WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural taurine protection

  1. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  2. Protective actions of sulfur amino acid-taurine: against in and off of radiation injury and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemicals are not single minded, yet in majority of cases biological activities are cumulate index of their physio-chemical nature. Taurine (2-amino ethane sulfonic acid) differs in its physical constituents to other neuro active amino acids in way of having 1.5 pka and 82 pkb showing more acidic and more basic than common neuro active amino acid like; aspartic acid, B Alanine and GABA. The intra molecular hydrogen bonding with lower proton affinity of the amino group in taurine than in GABA enables taurine ability to penetrate blood brain barrier, but at slower rate. Having sulphur, atom; adds addition value, as sulphur is necessary for sustaining the life processes. Sulphur containing amino acids (SAA) are not too many; generally SAA contains sulphur in their lower oxidation state (-2); for some reason sulphur in low oxidation state protects from oxygen toxicity and radiation damage. The composite effects of its distinct physical activities provided a label of meta-vitamin to indispensable amino acids with a wide spectrum of beneficial actions in diabetic to epilepsy, and from hypertension to ageing. It is well establish that high doses of ionized radiation leads to the enhanced leakage of taurine from the damage cells to extracellular fluid followed by increased urinary extraction. Radiation induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects. Though taurine radio protective action mechanism is still incomplete but high level of taurine have been found in experimental studies with animals or in isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionization radiation. It is believe that taurine radio protective action is combination of multiple beneficial effects involving several action mechanism, during the exposure to ionizing radiation taurine may function as antioxidant, and in scavenging the harmful molecules, it is also possible that taurine may be helping to reduce the post traumatic inflammatory after radiation exposure or it may be participating to

  3. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  4. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  6. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Wu, Dan; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using 1 H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  7. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lv, Lei [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Dan [College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cen, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbcenalan@vip.sina.com [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  8. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ercan, Feriha; Sirvanci, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Akpulat, Sertac; Tecimer, Tuelay; Yegen, Berrak C.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-α level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the systemic

  9. Taurine protects cisplatin induced cardiotoxicity by modulating inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sinha, Krishnendu; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sil, Parames C

    2016-11-12

    Oxidative stress, ER stress, inflammation, and apoptosis results in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in the ameliorating effect of taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, against cisplatin-mediated cardiac ER stress dependent apoptotic death and inflammation. Mice were simultaneously treated with taurine (150 mg kg -1 body wt, i.p.) and cisplatin (10 mg kg -1 body wt, i.p.) for a week. Cisplatin exposure significantly altered serum creatine kinase and troponin T levels. In addition, histological studies revealed disintegration in the normal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle fibers. However, taurine administration could abate such adverse effects of cisplatin. Taurine administration significantly mitigated the reactive oxygen species production, alleviated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inhibited the elevation of proinflammatoy cytokines, adhesion molecules, and chemokines. Cisplatin exposure resulted in the unfolded protein response (UPR)-regulated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CHOP) up-regulation, induction of GRP78: a marker of ER stress and eIF2α signaling. Increase in calpain-1 expression level, activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, cleavage of the PARP protein as well as the inhibition of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were reflected on cisplatin-triggered apoptosis. Taurine could, however, combat against such cisplatin induced cardiac-abnormalities. The above mentioned findings suggest that taurine plays a beneficial role in providing protection against cisplatin-induced cardiac damage by modulating inflammatory responses and ER stress. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):647-664, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Taurine Protects Mouse Spermatocytes from Ionizing Radiation-Induced Damage Through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjun; Huang, Jinfeng; Xiao, Bang; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yiqing; Wang, Fang; Sun, Shuhan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of ionizing radiation exposure has inevitably raised public concern over the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation on male reproductive system function. The detection of drug candidates to prevent reproductive system from damage caused by ionizing radiation is urgent. We aimed to investigate the protective role of taurine on the injury of mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) subjected to ionizing radiation. mouse spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) were exposed to ionizing radiation with or without treatment of Taurine. The effect of ionizing radiation and Taurine treatment on GC-2 cells were evaluated by cell viability assay (CCK8), cell cycle and apoptosis. The relative protein abundance change was determined by Western blotting. The siRNA was used to explore whether Nrf2 signaling was involved in the cytoprotection of Taurine. Taurine significantly inhibited the decrease of cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation. Western blot analysis showed that taurine significantly limited the ionizing radiation-induced down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CDK1, and suppressed activation of Fas/FasL system pathway. In addition, taurine treatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in GC-2 cells exposed to ionizing radiation, two components in antioxidant pathway. The above cytoprotection of Taurine was blocked by siNrf2. Our results demonstrate that taurine has the potential to effectively protect GC-2 cells from ionizing radiation- triggered damage via upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Taurine Protected Against the Impairments of Neural Stem Cell Differentiated Neurons Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Liu, Sining; Ji, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cell transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a promising approach for neurological recovery both structurally and functionally. However, one big obstacle is to promote differentiation of NSCs into neurons and the followed maturation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of taurine on the differentiation of NSCs and subsequent maturation of their neuronal lineage, when exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The results suggested that taurine (5-20 mM) promoted the viability and proliferation of NSCs, and it protected against 8 h of OGD induced impairments. Furthermore, 20 mM taurine promoted NSCs to differentiate into neurons after 7 days of culture, and it also protected against the suppressive impairments of 8 h of OGD. Consistently, taurine (20 mM) promoted the neurite sprouting and outgrowth of the NSC differentiated neurons after 14 days of differentiation, which were significantly inhibited by OGD (8 h). At D21, the mushroom spines and spine density were promoted or restored by 20 mM taurine. Taken together, the enhanced viability and proliferation of NSCs, more differentiated neurons and the promoted maturation of neurons by 20 mM taurine support its therapeutic application during stem cell therapy to enhance neurological recovery. Moreover, it protected against the impairments induced by OGD, which may highlight its role for a more direct therapeutic application especially in an ischemic stroke environment.

  12. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS

  13. Combined Administration of Taurine and Monoisoamyl Dmsa Protects Arsenic Induced Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA, administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG. These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  14. Protective Roles of N-acetyl Cysteine and/or Taurine against Sumatriptan-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khalili Fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triptans are the drug category mostly prescribed for abortive treatment of migraine. Most recent cases of liver toxicity induced by triptans have been described, but the mechanisms of liver toxicity of these medications have not been clear. Methods: In the present study, we obtained LC50 using dose-response curve and investigated cell viability, free radical generation, lipid peroxide production, mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane damage and the cellular glutathione level as toxicity markers as well as the beneficial effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine in the sumatriptan-treated rat parenchymal hepatocytes using accelerated method of cytotoxicity mechanism screening. Results: It was revealed that liver toxicity induced by sumatriptan in in freshly isolated parenchymal hepatocytes is dose-dependent. Sumatriptan caused significant free radical generation followed by lipid peroxide formation, mitochondrial injury as well as lysosomal damage. Moreover, sumatriptan reduced cellular glutathione content. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine were able to protect hepatocytes against sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that sumatriptan causes oxidative stress in hepatocytes and the decreased hepatocytes glutathione has a key role in the sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Also, N-acetyl cysteine and/or taurine could be used as treatments in sumatriptan-induced side effects.

  15. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chao-Yu [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Chao-Kai [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Sher, Yuh-Pyng [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne H.-H. [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: thlee@email.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  16. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation

  17. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  18. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  19. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elwahab, Azza H; Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D) in male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group), Group II (Taurine group), Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks) and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine). CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL)-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1), malondialdehyde (MDA),IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2). The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress, reflected by increased hepatic MDA and

  20. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza H. Abd Elwahab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D in male albino rats. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group, Group II (Taurine group, Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine. CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1, malondialdehyde (MDA,IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2. Results: The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress

  1. The protective effects of taurine on acute ammonia toxicity in grass carp Ctenopharynodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Ren, Qianyan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-09-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia content in the liver and brain, and alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate and glycine contents in liver. Brain alanine and glutamate of fish in group 2 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 1. Malondialdehyde content of fish in group 2 was the highest, but superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities were the lowest. Although fish in group 2 had the lowest red cell count and hemoglobin, the highest alkaline phosphatase, complement C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents appeared in this group. In addition, superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities, red cell count and hemoglobin of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2, but malondialdehyde content is the opposite. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde accumulation, leading to blood deterioration and over-activation of immune response. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  3. Protective effect of taurine against potassium bromate-induced hemoglobin oxidation, oxidative stress, and impairment of antioxidant defense system in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-03-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is widely used as a food-additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. KBrO3 causes severe toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Bromate is considered a probable human carcinogen and a complete carcinogen in animals. We have investigated the potential role of taurine in protecting against KBrO3 -induced oxidative stress in rat blood. Animals were given taurine for 5 days prior to KBrO3 and then sacrificed. Blood was collected and used to prepare hemolysates and plasma, which were then used for the analysis of several biochemical parameters. Administration of single oral dose of KBrO3 alone induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity as evident by elevated marker levels in plasma. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased both in plasma and erythrocytes, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. KBrO3 increased methemoglobin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide levels. It also altered the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes and lowered the antioxidant power of blood. Administration of taurine, prior to treatment with KBrO3 , resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. These results show that taurine is effective in mitigating the oxidative insult induced in rat blood by KBrO3 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine....

  5. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Christophersen

    2012-02-01

    damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and 4 by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome are given for illustration of the

  6. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotect...

  7. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in pancreas of rat offsprings through Nrf2/Trx pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Qiu, Tianming; Liu, Shuang; Qi, Baoxu; Zheng, Yue; Kong, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic was increasingly to blame as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our previous study, we had found iAs stimulated autophagic flux and caused autophagic cell death through ROS pathway in INS-1 cells. Since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the thioredoxin (Trx) system was a crucial line of defense against ROS, we investigated whether Nrf2/Trx pathway contributed to As2O3-stimulated autophagy and the role of taurine in this study. After treatment with 2 mg/kg BW-8 mg/kg BW As2O3 for 57 d, the expression of Nrf2 protein was decreased significantly in offsprings' pancreas. The expression of Trx gene was decreased significantly in pancreas subsequently. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated autophagy in arsenic-treated pancreas. Taurine could reverse arsenic-inhibited Nrf2 and Trx and inhibit autophagy. In short, inhibition of Nrf2/Trx pathway might play an important role in the pathogenesis of arsenic-related diabetes. Taurine could serve as nutrition supplementation against arsenic-related diabetes in high arsenic exposure area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  9. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    the mitochondrial inner-membrane. The very high concentration of taurine in oxidative tissue has recently led to discussions on the role of taurine in the mitochondria, e.g. with taurine acting as a pH buffer in the mitochondrial matrix. A very important consequence of the slightly alkaline pH is the fact...... to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox...

  10. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  11. Natural disasters and agricultural protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Hoogezand, Barry

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off

  12. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Graves, Jamie A; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex

  13. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, whereas...... it was reduced by only 20% with taurine supplementation. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. By unknown mechanisms, taurine partially or fully prevented 30 and 46% of these expression changes, respectively....... Mitochondrial genes, in particular genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed in LP offspring, with primarily up-regulation in liver but down-regulation in skeletal muscle. In both tissues, citrate synthase activity remained unchanged. Taurine preferentially rescued changes...

  14. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  15. Comparison of the effects of taurine and magnesium on electrical characteristics of artificial and natural membranes. V. Study on the human amnion of the antagonism between magnesium, taurine and polluting metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.; Durlach, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of metal pollutants (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) were studied on strips of human amnion isolated from the placental zone put in between two Ussing chambers with Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. The total conductance Gt through the human isolated amnion was decreased on the fetal side by Pb and As; on the maternal side by Cd, Hg and As. When Gt was decreased by metal pollutants, Mg or taurine (TA) were added in the external medium to induce an antagonism between Mg or TA and metal pollutants. The addition of Mg increased significantly the Gt reduced by Pb, Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by As. The addition of taurine increased significantly the Gt reduced by Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by Pb and As. Dixon's kinetics (Gt as a function of the Mg or TA concentration when the metal pollutant concentration increased) indicate that there is a competitive inhibition between Mg-Pb and Mg-Cd (the inhibition constant Ki is lower with Pb (= 2.5) than with Cd (= 11.4) and suggests a greater antagonism between Mg-Pb than between Mg-Cd). Moreover, there appears to be a noncompetitive inhibition between Mg-Hg, TA-Cd and TA-Hg. These results indicate that Mg and TA, on the fetal side, exert an action on the same sites and that, on the maternal side, their action takes place on the same sites and also on different ones. Also, TA can be considered as a partial magnesium agonist, at least in the human amnion.

  16. Natural protection against harmful oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although still not conclusive, the studies described indicate that topically applied vitamin E can provide protection against ultraviolet radiation when applied alone or in combination with other antioxidants. The general consensus is that, although less stable than the tocopherol esters when used in cosmetic systems, the alcohol form of alpha-tocopherol is the most effective topically-applied skin protectant. Increased UV protection potentially reduces the risk of skin cancer. However, the debate continues regarding the skin’s ability to hydrolyse ester forms of alpha-tocopherol, which are used commercially because of their greater stability during processing and over time in these products. Further research is therefore needed in order to provide more definitive data on what potential benefits or possible disadvantages may be associated with use of the ester forms in these topical applications.

  17. Conflicts between natural resources and structural protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bakken

    1995-01-01

    Each parcel of government land carries specific land use constraints and objectives. This is also true of private housing and business developments. When government land, which was acquired to protect the natural or cultural resources, borders private land, which was acquired to build and protect houses or businesses, conflicts arise. The flammable native vegetation on...

  18. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and Drugs... Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... in the feed of growing chickens. (b) It is added to complete feeds so that the total taurine content...

  19. Protected Natural Areas of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solorzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    Protection of natural areas is essential to conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. Benefits and services provided by natural areas are complex, interwoven, life-sustaining, and necessary for a healthy environment and a sustainable future (Daily et al. 1997). They include clean water and air, sustainable wildlife populations and habitats, stable...

  20. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  1. In vivo radioprotective effect of curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kampferol on DNA damage in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to produce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS leading to a variety of DNA lesions. However, the most dangerous DNA lesions which are responsible for the origin of lethal effects, mutagenesis, genomic instability and carcinogenesis are the DSBs. During recent years efforts are being made to identify phytochemicals or other naturally occurring compounds which can reduce the harmful effect of radiation during accidental exposure or prevent normal tissue injury during radiotherapy. In present study, we have investigated the protective role of curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kaempferol against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. Groups of mice were fed 1 % of curcumin in diet for three weeks. Similarly other groups of mice were injected i.p. with 50 mg/kg body weight of taurine for five consecutive days. Other four groups of mice were injected i.p. with apigenin (10.8 mg/kg BW and 21.6 mg/kg BW), kaempferol (14.3 mg/kg BW and 28.6 mg/kg BW). After the completion of the treatment mice pre-treated with curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kaempferol were exposed to 2 or 3 Gy of gamma rays. Immediately after irradiation, alkaline comet assay was performed using standard procedures. Twenty four post radiation exposure mice were sacrificed for micronucleus test

  2. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, H P

    2012-02-03

    Taurine is a sulfonated beta amino acid derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism. It is present in high concentrations in most tissues and in particular in proinflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear phagocytes. Initial investigation into the multifaceted properties of this non-toxic physiologic amino acid revealed a link between retinal dysfunction and dietary deficiency. Since then a role for this amino acid has been found in membrane stabilization, bile salt formation, antioxidation, calcium homeostasis, growth modulation, and osmoregulation. Our own group has demonstrated a key role for taurine in modulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. This review summarizes our current knowledge of taurine in nutrition, host proinflammatory cell homeostasis, therapeutic applications, and its potential immunoregulatory properties. It is our belief that taurine, similar to arginine and glutamine, is now more than worthy of critical clinical analysis.

  3. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  4. Taurine modulation of hypochlorous acid-induced lung epithelial cell injury in vitro. Role of anion transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin, A M

    1994-01-01

    Airway secretions of cystic fibrosis patients were found to contain high concentrations of taurine, which decreased with antibiotic therapy during acute respiratory exacerbations. Taurine, in a 1:1 molar ratio with HOCl/OCl-, caused a 10-fold increase in the amount of HOCl/OCl- needed to induce cytotoxicity to the cat lung epithelial cell line, AKD. Although DMSO protected cells against HOCl/OCl(-)-mediated injury, the presence of an equimolar concentration of taurine with HOCl/OCl- prevented...

  5. Is there any cardioprotective role of Taurine during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamsizkan Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of Taurine on the donor hearts during cold ischemic period. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups (sham, taurine, ischemia, treatment group, 8 rats in each. All rats were fed with rat food for three weeks. Taurine and treatment groups were given a 200 mg/kg/day dose of Taurine by oral gavage besides rat feed. Cardiectomy was performed in all rats after three weeks. In ischemia and treatment groups, harvested hearts were kept in 0.9% sodium chloride at +4 degrees C for 5 hours. Tissue samples were taken from left ventricle in all groups. These samples were evaluated by histopathologic and biochemical examination. Results In the present study results of the biochemical and histopathological examination reveals the protective effects of Taurine. As a marker of lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in ischemia group were significantly higher than both Sham and Taurine groups. MDA values were recorded; 3.62 ± 0.197 in the sham group, 2.07 ± 0.751 in the Taurine group, 9.71 ± 1.439 in the ischemia group and 7.68 ± 1.365 in the treatment group. MDA levels decreased in treatment group. (p Conclusion Taurine decreased myocardial damage during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia.

  6. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  7. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  8. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-04-01

    The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased focus on the protection of groundwater and Natura 2000 sites. In particular, the implementation of Natura 2000 in Danish legislation has increased the demands on many farms. In its rulings on appealed cases, the Nature Protection Board of Appeal has strengthened its demands, and this is mirrored in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved, and that the main cause for this is not EIA regulations as such, but the positive role which the implementation of the Natura 2000 objectives has played in this development. However, it was also found that the formulation of demands varies greatly between the counties, thus often resulting in ambiguity and leaving room for quite different practices in different counties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can Nature Protection be Unsustainable? Models Behind Nature Protection in New Zealands National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauhs, Michael; Bogner, Christina

    2013-04-01

    Nature protection can be justified by intrinsic values of life. Western culture sees nature as an autonomous system. Thus, nature protection is often synonymous with refraining from human interference as much as possible. This, however, can pose at least technical problems. Indeed, historical human impacts such as introduced species are often irreversible. In such cases refraining from human interference to protect threatened species is not an adequate management response. Nature protection in New Zealand is a prominent example. Many introduced species make a non-interventionist attitude infeasible to protect endemic species such as kiwis. Actually, active human interference is necessary to attain this goal. Therefore, one may consider nature protection as another form of land use. As any other form of land use, it needs standards of proper management (i.e. explicit goals, assessment, intervention etc.). In other words, it has to be shown to be sustainable. However, sustainability may rigorously be defined as an attribute of past land use only. Instantaneous positive indicators of sustainability may be elusive. At best it can be decided by observation whether or not a land use has been (not) sustainable until now. Stakeholders of nature protection have often different (implicit) concepts or models of nature in mind. This can lead to conflicts when it comes to management decisions. For example, the methods by which conservationists in New Zealand seek to re-establish historical species assemblages (e.g. aerial drop of poison into national parks) have come under criticism of animal rights groups as non-humane. We propose to use abstract modelling language to classify these concepts of nature protection and related issues. We show that from modelling perspective these conflicts pose a basic science problem rather than an applied science problem. This makes the delegation into existing disciplines so hard. We discuss possible implications for nature protection

  10. Therapeutic action of taurine on the postirradiation recovery of the yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benevolenskij, V.N.; Yartsev, E.I.; Novosteltseva, S.D.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    It has been shown on X-irradiated Saccharomyces ellipsoides cells that taurine-potassium phosphate applied after the exposure has a therapeutic action, that is, it intensifies the natural process of intracellular dark repair

  11. Contribution to the study of the physiological behaviour of taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascheri, Marie-Claude

    1960-10-01

    This document reports an academic work based on the use of the isotopic dilution method to measure the taurine concentration in various organs belonging to a frog, a rabbit and a partridge. The author also studied some modalities of taurine distribution in the rabbit (apparent volume of taurine distribution, assessment of the exchangeable taurine mass), and the taurine excretion by the kidney [fr

  12. Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noruzi M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.

  13. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Taurine zinc SDs could prevent the bile-induced reduction in L02 cell viability. • Taurine zinc SDs can prevent cholestatic liver injury. • Taurine zinc SDs can inhibit BDL-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. • Taurine zinc SDs shows the cholesterol-lowering effects on cholestasis. • Taurine zinc SDs may suppress inflammation via dampening JNK phosphorylation. - Abstract: Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) for 17 days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce

  14. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  15. Taurine Biosynthesis by Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons. PMID:21778230

  16. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  17. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Neuroprotective actions of taurine on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Ma, Peng-Sheng; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ru; Hao, Yin-Ju; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, which has been proved to possess antioxidation, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Previously it has been demonstrated that taurine exerts ischemic brain injury protective effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effect of taurine has the possibility to be applied to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen to generate the experimental group. The cerebral damage area was measured after taurine post-treatment with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxyline-Eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), myeloperoxtidase (MPO), ATP and Lactic Acid productions were assayed with ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates. Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay were processed to detect the expressions of AIF, Cyt C, Bax, Bcl-2 in brain. We found that taurine significantly reduced brain infarct volume and ameliorated morphological injury obviously reversed the changes of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, T-AOC, ATP, MPO, and Lactic Acid levels. Compared with hypoxic-ischemic group, it showed marked reduction of AIF, Cyt C and Bax expressions and increase of Bcl-2 after post-treatment. We conclude that taurine possesses an efficacious neuroprotective effect after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-Ionizing Radiation: Nature and Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukasem, E.; Abdemalek, H.; Mosbah, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Last century, the humanity witnessed a vast development, after the industrial revolution, in many aspects of life. There was a real revolution in world of communications, the electromagnetic waves were produced and used in many applications like wireless communications, radio and television transmissions, information transfer, medical diagnosis and many other useful applications. Non-ionizing radiation, the radiation which has no enough energy to remove an electron from an atom, becomes indispensable life necessity and currently it is a subject of public debate about its effects and hazards on human life and environments. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency recognized this fact and tried to raise the public awareness towards by organizing seminars, workshops and expert meetings in the Arab region in order to study the theoretical and applies aspects of this type of radiation as well as to shed the light on its possible hazards and effects on human life. This booklet came as a result of many expert meetings to be an Arabic simple and comprehensive guide line about the nature of and the different methods of protection from its possible effects and hazards.(author)

  20. Protection against natural radiation: Optimisation and decision exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    Six easy exercises are presented in which cost-benefit analysis is used to optimise protection against natural radiation or to decide whether protection is appropriate. The exercises are illustrative only and do not commit the Board. (author)

  1. Enhanced taurine release in cell-damaging conditions in the developing and ageing mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saransaari, P; Oja, S S

    1997-08-01

    Taurine has been shown to be essential for neuronal development and survival in the central nervous system. The release of preloaded [3H]taurine was studied in hippocampal slices from seven-day-, three-month- and 18-22-month-old mice in cell-damaging conditions. The slices were superfused in hypoxic, hypoglycemic and ischemic conditions and exposed to free radicals and oxidative stress. The release of taurine was greatly enhanced in the above conditions in all age groups, except in oxidative stress. The release was large in ischemia, particularly in the hippocampus of aged mice. Potassium stimulation was still able to release taurine in cell-damaging conditions in immature mice, whereas in adult and aged animals the release was so substantial that this additional stimulus failed to work. Taurine release was partially Ca2+-dependent in all cases. The massive release of the inhibitory amino acid taurine in ischemic conditions could act neuroprotectively, counteracting in several ways the effects of simultaneous release of excitatory amino acids. This protection could be of great importance in developing brain tissue, while also having an effect in aged brains.

  2. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  3. The links between protected areas, faiths, and sacred natural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nigel; Higgins-Zogib, Liza; Mansourian, Stephanie

    2009-06-01

    Most people follow and are influenced by some kind of spiritual faith. We examined two ways in which religious faiths can in turn influence biodiversity conservation in protected areas. First, biodiversity conservation is influenced through the direct and often effective protection afforded to wild species in sacred natural sites and in seminatural habitats around religious buildings. Sacred natural sites are almost certainly the world's oldest form of habitat protection. Although some sacred natural sites exist inside official protected areas, many thousands more form a largely unrecognized "shadow" conservation network in many countries throughout the world, which can be more stringently protected than state-run reserves. Second, faiths have a profound impact on attitudes to protection of the natural world through their philosophy, teachings, investment choices, approaches to land they control, and religious-based management systems. We considered the interactions between faiths and protected areas with respect to all 11 mainstream faiths and to a number of local belief systems. The close links between faiths and habitat protection offer major conservation opportunities, but also pose challenges. Bringing a sacred natural site into a national protected-area system can increase protection for the site, but may compromise some of its spiritual values or even its conservation values. Most protected-area managers are not trained to manage natural sites for religious purposes, but many sacred natural sites are under threat from cultural changes and habitat degradation. Decisions about whether or not to make a sacred natural site an "official" protected area therefore need to be made on a case-by-case basis. Such sites can play an important role in conservation inside and outside official protected areas. More information about the conservation value of sacred lands is needed as is more informed experience in integrating these into wider conservation strategies. In

  4. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  5. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  6. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  7. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca 2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism

  8. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  9. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased...... in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved......, and that the main cause for this is not EIA regulations as such, but the positive role which the implementation of the Natura 2000 objectives has played in this development. However, it was also found that the formulation of demands varies greatly between the counties, thus often resulting in ambiguity and leaving...

  10. A role of taurine in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Cornett, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial pH gradient across the inner-membrane is stabilised by buffering of the matrix. A low-molecular mass buffer compound has to be localised in the matrix to maintain its alkaline pH value. Taurine is found ubiquitously in animal cells with concentrations in the millimolar range...... enzymes, which are pivotal for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, are demonstrated to have optimal activity in a taurine buffer. By application of the model presented, taurine depletion caused by hyperglycemia could provide a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes....

  11. Neuroprotection of taurine against reactive oxygen species is associated with inhibiting NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Gao, Li-Yan; Lin, Yu-Hui; Chang, Lei; Wu, Hai-Yin; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-04-15

    It is well established that taurine shows potent protection against glutamate-induced injury to neurons in stroke. The neuroprotection may result from multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidences suggest that NADPH oxidases (Nox), the primary source of superoxide induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, are involved in the process of oxidative stress. We found that 100μM NMDA induced oxidative stress by increasing the reactive oxygen species level, which contributed to the cell death, in vitro. Neuron cultures pretreated with 25mM taurine showed lower percentage of death cells and declined reactive oxygen species level. Moreover, taurine attenuated Nox2/Nox4 protein expression and enzyme activity and declined intracellular calcium intensity during NMDA-induced neuron injury. Additionally, taurine also showed neuroprotection against H2O2-induced injury, accompanying with Nox inhibition. So, we suppose that protection of taurine against reactive oxygen species during NMDA-induced neuron injury is associated with Nox inhibition, probably in a calcium-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemoprotective Effect of Taurine on Potassium Bromate-Induced DNA Damage, DNA-Protein Cross-Linking and Oxidative Stress in Rat Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds. PMID:25748174

  13. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  14. Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Christopher L.; Nivala, Angela M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T.; Wang, Dong; Wei, Yuren; Jiang, Hua; Orlicky, David J.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is now at epidemic proportions and has resulted in the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disorder that can lead to liver injury and cirrhosis. Excess sucrose and long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet may play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD. One factor linking sucrose and saturated fatty acids to liver damage is dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although there is currently no proven, effective therapy for NAFLD, the amino sulfonic acid taurine is protective against various metabolic disturbances, including alcohol-induced liver damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine to serve as a preventative treatment for diet-induced NAFLD. We report that taurine significantly mitigated palmitate-mediated caspase-3 activity, cell death, ER stress, and oxidative stress in H4IIE liver cells and primary hepatocytes. In rats fed a high-sucrose diet, dietary taurine supplementation significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury, inflammation, plasma triglycerides, and insulin levels. The high-sucrose diet resulted in an induction of multiple components of the unfolded protein response in the liver consistent with ER stress, which was ameliorated by taurine supplementation. Treatment of mice with the ER stress-inducing agent tunicamycin resulted in liver injury, unfolded protein response induction, and hepatic lipid accumulation that was significantly ameliorated by dietary supplementation with taurine. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation with taurine offers significant potential as a preventative treatment for NAFLD. PMID:21957160

  15. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  16. Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Idris, Umar F; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ojuade, TeminiJesu D; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-01-05

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that excessive exposure to fluoride induced neurodevelopmental toxicity both in humans and animals. Taurine is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of taurine by evaluating the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment while the brain structures namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical determinations. Results showed that taurine administration prevented NaF-induced locomotor and motor deficits namely decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle along with weak forelimb grip, increased incidence of fecal pellets and time of grooming, immobility and negative geotaxis. The taurine mediated enhancement of the exploratory profiles of NaF-exposed rats was supported by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, taurine prevented NaF-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels but increased acetylcholinesterase and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Collectively, taurine protected against NaF-induced neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving the restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status with concomitant inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bayarmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Have been obtained 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine from ethanolamine, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite during the synthesis in laboratory condition. The process involves two steps of reactions, the first was esterification of ethanolamine with sulfuric acid to produce the intermediate product of 2-aminoethyl ester which than was extended to the second step by sulfonation with sodium sulfite to produce 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid. Resulting product was analyzed using 1H-NMR, IR, FAB-MS analysis and examined purity characterizations of the synthesized products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.200 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p57-60

  19. Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release, are produced in support of the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation as selection criteria...

