81 \\pm 0.03$; the e/$\\mu$ ratio is in the range 0.91 - 0.97. The energy loss of a muon in the calorimeter, dominated by the energy lost in the absorber, can be correlated to the energy loss in the active material. This correlation allows one to correct on an event by event basis the muon energy loss in the calorimeter and therefore reduce the low energy tails in the muon momentum distribution.

  13. Self-Replication of Nanoscale tiles and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We want to make a ``non-biological'' system which can self-replicate. The idea is to design particles with specific and reversible and irreversible interactions, introduce seed motifs, and cycle the system in such a way that a copy is made. Repeating the cycle would double the number of offspring in each generation leading to exponential growth. Using the chemistry of DNA either on colloids or on DNA tiles makes the specific recognition part easy. In the case of DNA tiles we have in fact replicated the seed at least to the third generation. The DNA linkers can also be self-protected so that particles don't interact unless they are held together for sufficient time -- a nano-contact glue. Chemical modification of the DNA allows us to permanently crosslink hybridized strands for irreversible bonds and a new type of photolithography. We have also designed and produced colloidal particles that use novel ``lock and key'' geometries to get specific and reversible physical interactions.[4pt] With Tong Wang, Ruojie Sha, Remi Dreyfus, Mirjam E. Leunissen, Corinna Maass, David J. Pine, and Nadrian C. Seeman.

  14. CONSTITUYENTES VOLÁTILES DEL MANGO DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bautista.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Empleando Extracción de Volátiles por Espacio de Cabeza Dinámico y Extracción Líquido-Líquido, se estudió el aroma del mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica L, variedad nativa Colombiana apreciada por su exquisito aroma y sabor. Estos dos métodos complementarios permifieron la identificación, por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta resolución y Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución - Espectrometría de Masas, de 52 coinponentes, entre los cuales sobresalieron como mayoritarios el 3-careno, el butanoato de etilo, el ácido butanóico y el a-pineno. Aunque la composición porcentual en peso de volátiles varió según el método de extracción, el grupo predominante en ambos sistemas de extracción es el de los terpenos, seguido de los esteres. El aroma de los extractos obtenidos fue evaluado por Cromatografía de Gases de Alta Resolución-Olfatometría.

  15. Water saving techniques in the spanish tile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique, J. E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the use of water in the ceramic tile manufacturing process, focussing on water requirements in body and glaze preparation and in washing production equipment and facilities. Water consumption and wastewater reuse systems in ceramic tile manufacture were reviewed. An in-depth, industrial scale study was performed of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing process, examining how wastewater reuse affected pollutant contents in gas emissions and solid waste.

    Se ha estudiado el uso del agua en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y en particular, en las etapas de preparación de la pasta de los esmaltes y limpieza del equipo industrial y de la propia planta.Se ha realizado una revisión del consumo de agua y de los sistemas de reutilización de la misma en el proceso de fabricación de baldosas cerámicas y se ha estudiado con profundidad, a escala industrial, la reutilización del agua residual en el proceso y en particular el efecto de su reutilización sobre la emisión de contaminantes en las emisiones gaseosas y en los residuos sólidos.

  16. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  17. Preliminary test results on tungsten tile with castellation structures in KSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S. H.; Bang, E. N.; Lim, S. T.; Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Hellwig, M.; Matveev, D.; Komm, M.; van den Berg, M. A.; Lho, T.; Park, C. R.; Kim, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    A bulk tungsten tile with conventional and shaped castellation structures was exposed to various plasmas in KSTAR during 2012 campaign, in order to verify the functions of the shaped castellation designed for ITER divertor. The thermal response of the tile during the campaign was measured by thermoc

  18. Microstructure development of a drying tile mortar containing methylhydroxy-ethylcellulose (MHEC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiyas, A.P.A.; Erich, S.J.F.; Nijland, T.G.; Hunnink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Cement based mortars are widely used as adhesive for tiles in building and construction. They have a limited timespan during which a tile can be placed effectively in order to develop sufficient bond strength. This timespan, usually called ’open time’, is controlled, amongst others, by adding water

  19. Escher degree of non-periodic L-tilings by 2 prototiles

    CERN Document Server

    Ahara, Kazushi; Ojiri, Anno

    2012-01-01

    For a given tiling of the euclidean plane ${\\bf E}^2$, we call the degree of freedom of perturbed edges of prototiles {\\it escher degree}. In this paper we consider non-periodic L-tilings by 2 prototiles and obtain the escher degree of them.

  20. Use of biochar amendments for removing bacteria from simulated tile-drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of biochar has been shown to increase bacterial removal rates by several orders of magnitude in sand-packed columns, suggesting that biochar may be a suitable amendment for use in end-of-tile filter systems to remove indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in tile-drainage waters. Addit...