  20. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may

  1. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are defective in the taurine-deficient heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-12-01

    Taurine depletion leads to impaired mitochondrial function, as characterized by reduced ATP production and elevated superoxide generation. These defects can fundamentally alter cardiomyocyte function and if left unchanged can result in cell death. To protect against these stresses, cardiomyocytes possess quality control processes, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, which can rejuvenate cells through the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. Hence, the present study tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species generated by damaged mitochondria initiates UPS and autophagy in the taurine-deficient heart. Using transgenic mice lacking the taurine transporter (TauTKO) as a model of taurine deficiency, it was shown that the levels of ubiquitinated protein were elevated, an effect associated with a decrease in ATP-dependent 26S β5 proteasome activity. Treating the TauTKO mouse with the mitochondria-specific antioxidant, mitoTEMPO, largely abolished the increase in ubiquitinated protein content. The TauTKO heart was also associated with impaired autophagy, characterized by an increase in the initiator, Beclin-1, and autophagosome content, but a defect in the generation of active autophagolysosomes. Although mitoTEMPO treatment only restores the oxidative balance within the mitochondria, it appeared to completely disrupt the crosstalk between the damaged mitochondria and the quality control processes. Thus, mitochondrial oxidative stress is the main trigger initiating the quality control systems in the taurine-deficient heart. We conclude that the activation of the UPS and autophagy is another fundamental function of mitochondria.

  2. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  3. Intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of ursodeoxycholic acid and its taurine conjugate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, G; Kloeters-Plachky, P; Sauer, P; Stiehl, A

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) exert a protective effect in cholestatic liver diseases. A greater hepatoprotective effect of TUDCA has been suggested. Absorption appears to be a limiting factor and up to now has not been studied in man. Methods We studied

  4. Effect of taurine on attenuating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion our results indicated that taurine supplementation could be a protection against chemotherapy-induced toxicities probably by its antioxidant capacity. Present study showed effectiveness of taurineon the chemotherapy-related toxicities and some of the complications during the maintenance period of treatment following coadministration in young adults with ALL.

  5. Physiological role of taurine - from organism to organelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Kristensen, David Møbjerg Boslev; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized...... in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine...... biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift...

  6. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Ju Jong, Chian; KC, Ramila; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeost...

  7. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  8. Taurine inhibits 2,5-hexanedione-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangyue; Guan, Huai; Qian, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yijie; Gao, Chenxue; Li, Guixin; Yang, Yi; Piao, Fengyuan; Hu, Shuhai

    2017-04-07

    2,5-hexanedione (HD) is the ultimate neurotoxic metabolite of hexane, causing the progression of nerve diseases in human. It was reported that HD induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taurine has been shown to be a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the protection of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Our results showed the decreased viability and increased apoptosis in HD-exposed PC12 cells. HD also induced the disturbance of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the loss of MMP, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, HD resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a decline in the activities of superoxidedismutase and catalase in PC12 cells. However, taurine pretreatment ameliorated the increased apoptosis and the alterations in key regulators of mitochondria-dependent pathway in PC12 exposed to HD. The increased ROS level and the decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes in HD group were attenuated by taurine. These results indicate that pretreatment of taurine may, at least partly, prevent HD-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-dependent pathway. It is also suggested that the potential of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis may benefit from its anti-oxidative property.

  9. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  10. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  11. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  12. Radiation protection with respect for nature, views from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.

    2002-01-01

    My new proposal was summarised below for the protection of environment based on the understanding that we can exist on earth only in the balance of nature. We must follow the providence of nature and attain the golden mean in nature. For justification and optimisation, any concrete idea has not been provided, but one of the approaches was shown in the present paper. We have to abandon anthropocentrism and change our sense of value and moral standards with the respect for nature. For practice, the dose limit at the boundary of facilities could be derived from the regional difference of dose rates in the world as an acceptable level to nature. The dose rate would be around 1 mGy per year. Release limit for radionuclides could be defined separately to natural and artificial nuclides. For natural radionuclides, normal ambient concentration can be used for the limit. For artificial radionuclides, the limit might be based on the derived dose rate taking into account the accumulation. For intervention, an analogical approach to natural disasters could be applied. When the situation is easy to recover, then it should be restored. In case it is not easy, then the damage should be confined not to spread outside. For potential exposure, two approaches are suggested for prevention and mitigation. Renewal system is proposed for prevention and decentralization for mitigation. A rigid number for the dose limit is shown in the present paper, as well as renewal or relocation for the radiation protection for environment. However, it is not necessary to take them as they are. For the practical application, definitely it requires some modification. Therefore, present suggestions should be taken as some hint for the establishment of radiation protection system for environment. Especially the suggested dose limit of 1 mGy per year should be taken as the lowest limit for the acceptable level to nature. (author)

  13. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  14. Geographical scoping and willingness-to-pay for nature protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W. J.Wouter; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a Choice Experiment (CE) analysis of geographical scope effects. About 500 stated preference surveys were conducted to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for nature protection in the Netherlands and the Caribbean Netherlands which became part of the Netherlands’ constitution just

  15. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation includes natural radiation which has been part cosmic radiation. Radon in homes, irradiation, gamma, among others, they have also been part of ionizing radiation. The activities that have lead to natural radiation materials are: mining and processing of uranium, radio application and thorium, phosphate industry, mining and smelting of metals, oil and gas extraction, coal mining and power generation, rare earth industry and titanium, zirconium and ceramics, building materials, waste water purification. Therefore, different criteria for radiation protection have had to create against exposure to natural radiation. Distinct rules and regulations to control were created in that sense [es

  16. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  17. Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon-Steensma Jantsje M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, the concept of a multifunctional dike has already often been implemented, and has been identified as a promising climate adaptation measure. In a multifunctional dike, functions like urban development, transport infrastructure, recreation, agriculture or nature are deliberately combined with its primary flood protection function. This means that the design must be based on the requirements and life span of all different functions, while in a monofunctional dike only the flood protection function is considered. By accommodating other functions, a multifunctional dike may easier fit into, or even contribute to the quality of the landscape. Moreover, these other functions may help in financing the flood protection works, but governance is more complicated. To avoid costly adjustments forthcoming from changed safety standards, incorporation of multiple functions can require a more “robust” flood defence than a monofunctional flood defence. A robust flood defence can withstand more extreme situations than required by the present safety standards, and has a substantially lower flooding probability. Therefore, a multifunctional dike may be attractive in view of the uncertainties regarding the effects of climate change and a changing world. Moreover, it will result in reduced flood risk. As part of the Dutch Delta programme, several explorative studies on multifunctional dikes were initiated. Most studies focused on urban areas, but also in the rural area interest emerged for multifunctional dikes, e.g. for the integration of salt marshes into the flood defences. Marshes provide valuable habitat for vegetation and invertebrate species, and are important for wading birds. Furthermore, under condition of abundant sediment availability they can keep pace with sea level rise. Explorative modelling results indicate that vegetated forelands affect wave heights, even under extreme conditions. However, the inclusion of a vegetated

  18. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  19. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  20. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of humans to natural sources of radiation has been a continuous and inevitable feature of life on earth. This exposure exceeds all due to artificial sources combined for most people. Many exposures to natural radiation sources are modified by human action. In particular, natural radionuclides are released into the environment in mineral processing and in activities such as the production of phosphate fertilizers and the use of fossil fuels. An increase of exposures to this natural radiation is caused. The relevance of exposure to natural radiation is confirmed by the fact that, for most people, the exposures to natural background radiation have been much more significant than exposures to artificial sources, with exceptions. Among these exceptions have been noted: medical exposures, accidents with release of radionuclides and some specific workplaces. In all cases, however, the natural background radiation has formed the basis on which all the others exposures are added and is a common level serving as compared to other exposures. Regulations and instructions have begun to establish in some countries to regulate natural radiation, countries like Spain, have already incorporated into its regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation the subject of natural radiation. (author) [es

  1. Taurin and its secrets in experimental hepatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Kononov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a unique amino acid. It has various biological effects aimed at maintaining physiological homeostasis, including antioxidation, modulation of ion transport, osmoregulation, regulation of neurotransmitters and conjugation of bile acids. Its regulatory effect on the normalization of protein, carbohydrate, electrolyte metabolism, the activity of a number of enzymes and hormones, the energy and recovery processes in the body, the strengthening of the immune system are associated with the stabilizing effect of taurine on the membranes. Its conjugation with bile acids contributes to the colloidal stability of bile, which is extremely necessary to maintain a normal level of cholesterol in the blood. The treatment and prevention of various diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver, obesity, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, as well as insulin resistance and manifested diabetes mellitus, eye diseases, neuroses and depressions are associated with the normalization of the exchange of taurine in the liver. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to taurine as a powerful hepatoprotector, based on experimental studies.

  2. Taurine ameliorated homocysteine-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Zhao, Lianyou; Zhou, Yanfen; Lu, Xuanhao; Wang, Zhengqiang; Wang, Jipeng; Li, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy)-triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis has been suggested as a cause of Hcy-dependent vascular injury. However, whether ER stress is the molecular mechanism linking Hcy and cardiomyocytes death is unclear. Taurine has been reported to exert cardioprotective effects via various mechanisms. However, whether taurine protects against Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte death by attenuating ER stress is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the opposite effects of taurine on Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and their underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that low-dose or short-term Hcy treatment increased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which in turn prevented apoptotic cell death. High-dose Hcy or prolonged Hcy treatment duration significantly up-regulated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and then triggered apoptotic events. High-dose Hcy also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and an increase in cytoplasmic cytochrome C and the expression of cleaved caspase-9. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with sodium 4-phenylbutyric acid (an ER stress inhibitor) significantly inhibited Hcy-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking the PERK pathway partly alleviated Hcy-induced ER stress-modulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and down-regulated the levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Experimental taurine pretreatment inhibited the expression of ER stress-related proteins, and protected against apoptotic events triggered by Hcy-induced ER stress. Taken together, our results suggest that Hcy triggered ER stress in cardiomyocytes, which was the crucial molecular mechanism mediating Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the adverse effect of Hcy could be prevented by taurine.

  3. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  4. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  5. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  6. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  7. Taurine and tea polyphenols combination ameliorate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhua; Chen, Siwen; Chen, Ronggui; Peng, Zhiqing; Wan, Jun; Wu, Benyan

    2017-09-08

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, for which there is currently no safe and effective drug for therapy. In this study, we explored the effects of taurine, tea polyphenols (TPs), or a combination thereof, on NASH rats. Rats were divided into a normal group, a high-fat diet induced model group and a treatment group (including taurine, TPs, or taurine + TPs treatment for 8 weeks). Twelve weeks later, all rats were sacrificed, and serum transaminase, lipid and lipopolysaccharide levels and hepatic oxidative stress levels were determined. Histological changes were evaluated. In NASH rats, hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, oxidative stress and elevated lipopolysaccharide levels were confirmed. Taurine treatment alleviated hepatocyte damage and oxidative stress. TPs treatment improved lipid metabolism and increased hepatic antioxidant activity. The therapeutic effects of taurine + TPs treatment on hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, and oxidative stress were superior to those of taurine and TPs treatment, respectively. Taurine, TPs and their combination all decreased serum lipopolysaccharide levels in NASH rats, but the combination of the compounds caused these levels to decrease more significantly than taurine or TPs treatment alone. Taurine combined with TPs treatment could relieve NASH by alleviating hepatocyte damage, decreasing oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism and gut flora disturbance partly. Taurine and TPs combination may act as a new effective medicine for treating NASH patients.

  8. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  9. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective roles of natural IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eGrönwall

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are a vital part of the armentarium of the adaptive immune system for the fine-tuning of the recognition and response to foreign threats. However, in health there are some types of antibodies that instead recognize self-antigens for the enhancement of primitive innate functions. The repertoire of natural IgM antibodies is postulated to have been selected during immune evolution for their contributions to critical immunoregulatory and housekeeping properties. The clearance of dying cells is one of the most essential responsibilities of the immune system, which is essential to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. In the murine immune system, natural IgM antibodies that recognize apoptotic cells have been shown to enhance the phagocytic clearance of dead and dying cells and to suppress innate immune signaling pathways. In the mouse, natural IgM are often the products of B-1 cell clones that arise during immune development without an absolute requirement for exogenous antigenic stimulation. In patients with systemic lupus erythemtosus, IgM autoantibodies, which bind to neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells, have been demonstrated to be present at significantly higher levels in patients with lower disease activity and with less severe organ damage. While certain specificities of IgM autoantibodies correlate with protection from lupus renal disease, others may convey protective properties from lupus-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New unexpected insights into the functional roles of IgM antibodies are still emerging, especially regarding the functions of natural antibodies. Herein, we review recent progress in our understanding of the potential roles of natural IgM autoantibodies in the regulation of immune homeostasis and for protection from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  11. Hiking tourism development in protected areas and nature hazard prevention in the Lake Baikal natural territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkova Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, recreational development has been permitted in strict nature reserves (zapovedniks in Russia, the most highly protected category of Russian Federal Protected Areas. As zapovedniks comply with the 1b IUCN category for wilderness preservation, human activities within the reserves have been limited and, consequently, there has been little research on the natural hazard impact for tourism. The type of recreational use permitted in the territories and their buffer zones is called Educational Tourism. It is identified as “as a specialized type of ecological tourism where the main goal is an introduction to natural and cultural attractions”. Hiking is seen as one of these suitable types of tourism within the territories of zapovedniks, due to its low impact on natural features. As hiking trails are laid through natural landscapes, it is possible that natural disasters can both damage the infrastructure and cause fatal injuries for visitors. During the planning stages of trail construction, natural hazard monitoring should be conducted. Baikalskii Nature Biosphere Zapovednik in the Lake Baikal region is used as a model territory where scientific research and engineering are employed to better develop hiking tourism. Along with the monitoring of natural processes, several scenarios for trail planning, construction, and maintenance are being analyzed under the threat of mud slides, avalanches and floods.

  12. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  13. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  14. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  15. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  16. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  17. Analyzing nature's protective design: The glyptodont body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anton; Broeckhoven, Chris; Yadroitsev, Igor; Yadroitsava, Ina; le Roux, Stephan Gerhard

    2018-06-01

    Many animal species evolved some form of body armor, such as scales of fish and bony plates or osteoderms of reptiles. Although a protective function is often taken for granted, recent studies show that body armor might comprise multiple functionalities and is shaped by trade-offs among these functionalities. Hence, despite the fact that natural body armor might serve as bio-inspiration for the development of artificial protective materials, focussing on model systems in which body armor serves a solely protective function might be pivotal. In this study, we investigate the osteoderms of Glyptotherium arizonae, an extinct armadillo-like mammal in which body armor evolved as protection against predators and/or tail club blows of conspecifics. By using a combination of micro-computed tomography, reverse-engineering, stress simulations and mechanical testing of 3D printed models, we show that the combination of dense compact layers and porous lattice core might provide an optimized combination of strength and high energy absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis.

  19. Taurin and its secrets in experimental hepatology

    OpenAIRE

    I.N. Kononov; V.N. Muslin; D.A. Ptushkina

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is a unique amino acid. It has various biological effects aimed at maintaining physiological homeostasis, including antioxidation, modulation of ion transport, osmoregulation, regulation of neurotransmitters and conjugation of bile acids. Its regulatory effect on the normalization of protein, carbohydrate, electrolyte metabolism, the activity of a number of enzymes and hormones, the energy and recovery processes in the body, the strengthening of the immune system are associated with t...

  20. Role of myeloperoxidase in abdominal aortic aneurysm formation: mitigation by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Won; Blomkalns, Andra L; Ogbi, Mourad; Thomas, Manesh; Gavrila, Daniel; Neltner, Bonnie S; Cassis, Lisa A; Thompson, Robert W; Weiss, Robert M; Lindower, Paul D; Blanco, Victor M; McCormick, Michael L; Daugherty, Alan; Fu, Xiaoming; Hazen, Stanley L; Stansfield, Brian K; Huo, Yuqing; Fulton, David J; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a fundamental role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (or neutrophils) are associated with AAA and express myeloperoxidase (MPO), which promotes inflammation, matrix degradation, and other pathological features of AAA, including enhanced oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species. Both plasma and aortic MPO levels are elevated in patients with AAA, but the role of MPO in AAA pathogenesis has, heretofore, never been investigated. Here, we show that MPO gene deletion attenuates AAA formation in two animal models: ANG II infusion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and elastase perfusion in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of taurine [1% or 4% (wt/vol) in drinking water], an amino acid known to react rapidly with MPO-generated oxidants like hypochlorous acid, also prevented AAA formation in the ANG II and elastase models as well as the CaCl 2 application model of AAA formation while reducing aortic peroxidase activity and aortic protein-bound dityrosine levels, an oxidative cross link formed by MPO. Both MPO gene deletion and taurine supplementation blunted aortic macrophage accumulation, elastin fragmentation, and matrix metalloproteinase activation, key features of AAA pathogenesis. Moreover, MPO gene deletion and taurine administration significantly attenuated the induction of serum amyloid A, which promotes ANG II-induced AAAs. These data implicate MPO in AAA pathogenesis and suggest that studies exploring whether taurine can serve as a potential therapeutic for the prevention or treatment of AAA in patients merit consideration. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neutrophils are abundant in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), prominently expressed in neutrophils, is associated with AAA in humans. This study demonstrates that MPO gene deletion or supplementation with the natural product taurine, which can scavenge MPO-generated oxidants, can prevent AAA formation

  1. Protection of the natural environment - philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear operations give rise to small releases of radionuclides to the environment either under controlled conditions (immediate releases) or uncontrolled from waste repositories in the near or far future (delayed releases). The radiation doses to man from the discharges can be estimated using radioecological and dispersion modelling methods. The system for limiting exposure of individual members of the public is currently based on the recommendation by the ICRP. Their risk philosophy, which stems from the fact that the probability of cancer resulting from radiation will be linear with dose, has hitherto gained broad acceptances for setting authorised dose-limits for man. A discussion has recently emerged on the protection of the natural environment from harmful radiation effects. In this case there is concern for the viability of the population rather than the individuals. As our understanding of important mechanisms regarding the protection of the environment is limited it seems appropriate to adopt a precautionary approach. In matters where little is known about the risks the precautionary principle has a major role to play. Concomitantly, the best available technology (BAT), as stated in the precautionary principle, could be employed to minimise discharges of radionuclides. The development of a regulatory frame-work requires that an objective is set and that standards and indicators are derived in a multi-tiered approach. By applying the precautionary principle for environmental radiation protection the safety margins have to increase. However improving knowledge may in due time lead to more rational decision-making

  2. Natural dyeing and UV protection of plasma treated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjanc, Marija; Mozetič, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Zaplotnik, Rok

    2018-03-01

    Raw cotton fabrics have been exposed to low-pressure non-equilibrium gaseous plasma to improve the adsorption of natural dyes as well as ultraviolet (UV) protection factor. Plasma created in a glass tube by an electrodeless radiofrequency (RF) discharge was created either in oxygen or ammonia at the pressure of 50 Pa to stimulate formation of oxygen and nitrogen groups, respectively. The type and concentration of functional groups was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and morphological modifications by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The colour yield for curcumin dye was improved significantly for samples treated with ammonia plasma what was explained by bonding of the dye to surface of amino groups. Contrary, the yield decreased when oxygen plasma treatment was applied due to the negatively charged surface that repels the negatively charged dye molecules. The effect was even more pronounced when using green tea extract as the colouring agent. The colour difference between the untreated and ammonia plasma treated sample increased linearly with plasma treatment time reaching the factor of 3.5 for treatment time of 300 s. The ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was over 50 indicating excellent protection due to improved adsorption of the dye on the ammonia plasma treated samples.

  3. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  4. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  5. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  6. Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Neuronal Excitability and Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Idrissi, Abdeslem; El Hilali, Fatiha; Rotondo, Salvatore; Sidime, Francoise

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of chronic taurine supplementation on plasma glucose homeostasis and brain excitability through activation of the insulin receptor. FVB/NJ male mice were supplemented with taurine in drinking water (0.05% w/v) for 4 weeks and subjected to a glucose tolerance test (7.5 mg/kg BW) after 12 h fasting. We found that taurine-fed mice were slightly hypoglycemic prior to glucose injection and showed significantly reduced plasma glucose at 30 and 60 min post-glucose injection when compared to control mice. Previously, we reported that taurine supplementation induces biochemical changes that target the GABAergic system. Those studies show that taurine-fed mice are hyperexcitable, have reduced GABA A receptors expression and increased GAD and somatostatin expression in the brain. In this study, we found that taurine-fed mice had a significant increase in insulin receptor (IR) immuno-reactivity in the pancreas and all brain regions examined. At the mRNA level, we found that the IR showed differential regional expression. Surprisingly, we found that neurons express the gene for insulin and that taurine had a significant role in regulating insulin gene expression. We propose that increased insulin production and secretion in taurine-fed mice cause an increase activation of the central IR and may be partially responsible for the increased neuronal excitability observed in taurine supplemented mice. Furthermore, the high levels of neuronal insulin expression and its regulation by taurine implicates taurine in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Nature un-protected. Natur ohne Schutz. Neue Oekostrategien gegen die Umwelt-Zerstoerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelsche, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this book authors of the 'Spiegel' draw a picture of the worldwide destruction of nature - dying forests, poisoned seas, polluted rivers - and portray the West German ecologic movement from Grzimek to Greenpeace: sectarian dreamers in 'green shag', the strategies of radical underground militants forming a kind of 'Green Army Fraction', and the concepts of an ecologically-minded New Nature Protection. Jochen Boelsche, the publisher, outlines a model of 'free-and-ecological enterprise' - the last chance for man to stop ruinous exploitation of his life bases.

  8. The Possible HEPATOPROTECTIVE Effect Of Taurine In Diethyl Nitrosamine (DEN) Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAROUD, M.N.M.; ABD EL-MONEIM, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Egypt occupies a progressed rank among the developing countries in prevalence of hepatic diseases and liver disorders. Hepatopathies are major public health problems in Egypt where hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomia record a high prevalence which may account for the most serious clinical disorders e.g. liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most specific and potent mitogen of endothelial cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by increased pathologic angio genesis and increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Taurine is clinically used as a protecting agent of the liver and recently, its chemo preventive effect on rat large bowel carcinogenesis was reported.In this study, forty male albino rats were used and diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) was used for inducing pathological changes in different organs while taurine was given to investigate the possible protective effects on liver tissue after DEN treatment.The results showed elevation in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides in DEN group. On the other hand, estimation of sex hormones exhibited marked decrease in testosterone and significant increase in estradiol levels in DEN group as compared to control and taurine groups.Pathological examination of rat liver showed that DEN induced peri portal inflammatory cellular infiltrate, piece meal necrosis and necro inflammatory activity as well as the appearance of areas of haemorrhage and ballooning in hepatocytes. Moreover, moderate to high expression of V EGF in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells were clearly observed while in control and taurine groups, normal architecture of hepatic tissue of rats was found and normal distribution of V EGF as diffuse or focal granular cytoplasmic stain in rats liver were observed. The prophylactic group showed minimal and mild changes in the liver tissue with absence of necro inflammation and the V EGF expression

  9. Vanadyl sulfate, taurine, and combined vanadyl sulfate and taurine treatments in diabetic rats: effects on the oxidative and antioxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Sibel; Sarandol, Emre; Ayvalik, Sedef Ziyanok; Serdar, Zehra; Dirican, Melahat

    2007-04-01

    Vanadyl sulfate (VS) and taurine are two promising agents in the treatment of diabetes related to their antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic effects. Data about the effects of VS on the oxidant-antioxidant system is limited and controversial. However, taurine is a well-documented antioxidant agent and our aim was to investigate the effects of VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination on the oxidative-antioxidative systems in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic rats. Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered. VS (0.75 mg/mL) and taurine (1%) were added to drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided as control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes+VS (D+VS), diabetes+taurine (D+T), diabetes+VS and taurine (D+VST). Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using commercial kits. VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination treatments reduced the enhanced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, tissue MDA and plasma MDA (except in the D+VS group) levels and increased the reduced serum insulin level, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity (except in the D+VS group). The findings of the present study suggest that VS and taurine exert beneficial effects on the blood glucose and lipid levels in STZ-NA diabetic rats. However, VS might exert prooxidative or antioxidative effects in various components of the body and taurine and VS combination might be an alternative for sole VS administration.

  10. Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Fang, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Ren-Rang; Yang, Gong-She; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  12. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  13. CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS VERSUS THE PROTECTION OF NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hanna Szafranko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction investments are related to the economic development of each country. Expansion of towns and settlements, construction, industrial, commercial and recreational objects and the communication network is necessary and results from regional development strategies. For their implementation it is necessary to prepare the area designated for their development. In many regions of our country area suitable for construction are increasingly limited, and furthermore investors often looks for an attractive investment location. For this reason, more and more construction projects dangerously close to areas of high natural value and protected and often are entering the these areas. To minimize the negative investment impact on the environment there are developed several variants of investment. Next, assessing the positive and negative effects, we choose the best, from the point of view of the surrounding environment solution. To illustrate the procedure example of analysis using the method proposed by the author, the indicator is shown.

  14. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and 3 H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals

  15. TAURINE REGULATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS IN RETINAL NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Matthew JM; Bulley, Simon; Purpura, Lauren; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine activates not only Cl−-permeable ionotropic receptors, but also receptors that mediate metabotropic responses. The metabotropic property of taurine was revealed in electrophysiological recordings obtained after fully blocking Cl−-permeable receptors with an inhibitory “cocktail” consisting of picrotoxin, SR95531, and strychnine. We found that taurine’s metabotropic effects regulate voltage-gated channels in retinal neurons. After applying the inhibitory cocktail, taurine enhanced delayed outward rectifier K+ channels preferentially in Off-bipolar cells, and the effect was completely blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Additionally, taurine also acted through a metabotropic pathway to suppress both L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in retinal neurons, which were insensitive to the potent GABAB receptor inhibitor, CGP55845. This study reinforces our previous finding that taurine in physiological concentrations produces a multiplicity of metabotropic effects that precisely govern the integration of signals being transmitted from the retina to the brain. PMID:23392926

  16. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  17. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Aurel Sava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice (postnatal days 2-4. In 46 % of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 mM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs by 744.3 ± 93.8 % (n = 120 cells. This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 mM tetrodotoxine, 1 mM strychnine or 3 mM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX and (± R(--3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate action potentials in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors.

  18. Intracerebroventricular administration of taurine impairs learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevž; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-03-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid widely distributed in the body and we take in it from a wide range of nutritive-tonic drinks to improve health. To date, we have elucidated that oral supplementation of taurine does not affect learning and memory in the rat. However, there are few studies concerning the direct effects of taurine in the brain at the behavior level. In this study, we intracerebroventricularly administered taurine to rats and aimed to elucidate the acute effects on learning and memory using the Morris water maze method. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone, which is the integral of the distance between the rats and the platform for every 0.16 seconds, were adopted as parameters of the ability of learning and memory. We also tried to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal taurine administration. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone were significantly longer in the intracerebroventricularly taurine-administered rats than in the saline-administered rats. Mean swimming velocity was comparable between these two groups, although the physical performance was improved by taurine administration. Probe trials showed that the manner of the rats in finding the platform was comparable. In contrast, no significant differences were found between the intraperitoneally taurine-administered rats and the saline-administered rats. These results indicate that taurine administered directly into the brain ventricle suppresses and delays the ability of learning and memory in rats. In contrast, it is implied that taurine administered peripherally was not involved in learning and memory.

  19. Regulation of taurine transport systems by protein kinase CK2 in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hansen, Daniel Bloch

    2011-01-01

    regulate the cellular content of the major cellular organic osmolyte, taurine with emphasis on CK2 mediated regulation of active taurine uptake and volume-sensitive taurine release. Furthermore, we discuss how CK2-mediated regulation of taurine homeostasis is potentially involved in cellular functions...

  20. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    Through natural selection, living organisms have evolved well-adapted survival strategies over time. The shallow salt waters of Moorea lagoon are the site of accumulation of microbial mats called "Kopara," in the native Polynesian language. This unique ecosystem is rich in film-forming exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by microorganisms within the biofilm, as a mean to protect themselves from environmental stress (strong ultraviolet [UV], pH, salinity … ). Using blue biotechnology, a manufacturing process was developed to obtain an EPS with skin benefits. The active ingredient (EPS-229) protects against urban pollution, including free radicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with a size lower than 2.5 μm). The anti-lipid peroxidation action of EPS-229 was studied in an in vitro UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture model, using lipophilic fluorescent probe. The chelating properties of EPS-229 were evaluated in tubo in the presence of cadmium and lead. The protective effect of EPS-229 on pollution-exposed skin explants was investigated through quantification of released malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological observation of skin morphology using optical microscopy. Clinical evaluation of the protective and cleansing efficacy of a water solution containing EPS-229 (0.02% and 0.01% w/v, respectively) was performed, against placebo, on a panel of 18 volunteers. For these studies, the forearms of volunteers were treated with EPS-229 before (anti-adhesion affect) or after (cleansing effect) application of PM 2.5 (iron particles of 1 μm). The presence of skin-adherent particles was observed and quantified by image analysis, using specific digital masks. In vitro , EPS-229 significantly protected keratinocyte cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. A decrease of 28% was achieved when a concentration of 0.001% w/v EPS-229 was applied to the cell culture. In tubo , EPS-229 also presented strong chelating properties. Maximal adsorption was

  1. Are natural killer cells protecting the metabolically healthy obese patient?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia A

    2012-02-01

    With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg\\/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg\\/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.

  2. Gold nanoparticles applications in natural polymer modified for UV protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Iris O. da; Ladchumananandasivam, Rasiah; Nascimento, Jose H. O. do; Silva, Francisco C. da; Sa, Christiane S. de A.

    2015-01-01

    The protein-based polymers such as milk, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and soya can be cited as examples of substrates used in various fields of engineering, mainly due to its character of biodegradability, generating low environmental impact when compared to chemical polymers to petroleum-based, which take years to decompose in nature. Among these, soy fiber has great application potential because it is a manufactured material base of a residue obtained from the existing folder in the soybean seeds after oil extraction, using resins and chemicals for structural modification. In this work, soy mesh was used to develop a material with ultraviolet protection properties, through the use of nanotechnology. Thus, to connect the gold nanoparticles (NPAu), the fabric had a surface charge modified with the use of chitosan, using 20% of the weight of the material, followed by nanomaterials exhaust process. The NPAu were synthesized via chemical synthesis with sodium nitrate as reducing and stabilizing agent. The analysis of the solution samples were evaluated by absorbance spectroscopy and solid materials through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XRD X-ray diffraction. The size of NPAu was evaluated in equipment Zetasizer nanoseries / nanoZ, finding nanoparticles with an average size of 34.59 nm, and also underlined plasmon resonance phenomenon, with peaks between 530 nm and red coloration, and good results from the soundness washes, compared to conventional dyeing. It was found that soy polymer treated with NPAu presented an excellent property with ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of +50, considered excellent, proving its potential application in the biomedical field. (author)

  3. Biophysical insight into the anti-amyloidogenic behavior of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Javed Masood; Siddiqui, Mohd Khursheed; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Subbarao, Naidu; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigated the inhibitory ability of taurine on the aggregation of Human serum albumin (HSA) and also examined how it controls the kinetic parameters of the aggregation process. We demonstrated the structural alterations in the HSA after binding to the taurine at 65 °C by exploiting various biophysical techniques. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to check the turbidometric changes in the protein. Thioflavin T fluorescence kinetics was subjected to explore kinetic parameters comparing the amyloid formation in the presence of varying concentration of taurine. Further, Congo red binding and ANS binding assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of taurine on HSA fibrillation process and surface hydrophobicity modifications occurring before and after the addition of taurine with protein, respectively. Far UV CD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) confirmed that taurine stabilized the protein α-helical structure and formed complex with HSA which is further supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, microscopic imaging techniques were also done to analyze the morphology of aggregation formed. Taurine is also capable of altering the cytotoxicity of the proteinaceous aggregates. Molecular docking study also deciphered the possible residues involved in protein and drug interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  5. Neuroprotection of taurine through inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase pathway in cerebral ischemia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rongbo; Cao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Cerebral ischemia exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. Taurine (Tau), an endogenous substance, possesses a number of cytoprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of Tau, through affecting 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) signal pathway in an acute permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10), namely the sham-operated group, MCAO group and Tau group. Tau was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after cerebral ischemia. At 24 h after MCAO, neurological function score, brain water content and infarct volume were assessed. The expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) was measured by Western blot. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum. Compared with MCAO group, taurine significantly improved neurological function and significantly reduced brain water content (p Taurine protected the brain from damage caused by MCAO; this effect may be through down-regulation of 12/15-LOX, p38 MAPK, and cPLA2.

  6. Natural radiation, protection against its effects and maintaining safe natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity and its consequences is an issue that needs the global concern, as practices bringing such radioactive materials closer to human environment through mining, building, industrial applications and food production and preservation is continuously increasing, in addition to the daily consumption in foods such as banana, carrot, potato and drinking water. Although it has direct and indirect impacts affecting human health that in some cases lead to the loss of lives and polluting natural environment, it is an inevitable task that necessitates devising some means of its minimization and protection against its hazardous effects. This could be achieved by the use of expertise ideas and by the creation of awareness and sharing related information with the people concerned and the general public. This paper gives an overview on the radiation present in natural environment, its sources, mechanism of its effects. The paper compares the radiation dose limits with the average doses from these sources in order to raise the challenges facing researchers, governments and the general individuals with regard to this issue. The paper also proposed applicable solutions to reduce the risks due to the exposure to natural radiation to ground level. (author)

  7. Taurine as an Essential Neuromodulator during Perinatal Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kilb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development. The purpose of the present review article is to summarize the properties of taurine as neuromodulator in detail, focusing on the direct involvement of taurine on various neurodevelopmental events and the regulation of neuronal activity during early developmental epochs. The current knowledge is that taurine lacks a synaptic release mechanism but is released by volume-sensitive organic anion channels and/or a reversal of the taurine transporter. Extracellular taurine affects neurons and neuronal progenitor cells mainly via glycine, GABA(A, and GABA(B receptors with considerable receptor and subtype-specific affinities. Taurine has been shown to directly influence neurogenesis in vitro as well as neuronal migration in vitro and in vivo. It provides a depolarizing signal for a variety of neuronal population in the immature central nervous system, thereby directly influencing neuronal activity. While in the neocortex, taurine probably enhance neuronal activity, in the immature hippocampus, a tonic taurinergic tone might be necessary to attenuate activity. In summary, taurine must be considered as an essential modulator of neurodevelopmental events, and possible adverse consequences on fetal and/or early postnatal development should be evaluated for pharmacological therapies affecting taurinergic functions.

  8. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islambulchilar Mina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. methods: strains of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect.

  9. Natural antioxidants for protection and radiation effects treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafi, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since many degenerative human diseases have been recognized as being a consequence of free radical damage, there have been many studies undertaken on how to delay or prevent the onset of these diseases. The most likely and practical way to fight against degenerative diseases is to improve body antioxidant status which could be achieved by higher consumption of vegetables and fruits. Foods from plant origin usually contain natural antioxidants that can scavenge free radicals. It is clear that vitamin C and antioxidant capacity are not directly related and thus that vitamin C is not the only antioxidant in juices with high content of vitamin C. Antioxidant capacity may also arise from phenolics / flavonoids found in plants. Three major antioxidant nutrients are vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene. Intake of these nutrients has an inverse relationship with degenerative disease risk. In an elderly study, it was found that high consumption of flavonoids correlated with low risk of coronary heart disease. Some evidence showed that flavonoids could protect membrane lipid from oxidation. A major source of flavonoids are vegetables and fruits. (author)

  10. Protection of the natural environment and internationally accepted practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the present approach to protecting the environment against ionizing radiations in international standards and guidance. This approach is based on the assumption that protecting humans will provide adequate protection for the environment. The extent to which the assumption can and has been justified is examined. Possible reasons for wishing to reconsider or elaborate the approach and to develop specific criteria for protecting other species are discussed

  11. ROLE OF TAURINE ON THE LEVEL OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF RATS EXPOSED TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANIS, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different tissues provoking oxidative damage and organ dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of taurine against gamma radiation-induced disorders in iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in parallel to radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver, spleen and heart tissues. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiations. Taurine treated irradiated rats received 250 mg taurine/kg body weight/day for 10 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on 1 st , 7 th and 14 th days after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated significant increases in Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg levels in the liver. Significant increases of Fe and Cu and significant decrease of Zn and non-significant changes in Mg were observed in the spleen. Heart tissues showed significant decrease in the level of iron and non-significant changes in the levels of Cu, Zn and Mg. Alterations in the levels of essential elements were associated with oxidative stress. Significant decreases of SOD and CAT activities along with significant increase of TBARS levels were recorded in the different tissues after irradiation. Taurine administration pre-irradiation has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in the levels of essential elements. It could be concluded that taurine might protect from oxidative damage induced by gamma irradiation

  12. Taurine Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats Through Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mu-Lin; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling.

  13. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  14. Effects of L-Carnitine and Taurine on associated biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carnitine and taurine in healthy and alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, creatinine and the activity of serum asparate ...

  15. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of taurine and coenzyme Q10 and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress in rats. Afaf Abbass Sayed ... Keywords: Taurine, Coenzyme Q10, Acrylamide, Oxidative stress, Biochemical profile, ... uses, AA formation in foods has its major routes through .... release of serum inflammatory markers and neutrophil ...

  17. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye. (author)

  18. Taurine deficiency, synthesis and transport in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid taurine is essential for the function of skeletal muscle and administration is proposed as a treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Taurine homeostasis is dependent on multiple processes including absorption of taurine from food, endogenous synthesis from cysteine and reabsorption in the kidney. This study investigates the cause of reported taurine deficiency in the dystrophic mdx mouse model of DMD. Levels of metabolites (taurine, cysteine, cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine) and proteins (taurine transporter [TauT], cysteine deoxygenase and cysteine sulfinate dehydrogenase) were quantified in juvenile control C57 and dystrophic mdx mice aged 18 days, 4 and 6 weeks. In C57 mice, taurine content was much higher in both liver and plasma at 18 days, and both cysteine and cysteine deoxygenase were increased. As taurine levels decreased in maturing C57 mice, there was increased transport (reabsorption) of taurine in the kidney and muscle. In mdx mice, taurine and cysteine levels were much lower in liver and plasma at 18 days, and in muscle cysteine was low at 18 days, whereas taurine was lower at 4: these changes were associated with perturbations in taurine transport in liver, kidney and muscle and altered metabolism in liver and kidney. These data suggest that the maintenance of adequate body taurine relies on sufficient dietary intake of taurine and cysteine availability and metabolism, as well as retention of taurine by the kidney. This research indicates dystrophin deficiency not only perturbs taurine metabolism in the muscle but also affects taurine metabolism in the liver and kidney, and supports targeting cysteine and taurine deficiency as a potential therapy for DMD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditionally protected forests and nature conservation in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 920 traditionally protected forests have been found in sample areas in Handeni District (23 villages) and Mwanga District (Usangi and Ugweno Divisions). The size of the forests is between 0.125 and 200 ha. In earlier times sacred forests (one of the seven different types of traditionally protected forests in Handeni) ...

  20. Protection of the ecological environment and management of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    YE HELIN; DOU JUAN

    2014-01-01

    Humans live on the earth that features a diverse ecosystem. In this environment of human beings, nature plays the role of a nurturing mother role. Time may be in the continuation of progress from generation to generation, and the nature of other kinds of billions of biological species, would also be like humans, in constant evolution, in order to adapt to the dangerous natural environment. However, those natural resources are sharply disappearing and dying out because of humans’ voracity. In ...

  1. Contribution to the study of the physiological behaviour of taurine; Contribution a l'etude du comportement physiologique de la taurine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bascheri, Marie-Claude

    1960-10-15

    This document reports an academic work based on the use of the isotopic dilution method to measure the taurine concentration in various organs belonging to a frog, a rabbit and a partridge. The author also studied some modalities of taurine distribution in the rabbit (apparent volume of taurine distribution, assessment of the exchangeable taurine mass), and the taurine excretion by the kidney [French] Les experiences dont le present travail fait etat ne sont ni assez nombreuses, ni pour certaines d'entre elles, assez precises pour que leurs resultats puissent etre consideres comme definitifs. Qualitativement cependant, elles montrent avec nettete que la taurine n'est pas un compose inerte dans l'organisme. La taurine libre du plasma fait l'objet de transports extremement rapides entre ce compartiment et les compartiments cellulaires. En outre, pour certains d'entre eux, il est possible qu'il existe deux pools de taurine, dont l'un est rapidement echangeable. Environ 80 pc de la taurine filtree est reabsorbee par le rein avec des modalites encore inconnues, qui doivent etre a l'origine du niveau eleve, superieur au plasma, de l'activite specifique de la taurine renale, ainsi qu'on l'a observe au cours des experiences mettant en oeuvre de la taurine marquee. (auteur)

  2. 24 CFR 203.203 - Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance and nature of insured 10... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.203 Issuance and nature of insured 10-year protection plans. (a) Plans may be issued: (1) By a builder, warranty company, insurance company...

  3. Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Griffin, Robert; Maldonado, Sergio; Silver, Jessica; Suckale, Jenny; Guerry, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  5. Squares of the natural numbers in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    An informal history of radiation protection is given. The following topics are included: the discovery of x rays and their effects, the formation of the International Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection, the Manhattan Project and its plutonium aspects, dose limits and their origin, the increase in antinuclear writings, the publication of reports on radiation levels and effects, the role of the EPA in medical radiation, and the Oklo phenomenon. Recommendations for NCRP and ICRP actions are given. The publication also contains brief biographies of Lauriston S. Taylor and Herbert M. Parker

  6. Gestational Protein Restriction in Wistar Rats; Effect of Taurine Supplementation on Properties of Newborn Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Sandø-Pedersen, Sofie; Ørstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten

    2017-01-01

    Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria.We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could...... by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had significantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32......% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued.Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet...

  7. Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Bjerg, Maria; Ulaganathan, Nithiya

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10...... (BCH) (200 mg/kg). BCH is not an inhibitor of PAT1 or the taurine transporter, TauT, hence it was included as a negative control. In vitro studies investigating the transport mechanism of taurine were conducted in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The pharmacokinetic investigations showed that intestinal...... taurine absorption was not saturable at the investigated doses, but that the time (tmax) to reach the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) increased with dose. Furthermore, Sar and Pro, but not BCH, decreased taurine Cmax. In vitro it was clearly shown that PAT1 mediated the cellular uptake of taurine...

  8. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  9. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of calcium by taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, C.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Danyluk, S.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    13 C Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, 1 J/sub c-c/ scalar coupling constants, spin-lattice relaxation times, and nuclear Overhauser effects were determined for taurine-[1, 2 13 C] and a taurine-[1 13 C] and taurine-[2 13 C] mixture in the presence and absence of calcium. Comparison of taurine titration shifts to values for related compounds reveals some unusual electronic properties of the taurine molecule. Stability constants of 1:1 calcium complexes with taurine zwitterions and anions, as well as their 13 C chemical shifts, were obtained by least squares analysis of titration curves measured in the presence of calcium. The stability constants of calcium-taurine complexes were significantly lower than previous values and led to estimates that only approximately one percent of intracellular calcium of mammalian myocardial cells would exist in a taurine complex

  10. Pollution abatement and nature protection, fraud and trickery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, W.

    1993-01-01

    The present general interpretation of pollution abatement as a necessary vehicle for the preservation and protection of the earth we live on is called in question by arguments which maintain that pollution abatement is an instrument used by the rich countries, especially by the U.S.A., to reduce the developing countries' population. (HP) [de

  11. Protection of naturally occurring antioxidants against oxidative damages to protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongping; Zhang Zhaoxia; Hao Shumei; Wang Wenfeng; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    One of the most compelling theories explaining age-related deterioration is the free radical theory of aging. It has been shown that reactive oxygen species are involved in oxidative damages to biomolecules and this is related to a number of diseases. Proteins, the second most abundant components of cells (next to water by weight), are now increasingly recognized as major biological targets of oxidative damages. Convincing evidences have indicated that damages to protein have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and aging. Antioxidant has been the subject of great attention because they are known to lower the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs) are antioxidants abundant in tea, red wine, fruits, beverages and various medicinal plants. Results showed that they exhibit remarkable activity for scavenging oxidizing radicals and triplet states. The protective effects of four kinds of HCAs on oxidative damages to lysozyme were investigated in our lab. Protein damages induced by two different paradigms: riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation and hydroxyl ( . OH)-mediated oxidation, were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. HCAs were found to inhibit the cross-linking of protein induced by riboflavin-mediated photooxidation. HCAs also exhibited protection effect on lysozyme damage induced by γ-ray irradiation. The rate constants for quenching triplet state of riboflavin by lysozyme and HCAs were obtained using laser flash photolysis. The protective mechanism was proposed based on the dynamic study. HCAs were found to protect protein against oxidation by scavenging oxidizing species and repairing the damaged protein. (authors)

  12. Radiological Protection Experience with natural sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos, L. S.; Fernandez, P. L.; Vinuela, J.; Arteche, J.; Sainz, G.; Gomez, J.; Matarranz

    2003-01-01

    During the last twenty five years the research Radon Group of the Medical Physics Unit of the University of Cantabria has been involved in projects concerning the measurement of natural radiation, in special that coming from radon gas. At this moment we have available for this field a lot of information in different formats, as paper, video and CD, interesting not only for public in general but also for professionals interested in the evaluation of doses coming from natural sources of radiation. (Author)

  13. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  14. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  15. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  16. Urbanization and protection of natural resources and landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović-Tomašević Vesna D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of Belgrade is significant from the point of view of the water management infrastructure and integral water management systems, where there are also the most important regional water sources, from which the majority of the region of Belgrade will be supplied with water in the future. The sources are quite poorly protected, which leads to deterioration in the quality of water, and often work in deexploitation regimes. The new narrowed down boundaries of the sanitary protection zone of the water sources, adopted by the Decision of the Ministry of Health in 2014, enable the construction of Obrenovac-Surčin section of the Belgrade-South Adriatic freeway in Surčinsko polje, at the left bank of the Sava River. The narrow zone of the Makiš na Savi water source was also decreased, and the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone of the water sources of water supply of Ratno Ostrvo and Crvenka on the Danube are also being erased. In the area of Belgrade, new changes to planning documents are being made, in which the planned urbanization goes towards the pragmaticized thesis of 'investor urbanism', because the plans are made as 'dynamic plans'.

  17. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  18. Human taurine metabolism: fluxes and fractional extraction rates of the gut, liver, and kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Siroen, Michiel P. C.; Wong, Leanne N.; van den Tol, M. Petrousjka; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes. However, taurine plasma level decreases in response to pathological conditions, suggesting an increased need. Knowledge on human taurine metabolism is scarce and only described by arterial-venous differences across a single organ. Here we present

  19. Effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Li-Jeng; Chou, Hong-Chun; Weng, Jun-Cheng; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls. In contrast, significantly lower horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of the SHR high-taurine group than in those of the SHR control group. Additionally, significantly lower functional connectivity (FC) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF) in the bilateral hippocampus in rats of WKY high-taurine and SHR high-taurine groups was detected. Notably, the mALFF in rats of the SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups was significantly lower than in those of the SHR control group. These findings suggest that the administration of a high-dose taurine probably improves hyperactive behavior in SHR rats by ameliorating the inflammatory cytokines and modulating brain functional signals in SHR rats.

  20. The synthesis of [2-3H2] taurine and [2-3H2] hypotaurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of [2- 3 H 2 ]-2-aminoethanesulfonate [2- 3 H]-taurine by the reduction of cyanomethanesulfonic acid with tritium gas is described. The conversion of [2- 3 H]-taurine and its 14 C and 35 S isotopic forms to 2-aminoethanesulfinate (hypotaurine) was accomplished by converting taurine to its corresponding sulfonyl chloride and reducing the latter with metallic zinc. (author)

  1. In Vitro Ruminal Degradability of Soybean Meal Protein Protected with Natural Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyono, B. W. H. E.; Subrata, A.; Tampoebolon, B. I. M.; Surono; Widiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The influence of tannin from tea waste and gambier as natural tannin sources on ruminal protein degradability was studied in this investigation. The soybean meal was used as protein source in this investigation. There were three treatments in this investigation mainly without protection (NT); protection with tea waste (Tt); and protection with gambier (Tg). The measured parameters consisted of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and the ruminal fermentation characteristics. Results of this experiment showed that protection with tannin from tea waste as well as gambier increased (pRUP) in Tt and Tg group was higher than that in NT group (66.29 and 69.20 vs 51.10%). The ruminal protozoa population decreased (pRUP. The ruminal protozoa population and ammonia concentration, on the other hand, were decreased by tannin protection from those tannin natural sources. The natural tannin from gambier was the most effective protection agent for soybean meal protein.

  2. Promoting Nature-Based Tourism for Management of Protected Areas and Elephant Conservation in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka's ten-year development framework aims at accelerating economic growth while ensuring a path of sustainable development and prioritizing conservation of the country's natural heritage. It is in this context that this policy note seeks to examine the scope for enhancing protection of Sri Lanka's natural assets through nature based tourism as an instrument for conservation with a sp...

  3. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  4. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M J [AEA Technology plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Thorne, M C [Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd, Horsham (United Kingdom); Broderick, M A [UK Nirex Ltd, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment. 11 refs.

  5. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Broderick, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment

  6. Role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve : Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; van Hengel, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and

  7. Natural Antioxidants: Multiple Mechanisms to Protect Skin From Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Dunaway

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human skin exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR results in a dramatic increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The sudden increase in ROS shifts the natural balance toward a pro-oxidative state, resulting in oxidative stress. The detrimental effects of oxidative stress occur through multiple mechanisms that involve alterations to proteins and lipids, induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, DNA damage, and activation of signaling pathways that affect gene transcription, cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. All of these alterations promote carcinogenesis and therefore, regulation of ROS levels is critical to the maintenance of normal skin homeostasis. Several botanical products have been found to exhibit potent antioxidant capacity and the ability to counteract UV-induced insults to the skin. These natural products exert their beneficial effects through multiple pathways, including some known to be negatively affected by solar UVR. Aging of the skin is also accelerated by UVR exposure, in particular UVA rays that penetrate deep into the epidermis and the dermis where it causes the degradation of collagen and elastin fibers via oxidative stress and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Because natural compounds are capable of attenuating some of the UV-induced aging effects in the skin, increased attention has been generated in the area of cosmetic sciences. The focus of this review is to cover the most prominent phytoproducts with potential to mitigate the deleterious effects of solar UVR and suitability for use in topical application.

  8. Exploring Protective factors among homeless youth: the role of natural mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T; Conger, Katherine J; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the presence and characteristics of natural mentors among 197 homeless youth and the association between natural mentoring relationships and youth functioning. Few studies have explored protective factors in the lives of homeless youth and how these may buffer against poor health outcomes. Relationships with natural mentors have been shown to have protective effects on adolescent functioning among the general adolescent population, and, thus, warrant further investigation with homeless youth. Results from this study revealed that 73.6% of homeless youth have natural mentoring relationships, split between kin and non-kin relationships. Having a natural mentor was associated with higher satisfaction with social support and fewer risky sexual behaviors. Findings suggest that natural mentors may play a protective role in the lives of homeless youth and should be considered an important source of social support that may enhance youth resilience.

  9. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na-Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells, as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+ was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and diethyl maleate (DEM significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus.

  10. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. The media image of the relationship between nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, 2-3 (2005), s. 123-133 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic development * content analysis Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  12. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nusetti, Sonia; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1?100 ?M). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution wit...

  13. Protecting against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2011-01-01

    Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental

  14. Information on web-site of the State protection of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajtar, R.

    2005-01-01

    Statna ochrana prirody SR (SOP SR - State protection of nature of the Slovak Republic) is professional organisation with all-Slovak operation, which operation is aimed on provision of professional activities for service of state administration in protection of nature and landscape. Structure of the SOP SR, their operation and information presented on the web site of the SOP SR (www.sopsr.sk) are described

  15. Nature on the doorstep : the relationship between protected natural areas and residential activity in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, Berien Sjamkea

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to gain insight into the ability of protected natural areas to attract new residential activity and in the role they play in the enhancement of the quality of life of local rural residents. To understand these processes information was collected on the

  16. Taurine effects on 45Ca2+ transport in retinal subcellular fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Lopez-Colome, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ transport by subcellular fractions from the chick retina was examined. An inhibitory action of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake was observed in retinal fractions incubated for 1-5 min in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, pH 7.4. In the crude nuclear fraction, 25 mM taurine produced a decrease of 50% in 45 Ca 2+ uptake; in the crude synaptosomal fraction, taurine reduced 45 Ca 2+ accumulation by 70%; the maximum inhibitory effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake (80%) was observed in a fraction containing outer segments and pigment epithelium cells. Taurine effect was specific, dose-dependent and related to osmotically sensitive particles. The results suggest a role of taurine in the regulation of calcium fluxes in the retina. (Auth.)

  17. Characterization of Taurine Transporting Systems During Acquirement of Resistance to Platinum(II)-based, Chemotherapeutic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling

    Although, cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs, prolonged cisplatin treatment often results in development of chemoresistance and subsequent therapeutic failure. Dysregulation of the taurine transporting systems i.e., the taurine transporter (TauT) and volume....... Cisplatin resistance correlates with a reduction in the volume regulated anion current and taurine release mediated by VRACs, as well as an improved cellular accumulation of taurine through TauT. In human ovarian A2780 cancer cells, for instance, cisplatin resistance is associated with an absent swelling......-induced taurine release and inability to volume regulate. The dismissed taurine release was due to an almost absent leucin-rich-repeat containing 8A (LRRC8A) total protein expression. LRRC8A is an important component of VRACs. Cellular taurine contributes to the intracellular pool of organic osmolytes. Moreover...

  18. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Reaction of hypotaurine or taurine with superoxide produces the organic peroxysulfonic acid peroxytaurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Roxanna Q; Karpowicz, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    Hypotaurine and taurine are amino acid derivatives and abundant molecules in many eukaryotes. The biological reaction in which hypotaurine is converted to taurine remains poorly understood. Here, hypotaurine and taurine were observed to react with superoxide anion in vitro to form the novel molecule peroxytaurine. In contrast, hypotaurine reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form taurine, but taurine does not react with hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Mass and NMR spectrometry as well as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy support the molecular characterization of peroxytaurine. Gravitometric and spectroscopy experiments suggest a stoichiometry of two superoxide anions reacting with one hypotaurine or two taurines. The newly identified molecule is a semi-stable, organic peroxysulfonic acid that may be an intermediate metabolite in taurine synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taurine Promotes the Cartilaginous Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiuhua; Huang, Huiling; Li, Zhou; Liu, Xiaohua; Fan, Weijia; Wang, Xinping; Sun, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianmin; Zhou, Hongrui; Wei, Huaying

    2017-08-01

    Taurine has been reported to influence osteogenic differentiation, but the role of taurine on cartilaginous differentiation using human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine (0, 1, 5 and 10 mM) on the proliferation and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs by analyzing cell proliferation, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and expression of cartilage specific mRNA. The results show though taurine did not affected the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, 5 mM of taurine is sufficient to enhanced the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and up-regulate cartilage specific mRNA expression, namely collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9. Taurine also inhibits chondrocyte dedifferentiation by reducing expression of collagen type I mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals that taurine promotes and maintains the chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs.

  1. Naturalness and beyond: Protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Laurie Yung; Erika S. Zavaleta; Gregory H. Aplet; F. Stuart III Chaplin; David M. Graber; Eric S. Higgs; Richard J. Hobbs; Peter B. Landres; Constance I. Millar; David J. Parsons; John M. Randall; Nathan L. Stephenson; Kathy A. Tonnessen; Peter S. White; Stephen Woodley

    2008-01-01

    FOR MOST LARGE U.S. PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, enabling legislation and management policy call for preservation of these protected areas unimpaired in perpetuity. Central to the notions of protection, preservation, and unimpairment has been the concept of maintaining "naturalness," a condition imagined by many to persist over time in the absence of human...

  2. The dual role of local residents in the management of natural protected areas in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Perez-Verdin; Martha E. Lee; Deborah J. Chavez

    2008-01-01

    In many developing countries, local residents play an important role in the management of protected areas because they represent potential users of natural protected areas (NPA) resources, they receive the benefits (or costs) of developing naturebased recreation, and they are the group most closely interested in the management of an area located near them. In this...

  3. Metropolitan natural area protection to maximize public access and species representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Robert G. Haight; Paul H. Gobster; Frances R. Homans

    2003-01-01

    In response to widespread urban development, local governments in metropolitan areas in the United States acquire and protect privately-owned open space. We addressed the planner's problem of allocating a fixed budget for open space protection among eligible natural areas with the twin objectives of maximizing public access and species representation. Both...

  4. Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Roman, Heather B; Mazor, Kevin M; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Park, Eunkyue; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2016-03-01

    The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation.

  5. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-κB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-κB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-κB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As

  6. Radiation protection and the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; MacDowell, P.

    1996-01-01

    There are many industries dealing with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), some of them without knowing that their industrial processes and/or their regular wastes involve radioactivity. However, an increasing number of industries that produce NORM wastes are being sued, wherever there is a legal framework to do so. In particular, NORM wastes produced for a long time by the oil industry became foci of legal battles in the United States and elsewhere. The ripple effect of these judicial battles will influence the decision making processes of NORM wastes producing industries, mostly because of the costs incurred by remedial and preventive actions concerning NORM contamination. The regulation of NORM will occur sooner or later, and such actions may become mandatory. A foreseeable consequence of such regulation is a change in attitude concerning the sources and materials associated with NORM. Among those industries likely to be affected one can mention: niobium; rare earth processing; oil production; phosphate; uranium mining and milling; zircon; water treatment; and waste water treatment. The paper will briefly review data on exempt concentration activities, as suggested by the basic safety standards based on realistic environmental and dosimetric models. These activity concentrations are compared with those found in a number of extractive industries, and may be used to establish derived limits from a pre-established dose limit. (author)

  7. Innovative plant protection means prepared natural raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lomtadze

    2018-03-01

    terms of growth and development index. It should also be noted that no harmful diseases were found on the treated seedlings.The developed compositional formulations can be successfully used for integrated protection of plants against pests and diseases. Their use is absolutely safe for the human and the environment. Keywords: Peach, Apple, Pests, Diseases, Acaricide, Fungicide

  8. Ranking coastal flood protection designs from engineered to nature-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nat, van der A.; Vellinga, P.; Leemans, R.; Slobbe, van E.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to traditional hard engineering, nature-based flood protection can be more cost effective, use up less raw materials, increase system adaptability and present opportunities to improve ecosystem functioning. However, high flood safety standards cause the need to combine nature-based

  9. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils are activated in the coronary circulation during acute coronary events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), often prior to the onset of ischemic damage. Moreover, neutrophils infiltrate coronary plaque in these circumstances, and may contribute to the rupture or erosion of this plaque, triggering thrombosis. Activated neutrophils secrete proteolytic enzymes in latent forms which are activated by the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by myeloperoxidase. These phenomena may help to explain why an elevated white cell count has been found to be an independent coronary risk factor. Low-fat vegan diets can decrease circulating leukocytes--neutrophils and monocytes--possibly owing to down-regulation of systemic IGF-I activity. Thus, a relative neutropenia may contribute to the coronary protection afforded by such diets. However, vegetarian diets are devoid of taurine - the physiological antagonist of HOCl--and tissue levels of this nutrient are relatively low in vegetarians. Taurine has anti-atherosclerotic activity in animal models, possibly reflecting a role for macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the atherogenic process. Taurine also has platelet-stabilizing and anti-hypertensive effects that presumably could reduce coronary risk. Thus, it is proposed that a taurine-supplemented low-fat vegan diet represents a rational strategy for diminishing the contribution of activated neutrophils to acute coronary events; moreover, such a regimen would work in a number of other complementary ways to promote cardiovascular health. Moderate alcohol consumption, the well-tolerated drug pentoxifylline, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors--zileuton, boswellic acids, fish oil--may also have potential in this regard. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Activation of Rat Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Taurine May be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    kinetic analysis of L-phenylalanine was also investigated at 60 mM. ... six fatty acids. This part is the toxic .... The key experimental results obtained with the crude ALP extract ..... pre-treatment with rutin, an anti-inflammatory agent like taurine ...

  11. Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebels, I.; Benson, B.; Larssen, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14 C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14 C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14 C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14 C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

  12. Kinetics for the synthetic bile acid 75-selenohomocholic acid-taurine in humans: comparison with [14C]taurocholate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazrawi, R.P.; Ferraris, R.; Bridges, C.; Northfield, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The apparent fractional turnover rate of the gamma-labeled bile acid analogue 75-selenohomocholic acid-taurine (75-SeHCAT) was assessed from decline in radioactivity over the gallbladder area on 4 successive days using a gamma-camera, and was compared in the same subjects with the fractional turnover rate of the corresponding natural bile acid, cholic acid-taurine, labeled with 14C ([14C]CAT) using the classical Lindstedt technique. Very similar results were obtained in 5 healthy individuals (coefficient of variation 4.8%, medians 0.35 and 0.34, respectively). By contrast, the fractional deconjugation rate assessed from zonal scanning of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids on thin-layer chromatography was much less for 75-SeHCAT than for [14C]CAT (0.02 and 0.13, respectively; p less than 0.05). The fractional rate for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation was also determined by zonal scanning, and gave lower values for 75-SeHCAT than for [14C]CAT (0.02 and 0.12, respectively; p less than 0.05). There was a striking similarity between the fractional rate for deconjugation alone and that for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation for both bile acids in individual samples (r = 0.999, p less than 0.001), suggesting that these two processes might occur simultaneously and probably involve the same bacteria. We conclude that our scintiscanning technique provides an accurate, noninvasive method of measuring fractional turnover rate of a bile acid in humans, and that the finding that 75SeHCAT remains conjugated with taurine during enterohepatic recycling means that absorption should be specific for the ileal active transport site, thus rendering it an ideal substance for assessing ileal function

  13. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Imidazole-4-acetic acid, a new lead structure for interaction with the taurine transporter in outer blood-retinal barrier cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valembois, Sophie Annick N; Krall, Jacob; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    therapeutic approach. The taurine transporter (TAUT) plays a key role in the retinal transport of GABA and has been previously suggested to display a higher functional activity in the retina compared to the brain. TAUT would therefore stand as a suitable target for the selective delivery of ρ GABAAR ligands...... by testing their ability to inhibit the TAUT-mediated influx of taurine in ARPE-19 cells. Results showed that taurine influx was seven-fold higher when the ARPE-19 cells were cultured under hyperosmotic conditions and was demonstrated to display saturable kinetics (Km = 27.7 ± 2.2 μM and Jmax = 24.2 ± 0.......6 pmol/cm2·min). Furthermore, the taurine influx was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GABA and imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of histamine. These compounds display similar Ki values of 644.2 μM and 658.6 μM, respectively. Moreover...

  15. Defra Soil Protection Research in the Context of the Soil Natural Capital / Ecosystem Services Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David A.; Cooper, David; Emmett, Bridget A.; Evans, Chris D.; Keith, Aidan; Lebron, Inma; Lofts, Stephen; Norton, Lisa; Reynolds, Brian; Tipping, Edward; Rawlins, Barry G.; Tye, Andrew M.; Watts, Chris W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Black, Helaina I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: "A Nation that destroys its soil destroys itself." This quote from, F.D. Roosevelt, 1937, from a letter written to all state Governors in the USA following the dust bowl, encapsulates the importance of soil protection. The dust bowl brought about legislation to protect and conserve soils as a fundamental natural resource in the USA between 1930 and 1936. In current times we are facing unprecedented pressure on land resources from multiple uses here in the UK and across Euro...

  16. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  17. Naturally Protected Muscle Phenotypes: Development of Novel Treatment Strategies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Paul; Doran, Philip; Lohan, James; Culligan, Kevin; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2004-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene underlie x-linked muscular dystrophy. However, the absence of the dystrophin isoform Dp427 does not necessarily result in a severe dystrophic phenotype in all muscle groups. Distal mdx muscles, namely extraocular and toe fibres, appear to represent a protected phenotype in muscular dystrophy. Thus, a comparative analysis of affected versus naturally protected muscle cells should lead to a greater knowledge of the molecular pathogenes...

  18. The effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on taurine transporter protein and fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle from mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Deanna M; Murphy, Robyn M; Mollica, Janelle P; Hayes, Alan; Goodman, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on muscle function and muscle taurine transporter (TauT) protein expression in mdx mice. Wild-type (WT) and mdx mice (5 months) were supplemented with taurine or β-alanine for 4 weeks, after which in vitro contractile properties, fatigue resistance and force recovery, and the expression of the TauT protein and proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling were examined in fast-twitch muscle. There was no difference in basal TauT protein expression or basal taurine content between mdx than WT muscle. Supplementation with taurine and β-alanine increased and reduced taurine content, respectively, in muscle from WT and mdx mice but had no effect of TauT protein. Taurine supplementation reduced body and muscle mass, and enhanced fatigue resistance and force recovery in mdx muscle. β-Alanine supplementation enhanced fatigue resistance in WT and mdx muscle. There was no difference in the basal expression of key E-C coupling proteins [ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 1 (SERCA1) or calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1)] between WT and mdx mice, and the expression of these proteins was not altered by taurine or β-alanine supplementation. These findings suggest that TauT protein expression is relatively insensitive to changes in muscle taurine content in WT and mdx mice, and that taurine and β-alanine supplementation may be viable therapeutic strategies to improve fatigue resistance of dystrophic skeletal muscle.

  19. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  20. High expression of the taurine transporter TauT in primary cilia of NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Voss, Jesper W.; Teilmann, Stefan C.

    2005-01-01

    Taurine, present in high concentrations in various mammalian cells, is essential for regulation of cell volume, cellular oxidative status as well as the cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Cellular taurine content is a balance between active uptake through the saturable, Na+-dependent taurine transporter...... TauT expression and (iii) long-term exposure to hypertonic taurine medium, i.e., growth medium supplemented with 100 mM taurine, reduces ciliary TauT expression. These results point to an important role of taurine in the regulation of physiological processes located to the primary cilium....

  1. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na+-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucuvalas, J.C.; Goodrich, A.L.; Suchy, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the β-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium (overshoot). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K + gradient with valinomycin increased Na + -stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl - stimulated Na + -dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na + -dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na + concentration, suggesting multiple Na + ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na + -dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol x mg protein -1 x min -1 and an apparent K/sub m/ of 174 μM. [ 3 H]taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, β-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, the authors have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for β-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl - , and requires multiple Na + ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule

  2. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  3. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2009-08-01

    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  4. Composition, disintegrative properties, and labeling compliance of commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Rebecca R; Freeman, Lisa M; Fascetti, Andrea J; Yu, Zengshou

    2009-01-15

    To test the quality, disintegration properties, and compliance with labeling regulations for representative commercially available taurine and carnitine dietary products. Evaluation study. 11 commercially available taurine and 10 commercially available carnitine products. For each product, the amount of taurine or carnitine was determined and compared with the label claim. All products were evaluated for concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and selenium. Disintegration properties of 5 taurine and 8 carnitine products were determined in vitro. Labels were evaluated for compliance with FDA guidelines. 10 of 11 taurine and 10 of 10 carnitine products were within 10% of the stated label claim. Three of 11 taurine and 6 of 10 carnitine products were within 5% of the stated label claim. The median percentage difference between laboratory analysis and label claim was -5.7% (range, -26.3% to 2.5%) for taurine and 3.6% (range, -2.6% to 8.8%) for carnitine. No substantial amount of contamination with mercury, arsenic, or selenium was found in any of the products. During disintegration testing, 1 of 5 taurine products and 5 of 8 carnitine products did not disintegrate within 45 minutes during at least 1 test. Disintegration time for those that did disintegrate ranged from 1.7 to 37.0 minutes. All product labels conformed with FDA regulations. Taurine and carnitine products evaluated in this study closely adhered to manufacturer claims and labeling guidelines. However, disintegration testing suggested high variability in some products, possibly limiting uptake and use by animals that receive them.

  5. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a. Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR, which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  7. Partial Agonism of Taurine at Gamma-Containing Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletke, Olaf; Gisselmann, Guenter; May, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; A. Sergeeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential sulfonic acid found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues which regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity and glucose homeostasis. The structural requirements of GABAA-receptors (GABAAR) gated by taurine are not yet known. We determined taurine potency and efficacy relative to GABA at different types of recombinant GABAAR occurring in central histaminergic neurons of the mouse hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) which controls arousal. At binary α1/2β1/3 receptors taurine was as efficient as GABA, whereas incorporation of the γ1/2 subunit reduced taurine efficacy to 60–90% of GABA. The mutation γ2F77I, which abolishes zolpidem potentiation, significantly reduced taurine efficacy at recombinant and native receptors compared to the wild type controls. As taurine was a full- or super- agonist at recombinant αxβ1δ-GABAAR, we generated a chimeric γ2 subunit carrying the δ subunit motif around F77 (MTVFLH). At α1/2β1γ2(MTVFLH) receptors taurine became a super-agonist, similar to δ-containing ternary receptors, but remained a partial agonist at β3-containing receptors. In conclusion, using site-directed mutagenesis we found structural determinants of taurine’s partial agonism at γ-containing GABAA receptors. Our study sheds new light on the β1 subunit conferring the widest range of taurine-efficacies modifying GABAAR function under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:23637894

  8. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  9. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  10. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  11. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  12. Stand structure influences nekton community composition and provides protection from natural disturbance in Micronesian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Nicole Cormier

    2012-01-01

    Structurally complex mangrove roots are thought to provide foraging habitat, predation refugia, and typhoon protection for resident fish, shrimp, and crabs. The spatially compact nature of Micronesian mangroves results in model ecosystems to test these ideas. Tidal creek nekton assemblages were compared among mangrove forests impacted by Typhoon Sudal and differing in...

  13. The Issue of Corruption Crimes in the Sphere of Natural Resources Protection (Criminology Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the manifestations of corruption in the field of natural resources’ protection. The author gives examples of investigative and judicial practices, suggests the ways of improving legislation in law enforcement optimization in this sphere.

  14. Development of vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: taking lessons from naturally acquired protective immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of substantial anti-malarial protection in people naturally exposed to P. falciparum is often cited as evidence that malaria vaccines can be developed, but is rarely used to guide the development. We are pursuing the development of vaccines based on antigens and immune responses...

  15. The global economic contribution of protected natural lands and wilderness through tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; J. Michael Bowker

    2007-01-01

    These are the first-round results of a project aimed at exploring at a global scale the complex relationships between protected natural lands, tourism, and economic growth. In this fist round we mainly were interested in secondary sources of data and parameters from previously published studies. In presenting results for the 8th World Wilderness Congress, we provided...

  16. Evaluating the Role of Protected Natural Areas for Environmental Education in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe; Passafaro, Paola; Perucchini, Paola; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment, proenvironmental attitudes, ethics and…

  17. The potential effect of taurine as a radioprotective agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    People can be exposed to irradiation either external or internal. The potential effects of radiation on health depend in part on the radiation dose delivered and the rate of delivery causing oxidation and free radical formation. The main purpose of the present study was to asses the effect of taurine administration in modulating some biochemical and hematological parameters in female rats exposed to 6 gray γ-irradiation. The data showed in this study that the ionizing γradiation (6 Gy) induced a significant (p<0.05) increment in the levels of serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL) and elevation of cardiac enzyme activities (LDH, CK and AST) and elevation in the activities of serum AST , ALT and ALP. on the other hand , the ionizing radiation induced a significant (p < 0.05) decline in the concentrations of serum total protein and albumin . In case of exposing female rat to gamma ray, the level of MDA was significantly elevated compared to their corresponding normal control group. Whereas, the drastic decrease were observed in hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, WBCs and Hct). A significant correction was occurred in all previous parameters after the irradiated rats were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with taurine (500 mg/100 g body weigh / day for one month). Leading to the conclusion that taurine is considered as antioxidant and a radio-protector agent.

  18. Mechanisms of symbiont-conferred protection against natural enemies: an ecological and evolutionary framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Nicole M; Parker, Benjamin J

    2014-10-01

    Many vertically-transmitted microbial symbionts protect their insect hosts from natural enemies, including host-targeted pathogens and parasites, and those vectored by insects to other hosts. Protection is often achieved through production of inhibiting toxins, which is not surprising given that toxin production mediates competition in many environments. Classical models of macroecological interactions, however, demonstrate that interspecific competition can be less direct, and recent research indicates that symbiont-protection can be mediated through exploitation of limiting resources, and through activation of host immune mechanisms that then suppress natural enemies. Available data, though limited, suggest that effects of symbionts on vectored pathogens and parasites, as compared to those that are host-targeted, are more likely to result from symbiont activation of the host immune system. We discuss these different mechanisms in light of their potential impact on the evolution of host physiological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. System for Conservation of Specially Protected Natural Areas as Sustainable Urban Development Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryakhtunov, A.; Pelymskaya, O.; Chernykh, E.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the conservation of specially protected natural territories. The research topic is especially interesting for urban areas that provide sustainable urban development. The authors consider the main aspects of the sustainable settlement development and substantiate the direct dependence of the evolution of territories in the implementation of urban development activities with the ecological framework of a city. The object of the study is a specially protected natural area located in Western Siberia in the city of Tyumen, the Tyumen region. As a result of the analysis, the main problems of preservation of the nature monument of regional importance were revealed as well as a set of measures and management decisions regarding the conservation of the forest park.

  20. Environment report 1990 of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 'Environment Report 1990' describes the environmental situation in the Federal Republic of Germany; draws a balance of environmental policy measures taken and introduced; gives information on future fields of action in environmental policy. The 'Environment Report 1990' also deals with the 'Environment Expert Opinion 1987', produced by the board of experts on environmental questions. It contains surveys of the following sectors: Protection against hazardous materials air pollution abatement, water management, waste management, nature protection and preservation of the countryside, soil conservation, noise abatement, radiation protection, reactor safety. A separate part of the 'Environment Report 1990' deals with the progress made in 'interdisciplinary fields' (general law on the protection of the environment, instruments of environmental policy, environmental information and environmental research, transfrontier environmental policy). (orig./HP) [de

  1. Protection of the human race against natural hazards (asteroids, comets, volcanoes, earthquakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1985-10-01

    Although we justifiably worry about the danger of nuclear war to civilization, and perhaps even to survival of the human race, we tend to consider natural hazards (e.g., comets, asteroids, volcanoes, earthquakes) as unavoidable acts of God. In any human lifetime, a truly catastrophic natural event is very unlikely, but ultimately one will occur. For the first time in human history we have sufficient technical skills to begin protection of Earth from some natural hazards. We could decide collectively throughout the world to reassign resources: in particular, reduction of nuclear and conventional weapons to a less dangerous level would allow concomitant increase of international programs for detection and prevention of natural hazards. Worldwide cooperation to mitigate natural hazards might help psychologically to lead us away from the divisive bickering that triggers wars. Future generations could hail us as pioneers of peace and safety rather than curse us as agents of death and destruction.

  2. Mechanism for modulation of gating of connexin26-containing channels by taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieken, Fabien; Tao, Liang; Sorgen, Paul L.; Harris, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of endogenous modulatory ligands of connexin channels are largely unknown. Previous work showed that protonated aminosulfonates (AS), notably taurine, directly and reversibly inhibit homomeric and heteromeric channels that contain Cx26, a widely distributed connexin, but not homomeric Cx32 channels. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of connexin channel modulation by taurine, using hemichannels and junctional channels composed of Cx26 (homomeric) and Cx26/Cx32 (heteromeric). The addition of a 28–amino acid “tag” to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CT) of Cx26 (Cx26T) eliminated taurine sensitivity of homomeric and heteromeric hemichannels in cells and liposomes. Cleavage of all but four residues of the tag (Cx26Tc) resulted in taurine-induced pore narrowing in homomeric hemichannels, and restored taurine inhibition of heteromeric hemichannels (Cx26Tc/Cx32). Taurine actions on junctional channels were fully consistent with those on hemichannels. Taurine-induced inhibition of Cx26/Cx32T and nontagged Cx26 junctional channels was blocked by extracellular HEPES, a blocker of the taurine transporter, confirming that the taurine-sensitive site of Cx26 is cytoplasmic. Nuclear magnetic resonance of peptides corresponding to Cx26 cytoplasmic domains showed that taurine binds to the cytoplasmic loop (CL) and not the CT, and that the CT and CL directly interact. ELISA showed that taurine disrupts a pH-dependent interaction between the CT and the CT-proximal half of the CL. These studies reveal that AS disrupt a pH-driven cytoplasmic interdomain interaction in Cx26-containing channels, causing closure, and that the Cx26CT has a modulatory role in Cx26 function. PMID:21844220

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of development of specially protected natural areas in the Republic of Komi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat’yana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an algorithm for the management of specially protected natural areas in the region. This algorithm consists of the following procedures: assumption of the obligation to preserve biodiversity; planning and implementation of activities to preserve natural complexes; evaluation, analysis of results and development of recommendations to improve management. According to this algorithm the procedures were tested on model objects – specially protected natural territories of federal and regional importance. In the course of implementation of these activities the sources of funding of specially protected model objects were identified: the funds of budgets of all levels; grants and charitable contributions; funds received from the provision of recreation and tourism services. The financial strategies of development were provided, and the business plans were analysed for seven natural reserves. The results of a sociological survey concerning the effectiveness of implementation of business plans show that positive effects from the existence of protected areas are much more pronounced than the limitations experienced by local residents. This refers to the opportunities and forms of cooperation and contribution to socio-economic development in the region. The activities for the organization of recreation for residents in the region are proposed. Recreation at the weekend, the costs of which amount to two thousand rubles/person, is most interesting to the region’s residents, especially to urban residents. This type of recreation can organize a flow of 200 thousand people per year, if the necessary range of services, especially children’s leisure, is provided. Leisure tourism, on the contrary, requires the maximum reduction of cost (five thousand rubles/ person for the route, and the provision of minimum number of services; the annual flow of this category of tourists may reach 40 thousand people. Establishment of conventional natural

  4. Combined action of taurine and cations of certain metals on post-irradiation survival of SOC cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yartsev, E.I.; Aldonyasov, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of combined application of taurine and metals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc) on the cell level have been studied. It has been found that various concentrations of taurine and potassium and zinc salts increase the survival of irradiated SOC cells up to 40% while addition of magnesium and calcium salts does not affect the taurine effectiveness. The highest effectiveness is obtained when potassium and taurine are added in equimolar amounts to the incubation medium

  5. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  6. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  7. Natural bizbenzoquinoline derivatives protect zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eKruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20-30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment.

  8. Natural analog study of engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Teel, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate surficial sedimentary deposits formed in the Pasco Basin over the geologic past as analogs for engineered protective barriers. Evidence for likely changes to be expected in an engineered barrier are preserved in geologically recent deposits. Although the design life of the engineered bonier is only 1,000 years, soils and sediments of this age are uncommon in the Pasco Basin. The evidence of and probability for the following natural processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of an engineered protective barrier reviewed in this report are deflation by wind, soil compaction, soil eluviation/illuviation, bioturbation, and cryoturbation

  9. Corrosion Protection Performance of Polyester-Melamine Coating with Natural Wood Fiber Using EIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, PyongHwa; Shon, MinYoung [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, DuHwan [POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, polyester-melamine coating systems with natural wood fiber (NWF) were prepared and the effects of NWF on the corrosion protectiveness of the polyester-melamine coating were examined using EIS analysis. From the results, higher average surface roughness was observed with increase of NWF content. Water diffusivity and water uptake into the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF were much higher than that into the pure polyester-melamine coating. The decrease in the impedance modulus |Z| was associated with the localized corrosion on carbon steel, confirming that corrosion protection of the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF well agrees with its water transport behavior.

  10. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Kolesnick, Richard N.

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  11. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  12. Assessment of taurine bioavailability in pelleted and extruded diets with red drum Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine has been reported to be efficacious in supporting growth of carnivorous fish species, particularly when supplemented to diets primarily containing plant feedstuffs. Although taurine may become unavailable to some extent by heat and moisture, and is susceptible to the Maillard reaction with r...

  13. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, Granuloma, Fibrosis, Taurine

  14. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  15. Influence of cesium and lithium ions on radioprotective effectiveness of taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Novosel'tseva, S.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro experiments with irradiated cultures of heart cells from cynomolgus monkeys and mice and in vivo experiments on irradiated mice indicated that CsNO 3 , LiOAc and Li 2 CO 3 potentiated the radioprotective effect of taurine. The maximum effect was observed when equimolar conceptions of taurine and the metal salts were used

  16. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27 Kip1 , collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

  18. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues that has many important biological functions including bile salt conjugation, cellular osmoregulation, neuromodulation, calcium signaling. The benefits of supplementing diets with taurine are just beginning to be realized in a n...

  19. Specific role of taurine in the 8-brominated-2'-deoxyguanosine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2015-11-15

    At the sites of inflammation, hypohalous acids, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are produced by myeloperoxidase. These hypohalous acids rapidly react with the primary amino groups to produce haloamines, which are relatively stable and can diffuse long distances and cross the plasma membrane. In this study, we examined the effects of taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in the leukocyte cytosol, on the hypohalous acid-dependent formation of 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-CldG) and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-BrdG). The reaction of taurine with HOBr yielded taurine bromamine, which is the most stable among other bromamines of amino acids. Taurine also enhanced the bromination of only dG among the four 2'-deoxynucleosides, whereas it inhibited the 8-CldG formation. The specificity of taurine for the enhanced formation of halogenated dG is completely different from that of nicotine, an enhancer of chlorination. The amount of dibrominated taurine (taurine dibromamine) closely correlated with the formation of 8-BrdG, suggesting that taurine dibromamine might be a plausible mediator for the dG bromination in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-03

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  2. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of taurine in adipose tissue in relation to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Recent studies revealed that taurine supplementation reduces the infiltration of macrophages and modulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, taurine downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, suggesting that taurine plays an anti-inflammatory role in adipose tissue. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of taurine on the development of obesity, focusing on the role of taurine in white adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  4. Development of innovative architecture of the organizational and economic mechanism for the nature protection management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Kiseleva, T. V.; Karasev, V. A.; Mikhailov, G. S.; Skukin, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The problems of the efficient functioning of environmental and economic systems of various levels on the basis of the adequate organizational and economic management mechanism are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is the analysis and development of theoretical provisions for the formation of a modern, innovative organizational and economic mechanism of the nature protection management. The compliance matrix of the innovative elements presented in the structure of the organizational and economic mechanism of the nature protection management is developed. The main result of the study is the improvement of the existing management mechanism to minimize the negative impact on the environment, including through the incentive system, and to improve the financial performance of the economic entity. The practical component of the study conducted can be recommended to municipal, regional and federal authorities, as well as the industrial enterprises, to support the adoption of the effective, environmentally sound management decisions that are consistent with the global concept of sustainable development.

  5. Taurine Growth Effects - Determining Optimum Taurine Supplementation Levels for Plant Proteins Incorporated into Marine Finfish Feeds using Juvenile Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taurine, an amino sulfonic acid, has important roles in osmoregulation, bile acid conjugation, membrane stabilization and calcium homeostasis in vertebrates. Though...

  6. Acinar cell ultrastructure after taurine treatment in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.; Mas, M. R.; Taski, I.; Comert, B.; Isik, A. T.; Mas, N. M.; Yener, N.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the organelle-based changes in acinar cells in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) after taurine treatment and the association of electron microscopic findings with histopathalogical changes and oxidative stress markers. The study was performed in February 2005at Gulhane School of Medicine and Hacettepe University, Turkey. Forty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in groups II and III. Groups I and II were treated with saline and Group III with taurine 1000mg/kg/day, i.p, for 48 hours. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations were determined using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Histopathologic findings improved significantly after taurine treatment. Degree of injury in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus of acinar cells also decreased with taurine in correlation with biochemical and histological results. Taurine improves acinar cell organelle structure, and ultrastructural recovery in ANP reflects histological improvement. (author)

  7. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1994-01-01

    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  8. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J

    2002-01-01

    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...... rate constant for the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 45% (high-affinity system) and 49% (low affinity system) in the resistant subline whereas the affinity of the transporters to taurine was unchanged. By immunoblotting we identified 3 TauT protein bands in the 50-70 kDa region. A visible...... reduction in the intensity of the band with the lowest molecular weight was observed in resistant cells. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated a significant reduction in the amount of taurine transporter mRNA in the resistant cells. Drug resistance in DNR Ehrlich cells is associated with overexpression of the mdr1...

  9. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  10. Assessing Nature-Based Coastal Protection against Disasters Derived from Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Pérez-Maqueo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems are expected to reduce the damaging effects of extreme hydrometeorological effects. We tested this prediction for Mexico by performing regression models, with two dependent variables: the occurrence of deaths and economic damages, at a state and municipality levels. For each location, the explanatory variables were the Mexican social vulnerability index (which includes socioeconomic aspects, local capacity to prevent and respond to an emergency, and the perception of risk and land use cover considering different vegetation types. We used the hydrometeorological events that have affected Mexico from 1970 to 2011. Our findings reveal that: (a hydrometeorological events affect both coastal and inland states, although damages are greater on the coast; (b the protective role of natural ecosystems only was clear at a municipality level: the presence of mangroves, tropical dry forest and tropical rainforest was related to a significant reduction in the occurrence of casualties. Social vulnerability was positively correlated with the occurrence of deaths. Natural ecosystems, both typically coastal (mangroves and terrestrial (tropical forests, which are located on the mountain ranges close to the coast function for storm protection. Thus, their conservation and restoration are effective and sustainable strategies that will help protect and develop the increasingly urbanized coasts.

  11. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Ko, Kwang Suk; Fascetti, Andrea J; Kittleson, Mark D; Macdonald, Kristin A; Maggs, David J; Berg, John R; Rogers, Quinton R

    2006-10-01

    Although taurine is not dietarily essential for dogs, taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are sporadically reported in large-breed dogs. Taurine status and husbandry were examined in 216 privately owned Newfoundlands, a giant dog breed with high incidence of idiopathic DCM (1.3-2.5%). Plasma taurine concentration was positively correlated (P ine (r = 0.37) and methionine (r = 0.35) concentrations and was similar across age, sex, neutering status, body weight, and body-condition scores. Plasma taurine concentration was low (ine, tryptophan, and alpha-amino-n-butyric acid concentrations than the other dogs (P ine and blood glutathione, lower (P < 0.01) de novo taurine synthesis (59 +/- 15 vs. 124 +/- 27 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)), and greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/g). Newfoundlands would appear to have a higher dietary sulfur amino acid requirement than Beagles, a model breed used in nutrient requirement determinations.

  13. Role of natural killer cells in innate protection against lethal ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Perkins, Jeremy G; Swenson, Dana L; Deal, Emily M; Bosio, Catharine M; Aman, M Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Young, Howard A; Bavari, Sina

    2004-07-19

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1-3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injection enhanced the numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in lymphoid tissues. In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets. Unlike wild-type mice, treatment of NK-deficient or -depleted mice with VLPs had no protective effect against Ebola virus infection and NK cells treated with VLPs protected against Ebola virus infection when adoptively transferred to naive mice. The mechanism of NK cell-mediated protection clearly depended on perforin, but not interferon-gamma secretion. Particles containing only VP40 were sufficient to induce NK cell responses and provide protection from infection in the absence of the viral GP. These findings revealed a decisive role for NK cells during lethal Ebola virus infection. This work should open new doors for better understanding of Ebola virus pathogenesis and direct the development of immunotherapeutics, which target the innate immune system, for treatment of Ebola virus infection.

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Taurine on Gamma Radiation Induced Genetic Injuries in Germ Cells of Male Mice and Their Male Offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.A.; Tawfik, S.S.; El-Khafif, M.A.; Ragab, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy for treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied after administration taurine 1% in drinking water post irradiation. Administration of taurine therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on chromosomal aberrations in irradiated animals and their male offspring. The efficiency of taurine as radio therapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine therapy was discussed

  15. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  16. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  17. Assessment of Human’s Attitude Towards Natural Resource Conservation in Protected Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Popradit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attitude of residing people towards a protected forest area was evaluated for sustainable use of natural resources and forest conservation in the Phu Kao–PhuPhan Kham National Park in Thailand. Their economic and social conditions were assessed in three villages of Phukao, NongBua Lamphu Province. Data were collected from 348 households (66.5% heads or the representatives in the villages with the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (i general economic and social information (ii social grouping and participation and (iii attitude toward participation in conserving natural resources and tourism management in this area. To evaluate their attitude, the collected data were divided into four categories: (i level 4 equilibrium/nature (ii level 3 warning (iii level 2 risk (iv level 1 crisis for forest conservation in the protected area. Overall, their attitude towards natural resource conservation, the social grouping and the community participation was very low. However, the attitude towards ecotourism is very high. We suggest that forest conservation will be maintained by more progress of ecotourism in this area.

  18. Na-noparticles of activated natural zeolite on textiles for protection and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Kovaček

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural zeolite clinoptilolite is microporous hydrated aluminosilicates crystals with well-defined structures containing AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral linked through the common oxygen atoms. It is to point out that zeolites act as strong adsorbents and ion-exchangers but having many other useful properties. Due to its cationexchange ability, zeolites have catalytic properties and, for that, multiple uses in medicine and industry, agriculture, water purification and detergents. Zeolites are nontoxic substance, excellent for UVR and microbes protection, for proteins and small molecules such as glucose adsorption. In this paper its positive effect on the metabolism of living organisms and its anticancerogenic, antiviral, antimetastatic and antioxidant effect. The activity of natural zeolite as natural immunostimulator was presented as well as its help in healing wounds. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to modify cotton (by mercerization and polyester (by alkaline hydrolysis fabrics for summer clothing with addition of natural zeolite nanoparticles for achieving UV and antibacterial protective textiles

  19. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn 2+ and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase + was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  20. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui, E-mail: Donghuixu007@163.com

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn{sup 2+} and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase{sup +} was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  1. Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their

  2. Taurine and β-alanine intraperitoneal injection in lactating mice modifies the growth and behavior of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-01-08

    Taurine, one of the sulfur-containing amino acids, has several functions in vivo. It has been reported that taurine acts on γ-aminobutyric acid receptors as an agonist and to promote inhibitory neurotransmission. Milk, especially colostrum, contains taurine and it is known that milk taurine is essential for the normal development of offspring. β-Alanine is transported via a taurine transporter and a protein-assisted amino acid transporter, the same ones that transport taurine. The present study aimed to investigate whether the growth and behavior of offspring could be altered by modification of the taurine concentration in milk. Pregnant ICR mice were separated into 3 groups: 1) a control group, 2) a taurine group, and 3) a β-alanine group. During the lactation periods, dams were administered, respectively, with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.), taurine dissolved in 0.9% saline (43 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.), or β-alanine dissolved in 0.9% saline (31 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, the taurine concentration in milk was significantly decreased by the administration of β-alanine, but not altered by the taurine treatment. The body weight of offspring was significantly lower in the β-alanine group. β-Alanine treatment caused a significant decline in taurine concentration in the brains of offspring, and it was negatively correlated with total distance traveled in the open field test at postnatal day 15. Thus, decreased taurine concentration in the brain induced hyperactivity in offspring. These results suggested that milk taurine may have important role of regulating the growth and behavior of offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of proteolytic ferments by taurin in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Klimova, A.D.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of taurin potassium phosphate (TKPh) as radioprotective remedy resulted in a considerable influence on the activity of the proteolytic ferments in the irradiated organism. White male rats with a weight of 160 to 180 g being kept in cages without any food for 12 hours before this experiment were irradiated with a gamma unit GUM-Co-60 with a dose of 700 rad (LDsub(70/30)). A 4% solution of the preparation was injected in an amount of 40 mg per rat 1, 3, 5, 7 days after irradiation. Under the effect of ionizing radiation there was a progredient increase of proteolytic ferment activity of liver and spleen which was detected already 30 min after irradiation with maximum rate of proteolysis on the 21st day. After injection of the preparation a two-phase reaction developed: on the 7th to 12th day an increased activity of cathepsins in the tissue and in the following time up to the 30th day of observation an inhibition of ferment activity was demonstrated. Simultaneously it was found that the radiation-induced corticosteroid level was prevented by the preparation. A similar effect was also shown by TKPh inhibiting proteolytic ferment activity in experiments with rats with preceding application of hydrocortisone in high doses. The obtained results permit the assumption that the radioprotective activity of taurin comes about by its effect in the direction of structural integrity of the cell membranes leading to a normalization of the hormonal and fermentative events

  4. A terahertz study of taurine: Dispersion correction and mode couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zelin; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Fu; Lian, Yuxiang; Fan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhegeng; Sun, Minghui; Jiang, Yadong; Yang, Chun; Xu, Jimmy

    2017-03-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of polycrystalline taurine were studied experimentally by terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio density-functional simulations. Full optimizations with semi-empirical dispersion correction were performed in spectral computations and vibrational mode assignments. For comparison, partial optimizations with pure density functional theory were conducted in parallel. Results indicate that adding long-range dispersion correction to the standard DFT better reproduces the measured THz spectra than the popular partial optimizations. The main origins of the observed absorption features were also identified. Moreover, a coupled-oscillators model was proposed to explain the experimental observation of the unusual spectral blue-shift with the increase of temperature. Such coupled-oscillators model not only provides insights into the temperature dynamics of non-bonded interactions but also offers an opportunity to better understand the physical mechanisms behind the unusual THz spectral behaviors in taurine. Particularly, the simulation approach and novel coupled-oscillators model presented in this work are applicable to analyze the THz spectra of other molecular systems.

  5. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  6. Characterization of taurine binding, uptake, and release in the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanretta, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neurotransmitter criteria of specific receptors, inactivation, and release were experimentally examined for taurine in the hypothalamus. Specific membrane binding and synaptosomal uptake of taurine both displayed high affinity and low affinity systems. The neurotransmitter criterion of release was studied in superfused synaptosomes. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the high affinity uptake range (1.5 μM) to either 56 mM K + or 100 μM veratridine evoked a Ca 2+ -independent release. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the low affinity uptake range (2 mM) to 56 mM K + induced a Ca 2+ -independent release, whereas 100 + M veratridine did not, either in the presence or absence of Ca 2+ . Based on these results, as well as other observations, a model is proposed in which the high affinity uptake system is located on neuronal membranes and the low affinity uptake system is located on glial membranes. The mechanisms of binding, uptake, and release in relation to the cellular location of each are discussed. We conclude that the neurotransmitter criterion of activation by re-uptake is satisfied for taurine in the hypothalamus. However, the failure to demonstrate both a specific taurine receptor site and a Ca 2+ -dependent evoked release, necessitates that we conclude that taurine appears not to function as a hypothalamic neurotransmitter, at least not in the classical sense

  7. Taurine biosynthesis in frog retina: effects of light and dark adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, C.; Ida, S.; Kuriyama, K.

    1983-01-01

    The retinal uptake and metabolism of cysteine, a precursor for taurine biosynthesis, were analysed using the bull frog. The [ 14 C] cysteine uptake into isolated retina had some specific properties: It was rather temperature independent, required Na ions, was inhibited by ouabain but not by dinitrophenol, and exhibited saturation kinetics composed of two components. When retinal homogenate was incubated with 12-30 microM of L-[U- 14 C]cysteine, the accumulation of labeled alanine, cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), cysteic acid (CA), hypotaurine, and taurine was detected. The metabolic conversions of [ 14 C] cysteine to labeled alanine, hypotaurine, and taurine were linear over 90 minutes. Prolonged light adaptation (3 weeks) induced a significant reduction in the formation of labeled CA, CSA, hypotaurine, and taurine from [ 14 C] cysteine. On the other hand, it was found that in dark-adapted retinae, the formation of labeled taurine from [ 14 C] cysteine increased significantly in spite of the reduction in the formation of labeled CA. These results indicate that biosynthetic pathways exist for taurine from cysteine in frog retina, and that these metabolic pathways are involved in the regulation of retinal taurine content under continuous visual adaptation

  8. Modulatory action of taurine on the release of GABA in cerebellar slices of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namima, M.; Okamoto, K.; Sakai, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of demonstrating the action of taurine as a neuromodulator in addition to its suggested neurotransmitter function, the effects of taurine and muscimol on the depolarization-induced Ca-dependent release of (/sup 3/H) gamma-aminobutyric acid ((/sup 3/H)GABA) and L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate in cerebellar slices from guinea pigs were investigated. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA was found to be greatly decreased by a GABA agonist, muscimol, and by taurine, but not by glycine. The release of L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate was little affected by taurine. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, was enhanced by bicuculline and strychnine, but not by picrotoxin, and the suppressive action of muscimol on the GABA release was antagonized by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and strychnine, suggesting the possible existence of presynaptic autoreceptors for GABA in the cerebellum. The suppressive action of taurine on the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, on the other hand, was blocked only by bicuculline. These results suggest that taurine reduced the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA from cerebellar slices by acting on the GABA autoreceptors or, more likely, on other types of receptors that are sensitive to bicuculline. As a possible mechanism for this modulatory action of taurine, the blockade by this amino acid of the influx of Ca/sup 2 +/ into cerebellar tissues was tentatively suggested.

  9. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  10. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  12. Climate change and protection: Recent experiences within planning of the area of cultural and natural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an insight into the current legal and other regulatory frameworks that introduces problems of climate change into planning practice of natural and cultural heritage, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Serbia. Further, an overview of the selected case studies of natural and cultural heritage from the UNESCO World Heritage List for which were done studies of the impacts of climate change is included. The results indicate that the legal frameworks as well as actual practice are promoting the development of the ecological networks (the network of areas NATURA 2000 and landscape protection. This applies also to the planning practice in Serbia, where the planning of ecological corridors, habitat networking and other measures, provide responses to climate change. One of the conclusions of this paper is pointing out the necessity of increasing the level of protection of natural and cultural heritage within preserving the authenticity and improving flexibility or adaptability to climate change.

  13. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  14. Microstructure and protection characteristics of the naturally formed oxide films on Mg–xZn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingwei; Han, En-Hou; Dong, Kaihui; Shan, Dayong; Yim, Chang Dong; You, Bong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The oxide films on Mg–xZn alloys consist of similar chemical composition. •The higher Zn content results in the thicker but higher defect of the oxide films. •The oxide films exhibit different protection performance under various potentials. -- Abstract: The naturally formed oxide films on Mg–2Zn and Mg–5Zn alloys were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. The oxide films on the both alloys present a similar chemical composition, consisting of surface layer of basic magnesium carbonate and MgO following with MgO and ZnO, but the oxide film on Mg–5Zn is thicker and contains more defects. The protection performance of the oxide film on Mg–5Zn is worse under open circuit potential but better in a suitable anodic potential scope compared with that on Mg–2Zn alloy

  15. Historical study regarding the protection of consumers within the electric energy and natural gas markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Pîrvu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The supply of electric energy and natural gas is a service of general interest, with a vital importance in satisfying the consumer’s basic needs. The conducted research is descriptive and its main focus is on the study of the field literature, aiming at aspects such as identifying the historic evolution of the electric energy and natural gas markets in Romania, the behaviour of companies operating on these markets and their impact on the consumers’ rights. The research methodology has been established starting from a synthetic analysis of the most recent published studies on the observation of the European policy in the energy field and EU’s efforts to build up a single, competitive market, including two sectors that not long ago were dominated by monopolistic national actors: electric energy and gas. The research methods imply study monitoring and reports as well as forecast analyses regarding the capacity of the Three Energy Packages, once implemented, to support the creation of competitive, transparent and uniformly regulated energy markets within the EU countries, in order to ensure the protection of the consumers of these general interest services. The research has a dual approach, combining quantitative and qualitative elements as well as conducting the analysis of the correlations between the efforts and effects registered in the field of consumer protection. The first section of the article offers conceptual clarifications regarding both the European policy in the energy field and the consumers of general economic services. The second section gives an insight into the energy and gas markets in Romania as well as the main obstacles in the way of their liberalization. The third section presents the efforts made with respect to consumer protection in the field of energy, analyzing the European Directives’ fundamental ideas regarding the protection of consumers and the phase of their embedment into our legislation in order to achieve

  16. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  17. Ecological tourism in protected natural areas of the Russian Arctic: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Golubeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems and prospects of the ecological tourism in the natural protected areas (NPA in the Russian Arctic. It is proposed to create a unified terminological basis for the concept of “ecotourism”. We analyzed the systemic problems that hinder the development of ecotourism in the NPA of the Arctic region. The article shows arising recreational conflicts, caused by environmental and traditional land use issues and the existence of NPA in the Arctic. We also discuss promising aspects of the ecological tourism, preservation of the heritage of indigenous peoples of the North and opportunities for involving local people in economic activities and environmental education.

  18. Participation of taurine in the reduction of hypercorticism effects after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaeva, T.Yu.; Korobejnikova, A.I.; Dokshina, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats with a dose of 700 rads intensifies suprarenal glucocorticoid activity. Eight taurine injections of 200 mg/kg eliminate hypercorticism and lead to an increase in the protein-bound hormonal fraction on the one hand, and to a decrease in the free hormonal fraction on the other hand. It has been found in in vitro experiments that taurine decreases the production of suprarenal steroid hormones, which was intensified by irradiation. In incubation with glands of intact animals taurine simultaneously decreases the basal secretion of corticosteroids. (author)

  19. Protective Effect of Natural Rotavirus Infection in an Indian Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Beryl P.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Rehman, Andrea M.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Gomara, Miren Iturriza; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.G.; Desselberger, Ulrich; Crawford, Sue E.; John, Jacob; Babji, Sudhir; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected). METHODS We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3. RESULTS Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P[8], the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection. CONCLUSIONS Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.) PMID:21793745

  20. Protection against Natural Radiation at Home and at Work Exclusion, Practice, Intervention-Theory and Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Kock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The issues related to protection against natural radiation at home and at work are addressed in the last fifteen years by various international organizations, professional bodies and national laws and regulations. The ICRP and the IAEA outlined theoretical principles, basic recommendations and some practical instructions for the classification of exposure situations to natural radiation sources into those that are dealt in the framework of practices and interventions and those that are excluded from the framework because they are un-amenable to control. However, in many practical cases, this classification appears to be a complex task, which has to be tackled by the national competent authorities in each country. When trying to convert the principles and guidance outlined by the international bodies into national regulations and practical instructions, we discover that some issues are undecided upon and guidance is lacking relating to sources and practices that were not explicitly addressed. Furthermore, some ambiguities in the principles and guidelines can be detected and difficulties encountered in their implementation. The recommendations and instructions of the ICRP and the IAEA related to natural radiation sources and chronic exposure and their interpretation by the European Commission are reviewed and analyzed. Their implications on the possible ways to handle issues such as the protection against radon at home and at work, the limits to be set on natural radioactive substances in building materials and the radiation risks related to the phosphate and coal ash industries are discussed. Recent decisions of the competent authorities in Israel and Israeli regulations and standardization related to some of these issues are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  1. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  2. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantia gelatinosa (SG of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM, suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons.

  3. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Han, Seong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC) with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM) showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM) and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM), suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM) activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons. PMID:24379976

  4. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Nair, Keshav V; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose) and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic). These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions).

  5. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Terrill

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic. These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions.

  6. USING GIS FOR ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GEOLOGIC SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shurkhovetskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes approaches to the preservation of unique geological objects used in the world and in Russia. It lists the shortcomings of geological monuments of nature as the main form of protection of territories that have specific features of geological structure and significant paleontological locations. It also proves the relevance of geoinformation systems (GIS use for a comprehensive solution of existing problems.The article describes the main features of the algorithm for the GIS development in the projected Alexandrov-Balykleysky geopark, consisting of a number of sequentially performed operations: field and office research, development of a cartographic basis, creation of thematic layers and database, development of conventional designations system and user interface elements.It justifies the division of information available for different user categories by creating specialized thematic layers and their relevant attributive tables, and by including additional information materials in the database. It gives conventional designations examples of geological monuments of nature of various types (paleontological, geological-geomorphological, geologicalpaleontological and sculpture-paleontological and geological sections of various stratigraphic divisions.The obtained results may be used to justify the creation and development of geoparks, to improve the management efficiency of existing geological protected areas, to conduct scientific research and to monitor the state of facilities, to collect, systematize and analyze new data, as well as for the development of tourism, culture, environmental education by creating an information Internet resource and compiling a wide range of educational products: maps, atlases, booklets, etc. 

  7. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H in the taurine moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan [Karolinska Inst., Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics Dept., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-{Delta}{sup 4} or 3{beta}, 7{alpha}-dihydroxy-{Delta}{sup 5} structures. Taurine labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with {sup 14}C- or {sup 3}H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author).

  9. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ 4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ 5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14 C or 3 H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14 C- or 3 H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  10. Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Conte, Riccardo; Lanfranco, Massimo; Perrone, Gianluigi; Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) centre, within its partnership with the UN World Food Programme (WFP) with the goal of reducing human, social, economic and environmental losses due to natural hazards and related disasters. By cooperating with local and regional authorities (Municipalities, Centro Funzionale of the Aosta Valley, Civil Protection Agency of Regione Piemonte), data on natural hazards and risks have been collected, compared to national and global data, then interpreted for helping communities and civil protection agencies of sensitive mountain regions to make strategic choices and decisions to better mitigation and adaption measures. To enhance the application of GIS and Remote-sensing technologies for geothematic mapping of geological and geomorphological risks of mountain territories of Europe and Developing Countries, research activities led to the collection and evaluation of data from scientific literature and historical technical archives, for the definition of predisposing/triggering factors and evolutionary processes of natural instability phenomena (landslides, floods, storms, …) and for the design and implementation of early-warning and early-impact systems. Geodatabases, Remote Sensing and Mobile-GIS applications were developed to perform analysis of : 1) large climate-related disaster (Hurricane Mitch, Central America), by the application of remote sensing techniques, either for early warning or mitigation measures at the national and international scale; 2) distribution of slope instabilities at the regional scale (Aosta

  11. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  12. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  13. Immunogenic multistage recombinant protein vaccine confers partial protection against experimental toxoplasmosis mimicking natural infection in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaprak Gedik

    2016-01-01

    To generate a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis, multistage vaccines and usage of challenging models mimicking natural route of infection are critical cornerstones. In this study, we generated a BAG1 and GRA1 multistage vaccine that induced strong immune response in which the protection was not at anticipated level. In addition, the murine model was orally challenged with tissue cysts to mimic natural route of infection.

  14. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume...... is a critical step in cell proliferation, differentiation and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we use mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettré ascites tumour cells with different CK2 expression levels. Taurine uptake via the Na(+) dependent transporter TauT and taurine release are increased...... and reduced, respectively, following pharmacological CK2 inhibition. The effect of CK2 inhibition on TauT involves modulation of transport kinetics, whereas the effect on the taurine release pathway involves reduction in the open-probability of the efflux pathway. Stimulation of PLA(2) activity, exposure...

  15. Prophylactic role of taurine and its derivatives against diabetes mellitus and its related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulami; Basak, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kundu, Mousumi; Sil, Parames C

    2017-12-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid present in the body in free form. Mammalian taurine is synthesized in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation are two main properties through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Many studies have shown its excellent therapeutic potential against diabetes mellitus and related complications like diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, hematological dysfunctions, reproductive dysfunctions, liver and pancreas related complications etc. Not only taurine, a number of its derivatives have also been reported to be important in ameliorating diabetic complications. The present review has been aimed to describe the importance of taurine and its derivatives against diabetic metabolic syndrome and related complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taurine-modified Ru(ii)-complex targets cancerous brain cells for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enming; Hu, Xunwu; Roy, Sona; Wang, Peng; Deasy, Kieran; Mochizuki, Toshiaki; Zhang, Ye

    2017-05-30

    The precision and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is essential for the treatment of brain tumors because the cancer cells are within or adjacent to the delicate nervous system. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that serves the central nervous system (CNS). A taurine-modified polypyridyl Ru-complex was shown to have optimized intracellular affinity in cancer cells through accumulation in lysosomes. Symmetrical modification of this Ru-complex by multiple taurine molecules enhanced the efficiency of molecular emission with boosted generation of reactive oxygen species. These characteristic features make the taurine-modified Ru-complex a potentially effective photosensitizer for PDT of target cancer cells, with outstanding efficacy in cancerous brain cells.

  17. 1994 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-24

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys and other wildlife monitoring performed from January through December 1994. These surveys are part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and quantifying fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in the species using the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) as year-round or seasonal habitat. Wildlife population densities vary constantly due to natural pressures, and only well-integrated, long-term monitoring can identify which factors influencing wildlife populations are a consequence of natural causes, and which are due to human activities. An integrated monitoring program that gathers data on ecologically interactive species is essential in evaluating population fluctuations. Such data can be an invaluable tool in predicting and avoiding impacts on the ecology of an area due to projected human activities. With 167 species of birds, three big game species, nine species of carnivores, nine species of mid-sized mammals, and 15 small mammal species, the Site provides habitat to a surprising variety of wildlife. Many of these species are sensitive species or indicator organisms that by their presence or, more significantly, by their absence can indicate the ecological health of an area. Their presence at the Site indicates a very healthy ecosystem.

  18. Changes of intermediary taurine and tryptophan metabolism after combined radiation-thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Novoselova, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of changes of the taurine and tryptophane concentration in blood serum of rats has been studied during 30 days after 3b degree burn of 15% of body surface after total even exposure to radiation in doses of 3 and 6 Gy, and after combined radiation thermal injury. Combined radiation-thermal injury was found to be characterized by reduced concentration of taurine but an increase of the tryptophane level from the second-third day after the injury

  19. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcho, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of [ 35 S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  20. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinwather, T.

    2000-03-01

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  1. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by β-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, β-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours

  2. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of

  3. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Koji

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore ameliorative effects of food components against the diseases are being paid attention in the affluent countries. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on apoB secretion and lipid metabolism in human liver model HepG2 cells. Results The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein. Conclusion This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells.

  5. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholesterol-lowing effect of taurine in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Gao, Ya; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-16

    A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively. The protein expressions of CYP7A1, MEK1/2, c-Jun, p-c-Jun and HNF-4α were detected. Taurine significantly reduced cellular TC and FC in dose -and time-dependent ways, and obviously increased intracellular/medium TBA and CYP7A1 expressions. There was no change in c-Jun expression, but the protein expressions of MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun were increased at 24 h and inhibited at 48 h by 20 mM taurine while HNF4α was induced after both of the 24 h and 48 h treatment. Taurine could enhance CYP7A1 expression by inducing HNF4α and inhibiting MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun expressions to promote intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Taurine Administration Recovers Motor and Learning Deficits in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guzzetti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830 is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1:10–20,000 children. Patients show moderate to severe intellectual disability, ataxia and absence of speech. Studies on both post-mortem AS human brains and mouse models revealed dysfunctions in the extra synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors implicated in the pathogenesis. Taurine is a free intracellular sulfur-containing amino acid, abundant in brain, considered an inhibiting neurotransmitter with neuroprotective properties. As taurine acts as an agonist of GABA-A receptors, we aimed at investigating whether it might ameliorate AS symptoms. Since mice weaning, we orally administered 1 g/kg/day taurine in water to Ube3a-deficient mice. To test the improvement of motor and cognitive skills, Rotarod, Novel Object Recognition and Open Field tests were assayed at 7, 14, 21 and 30 weeks, while biochemical tests and amino acid dosages were carried out, respectively, by Western-blot and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on frozen whole brains. Treatment of Ube3am−/p+ mice with taurine significantly improved motor and learning skills and restored the levels of the post-synaptic PSD-95 and pERK1/2-ERK1/2 ratio to wild type values. No side effects of taurine were observed. Our study indicates taurine administration as a potential therapy to ameliorate motor deficits and learning difficulties in AS.

  9. Energy drink ingredients. Contribution of caffeine and taurine to performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Martin, Frances Heritage; Carr, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    While the performance-enhancing effects of energy drinks are commonly attributed to caffeine, recent research has shown greater facilitation of performance post-consumption than typically expected from caffeine content alone. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the independent and combined effect of taurine and caffeine on behavioural performance, specifically reaction time. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, within-subjects design, female undergraduates (N=19) completed a visual oddball task and a stimulus degradation task 45min post-ingestion of capsules containing: (i) 80mg caffeine, (ii) 1000mg taurine, (iii) caffeine and taurine combined, and (iv) matched placebo. Participants completed each treatment condition, with sessions separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Whereas no significant treatment effects were recorded for reaction time in the visual oddball task, facilitative caffeine effects were evident in the stimulus degradation task, with significantly faster reaction time in active relative to placebo caffeine conditions. Furthermore, there was a trend towards faster mean reaction time in the caffeine condition relative to the taurine condition and combined caffeine and taurine condition. Thus, treatment effects were task-dependent, in that independent caffeine administration exerted a positive effect on performance, and co-administration with taurine tended to attenuate the facilitative effects of caffeine in the stimulus degradation task only. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Central effect of taurine and its analogues on fever caused by intravenous leukocytic pyrogen in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, J M; Ticknor, C B

    1979-01-01

    1. Taurine infused I.C.V. after I.V. injection of leukocytic pyrogen (LP) inhibited the initial rise in body temperature and prolonged fever when infusion was stopped. 2. Similar infusion of taurine also inhibited the hypertermic effect of I.C.V. PGE2 (0.5 microgram) but did not cause prolonged hyperthermia. 3. I.C.V. administration of the taurine analogues hypotaurine and beta-alanine, compounds which have been shown previously to compete with taurine for facilitated transport in C.N.S. tissue, also inhibited the initial increase in body temperature and prolonged LP fever. 4. These results suggest that taurine prolongs LP fever by preferentially occupying a carrier system normally required for termination of the effects of endogenous pyrogens or related central mediators of fever. There was no evidence that taurine prolongs fever by blocking inactivation of central PGE2, a substance proposed previously to be a central mediator of fever. PMID:107309

  11. Understanding Social Conflicts Between Forestry and Nature Protection Sectors: Case Study Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kiš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The last couple of decades brought significant changes in forest and nature protection policy worldwide. Rising environmental awareness, over-utilization of scarce natural resources and global climate change set high goals for the forest and nature protection policy makers. This paper is about a case study of relations among various stakeholders on Velebit Mountain, a coast-by mountain in Central Croatia. Velebit Mountain is both: a nature protection area and a forest exploitation site, which raises various conflicts between these two sectors and major stakeholders. Purpose of this research was to investigate the relations among various interest groups and coalition parties, their opinions, aspirations and interests and, especially, the way to resolve issues or manage conflicts. Material and Methods: This case-study research was conducted in form of interviews held with the representatives of each of the defined stakeholder groups within the target area, i.e. Velebit Mountain Nature Park. Interviews consisted of several groups of questions (introductory part, conflicts, conflict management and policy development, while stakeholder groups included "Croatian Forests ltd.", a state-owned company in charge of the management of state forests, Nature Park Velebit, National Park Paklenica, National Park "Northern Velebit", hunters' associations, private forest owners, fishermen associations, representatives of the local administration and mountaineers' associations. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions regarding various issues divided into these four groups. The data was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Theoretical framework used in this research was Walker and Daniels' Social Conflict Theory (1997, p.13 which describes types of conflicts, ways to address them and typical sources of occurring conflicts. Results and Conclusion: The results showed which the most salient conflict

  12. A cross-scale impact assessment of European nature protection policies under contrasting future socio-economic pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Verburg, Peter H.; Popp, Alexander; Lindner, Marcus; Verkerk, Pieter J.; Moiseyev, Alexander; Schrammeijer, Elizabeth; Helming, John; Tabeau, Andrzej; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Zanden, van der Emma H.; Lavalle, Carlo; E Silva, Filipe Batista; Walz, Ariane; Bodirsky, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Protection of natural or semi-natural ecosystems is an important part of societal strategies for maintaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and achieving overall sustainable development. The assessment of multiple emerging land use trade-offs is complicated by the fact that land use changes occur

  13. Best of both worlds : clear exterior finishes : in search of finishes that protect wood without hiding its natural beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniels; Marc Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan Ross; Sam Williams

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, a number of clear wood finishes have been developed that protect wood while accentuating its natural beauty. The focus of this publication is on those finishes having little visible pigment. In some cases, the pigments are included but are finely ground to create a coating that is transparent to visible light. Most natural clear wood finishes are...

  14. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  15. The change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression level in rats with late-stage traumatic brain injury and the therapeutic effect of taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CAI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 expression level in rats with late-stage (the 7th day traumatic brain injury (TBI and the role of taurine. Methods The left cerebral TBI rat models were made by using lateral fluid percussion method. A total of 30 specific pathogen free (SPF male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (control group, TBI model group (TBI group and taurine treatment group (taurine group. Wet and dry weight method was used to measure the brain water content. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the change of mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 and mGluR5 in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the brain water content (t = 4.893, P = 0.002, AQP4 mRNA (t = 6.523, P = 0.000 and protein (t = 4.366, P = 0.008 expression were upregulated, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 5.776, P = 0.001 and protein (t = 3.945, P = 0.014 expression were downregulated in TBI group. After taurine treatment, the brain water content (t = 2.151, P = 0.140, AQP4 mRNA (t = 1.144,P = 0.432 and protein (t = 0.367, P = 0.804 decreased to normal, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 1.824, P = 0.216 and protein (t = 1.185, P = 0.414 increased to normal. Correlation analysis showed brain water content was negatively correlated with mGluR5 mRNA (r = -0.617, P = 0.014 and mGluR5 protein (r = -0.665, P = 0.007, while it was positively correlated with AQP4 protein (r = 0.658, P = 0.008.  Conclusions Taurine can significantly increase the mGluR5 expression level of brain issue in the late-stage (the 7th day of TBI and decline brain edema and brain water content. It may be a potential protective agent as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.008

  16. Natural and artificial radioactivity in some protected areas of south east Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džoljić Jovana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research is the investigation of natural and artificial radioactivity in protected areas of Kopaonik, Vlasina, and Rila Mountains. Soil samples (including lake sediment, drinkable spring water and conifers at mentioned locations of Southeast Europe, are chosen as study objects due to their importance for people and the environment in global. Specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 238U, 235U, 137Cs, 210Pb, and 7Be are determined using gamma spectrometry and the obtained values compared with literature and mean world values. Risk assessment parameters and the soil-plant transfer factor were determined for 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs, and 210Pb. This is the first radioactivity study of high mountain areas of Vlasina and Kopaonik in Serbia and Rila in Bulgaria and as such a baseline measurement and foundation for future research. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III43009

  17. Towards eco-friendly crop protection: natural deep eutectic solvents and defensive secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouden, Sanae; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Choi, Young Hae; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-01-01

    With mounting concerns over health and environmental effects of pesticides, the search for environmentally acceptable substitutes has amplified. Plant secondary metabolites appear in the horizon as an attractive solution for green crop protection. This paper reviews the need for changes in the techniques and compounds that, until recently, have been the mainstay for dealing with pest insects. Here we describe and discuss main strategies for selecting plant-derived metabolites as candidates for sustainable agriculture. The second part surveys ten important insecticidal compounds, with special emphasis on those involved in human health. Many of these insecticidal metabolites, however, are crystalline solids with limited solubility which might potentially hamper commercial formulation. As such, we introduce the concept of natural deep eutectic solvents for enhancing solubility and stability of such compounds. The concept, principles and examples of green pest control discussed here offer a new suite of environmental-friendly tools designed to promote and adopt sustainable agriculture.

  18. The Effects of Caffeine, Taurine, or Caffeine-Taurine Coingestion on Repeat-Sprint Cycling Performance and Physiological Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Rory; Jeffries, Owen; Patterson, Stephen; Waldron, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effects of caffeine (C), taurine (T), caffeine and taurine coingestion (C +T), or placebo (P) on repeated Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. Seven male team-sport players participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, where they completed 3 Wingate tests, each separated by 2 min, an hour after ingesting: C (5 mg/kg body mass [BM]), T (50 mg/kg BM), C +T (5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg BM), or P (5 mg/kg BM) in a gelatin capsule. Performance was measured on an ergometer, and blood lactate, perceived exertion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured at rest (presupplement), baseline (1 h postsupplement), and during and after exercise. Magnitude-based inferences revealed that all of the supplements increased (small to moderate, likely to very likely) mean peak power (MPP), peak power (PP), and mean power (MP) compared to P, with greater MPP, PP, and MP in T compared to C (small, possible). Intrasprint fatigue index (%FI Intra ) was greater in T compared to P and C (moderate, likely), and %FI Inter was lower in T compared to C (small, possible). C and C +T increased HR, MAP, and RPP compared to P and T at baseline (moderate to very large, likely to most likely); however, these only remained higher in C compared to all conditions in the final sprint. T elicited greater improvements in performance compared to P, C, or C +T while reducing the typical chronotropic and pressor effects of C.

  19. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in natural seawater: Effect of sunlight radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Alessandro [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, IENI - CNR, Milano, via Roberto Cozzi 53 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.benedetti@cnr.it; Magagnin, Luca [Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica G. Natta, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Passaretti, Francesca [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi IENI - CNR, Lecco, c.so Promessi Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Chelossi, Elisabetta; Faimali, Marco [Istituto di Scienze Marine, ISMAR- CNR - Via De Marini 6, 16149, Genova (Italy); Montesperelli, Giampiero [Universita di Roma - Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Cathodic protection of metals in seawater is known to be influenced by chemical-physical parameters affecting cathodic processes (oxygen discharge, hydrogen evolution and calcareous deposit precipitation). In shallow seawater, these parameters are influenced by sunlight photoperiod and photosynthetic activity. The results presented here represent the first step in studies dedicated to cathodic protection in shallow photic seawater. This paper reports on carbon steel protected at -850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (oxygen limiting current regime) in the presence of sunlight radiation but in the absence of biological and photosynthetic activity, the role of which deserves future research. Comparison of results obtained by exposing electrochemical cells to daylight cycles in both biologically inactivated natural seawater and in NaCl 3.5 wt.% solutions showed that sunlight affects current densities and that calcareous deposit interfere with light-currents effects. Sunlight radiation and induced heating of the solution have been separated, highlighting results not otherwise obvious: (1) observed current waves concomitant with sunlight radiation depend fundamentally on solar radiation, (2) solar radiation can determine current enhancements from early to late phases of aragonite crystal growth, (3) a three-day-old CaCO{sub 3} layer reduces but does not eliminate the amplitude of the current waves. Theoretical calculations for oxygen limiting currents and additional field tests showed that sunlight, rather than bulk solution heating, is the main cause of daily current enhancements. This was confirmed by polarizations performed at -850 and -1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (constant bulk temperature), during which the electrode was irradiated with artificial lighting. This test also confirmed O{sub 2} discharge to be the cathodic process involved. A mechanism of radiation conversion to heat in the oxygen diffusion layer region is proposed.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  1. Natural Dyeing and UV Protection of Raw and Bleached/Mercerised Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuk Nina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing with natural dyes extracted from curcuma, green tea, avocado seed, pomegranate peel and horse chestnut bark was studied to evaluate the dyeability and ultraviolet (UV blocking properties of raw and bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics. 20 g/l of powdered plant material was extracted in distilled water and used as a dyeing bath. No mordants were used to obtain ecologically friendly finishing. The colour of samples was measured on a refl ectance spectrophotometer, while UV-blocking properties were analysed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that dyeing increased UV protection factor (UPF to all samples, however much higher UPF values were measured for the dyed raw cotton samples. The highest UPF values were obtained on both cotton fabrics dyed with pomegranate peel and green tea extracts, giving them excellent protective properties (UPF 50+. The lowest UPF values were obtained by dyeing cotton with avocado seed extract and curcumin. Dyeing with selected dyes is not stable to washing, so the UV-blocking properties worsen after repetitive washing. However, raw cotton samples retain their very good Uvblocking properties, while bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics do not provide even satisfactory UV-blocking properties. No correlation between CIE L*a*b*, K/S and UPF values were found.

  2. Celery-based topical repellents as a potential natural alternative for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2008-12-01

    Celery-based products were investigated for chemical composition, skin irritation, and mosquito repellency in comparison to commercial repellents and the standard chemical, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), with a goal to develop a natural alternative to synthetic repellents for protection against mosquitoes. Chemical identification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry discovered that the major constituents of Apium graveolens hexane extract (AHE) were 3-n-butyl-tetrahydrophthalide (92.48%), followed by 5.10% beta-selinene and 0.68% gamma-selinene. Evaluation of skin irritation in 27 human volunteers revealed no irritant potential from 25% ethanolic AHE solution. Laboratory investigated repellent against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes demonstrated that G10 formula, the best AHE-developed product, provided remarkable repellency with a median protection time of 4.5 h (4.5-5 h), which was greater than that of ethanolic DEET solution (25% DEET, 3.5 h) and comparable to that of the best commercial repellent, Insect Block 28 (28.5% DEET, 4.5 h). According to significantly promising results, including highly effective repellency and no potential skin irritation or other side effects, the G10 formula is a worthwhile product that has the promise of being developed for commercialized registration. This developed AHE product could be an acceptable and affordable alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals in preventing mosquito bites, and in turn, helping to interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  3. Risk analysis and protective measures for occupationally workers with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Elevated concentrations of these radionuclides are often found in certain geological materials, namely igneous rocks and ores. Human activities that exploit these resources may lead to enhanced concentrations of radionuclides (often referred to as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TE-NORM). Enhanced levels of natural background radiation are encountered in many occupational industrial activities involving a large number of workers. Uncontrolled activities associated with TE-NORM can contaminate the environment and pose a risk to human health. This risk can be alleviated by the adoption of controls to identify where NORM is present; and cleaning the NORM-contaminated equipment and waste management while protecting workers. The main objective of this study is to investigate the natural radioactivity and the hazard parameters in the TE-NORM samples from different industrial activities. Also to describe the models and develop the computer codes that allow one to estimate the risk of cancer resulting from any specified dose of ionizing radiation for occupationally workers in different industrial activities. The present study deals with 50 different samples. This waste generated from petroleum fields, phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples. The radon exhalation rates calculated using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39). The value of radon exhalation rate 58.82±5.3 x10 3 , 4.28±0.49 x10 3 and 0.306±0.025 x10 3 Bq/m 2 h for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The value of radon exhalation rate 82.67±7.98, 62.58 ±5.7, 46.16 ±3.91 and 198.51±18.68 Bq/m 2 h for phosphate fertilizers samples, consumer product samples from China, ceramic and zircon samples, respectively. The 226 Ra activity concentrations were 301.4±771.5, 52.1±438 and 2.56±55.37 kBq/kg for scale, sludge and sand, respectively. The

  4. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  5. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  6. Effect of mercury on taurine transport by the red blood cells of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of heavy metal exposure on the transport of the amino acid, 14 C-taurine, by the hemoglobin containing coelomocytes (red blood cells) of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata. Glycera has been used previously in studies on heavy metal absorption. Glycera red cells (RBCs) were used for this study because they contain a high concentration of taurine (190 mM) which has been implicated as a major osmolyte in cellular volume regulation in marine invertebrates. Taurine also appears to participate in osmoregulation of mammalian heart and brain tissue. The coelomic fluid bathing Glycera RBCs typically contains taurine at considerably lower concentrations (0.2 mM). The standing gradients (intracellular conc./extracellular conc.) for amino acids ranges from 40:1 for lysine to 950:1 for taurine. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of the large standing gradient for taurine was apparently due to the presence of a specific Na and Cl dependent taurine transport system in these cells. The fact that Glycera RBCs actively maintain large taurine gradients suggests that this tissue should be an excellent one to use in analysis of the mechanisms of heavy metal interaction with taurine transport systems

  7. A natural human monoclonal antibody targeting Staphylococcus Protein A protects against Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Avanish K.; Sunley, Kevin M.; Bowling, Rodney A.; Kwan, Tzu-Yu; Mays, Heather R.; Rambhadran, Anu; Zhang, Yanfeng; Martin, Rebecca L.; Cavalier, Michael C.; Simard, John

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause devastating and life-threatening infections. With the increase in multidrug resistant strains, novel therapies are needed. Limited success with active and passive immunization strategies have been attributed to S. aureus immune evasion. Here, we report on a monoclonal antibody, 514G3, that circumvents a key S. aureus evasion mechanism by targeting the cell wall moiety Protein A (SpA). SpA tightly binds most subclasses of immunoglobulins via their Fc region, neutralizing effector function. The organism can thus shield itself with a protective coat of serum antibodies and render humoral immunity ineffective. The present antibody reactivity was derived from an individual with natural anti-SpA antibody titers. The monoclonal antibody is of an IgG3 subclass, which differs critically from other immunoglobulin subclasses since its Fc is not bound by SpA. Moreover, it targets a unique epitope on SpA that allows it to bind in the presence of serum antibodies. Consequently, the antibody opsonizes S. aureus and maintains effector function to enable natural immune mediated clearance. The data presented here provide evidence that 514G3 antibody is able to successfully rescue mice from S. aureus mediated bacteremia. PMID:29364906

  8. Advances in induced resistance by natural compounds: towards new options for woody crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Llorens

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The activation of defensive responses of plants is a promising tool for controlling pests in conventional agriculture. Over the last few years, several compounds have been studied to protect crops from pests, without displaying direct toxicity for pathogenic organisms. These compounds have the ability to induce a priming state on the plants that results in resistance (or tolerance against subsequent infection by a pathogen. In terms of molecular response, induced plant defense involves a broad number of physical and biochemical changes such as callose deposition or phenolic compounds, activation of salicylic and/or jasmonic acid pathways or synthesis of defense-related enzymes. Despite the large number of studies performed to ascertain the physiological and biochemical basis of induced resistance, only a few resistance-activating compounds have been studied as a real alternative to classic means of control and the studies geared towards incorporating induced resistance into disease management programs are relatively rare. The incorporation of natural resistance inducer in pest management programs of woody crops, alone or in combination with classical methods, could be a reliable method for reducing the amount of chemical residues in the environment. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of induced resistance in woody crops, focusing on the mode of action of compounds authorized for conventional agriculture. We conclude by discussing the environmental and economic advantages of applying resistance inducers to conventional agriculture with special emphasis on natural compounds.

  9. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  10. Effects of glutamine, taurine and their association on inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Talita; Galvão Dos Santos, Guilherme; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Makiyama, Edson; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2018-06-01

    The immune system is essential for the control and elimination of infections, and macrophages are cells that act as important players in orchestrating the various parts of the inflammatory/immune response. Amino acids play important role in mediating functionality of the inflammatory response, especially mediating macrophages functions and cytokines production. We investigated the influence of glutamine, taurine and their association on the modulation of inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was cultivated in the presence of glutamine and taurine and proliferation rates, cell viability, cell cycle phases, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α as well as H 2 O 2 production and the expression of the transcription factor, NFκB, and its inhibitor, IκBα, were evaluated. Our results showed an increase in viable cells and increased proliferation rates of cells treated with glutamine concentrations over 2 mM, as well as cells treated with both glutamine and taurine. The cell cycle showed a higher percentage of cells in the phases S, G2 and M when they were treated with 2 or 10 mM glutamine, or with glutamine and taurine in cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The pNFκB/NFκB showed reduced ratio expression when cells were treated with 10 mM of glutamine or with glutamine in association with taurine. These conditions also resulted in reduced TNF-α, IL-1α and H 2 O 2 production, and higher production of IL-10. These findings demonstrate that glutamine and taurine are able to modulate macrophages inflammatory pathways, and that taurine can potentiate the effects of glutamine, illustrating their immunomodulatory properties.

  11. Earthquakes: Natural Science Museum and Civil Protection of Trento to inform citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Claudia; Avanzini, Marco

    2010-05-01

    During 2009 the Natural Science Museum of Trento organized the exhibition "Attraction Earth: Earthquakes and Terrestrial Magnetism" in collaboration with the INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysic and Volcanology). In this exhibition a particular sector has been devoted to the seismic activity and its monitoring in the Province of Trento. The purpose was to inform local people on the geological features of their territory, the monitoring activity carried out by the Civil Protection and the potential earthquake hazards, also in order to adopt a correct behaviour in case of seismic event. This sector, "The seismometric Trentino network", was organized by the Geological Service of the Trento Civil Protection and it is open till May 2010, both for general public and school students. For the latter, a particular education pack, realized by the Educational Department of the Museum and consisting of a guided tour coupled with the laboratory activity "Waves upside-down: seismology", is proposed. The whole exhibition has been also coupled with a cycle conferences targeted to adults, in which these topics have been explained by researchers and technicians of INGV and of Trento Geological Service. "The seismometric Trentino network" sector presents the daily monitoring activity of the Geological Service, that has been monitoring the seismic activity for the last 30 years, and describes the deep earth processes of the local territory, such as presence of tectonic discontinuities and their activity. It consists of display panels, a seismometer with rotating drums and a multimedia that reports the monitoring activity of the seismometric network, with real time connection to the various monitoring stations. This allows visitors to observe instantly the local seismic events recorded by each station. The seismometric network was established by the institutions of Trento Province after the earthquakes occurred in Friuli Venezia-Giulia and at Riva del Garda (1976). It started

  12. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  13. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle

  14. The Legal Nature of Informed Consent from the Perspective of the Spanish and Brasilian Models of Patient Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éfren Paulo Porfirio de Sá Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presented makes a bibliographical and jurisprudential revision about the juridical nature of informed consent and its respective suitability in the selected list of fundamental rights, through the comparative study of the Brazilian and Spanish models of patient protection. The goal is to demonstrate that the informed consent doesn’t directly constitute a fundamental right in both juridical systems analyzed and that the informed consent protects, essentially, freedom and self-determination in health.

  15. Delivering Formal Outdoor Learning in Protected Areas: A Case Study of Scottish Natural Heritage National Nature Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, protected area management agencies provide formal outdoor learning opportunities for a wide range of educational groups. For high-quality formal outdoor learning programmes that provide a range of experiences to be effectively delivered, specific resources and infrastructure are needed. Using the case study of Scottish Natural…

  16. Flavocoxid, a Natural Antioxidant, Protects Mouse Kidney from Cadmium-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Micali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium (Cd, a diffused environmental pollutant, has adverse effects on urinary apparatus. The role of flavocoxid, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant activity, on the morphological and biochemical changes induced in vivo by Cd in mice kidney was evaluated. Methods. C57 BL/6J mice received 0.9% NaCl alone, flavocoxid (20 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, Cd chloride (CdCl2 (2 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, or CdCl2 plus flavocoxid (2 mg/kg/day i.p. plus 20 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days. The kidneys were processed for biochemical, structural, ultrastructural, and morphometric evaluation. Results. Cd treatment alone significantly increased urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; reduced GSH, GR, and GPx; and induced structural and ultrastructural changes in the glomeruli and in the tubular epithelium. After 14 days of treatment, flavocoxid administration reduced urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; increased GSH, GR, and GPx; and showed an evident preservation of the glomerular and tubular structure and ultrastructure. Conclusions. A protective role of flavocoxid against Cd-induced oxidative damages in mouse kidney was demonstrated for the first time. Flavocoxid may have a promising antioxidant role against environmental Cd harmful effects on glomerular and tubular lesions.

  17. A new type of natural bispecific antibody with potential protective effect in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Fan, Gaowei; Chen, Lida; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Xie, Jiehong; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2014-09-01

    As a new antibody concept, natural bispecific antibodies (nBsAbs) have been detected in long-term passive immunization and some diseases, but their potential immunomodulatory role remains unclear. Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) appears to fulfill the condition for nBsAb production but has not yet been characterized. The objective of the study was to identify a new nBsAb against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in HT patients and to preliminarily explore its immunomodulatory role. Serum samples were obtained from 136 HT patients, 92 diseased controls, and 99 healthy controls for anti-TPO/Tg nBsAb detection. The relationship between anti-TPO/Tg nBsAb and other clinical parameters was also analyzed. The anti-TPO/Tg nBsAb was detected using a double-antigen sandwich ELISA. Higher nBsAb levels were found to be associated with decreased inflammation in HT patients. The prevalence of anti-TPO/Tg nBsAb in HT was 44.9% (61 of 136), significantly higher than that of diseased controls (2.2%, 2 of 92) (P thyroiditis patients. A new type of nBsAb against TPO and Tg in HT patients is identified. Our data also indicate a protective effect of anti-TPO/Tg nBsAb in the pathogenesis of HT and extend prior knowledge about nBsAb in diseases.

  18. Concentrations in beef and lamb of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Rutherfurd, S M; Pearce, P D; Vather, R; Wilkinson, B H P

    2004-03-01

    Levels of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine were measured in beef liver and several muscles of beef and lamb and in cooked and uncooked meat. The amino acid taurine has numerous biological functions, the dipeptide carnosine is a buffer as well as an antioxidant, coenzyme Q(10) is also an antioxidant present within mitochondria, and creatine along with creatine phosphate is involved with energy metabolism in muscle. Large differences were shown for all compounds between beef cheek muscle (predominantly red fibres) and beef semitendinosus muscle (mainly white fibres), with cheek muscle containing 9.9 times as much taurine, and 3.2 times as much coenzyme Q(10), but only 65% as much creatine and 9% as much carnosine. Levels in lamb relative to beef semitendinosus muscles were higher for taurine but slightly lower for carnosine, coenzyme Q(10) and creatine. Values for all the compounds varied significantly between eight lamb muscles, possibly due in part to differences in the proportion of muscle fibre types. Slow cooking (90 min at 70 °C) of lamb longissimus and semimembranosus muscles led to significant reductions in the content of taurine, carnosine, and creatine (Plamb, but that these levels vary between muscles, between animals, and with cooking.

  19. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together. The differential and combinatorial effects of caffeine and taurine on the developing brain are reviewed here with an emphasis on the adolescent brain, which is still maturing. Key data from animal studies are summarized to highlight both reported benefits and adverse effects reported following acute and chronic exposures. The data suggest that age is an important factor in both caffeine and taurine toxicity. Although the aged or diseased brain might benefit from taurine or caffeine supplementation, it appears that adolescents are not likely to benefit from supplementation and may, in fact, suffer ill effects from chronic ingestion of high doses. Additional work is needed though to address gaps in our understanding of how taurine affects females, since the majority of animal studies focused exclusively on male subjects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reaction of [3H]-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, D.W.; Mills, D.C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from [2- 3 H]-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 μmol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 10 5 /platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 10 3 /(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents

  1. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Taurine on Hemodiafiltration in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohira, Shunji; Komatsu, Mizuki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Naganuma, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Tsuchiya, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Taurine, an important factor in the living body, is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, retina and central nervous system. In the present study, its effect on cardiovascular function was specifically taken into consideration. In hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients, the effect of taurine on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), in whom dry weight was difficult to control, was evaluated. All patients who were subjected to regular HDF for 4 h three times per week at Joban hospital were included in this study. Patients with chronic heart failure, in whom dry weight was difficult to control (N = 4), were included in the evaluation of clinical status. X-ray and echocardiography were determined before and after taurine treatment. Almost all patients were taking nitric acid, warfarin, anti-platelet agents and vasopressors. Because vital signs were unstable in chronic heart failure, all cases withheld antihypertensive drugs during HDF. For unstable vital signs during HDF, pulmonary congestion was chronically recognized. After taurine was started, vital signs stabilized and lowering of dry weight was possible. In addition, X-ray and cardiac diastolic failure on echocardiography improved. Taurine was effective for CHF patients on HDF in whom dry weight was difficult to control in spite of various medications. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  4. Single Channel Analysis of Isoflurane and Ethanol Enhancement of Taurine-Activated Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors (GlyRs), which is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations. A number of possible mechanisms may explain these enhancing effects, including modulator effects on conductance, channel open times, or channel closed times. We used outside-out patch-clamp single channel electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of action of 200 mM ethanol and 0.55 mM isoflurane in enhancing the effects of a saturating concentration of taurine. Neither modulator enhanced taurine-mediated conductance. Isoflurane increased the probability of channel opening. Isoflurane also increased the lifetimes of the two shortest open dwell times while both agents decreased the likelihood of occurrence of the longest-lived intracluster channel-closing events. The mechanism of enhancement of GlyR functioning by these modulators is dependent on the efficacy of the agonist activating the receptor and the concentration of agonist tested. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Influence of taurine on the dynamics of the development of experimental cataracts in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of taurine on the development of radiation cataracts in white raceless rats and mice of the F1 line, the prophylactic taurine effect on the frequency of radiation cataracts as well as the therapeutical effectiveness of taurine and vita-jodurol were examined under comparative aspects. The development of cataracts was induced by whole-body irradiation with 645 MeV protons and 60 Co gamma radiation in doses of 100, 200 and 300 rad as well as by local irradiation of the head with protons of the same energy and a dose of 1,000 rad. It is shown that prophylactic instillation of a 4% taurine solution in the course of 2 to 4 weeks leads to a significant decrease of cataract frequency, to partial regression of cataracts at the initial stage, and to retardation of ripening. The application of taurine eye-drops during one month after irradiation leads to an attenuated cataractogenic radiation effect. Vita-jorudol has no therapeutic effect on the radiation cataract. (author)

  6. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.T.; Douglas, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  8. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  9. Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Larsson, Johan E; Barro-Soria, Rene

    2016-01-01

    . Finally, we find that the fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores channel gating of many different mutant channels, even though the mutations are in different domains of the IKs channel and affect the channel by different molecular mechanisms. N-arachidonoyl taurine is therefore an interesting...

  10. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to...

  11. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    -fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  12. Improvement of survival and development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae by feeding taurine enriched rotifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present experiment was to study the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers in improving Pacific white shrimp larva Litopenaeus vannamei survival and development. White shrimp larvae at sixth naupliar stage were reared in 12 units of 500 L fibre glass tanks with a stocking density of 125 ind/L. Starting from zoea two stage (Z-2, the larva was provided with rotifers with different taurine enrichment concentration according to the treatments, i.e. 0 mg/L enrichment medium (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L(C, and 100 mg/L (D. The results show that different taurine concentration in the enrichment media increased taurine level in rotifers. Furthermore, the administration of taurine enriched rotifers up to 50 mg/L significantly improved larval survival and may accelerate larval development. The experimental results also concluded that a concentration of 50 mg/L is the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers for the improvement of white shrimp larval survival and developmental stage.Keywords: taurine, rotifer, white shrimp, enrichmentABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji konsentrasi optimum taurin melalui pengayaan pada rotifera terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan stadia larva udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Larva udang vaname stadia naupli-6 dipelihara dalam 12 tangki fiberglass volume 500 L dengan kepadatan 125 ind/L. Dimulai sejak stadia zoea 2 (Z-2 larva diberi rotifera yang diperkaya dengan taurin dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan perlakuan, yaitu 0 mg/L media pengkaya (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50mg/L (C, dan 100mg/L (D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengayaan taurin pada konsentrasi yang berbeda menyebabkan peningkatan kandungan taurin rotifera. Sementara pemberian rotifera yang diperkaya taurin hingga 50 mg/L meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup dan mempercepat perkembangan stadia larva udang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian

  13. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low...

  14. Explaining Emotional Attachment to a Protected Area by Visitors' Perceived Importance of Seeing Wildlife, Behavioral Connections with Nature and Sociodemographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigen, Paulus P.P.; Haartsen, Tialda; Folmer, Akke

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the interest in understanding emotional bonds with protected nature areas has been growing. The role of wildlife in emotional bonds with places has until now not been the focus of many studies. The aim of our paper is to explore relations between the perceived importance of seeing wildlife

  15. Development of capillary electrophoresis methods for quantitative determination of taurine in vehicle system and biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Dayse L P; Rüttinger, Hans H; Mrestani, Yahia; Baum, Walter F; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2006-06-01

    CE methods have been developed for the determination of taurine in pharmaceutical formulation (microemulsion) and in biological media such as sweat. The CE system with end-column pulsed amperometric detection has been found to be an interesting method in comparison with UV and fluorescence detection for its simplicity and rapidity. A gold-disk electrode of 100 mm diameter was used as the working electrode. The effects of a field decoupler at the end of the capillary, separation voltage, injection and pressure times were investigated. A detection limit of 4 x 10(-5) mol/L was reached using integrated pulsed amperometric detection, a method successfully applied to taurine analysis of the biological samples such as sweat. For taurine analysis of oil-in-water microemulsion, fluorescence detector was the favored method, the detection limit of which was 4 x 10(-11) mol/L.

  16. Social-ecological perspective in the analysis of protected natural areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iago Otero, Armengol; Boada Junca, Marti

    2008-01-01

    Socio ecological approach tries to integrate natural sciences and social sciences to study reality from an interdisciplinary perspective. Under this point of view, the article analyses the environmental history in the municipality of Matadepera and studies the socio ecological heritage in Olzinelles valley. Through the two case studies we link socio ecological approach with the improvement of management and conservation of two natural protected areas in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: Sant Llorenc del Munt i l'Obac Natural Park and Montnegre i el Corredor Park

  17. Narrowing the Insurance Protection Gap: The important role of Natural Hazards Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Insurance industry is a key component of the economic engine. It allows businesses to reduce uncertainty in their operations, and individuals to rebound from unanticipated events. A thriving insurance industry efficiently transfers risk from individuals and businesses to the capital markets. It allows society to function smoothly and fosters growth. In areas where the private insurance is not a viable option, the outcome is suboptimal - the society ends up carrying the burden. Higher insurance penetration increases disaster resiliency. The long term viability of an insurance product depends on the ability of the insurance provider to accurately assess risks, which is critical to pricing insurance and risk monitoring. Insurance payouts are typically incurred during extreme events, therefore the industry is very interested in extreme events research. There are several examples where the insurance industry has stepped away from a market or severely limited its appetite because of lack of data or proper understanding of the underlying risks - such as, flood. Further, the insurance Industry has seen a rising trend of natural hazard related losses over the past few decades. The trends have been particularly strong in hydro meteorological hazards. While a good part of this increasing trend can been explained by increase in exposures, there is also concern that underlying hazard landscape may be evolving. The industry would really benefit from research that identifies secular and long term trends in hydro-meteorological hazards, particularly in the extremes. Insight into non-stationarity in the climate system at a regional level would be very informative of risk management decisions. One can envision a scenario where in the industry stops insuring certain risk (such as storm surge), because of a lack of understanding of the trends in the underlying risk and a consequent poor performance record. In sum, the ability of the industry to assess complex and emerging natural

  18. Randomised clinical study: the effects of oral taurine 6g/day vs placebo on portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, R; Kivaranovic, D; Mandorfer, M; Paternostro, R; Wolrab, D; Heinisch, B; Reiberger, T; Ferlitsch, M; Gerner, C; Trauner, M; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Ferlitsch, A

    2018-01-01

    The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis. To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices. Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study. Concomitant nonselective beta-blockers therapy was not allowed. Patients received either 4 weeks of oral taurine (6 g/day), or placebo, prior to evaluation of HVPG response. Thirty patients were screened and 22 included in the efficacy analysis (12 taurine/10 placebo; 64% male, mean age: 52 ± 11 years, Child A: 9%, B:64%, C:27%, ascites:68%). In the taurine group, mean HVPG dropped from 20 mm Hg (±4) at baseline to 18 mm Hg (±4) on day 28 (mean relative change: -12%, P = .0093). In the placebo group, mean HVPG increased from 20 mm Hg (±5) at baseline to 21 mm Hg (±5) on day 28 (mean relative change:+2%, P = .4945). Taurine had no significant effects on systemic haemodynamics. Seven of 12 patients (58%) on taurine achieved a HVPG response >10%, compared to none in the placebo group (P = .0053). In a multivariate linear model, HVPG reduction was significantly larger in the taurine group compared to placebo group (P = .0091 and P = .0109 for absolute and relative change respectively). Treatment-related adverse events included gastrointestinal discomfort and fatigue, and were usually mild and comparable between treatment groups. Taurine is safe and may reduce portal pressure in cirrhotic patients. More studies on the underlying mechanisms of action and long-term effects of taurine supplementation are warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas. In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%. Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations

  20. The nature of water within bacterial spores: protecting life in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Friedline, Anthony; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm M.; Thomas, Kieth J., III

    2011-10-01

    The bacterial spore is a formidable container of life, protecting the vital contents from chemical attack, antimicrobial agents, heat damage, UV light degradation, and water dehydration. The exact role of the spore components remains in dispute. Nevertheless, water molecules are important in each of these processes. The physical state of water within the bacterial spore has been investigated since the early 1930's. The water is found two states, free or bound, in two different areas, core and non-core. It is established that free water is accessible to diffuse and exchange with deuterated water and that the diffusible water can access all areas of the spore. The presence of bound water has come under recent scrutiny and has been suggested the water within the core is mobile, rather than bound, based on the analysis of deuterium relaxation rates. Using an alternate method, deuterium quadrupole-echo spectroscopy, we are able to distinguish between mobile and immobile water molecules. In the absence of rapid motion, the deuterium spectrum of D2O is dominated by a broad line, whose line shape is used as a characteristic descriptor of molecular motion. The deuterium spectrum of bacterial spores reveals three distinct features: the broad peak of immobilized water, a narrow line of water in rapid motion, and a signal of intermediate width. This third signal is assigned this peak from partially deuterated proteins with the spore in which N-H groups have undergone exchange with water deuterons to form N-D species. As a result of these observations, the nature of water within the spore requires additional explanation to understand how the spore and its water preserve life.

  1. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  2. Dietary beet pulp decreases taurine status in dogs fed low protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Suk Ko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that large dogs who are fed lamb and rice diets are at increased risk to develop taurine-deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Since dogs obligatorily conjugate bile acids (BA with taurine, we determined whether rice bran (RB or other fibers (cellulose; CL, beet pulp; BP would affect BA excretion and/or the taurine status of dogs. Results Eighteen medium/large mixed-breed dogs were given purified diets containing CL, BP, or RB for 12 weeks. Taurine concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly decreased at week 12. The BP group, compared to the CL or RB groups, showed significantly lower taurine concentrations in plasma (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 20.4 ± 3.9 and 13.1 ± 2.0 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, mean ± SEM and in whole blood (79 ± 10 vs 143 ± 14 and 127 ± 14 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, lower apparent protein digestibility (81.9 ± 0.6 vs 88.8 ± 0.6 and 88.1 ± 1.2 %, respectively, P < 0.01, and higher BA excretions (5.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.4 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g feces, respectively, P < 0.05 at week 12. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that RB is likely to be a primary cause of lamb meal and rice diets, increasing the risk of taurine deficiency in large dogs. However these indicate that BP may contribute to a decrease taurine status in dogs by increasing excretion of fecal BA and decreasing protein digestibility, thus decreasing the bioavailability of sulfur amino acids, the precursors of taurine.

  3. Effect of taurine on calcium accumulation in resting and depolarised insect synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, P.S.; Nicholson, R.A.; Strang, R.H.

    1988-06-01

    The effect of taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) on /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in resting and depolarised synaptosomes obtained from the locust Schistocerca americana gregaria was studied. Taurine reduced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in resting synaptosomes, and this effect was more pronounced when synaptosomes were depolarized with either high (K+) or veratridine. Veratridine-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation was not affected by either gamma-aminobutyric acid or leucine, but was reduced by both verapamil and tetrodotoxin.

  4. Spectral Editing Technique for the in Vitroand in VivoDetection of Taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, D. L.; Norwood, T. J.

    1998-07-01

    In vivo1H NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a useful noninvasive tool for the investigation of numerous metabolic and physiological states. Taurine is potentially a useful indicator in neonate development and is involved in a number of physiological processes. However, it could not previously be observed in thein vivo1H spectrum because of overlap with adjacent resonances. We have developed a spectral editing technique based upon double quantum filtration which allows the taurine resonances to be resolved from adjacent peaks. The experiment is demonstrated both on perchloric acid rodent brain extract and on rodent brain homogenate.

  5. Detection of Taurine in Biological Tissues by 33S NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musio, Roberta; Sciacovelli, Oronzo

    2001-12-01

    The potential of 33S NMR spectroscopy for biochemical investigations on taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is explored. It is demonstrated that 33S NMR spectroscopy allows the selective and unequivocal identification of taurine in biological samples. 33S NMR spectra of homogenated and intact tissues are reported for the first time, together with the spectrum of a living mollusc. Emphasis is placed on the importance of choosing appropriate signal processing methods to improve the quality of the 33S NMR spectra of biological tissues.

  6. Results of revision of the data base of the State list of particularly protected parts of nature and landscape in sequence on the collection of letters of the state list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroz, L.; Sykora, J.

    2005-01-01

    The State list of particularly protected parts of nature and landscape (Stat list) is official account of protected territories and protected trees and their protected zones on the territory of the Slovak Republic. The State list was delimited from the State protection of nature of the Slovak Republic on the Museum of Nature Protection and Speleology. The content of the State list and structure of data base of protected territories and protected territories are presented

  7. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  8. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B

    2013-01-01

    and elicited protective TCD8 immunity against lethal intranasal VACV infection. Notably, efficient processing and stable presentation of immune determinants as well as the availability of naive TCD8 precursors were sufficient to drive a multifunctional, protective TCD8 response. Our approach uses fundamental...

  9. Position paper on renewable energies and nature protection in European lake regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    development of renewable energy sources as well as the transfer of these experiences to other countries. In view of the absolutely necessary expansion of renewable energy sources worldwide, GNF's particular concern as a nature conservancy organisation is to take into consideration conservation aspects from the very beginning. Renewable energies are not to be seen as an isolated issue but must be consistent with the call for sustainable development. Today target conflicts between climate protection and bio-diversity become more and more apparent. Both issues are of great importance for lake regions. Therefore GNF pleads for a wide and open dialogue between experts from both sides. Also economy must be become more involved, adopt a position and promote positive basic conditions for renewable energies. Especially enterprises should have a strong interest to reduce their dependency on fossil energy sources and oil producing countries. (orig.)

  10. Quantifying the erosion of natural darkness in the global protected area system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J; Duffy, James P; Bennie, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    The nighttime light environment of much of the earth has been transformed by the introduction of electric lighting. This impact continues to spread with growth in the human population and extent of urbanization. This has profound consequences for organismal physiology and behavior and affects abundances and distributions of species, community structure, and likely ecosystem functions and processes. Protected areas play key roles in buffering biodiversity from a wide range of anthropogenic pressures. We used a calibration of a global satellite data set of nighttime lights to determine how well they are fulfilling this role with regard to artificial nighttime lighting. Globally, areas that are protected tend to be darker at night than those that are not, and, with the exception of Europe, recent regional declines in the proportion of the area that is protected and remains dark have been small. However, much of these effects result from the major contribution to overall protected area coverage by the small proportion of individual protected areas that are very large. Thus, in Europe and North America high proportions of individual protected areas (>17%) have exhibited high levels of nighttime lighting in all recent years, and in several regions (Europe, Asia, South and Central America) high proportions of protected areas (32-42%) have had recent significant increases in nighttime lighting. Limiting and reversing the erosion of nighttime darkness in protected areas will require routine consideration of nighttime conditions when designating and establishing new protected areas; establishment of appropriate buffer zones around protected areas where lighting is prohibited; and landscape level reductions in artificial nighttime lighting, which is being called for in general to reduce energy use and economic costs. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  13. PGC-1α may associated with the anti-obesity effect of taurine on rats induced by arcuate nucleus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-juan; Jin, Yong-jun; Li, Ming-e; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Mei-zi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.

  14. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  15. Imidazole-4-acetic acid, a new lead structure for interaction with the taurine transporter in outer blood-retinal barrier cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valembois, Sophie; Krall, Jacob; Frølund, Bente; Steffansen, Bente

    2017-05-30

    Retinal diseases leading to impaired vision and ultimately blindness are mainly characterized by ischemic and hypoxic stress. Targeting the retinal ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (ρ GABA A Rs) and thereby decreasing the retinal neuronal activity has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach. The taurine transporter (TAUT) plays a key role in the retinal transport of GABA and has been previously suggested to display a higher functional activity in the retina compared to the brain. TAUT would therefore stand as a suitable target for the selective delivery of ρ GABA A R ligands into the retina. Consequently, an in vitro model of TAUT at the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was developed and characterized using the ARPE-19 cell line. Furthermore, the structural requirements of GABA A R ligands for interacting with TAUT at the BRB were investigated for a series of standard GABA A R ligands by testing their ability to inhibit the TAUT-mediated influx of taurine in ARPE-19 cells. Results showed that taurine influx was seven-fold higher when the ARPE-19 cells were cultured under hyperosmotic conditions and was demonstrated to display saturable kinetics (K m =27.7±2.2μM and J max =24.2±0.6pmol/cm 2 ·min). Furthermore, the taurine influx was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GABA and imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of histamine. These compounds display similar K i values of 644.2μM and 658.6μM, respectively. Moreover, IAA demonstrated higher inhibitory properties than the other tested GABA analogs: 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (Aza-THIP), muscimol, and thiomuscimol. These studies demonstrated that IAA interacts with TAUT, which makes IAA a new lead structure in the development of new compounds, which are not only interacting with TAUT but also potent ρ GABA A R ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  16. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Quantitative and Topographical Analysis of the Losses of Cone Photoreceptors and Retinal Ganglion Cells Under Taurine Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Saïd, Wahiba; Froger, Nicolas; Ivkovic, Ivana; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Dubus, Élisabeth; Dégardin-Chicaud, Julie; Simonutti, Manuel; Quénol, César; Neveux, Nathalie; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Taurine depletion is known to induce photoreceptor degeneration and was recently found to also trigger retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss similar to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin. Our objective was to study the topographical loss of RGCs and cone photoreceptors, with a distinction between the two cone types (S- and L- cones) in an animal model of induced taurine depletion. We used the taurine transporter (Tau-T) inhibitor, guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), to induce taurine depletion at a concentration of 1% in the drinking water. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinograms (ERG) were performed on animals after 2 months of GES treatment administered through the drinking water. Retinas were dissected as wholemounts and immunodetection of Brn3a (RGC), S-opsin (S-cones), and L-opsin (L-cones) was performed. The number of Brn3a+ RGCs, and L- and S-opsin+ cones was automatically quantified and their retinal distribution studied using isodensity maps. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in plasma taurine levels and a profound dysfunction of visual performance as shown by ERG recordings. Optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that the retina was thinner in the taurine-depleted group. S-opsin+cones were more affected (36%) than L-opsin+cones (27%) with greater cone cell loss in the dorsal area whereas RGC loss (12%) was uniformly distributed. This study confirms that taurine depletion causes RGC and cone loss. Electroretinograms results show that taurine depletion induces retinal dysfunction in photoreceptors and in the inner retina. It establishes a gradient of cell loss depending on the cell type from S-opsin+cones, L-opsin+cones, to RGCs. The greater cell loss in the dorsal retina and of the S-cone population may underline different cellular mechanisms of cellular degeneration and suggests that S-cones may be more sensitive to light-induced retinal toxicity enhanced by the taurine depletion.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  19. Trpv4 Mediates Hypotonic Inhibition of Central Osmosensory Neurons via Taurine Gliotransmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Ciura

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT. Hypertonicity excites ONs in part through the mechanical activation of a variant transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel (dn-Trpv1. However, the mechanism by which local hypotonicity inhibits ONs in the OVLT remains unknown. Here, we show that hypotonicity can reduce the basal activity of dn-Trpv1 channels and hyperpolarize acutely isolated ONs. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking dn-Trpv1 maintain normal inhibitory responses to hypotonicity when tested in situ. In the intact setting, hypotonicity inhibits ONs through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism that involves glial release of the glycine receptor agonist taurine through hypotonicity activated anion channels (HAAC that are activated subsequent to Ca2+ influx through Trpv4 channels. Our study clarifies how Trpv4 channels contribute to the inhibition of OVLT ONs during hypotonicity in situ. : Ciura et al. show that osmosensory neurons in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis are inhibited by hypotonicity. This effect is triggered by activation of Trpv4 channels and Ca2+ accumulation in astrocytes, causing these cells to release taurine through anion channels. Taurine inhibits firing by activating glycine receptors on the osmosensory neurons. Keywords: hyptonicity, taurine, TRPV, osmosensitive, gliotransmission, swelling

  20. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Meijer, A. J.; Gustafson, L. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Leegwater, A. C.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The

  1. Kinetics of the Reaction of CO2 with Aqueous Potassium Salt of Taurine and Glycine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.S.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.; Feron, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between CO2 and aqueous potassium salts of taurine and glycine was measured at 295 K in a stirred-cell reactor with a flat gas–liquid interface. For aqueous potassium taurate solutions, the temperature effect on the reaction kinetics was measured at 285 and 305 K. Unlike

  2. Kinetics of the reaction of CO2 with aqueous potassium salt of taurine and glycine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar Paramasivam Senthil, P.S.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert; Feron, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between CO2 and aqueous potassium salts of taurine and glycine was measured at 295 K in a stirred-cell reactor with a flat gas-liquid interface. For aqueous potassium taurate solutions, the temperature effect on the reaction kinetics was measured at 285 and 305 K. Unlike

  3. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  4. Volume-sensitive NADPH oxidase activity and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Vorum, Katrine Gribel; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in NIH3T3 fibroblasts during hypotonic stress, and H(2)O(2) potentiates the concomitant release of the organic osmolyte taurine (Lambert IH. J Membr Biol 192: 19-32, 2003). The increase in ROS production [5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein......+-mobilizing agonist ATP (10 microM) potentiates the release of taurine but has no effect on ROS production under hypotonic conditions. On the other hand, addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 100 nM) or the lipid messenger lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 10 n......M) potentiates the swelling-induced taurine release as well as the ROS production. Overexpression of Rac1 or p47 phox or p47 phox knockdown [small interfering (si)RNA] had no effect on the swelling-induced ROS production or taurine release. NOX4 knockdown (siRNA) impairs the increase in the ROS production...

  5. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Bruins, Arnoud A.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G.; de Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect

  6. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is

  7. Influence of taurine and vitaiodurol on the development frequency of experimental stellate cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative investigations of medical efficiency of 4% solutions of taurine and vita-iodurol have been carried out using the model of experimental stellate cataract in mice. 140 male mice of CBAxC 57 BL 6 line with 14-16g mass were investigated. Animals of 3 groups (35 mice in each) were exposed to 300 rad dose gamma-radiation with Co 60 . Radiation intensity was 10 rad/s. The animals were examined before irradiation and each 4 weeks after irradiation. In 25 weeks after irradiation, when lenticular opacity was observed in more than half the mice, the animals of the first group were dropped in two eyes by 1 drop of 4% distilled water taurine solution during a month. Animals of the second group got instillations of vita-iodurol by the same method. The third group of animals was the irradiated control group. The fourth group of mice was used as the intact control group. Lenticular opacities developed were classified by the Christenberry and Furth method, suggested for evaluating stellate lenticular opacities in small laboratory animals. It was shown, that instillations of 4% taurine solution into animals with initial stellate cataract during a month result in reducing the frequency of lenticular opacities by 30%. Taurine in used concentration results in pronounced medical effect. Vita-iodurol hadn't any therapentic effect on the course of initial stellate catarat in mice

  8. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  9. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sulfoacetate released during the assimilation of taurine-nitrogen by Neptuniibacter caesariensis: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčík, Zdeněk; Denger, K.; Weinitschke, S.; Hollemeyer, K.; Pačes, Václav; Cook, A.M.; Smits, T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2008), s. 159-168 ISSN 0302-8933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : assimilation of taurine-nitrogen * sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase * sulfoacetate exporter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2008

  11. Artemisia: Active and Interactive Monitoring of the Forests in Protected Areas Aimed at the Sustainable Management of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Cirillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To pursue the usage of forests resources in the processes of economic and social development it is determining that the principles of natural heritage protection join in a concept of progress, based on evolution and technological innovation; the realization of innovative investigation and representation tools turns out to be useful to ease the integration of forests’ resources in shared development processes aimed at enhancing the cooperation of local actors, and to ease the territory’s sustainable growth and the development of the natural heritage. The integrated management of the actions aimed at protecting and easing the ecologic and recreative functioning of forests, which are increasingly exposed to pressures caused by several catastrophic factors, requires the tuning of modelling and active monitoring systems of the forests based on social networks and volunteering for the processes of data updating.

  12. Real test-bed studies at the ETH House of Natural Resources – wood surface protection for outdoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for sustainable construction materials used in urban areas calls for novel wood protective coatings, which retain the natural appearance of wood while minimizing maintenance intervals. This work reports on three different wood surface modification processes and evaluates their protective effect against weathering after installation at a testing façade of the ETH House of Natural Resources (HoNR, a recently opened living lab located in Zürich, Switzerland. We monitored the discoloration upon outdoor exposure of subsequently improved generations of thin metal oxide coatings developed in our lab. We target almost transparent and durable coatings with water repellent properties to diminish discoloration due to UV light and biological attack. This should lead to wooden facades with increased reliability and thereby boost an enhanced utilization of the renewable and CO2 storing resource wood.

  13. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. DNA vaccine encoding nucleocapsid and surface proteins of wild type canine distemper virus protects its natural host against distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpillod, P; Tipold, A; Griot-Wenk, M; Cardozo, C; Schmid, I; Fatzer, R; Schobesberger, M; Zurbriggen, R; Bruckner, L; Roch, F; Vandevelde, M; Wittek, R; Zurbriggen, A

    2000-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus induces a highly infectious, frequently lethal disease in dogs and other carnivores. Current vaccines against canine distemper consisting of attenuated viruses have been in use for many years and have greatly reduced the incidence of distemper in the dog population. However, certain strains may not guarantee adequate protection and others can induce post vaccinal encephalitis. We tested a DNA vaccine for its ability to protect dogs, the natural host of CDV, against distemper. We constructed plasmids containing the nucleocapsid, the fusion, and the attachment protein genes of a virulent canine distemper virus strain. Mice inoculated with these plasmids developed humoral and cellular immune responses against CDV antigens. Dogs immunized with the expression plasmids developed virus-neutralizing antibodies. Significantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against challenge with virulent CDV, whereas unvaccinated animals succumbed to distemper.

  15. Measurement methods and optimization of radiation protection: the case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of different measurement methods (air sampling and biological examinations) to answer to demands in the particular case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds. The realism and the sensitivity of each method are studied, on the base of new dosimetric models of the ICRP. The ability of analysis of these methods in order to optimize radiation protection are then discussed. (N.C.)

  16. Natural T Cell-mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Andrew C; Wang, Lili; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Fragaszy, Ellen B; Bermingham, Alison; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Millett, Elizabeth R C; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Watson, John M; Zambon, Maria; Johnson, Anne M; McMichael, Andrew J

    2015-06-15

    A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus-specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P < 0.001) in participants lacking antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09. Comparison of paired preseason and post-season sera (1,431 sets) showed 205 (14%) had evidence of infection based on fourfold influenza antibody titer rises. The presence of NP-specific T cells before exposure to virus correlated with less symptomatic, PCR-positive influenza A (overall adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.68; P = 0.005, during pandemic [P = 0.047] and seasonal [P = 0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity.

  17. Drivers for differences in dairy farmers perceptions of farm development strategies in an area with nature and landscape as protected public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business

  18. Assessment and protection of geomorphological heritage in the Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Jonathan; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research deals with two main issues: (1) the protection of the abiotic nature and (2) the promotion of geotourism in a protected area, the Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park (Switzerland). First, an identification and assessment of the geomorphological heritage is conducted, with special attention given to the degree of protection of the sites. The assessment is carried out using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007), partly modified (addition of new criteria concerning the present use and management of the sites). Secondly, we try to understand how the stakeholders active in the tourism sector take into account the Earth heritage (especially geomorphosites). The final goal is to give some perspectives for a suitable protection and a better promotion of the geomorphosites. The Gruyère - Pays-d'Enhaut Regional Nature Park is one of the new nature parks developed during the last decade in Switzerland. Created in 2012, it covers a surface of 503 square kilometers on the territory of 13 municipalities. It is managed by an association constituted by the 13 municipalities and by private individuals, companies and societies. The three main objectives of the park are (1) the preservation and qualitative development of nature and landscape; (2) the promotion of sustainable economic activities; and (3) raising public awareness and environmental education. The park is situated in the Swiss Prealps (altitudes ranging from 375 to 2548 m ASL) and is characterised by extensive structural landforms and numerous relicts of Quaternary glaciations. 33 sites were inventoried. Most of them (27 sites) are related to three main geomorphological processes: karst formations, relicts of glacial/periglacial processes and fluvial landforms. The other sites are related to gravity processes, to organic processes and to the structural context. The inventory shows that the study area has a high diversity of landforms and presents a large set of geomorphosites with an

  19. Effects of taurine on markers of muscle damage, inflammatory response and physical performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Galan, Bryan S; Giolo de Carvalho, Flavia; Carvalho Santos, Priscila; Bucken Gobbi, Ronaldo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos; Papoti, Marcelo; Sanchez Silva, Adelino; Freitas, Ellen C

    2017-07-25

    The practice of prolonged exercise with high intensity, as seen in triathlon training, can cause physiological imbalances that might result in muscle fatigue, muscle damage and changes in systemic inflammatory response, thus reduce the athletes physical performance, therefore, both adequate total caloric and macronutrient intake also the use of a specific ergogenic aid, as taurine supplementation would be an alternative to prevent inflammation and muscle damage. In order to verify the effects of 8 weeks of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation, markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and aerobic capacity were quantified in triathletes. A double-blind, crossover, randomized study was conducted with 9 male long distance triathletes, aged 25-35 years. Supplementation of 3 g of taurine (TAU) or placebo (PLA) associated with 400 ml low fat chocolate milk was performed during an 8-week period. In order to verify the effects of the supplementation protocol markers of muscle damage as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified, also triathletes performance was evaluated by exhaust test on a treadmill. It was observed a significant increase in taurine and CK plasma levels after TAU supplementation (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). However, LDH concentrations did not differ significantly after the supplementations performed, and there were no changes in physical performance parameters; anaerobic threshold, perceived exertion, heart rate, and the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α. Taurine supplementation did not provide benefits on performance and muscle damage in triathletes.

  20. Potassium-stimulated release of radiolabelled taurine and glycine from the isolated rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.F.; Pycock, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    The release of preloaded (/sup 3/H)glycine and (/sup 3/H)taurine in response to a depolarising stimulus (12.5-50 mM KCl) has been studied in the superfused rat retina. High external potassium concentration immediately increased the spontaneous efflux of (/sup 3/H)glycine, the effect of 50 mM K+ apparently being abolished by omitting calcium from the superfusing medium. In contrast, although high potassium concentrations increased the spontaneous efflux of (/sup 3/H)taurine from the superfused rat retina, this release was not evident until the depolarising stimulus was removed from the superfusing medium. The magnitude of this late release of (/sup 3/H)taurine was dependent on external K+ concentrations, and appeared immediately after cessation of the stimulus irrespective of whether it was applied for 4, 8, or 12 min. Potassium (50 mM)-induced release of taurine appeared partially calcium-dependent, being significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) but not abolished by replacing calcium with 1 mM EDTA in the superfusate. High-affinity uptake systems for both (/sup 3/H)glycine and (/sup 3/H)taurine were demonstrated in the rat retina in vitro (Km values, 1.67 microM and 2.97 microM; Vmax values, 19.3 and 23.1 nmol/g wet weight tissue/h, respectively). The results are discussed with respect to the possible neurotransmitter roles of both amino acids in the rat retina.

  1. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001 for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05. No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05. Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice

  2. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  3. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tourism in protected natural areas: Ecotourism of the Fruška Gora mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas can provide opportunities for multiple benefits: income generation and job creation, research and monitoring, for training in protected areas, recreation and tourism. The main objective of this paper is to present the identification, evaluation and use of indicators of sustainable tourism development in the National Park and to show that ecotourism is a sustainable and desirable form of tourism in protected areas. The main hypothesis of the work that went was to explore ways of managing sensitive Tourist destinations such as national parks, with quantitative and qualitative information as to what the future may increase the sustainability of ecotourism development in Serbia. One of the basic method that we have tried to get such data was the SWOT analysis.

  5. Information system of taxones and biotopes of the State protection of nature of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurecek, R.; Kuerthy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Information system of taxones and biotopes (ISTB) of the State protection of environment of the Slovak Republic (SOP SR) is a database system established in order to collection and processing of botanic, zoologic and biotopic data. It has arisen on the base of tasks of the SOP SR resulting from activities of species protection of animals and plants and their monitoring. It is an open system dedicated for exchange of data and for cooperation of specialist of the SOP SR, academic institutes, professional organisations and anon-professional naturalists

  6. Taurine uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium: implications for the transport of small solutes between the choroid and the outer retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenkamp, Jost; Hussain, Ali A; Jackson, Timothy L; Cunningham, Joanna R; Marshall, John

    2004-12-01

    To characterize the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the taurine transporter (TT) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) freshly isolated from human donor eyes. To identify the rate limiting compartment in the pathway of taurine delivery from the choroidal blood supply to the outer retina composed by Bruch's-choroid (BC) and the RPE in the human older age group. In human donor samples (4 melanoma-affected eyes, and 14 control eyes; age range, 62-93 years), radiochemical techniques were used to determine the RPE taurine accumulation at various exogenous concentrations. The transport capability of human RPE was obtained from a kinetic analysis of the high-affinity carrier over a substrate concentration of 1 to 60 microM taurine. Uptake of taurine into human RPE at a taurine concentration of 1 microM was independent of donor age (P > 0.05) and averaged at 2.83 +/- 0.27 (SEM) pmol/10 minutes per 6-mm trephine. Taurine transport by human RPE was mediated by a high-affinity carrier of K(m) 50 microM and V(max) of 267 pmol/10 minutes per 5-mm disc. In human donor RPE, uptake of taurine remained viable in the age range 62 to 93 years. Taurine transport rates in the RPE were lower than across the isolated BC complex, and thus the data suggest that the former compartment houses the rate-limiting step in the delivery of taurine to the outer retina.

  7. Effect of increasing taurine and methionine supplementation on urinary taurine excretion in a model insectivore, the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, S A; Dierenfeld, E S; Backus, R C

    2018-02-01

    The giant anteater (Mymercophaga tridactyla) is a highly specialized insectivore for which nutrient requirements are not clearly established, making diet formulation challenging for this species. Multiple clinical reports suggest anteaters have an obligate dietary taurine (TAU) requirement. Sulphur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in adult anteaters was evaluated using noninvasive methods to measure TAU synthesis potential from dietary methionine (MET) and a basal diet containing on a dry matter (DM) basis 1.7 mg TAU/kg DM and 6.9 g MET/kg DM. Urinary equilibrium times for TAU excretion were determined by feeding the basal diet with or without 1.5 g/kg DM supplemental TAU (crossover design; n = 4). Effects of supplemental dietary TAU (1.7, 2.0, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0, 3.3 g/kg DM) or MET (6.9, 9.0, 11.2 g/kg DM) on urinary TAU were evaluated (randomized block trials; n = 5 or 4 respectively). All urinary values (TAU, MET, unbound inorganic sulphate) were normalized to creatinine (CRT). Results indicate urinary TAU equilibrium in anteaters requires at least 2 weeks of feeding. Urinary ratio of TAU to CRT (TAU:CRT) increased as dietary TAU content increased from 1.7 to 3.0 g/kg DM, consistent with renal homoeostatic modulation of TAU excretion. Our data indicate that TAU needs were met by TAU in the basal diet or by de novo synthesis. Supplemental MET resulted in ~five- to eightfold increases in urinary TAU:CRT excretion, further supporting existence of mechanisms for TAU synthesis from dietary SAA in anteaters. Adult anteaters appear able to synthesize TAU when diets contain adequate SAA, but dietary TAU may be critical if protein intakes are low or of poor quality. This study may provide guidance on choice of domestic canids vs. felids as suitable physiologic models for improved nutrition in giant anteaters, and also outlines a noninvasive method for assessing TAU status/metabolism that may be useful across species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Partnering for nature conservation NGO-farmer collaboration for meadow bird protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141942673; Polmans, Nico

    2018-01-01

    In order to reverse the trend of continuous decline in species diversity and abundance in agricultural landscapes, various governance arrangements have been implemented that promote, organise and finance nature conservation by farmers. The scientific literature predominantly focuses on

  9. Partnering for nature conservation NGO-farmer collaboration for meadow bird protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Polman, N.B.P.

    2018-01-01

    In order to reverse the trend of continuous decline in species diversity and abundance in agricultural landscapes, various governance arrangements have been implemented that promote, organise and finance nature conservation
    by farmers. The scientific literature predominantly focuses on

  10. Methanogens predominate in natural corrosion protective layers on metal sheet piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Nardy; Jansen, S.; Leite, M.F.A.; De Hollander, M.; Afanasyev, M.; Kuramae, E.E.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried

  11. Past, Present & Future of the US EPA: Protecting Human Health & the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time line of events that lead to the creation of the US EPA are marked by grassroots efforts by average citizens voicing concerns to politicians in Washington. Visionary leadership by Congress and the President led to the birth of a Federal Agency dedicated to protecting huma...

  12. Role of taurine as a treatment for oxidative damage and sperm head abnormalities in irradiated mice and their male offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.; Tawfik, S.S.; EI-Khafif, M.; Ragab, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy in treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied. Irradiated mice showed significant increase in plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) level and sperm head abnormality counts in all experiment interval times 1, 3 and 5 weeks. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water) post-irradiation resulted in significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on MDA level and sperm head abnormalities count. The efficiency of taurine as radiotherapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine was discussed, as it is a sulphydryl, heterocyclic-nitrogenous and pharmacological therapy

  13. Effect of taurine and gold nanoparticles on the morphological and molecular characteristics of muscle development during chicken embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of taurine and Au nanoparticles on the expression of genes related to embryonic muscle development and on the morphological characteristics of muscles. Fertilised chicken eggs (n = 160) were randomly divided into four groups......: without injection (Control) and with injection of Au nanoparticles (NanoAu), taurine (Tau) or Au nanoparticles with taurine (NanoAu + Tau). The experimental solutions were given in ovo, on the third day of incubation, by injecting 0.3 ml of the experimental solution into the air sack. The embryos were...... evaluated on the 20th day of incubation. The methods included gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels, immunohistochemistry, histology and microscopy. In groups NanoAu, Tau and NanoAu + Tau, the muscle structure and the number of muscle cells were affected. Furthermore, taurine increased fibre...

  14. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  15. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  16. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Warfield, Kelly L.; Perkins, Jeremy G.; Swenson, Dana L.; Deal, Emily M.; Bosio, Catharine M.; Aman, M. Javad; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Young, Howard A.; Bavari, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal human pathogen and is rapidly driving many wild primate populations toward extinction. Several lines of evidence suggest that innate, nonspecific host factors are potentially critical for survival after Ebola virus infection. Here, we show that nonreplicating Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the glycoprotein (GP) and matrix protein virus protein (VP)40, administered 1–3 d before Ebola virus infection rapidly induced protective immunity. VLP injectio...

  17. Effect of mixed γ-plus neutron-radiation on permeability to taurine of peripheral blood leukocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Naumenko, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of permeability to taurine of cellular membranes of peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro under normal conditions and 24 k following mixed γ-plus neutron-irradiation in a dose of 3.5 Gy. It was established that radiation increases the taurine content of cells. The protein content of leukocytes also increases probably due to a better sorption of serum proteins of blood

  18. Plasma Taurine, Diabetes Genetic Predisposition, and Changes of Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Bray, George A; Thiery, Joachim; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial. Seven-hundred eleven overweight or obese participants (age 30-70 y; 60% females) had genetic variants genotyped and blood taurine levels measured. Participants went on 2-year weight-loss diets, which were different in macronutrient composition. Improvements in glycemic traits were measured. We found that baseline taurine levels significantly modified the effects of diabetes GRS on changes in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the 2-year diet intervention (P-interaction = .04, .01, .002, respectively), regardless of weight loss. High baseline taurine levels were associated with a less reduction in both glucose and HOMA-IR among the participants with the lowest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .02), and with a greater reduction in both insulin and HOMA-IR among those with the highest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .04). Our data suggest that blood taurine levels might differentially modulate the effects of diabetes-related genes on improvement of insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese patients on weight-loss diets.

  19. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of TauT...

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  1. The protective role of ceramic filters against natural radioactivity of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, T.; Bakir, Y.Y.Y.; El-Zenki, S.; Bem, H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of measurements of the natural radioactivity of tap water where samples were taken in front of, and behind the ceramic filter commonly used in houses for the purification of tap water. Altogether, 289 samples were taken, processed and measured during 1985-1986 in Kuwait. Results reveal the fact that ceramic filters reduce substantially the natural radioactivity in water (the 'gross' alpha activity reduced by the factor 2.18 ± 18%; the 'gross' beta by 1.53 ± 1.6%. (author)

  2. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  3. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  4. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  5. Metabolic Effect of Dietary Taurine Supplementation on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) Evaluated by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guiping; Huang, Ying; Dong, Jiyang; Wang, Xuexi; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Jingjing; Ye, Jidan

    2018-01-10

    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1 H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.

  6. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  7. Protecting the 'Na Plachtě' natural monument from development. A case study on the importance of public participation in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendula Záhumenská

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Na Plachtě is located at the south-eastern edge of Hradec Králové where over the past 20 years conflicts of interests between environmentalists and local developers have arisen concerning the development and commercial use of the site. This case study is concerned with the importance of public participation in  environmental issues and describes the specific opportunities for influencing environmental decision-making. The author refers to specific events which eventually resulted in the declaration of the Na Plachtě site as a “natural monument”; she also investigates opportunities for changing the landscape plan which would strengthen  protection against any construction on the site. Other possibilities for influencing decision-making about issues of concern to the general public and which have an impact on the work of regional representatives are also discussed.

  8. Towards harmonizing natural resources as an area of protection in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    categories, nor do existing methods and models addressing different natural resource categories do so in a consistent way across categories. Exceptions are exergy and solar energy-related methods, which cover the widest range of resource categories. However, these methods do not link exergy consumption...

  9. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute...... to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...

  10. Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous perennial herb that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, native to South Asia and is commonly known as turmeric. It is used as herbal remedy due to the prevalent belief that the plant has medical properties. C. longa possesses different effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and gastroprotective activities. The recent studies have shown that C. longa and curcumin, its important active ingredient, have protective effects against toxic agents. In this review article, we collected in vitro and animal studies which are related to protective effects of turmeric and its active ingredient against natural and chemical toxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Le développement durable : enfant prodigue ou rejeton matriphage de la protection de la nature ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Maris

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there exists a strong uncertainty surrounding the evaluation of the decline of biodiversity, and a larger uncertainty still regarding projections of the decline to come, there is no controversy on the fact that the current rate of extinction is in a crisis. The fact that this decline is above all of anthropic origin is the object of a consensus within the scientific community. This text thus takes as a starting point the existence of a true crisis of biodiversity. This crisis of biodiversity must conclude in the adoption of a principle of protection of the biodiversity, a normative principle which would constrain the relation of man with nature with regard to its diversity. I will show in this text that the principle of sustainable development is not sufficient to adequately define a principle of protection of the biodiversity.

  12. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  13. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion protection and antifouling properties of varnish-coated steel containing natural additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-El-Nabey Besheir Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection and antifouling properties of varnish-coated steel panels containing different amounts of cannabis extracts were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, salt spray and immersion tests in 0.5 M NaCl solution and subjected to a field test in seawater. Analysis of the experimental data showed that the presence of cannabis extract resisted the deterioration (peeling off tendency of the varnish-coated steel panels exposed to aggressive environments. Visual inspection showed that the cannabis extract also provided good antifouling properties.

  15. Climate change and natural disasters – integrating science and practice to protect health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Rainer; Ebi, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. Methods Review of IPCC-projections of climate-change related extreme weather events and related literature on health effects. Results Projections show that climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of a range of extreme weather events over coming decades. Conclusions There is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect human. PMID:23273248

  16. Natural T Cell–mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Bermingham, Alison; Copas, Andrew; Dukes, Oliver; Millett, Elizabeth R. C.; Nazareth, Irwin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.; Watson, John M.; Zambon, Maria; Johnson, Anne M.; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. Objectives: To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. Methods: We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus–specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P < 0.001) in participants lacking antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09. Comparison of paired preseason and post-season sera (1,431 sets) showed 205 (14%) had evidence of infection based on fourfold influenza antibody titer rises. The presence of NP-specific T cells before exposure to virus correlated with less symptomatic, PCR-positive influenza A (overall adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.68; P = 0.005, during pandemic [P = 0.047] and seasonal [P = 0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. Conclusions: Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity. PMID:25844934

  17. UV-protected (natural) inflation: primordial fluctuations and non-gaussian features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano; Watanabe, Yuki, E-mail: cristiano.germani@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: yuki.watanabe@physik.lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We consider the UV-protected inflation, where the inflaton potential is obtained by quantum (one-loop) breaking of a global symmetry into a discrete symmetry. In this model, all coupling scales are sub-Planckian. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton kinetic term to the Einstein tensor such that the friction is enhanced gravitationally at high energies. In this respect, this new interaction makes virtually any potential adequate for inflation while keeping the system perturbative unitary. We show that even if the gravitationally enhanced friction intrinsically contains new nonlinearities, the UV-protected inflation (and any similar models) behaves as a single field scenario with red tilted spectrum and potentially detectable gravitational waves. Interestingly enough, we find that non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbations in the local form are completely dominated by the nonlinear gauge transformation from the spatially flat to uniform-field gauge and/or by parity violating interactions of the inflaton and gauge bosons. In particular, the parity violating interactions may produce detectable non-Gaussianity.

  18. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Whyne, Erum

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50-85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health.

  19. Radiation Protection Research: Radon in the Indoor Environment and enhanced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on epidemiological studies concerning radon related to health risks at SCK-CEN is to (1) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements in real field conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (2) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Progress and main achievements in 1999 are reported on

  20. Effect of taurine on expressions of MMP-2 in K562 leukemia cell line exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yan; Wu Shiliang; Xu Lan; Chou Hao; Zhou Yinghui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of γ-irradiation on expressions of MMP-2 in leukaemia cells and the suppressive effect of taurine(Tau) on irradiated tumour cells in terms of cellular level. Methods: The cells in the control group and Tau (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L) groups were irradiated with 15 Gy γ-rays. The expressions of MMP-2 were examined through Western-blotting after handled with gel-loading buffer within 12 h. Results: The expressions of MMP-2 were enhanced evidently in the positive control group, while they were less in the negative control group. In the Tau(50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L) groups, the expressions of MMP-2 were diminished in turns, and they were almost identical between the negative control group and the Tau 200 mg/L group. Conclusion: Irradiation with γ-rays at a dose of 15 Gy can significantly stimulate the expressions of MMP-2 in K562 cells; Tau can inhibit the expressions of MMP-2 and its effect depends on to its dosage; Tau can inhabit the invasiveness and migration of irradiated tumour cells, so it has the biologic protective and therapeutic effects

  1. Taurine Supplementation Alleviates Puromycin Aminonucleoside Damage by Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (TAU is a sulfur-containing beta amino acid that is not involved in protein composition and anabolism, conditionally essential in mammals provided through diet. Growing evidence supports a protective role of TAU supply in osmoregulation, calcium flux, and reduction of inflammation and oxidant damage in renal diseases like diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, due to abnormal proteostasis, is a contributor to nephrotic syndrome and related renal damage. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary TAU (1.5% in drinking water for 15 days in an established rat model that mimics human minimal change nephrosis, consisting of a single puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN injection (intraperitoneally 15 mg/100 g body weight, with sacrifice after eight days. TAU limited proteinuria and podocytes foot processes effacement, and balanced slit diaphragm nephrin and glomerular claudin 1 expressions. In cortical proximal tubules, TAU improved lysosomal density, ER perimeter, restored proper ER-mitochondria tethering and mitochondrial cristae, and decreased inflammation. Remarkably, TAU downregulated glomerular ER stress markers (GRP78, GRP94, pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein, activated caspase 3, tubular caspase1, and mitochondrial chaperone GRP75, but maintained anti-apoptotic HSP25. In conclusion, TAU, by targeting upstream ER stress separate from mitochondria dysfunctions at crucial renal sites, might be a promising dietary supplement in the treatment of the drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

  2. 69 Ecotourism - the Main Form of Tourism Exploitation of Protected Natural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecotourism has a significant role in the economic development of this zones or regionsas tourist attractions. The most important positive contributions refers to the state revenue generatedby tourist spending and export / import of goods complementary for receiving countries, and the boostof investment in various sectors, so the multiplier effect of tourism by contributing to the economicprosperity of the country. Tourist activities carried out under the banner of ecotourism offeropportunities specific to the local population and tourist industry is forced to use natural resources ina sustainable manner and to assess the valuable natural and cultural objectives. As reflected in thevarious views reflected in literature, ecotourism is also an industry in the tourist market, designed tomeet the special travel needs. Because these approaches can be considered ecotourism and tourismmarket segment, having a common language with cultural and rural tourism, as demonstratedpreviously. Originally designed as an alternative to mass tourism, ecotourism is materialized as asolution to combat negative effects and minimize impacts on natural ecosystems.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF A HPLC ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TAURINE AND CAFFEINE IN ENERGY DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-IOANA [CHIRITA] TAMPU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a rapid, inexpensive, reliable and selective isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks with two common detectors in series: evaporating light scattering detector (ELSD and an ultraviolet (UV detector. Satisfactory analysis results were obtained on an Astec apHera NH2 column using methanol/water (30:70 v/v as mobile phase. The optimized method was used for the analysis of commercial energy drinks containing large amounts of carbohydrates (100 g·L-1 and considerably lower amounts of taurine and caffeine (4 and 0.6 g·L-1, respectively. The advantages of this method consist of its lack of preliminary samples treatment and also the fact that basic LC instrumentation was employed.

  4. Levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, and a role for taurine in dystropathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy dog model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Terrill

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species. In muscles of 8 month GRMD dogs there was an increase in the content of neutrophils and macrophages, and an associated increase in elevated myeloperoxidase, a protein secreted by neutrophils that catalyses production of the highly reactive hypochlorous acid (HOCl. There was also increased chlorination of tyrosines, a marker of HOCl generation, increased thiol oxidation of many proteins and irreversible oxidative protein damage. Taurine, which functions as an antioxidant by trapping HOCl, was reduced in GRMD plasma; however taurine was increased in GRMD muscle tissue, potentially due to increased muscle taurine transport and synthesis. These data indicate a role for HOCl generated by neutrophils in the severe dystropathology of GRMD dogs, which may be exacerbated by decreased availability of taurine in the blood. These novel data support continued research into the precise roles of oxidative stress and taurine in DMD and emphasise the value of the GRMD dogs as a suitable pre-clinical model for testing taurine as a therapeutic intervention for DMD boys.

  5. Infections by Pasteuria do not protect its natural host Daphnia magna from subsequent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The existence of immunological memory in invertebrates remains a contentious topic. Exposure of Daphnia magna crustaceans to a noninfectious dose of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa has been reported to reduce the chance of future infection upon exposure to higher doses. Using clonal hosts and parasites, we tested whether initial exposure of the host to the parasite (priming), followed by clearing of the parasite with antibiotic, protects the host from a second exposure (challenge). Our experiments included three treatments: priming and challenge with the same or with a different parasite clone, or no priming. Two independent experiments showed that both the likelihood of infection and the degree of parasite proliferation did not differ between treatments, supporting the conclusion that there is no immunological memory in this system. We discuss the possibility that previous discordant reports could result from immune or stress responses that did not fade following initial priming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glutathione (GSH Production as Protective Adaptation Against Light Regime Radiation of Symbiodinium Natural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Muhaemin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH, as a wide range of low molecular weight, which found in marine microalgae and event bacteria, are essential to prevent photooxidation and productivity loss from these Radical Oxigen Species (ROS. Symbiodinium, endo-symbiont of corals, were exposed with different UV radiation combined with irradiance treatments to explore biomass specific initial response. Intracellular glutahione was observed as potential adaptive response of Symbiodinium population under environmental specific stress. The result showed that GSH production increased significantly with increasing irradiance and/or UV levels. GSH concentration was fluctuated among populations exposed by different irradiance treatments, but not effected by UV and irradiance exposure. GSH production as a response of UV exposure was higher than irradiance treatments. Both these high correlative fluctuation of intracellular GSH production and the presence of both treatments indicated protective specific adaptation of Symbiodinium under specific environmental stress, respectively.   Keywords: zooxanthellae, irradiance, glutathione (GSH, corals, Fungia

  7. Quotas Proposal to Conservation of a Protected Natural Area of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra La Laguna Biosphere Reserve (rbsla is a protected area and as such, is an instrument of environmental policy derived from national conservation strategies, therefore, an increase in fund programs aimed at improving management actions to contribute to this objective. In this sense, stated preference methods can be used as a management tool to control future tourism demand and avoid exceeding the carrying capacity of the reserve, as well as to determine a willingness to pay (wtp that could allow additional raise more funds to meet the objectives of environmental policy. wtp was estimated through Contingent Valuation Method using Probit model, our results showed that the median wtp varies between 69 and 108 pesos per person and can obtain additional economic benefits arising from the access of individuals to the Reserve which range between 26 and 41 million pesos. 

  8. APPLICATION OF NATURAL COLD FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES AGAINST POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sosnovskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented herein discusses theoretical and practical aspects of formation artificial firn-ice masses and prospects for their use in solutions of practical and environmental problems. The method utilizes winter sprinkler irrigation with long-jet sprinklers. The mass of artificial firm can be as high as 10 meters. This application is effective for treatment and desalination to protect water resources from contamination. Mineralization of artificial firn is 5–10 times lower than the salinity of the original water. The dynamics of the removal of salts ions, microelements, and dissolved organic compounds during firn melting is assessed through mathematical modeling and experimental research. Melting of one-third of the firn mass decreases mineralization by more than a factor of 10.

  9. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtaek Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of KRG as an antiviral and vaccine adjuvant is discussed.

  10. Protective effect of natural products and hormones in colon cancer using metabolome: A physiological overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the third cause of males cancer and the fourth cause of females cancer is colon cancer (CC. In Egypt, high CC percentage occurs in children and in individuals below 40 years of age. The complete loss of biological enzyme function is the main cause of CC and consequently CC increased in smoking and pollution exposure. The aim of this review is to focus on the application of metabolome as a physiological tool that can play an important role in preventing CC incidence by natural products and hormones. The dietary factors, intestinal micro-flora and endogenously produced metabolites are the main three causes that produce free radicals in the colon. A correlation occurs between the enzyme activity and CC polymorphisms or property. Nowadays metabolome is applied with the progress of different analytical methods, data bases and tools for cancer predication and stimulation especially in CC cases. Metabolism is defined as intracellular chemical reactions that produce chemical substances and energies sustaining life. Metabolic pathway networks are also composed of links that are defined as transformation of chemical structures between two metabolites and an enzyme reaction. The most important advantage of metabolome is its ability to analyze metabolites from any source, regardless of origin, where the application of liquid chromatography combined with mass spectra in metabolome analysis to a series of cancer cell lines that were progressively more tumorigenic due to the induction of 1,2,3 or 4 oncogenes to cell lines could be a metabolome example application. In conclusion, natural products and hormones are very important in preventing CC in humans and animal models where both natural products and hormones play a significant and important effect in regulating physiological process especially in CC cases. In this situation, metabolome must increase in its application in the future for the diagnosis of CC cases.

  11. Securing a Future for Children: the International Custom to Protect the Natural Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Adolphe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito sostiene que el artículo 16(3 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos se ha convertido en derecho internacional consuetudinario y, por tanto, todos los Estados están obligados a promover, proteger y dar prelación a la familia natural cimentada en el matrimonio entre un hombre y una mujer (como organización nuclear o extendida sobre las llamadas "nuevas formas de familia" (cohabitación de personas de géneros iguales o distintos, por ejemplo. Esto significa que los Estados incumplen sus obligaciones cuando, bajo el artículo 16(3, otorgan a las llamadas formas alternativas de familia el mismo trato que a los matrimonios heterosexuales concediéndoles, por ejemplo, los mismos beneficios. El artículo analiza a Canadá como caso de estudio para ilustrar de qué manera este país ha incumplido sus obligaciones. Con este propósito, el presente artículo tomará en consideración de qué manera y por qué razón el gobierno federal canadiense ha contribuido a la crisis de la familia natural en ese país, como lo evidencian las crecientes tasas de separación, divorcio y formas alternativas de familia (cohabitación, por ejemplo y su trato como equivalentes de la familia natural.

  12. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  13. The multifaceted origin of taurine cattle reflected by the mitochondrial genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Achilli

    Full Text Available A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3 of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3% that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved.

  14. Taurine effect on cytogenetic lesions in the cornea of mice exposed to 9 Gev proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, S.V.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Possibilities of preventive measures and treatment of cytogenetic injuries in the mice cornea, subjected to proton irradiation at 9 Gev were studied. Taurine containing solution (TCS) was used as a radiomodifying agent. It is shown that TCS application enables to decrease aberrant mitoses level in cornea epithelium cells of mice. Antiactinic effect of the above agent is determined by its considerable action on mitotic delay

  15. Persistent GABAA/C responses to gabazine, taurine and beta-alanine in rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnoy-Marchais, D

    2016-08-25

    In hypoglossal motoneurons, a sustained anionic current, sensitive to a blocker of ρ-containing GABA receptors, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) and insensitive to bicuculline, was previously shown to be activated by gabazine. In order to better characterize the receptors involved, the sensitivity of this atypical response to pentobarbital (30μM), allopregnanolone (0.3μM) and midazolam (0.5μM) was first investigated. Pentobarbital potentiated the response, whereas the steroid and the benzodiazepine were ineffective. The results indicate the involvement of hybrid heteromeric receptors, including at least a GABA receptor ρ subunit and a γ subunit, accounting for the pentobarbital-sensitivity. The effects of the endogenous β amino acids, taurine and β-alanine, which are released under various pathological conditions and show neuroprotective properties, were then studied. In the presence of the glycine receptor blocker strychnine (1μM), both taurine (0.3-1mM) and β-alanine (0.3mM) activated sustained anionic currents, which were partly blocked by TPMPA (100μM). Thus, both β amino acids activated ρ-containing GABA receptors in hypoglossal motoneurons. Bicuculline (20μM) reduced responses to taurine and β-alanine, but small sustained responses persisted in the presence of both strychnine and bicuculline. Responses to β-alanine were slightly increased by allopregnanolone, indicating a contribution of the bicuculline- and neurosteroid-sensitive GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition in these motoneurons. Since sustained activation of anionic channels inhibits most mature principal neurons, the ρ-containing GABA receptors permanently activated by taurine and β-alanine might contribute to some of their neuroprotective properties under damaging overexcitatory situations. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of sulphite, cysteic acid and taurine from sulphate by the egg embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that the formation of taurine from sulphate by the chicken embryo involves the reduction of sulphate to sulphite (I), the synthesis of cysteic acid (II) and its decarboxylation (Ill). The reaction (I) takes place in the vitellin sac. The reaction (II) results from the condensation of the sulphite with a-amino-acrylic acid and is carried out by the yolk. The enzymes responsible for the decarboxylation (III) are distributed both in the embryo and in its appendages. (author) [fr

  17. Safety protection suggestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojian; Zhou Qifu; Wang Xiaotao; Xu Zhongyang; Song Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    It's not enough concern about the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of oil and gas industry in China. NORM with radium and radon mainly exist in the scale, sludge and production water, and they tend to deposit on the pipe wall, wellhead equipment and so on. These materials are a threat to the health of workers, so it is very important to have the safe disposal of them. This paper introduces the radioactive hazards and puts for-ward the safe disposal measures so as to provide the reference for the safe disposal of radioactive materials. Some management and technical advices are presented too. (authors)

  18. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  20. Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Quynh; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-04-29

    Positive emotional well-being is fundamentally important to general health status, and is linked to many favorable health outcomes. There is societal interest in understanding determinants of emotional well-being in adolescence, and the natural environment represents one potential determinant. Psychological and experimental research have each shown links between exposure to nature and both stress reduction and attention restoration. Some population studies have suggested positive effects of green space on various indicators of health. However, there are limited large-scale epidemiological studies assessing this relationship, specifically for populations of young people and in the Canadian context. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to public natural space and positive emotional well-being among young adolescent Canadians. This cross-sectional study was based upon the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey with linked geographic information system (GIS) data. Following exclusions, the sample included 17 249 (grades 6 to 10, mostly ages 11 to 16) students from 317 schools. Features of the natural environment were extracted using GIS within a 5 km radius circular buffer surrounding each school. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the presence of public natural space (features include green and blue spaces such as parks, wooded areas, and water bodies) and students' reports of positive emotional well-being, while controlling for salient covariates and the clustered nature of the data. Over half of Canadian youth reported positive emotional well-being (58.5% among boys and 51.6% among girls). Relationships between measures of natural space and positive emotional well-being were weak and lacked consistency overall, but modest protective effects were observed in small cities. Positive emotional well-being was more strongly associated with other factors including

  1. DYEING SILK FABRICS WITH STINK BEAN POD (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. NATURAL DYE IN THE COLOR FASTNESS AND UV PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MASAE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes natural dye extracted from stink bean pod (Parkia speciosa Hassk. which was dyed on the silk fabric. The mordants as aluminum potassium sulfate, iron chloride, sodium hydroxide and mud were used to dye fabric using three different dyeing methods: pre-mordanting, meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. The color fastness to washing, water, perspiration, light and crocking of the dyed samples was determined according to AATCC test methods. In this study the UV-protection properties on silk fabrics were investigated. The chemical functional groups of the dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results revealed that the dyeing silk fabrics with stink beans pod were fair to good fastness to washing and crocking and very poor to poor light fastness with the exception of samples mordanted with iron chloride. The water and perspiration fastness ratings were fair to good. Silk fabrics mordanted with iron chloride and dyed with stink bean usually showed good UV-protection levels even if undyed. These extracts gave polyphenolic, betalain dye and chlorophyll content. Therefore, it was suggested that stink bean pod has the potential in producing functional dyes that could be imparted into the silk dyeing natural colorant system.

  2. UV-protection of Natural and Synthetic Fabrics by Surface Treatment under the effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, AW.M.; Zohdy, M.H.; Ali, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic and natural fabrics were surface coated with gamma radiation curable novel formulations. These formulations were based on naturally occurring Alum individually and in binary mixture with ZnO beside different functional oligomers and monomers. The physical properties of the treated fabrics were evaluated in terms of ultraviolet protection, moisture regain, and water absorption. Also, the effect of coating formulations on the crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) showed that the formulation containing 30% of Alum caused a significant UPF values (50+) according to standard rating over untreated fabrics. When ZnO was incorporated in the formulation, the UPF factor was increased by two folds. A decrease in the moisture regain and water absorption of fabrics was featured with ZnO, however, in case of Alum a decrease followed by an increase was observed. In conclusion, these novel coats could be taken as an nontoxic alternative UV-resist finishing agents for fabrics

  3. Natural radiation in mineral sands deposits in Vietnam and problem of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Bui Van; Duong, Pham Van; Dien, Pham Quang; Quang, Nguyen Hao

    1993-01-01

    There are about 40 mineral sands deposits located along the Vietnamese coast between Binh Ngoc in the North to Vung Tau in the South of the country. Most of them are being exploited for both, domestic and foreign markets. It has been assessed that the natural gamma background levels over the deposits vary between 0.2 to over 10μGy/h. This wide range indicates that the level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the deposits will warrant its further investigations due to the likelihood of an occurrence of elevated radioactivity levels in mineral processing plants. This paper presents results of the following preliminary investigations: determinations of U and Th concentrations in mineral sands ore samples from several deposits, and determinations of U and Th concentrations in various ilmenite concentrate fractions and secondary separation tailings from Ha Tinh province. The radioactivity levels in the heavy minerals and the labour intensive mineral separation technology currently applied will warrant closer attention to be paid to mineral processing and waste handling in order to improve both, occupational and environmental radiological aspects of the operations. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Evaluating the Quality of Protected Areas for Species: A Case Study in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Species’ distributions refl ect the quality of landscape conditions, and represent an important component of protected area management. However, distributions are diffi cult to estimate, and consequently, often determined through a combination of limited fi eld data and expert opinion, which may lead to biases. We demonstrate the use of occupancy models to map distributions and estimate landscape quality. We used occupancy models for two species, the red fox and toad-headed agama, to map their distributions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve located in southeastern Mongolia. We then used occupancy probability as a measure of quality and tested whether differences existed in quality between three areas: 1 inside the reserve, 2 inside the reserve’s core protected area, and 3 outside the reserve, using 30 sample sites in each. Occupancy probability varied from 0.084 to 0.997 for red foxes and 0.022 to 0.949 for agamas in maps. Landscape quality was highest in the core area and lowest outside the reserve for red foxes, and highest outside the reserve and lowest in the core area for agamas. Our results provide visual depictions of distributions across the Ikh Nart landscape and a means of assessing the quality of the Ikh Nart protected area that may inform management activities.

  5. Performance evaluation of two protective treatments on salt-laden limestones and marble after natural and artificial weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Barbara; Pinna, Daniela; Porcinai, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Salt crystallization is a major damage factor in stone weathering, and the application of inappropriate protective products may amplify its effects. This research focuses on the evaluation of two protective products' performance (organic polydimethylsiloxane and inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH4)2(COO)2·H2O) in the case of a salt load from behind. Experimental laboratory simulations based on salt crystallization cycles and natural weathering in an urban area were carried out. The effects were monitored over time, applying different methods: weight loss evaluation, colorimetric and water absorption by capillarity measurements, stereomicroscope observations, FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed minor impact exerted on the short term on stones, particularly those treated with the water repellent, by atmospheric agents compared to salt crystallization. Lithotypes with low salt load (Gioia marble) underwent minor changes than the heavily salt-laden limestones (Lecce and Ançã stones), which were dramatically damaged when treated with polysiloxane. The results suggest that the ammonium oxalate treatment should be preferred to polysiloxane in the presence of soluble salts, even after desalination procedures which might not completely remove them. In addition, the neo-formed calcium oxalate seemed to effectively protect the stone, improving its resistance against salt crystallization without occluding the pores and limiting the superficial erosion caused by atmospheric agents.

  6. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Radon risk information and voluntary protection: evidence from a natural experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.R.; Luken, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the perceived risks and mitigating behavior of Maine households who received new information on their exposures to significant health risks from indoor radon. The observed responses of these households illustrate conceptual issues related to designing an effective risk information program. Despite the involvement of generally well-motivated homeowners and well-intentioned researchers and government officials, we conclude that the risk information approach used in Maine failed to induce appropriate, cost-effective voluntary protection. The results indicate that, after receiving radon test results, information on associated health risks, and suggestions on how to reduce exposures: perceived risks tended to understate objective risks by orders of magnitude, and there was no statistically significant relationship between mitigating behavior and objective risks. These results suggest that the formation of risk perceptions and subsequent behavioral adjustments involve complex interactions among information, contextual, socioeconomic, and psychological variables. Therefore, government programs that seek to reduce health and safety risks with information programs, instead of using more conventional enforced standards, must be crafted very carefully to accommodate this complex process

  8. Positive Gene Regulation by a Natural Protective miRNA Enables Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Lauressergues, Dominique; André, Olivier; Gutjahr, Caroline; Guillotin, Bruno; Bécard, Guillaume; Combier, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-11

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis associates most plants with fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. The fungus penetrates into roots and forms within cortical cell branched structures called arbuscules for nutrient exchange. We discovered that miR171b has a mismatched cleavage site and is unable to downregulate the miR171 family target gene, LOM1 (LOST MERISTEMS 1). This mismatched cleavage site is conserved among plants that establish AM symbiosis, but not in non-mycotrophic plants. Unlike other members of the miR171 family, miR171b stimulates AM symbiosis and is expressed specifically in root cells that contain arbuscules. MiR171b protects LOM1 from negative regulation by other miR171 family members. These findings uncover a unique mechanism of positive post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs and demonstrate its relevance for the establishment of AM symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RP-HPLC method for simu