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Sample records for natural sinergia na

  1. PROMINP (Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas): synergy in the national industry; PROMINP (Programa de Mobilizacao da Industria Nacional de Petroleo e Gas Natural): sinergia na industria nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Renato Ferreira de; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Lopesm Ronaldo Rangel; Lisboa, Vitor Manuel dos Santos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Federal Government identified, from the forecast of massive investments in the sector of oil and natural gas in the next years, that it was establishing a favorable environment to foment the participation of the national industry of goods and services, in competitive and sustainable bases, in the implantation of projects of oil and gas in Brazil. Thus, in 2003, it was born the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas - PROMINP. From an ample diagnosis of the necessary critical resources, throughout the time, for the implementation of the planned projects, the PROMINP identifies the gaps related to the professional qualification, industrial infrastructure and supply of materials and equipment, and, to surpass these challenges, it has lead, in these five years of existence, an expressive set of action for each one of the cited sources, of form to assure the competitiveness of the Industry of Supply of Goods and services and the support of this process. Such actions are elaborated and developed of joint form it enters all the participants of the chain. Since the creation of the PROMINP, the participation of the national industry (Local Content) in the investments of the sector increased of 57% in 2003 for 75% in 2007, what it means a US$ addition 8,3 billion orders of goods and services in the national market and generated more than 390 thousand new jobs. (author)

  2. Sinergia cognitiva y pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Orlando Prieto Bustos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El capital social es un factor de crecimiento económico y desarrollo enla medida en que las regulaciones formales e informales implícitas en la interacción social disminuyen los costos de transacción económicos asociados a la información imperfecta, la selección adversa y el riesgo moral. El presente documento realiza una aproximación empírica a la categoría conceptual de “sinergia cognitiva” o “capital sinergético” propuesta por Boisier utilizando un diseño metodológico que contrasta una población de beneficiarios de programas sociales en un territorio insular y un territorio continental de la República de Colombia. Una vez se controlan los factores demográficos, tecnológicos e institucionales formales se indaga por los efectos de la formación de “sinergia cognitiva” a partir de la formación de capital social informal o cultural. Los resultados indican una mayor relevancia del capital social en la reducción de la pobreza vía mejoras en la habitabilidad de las viviendas que en relación con las posibilidades de generación de ingresos. Sin embargo, a niveles reducidos de ingresos la formación de capital social está asociada a incrementos en ingresos y a menores niveles de pobreza.

  3. Memorias y sinergias teknokulturales

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    Igor Sádaba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este texto aportamos algunas de la claves que han llevado al grupo Cibersomosaguas a relanzar la revista digital Teknokultura (2001-2008, los intereses y compromisos de partida y el posicionamiento actual que pretendemos para esta, ya de por sí, innovadora revista. Para ello, en primer lugar, enmarcamos la reaparición de Teknokultura, ahora con el subtítulo Revista de Cultura Digital y Movimientos Sociales, en el contexto más amplio de los estudios sociales de la ciencia, sus formaciones históricas incipientes y algunas de sus tendencias actuales. Tras un breve comentario del recorrido y principales tendencias de los estudios más sociales de lo tecnológico, esta primera parte presenta una instantánea del tejido de entrecruzamientos entre lo tecnosocial y los movimientos sociales, sobre todo, en aquellos lugares donde se presentan tensiones más evidentes.La segunda parte del texto ofrece unos apuntes sobre la génesis de Teknokultura y repara en los distintos grupos de investigación que, a escala internacional, ayudaron a perfilar las condiciones de posibilidad de esta, por aquel entonces, novísima revista y a orientar su mirada editorial hacia cuestiones y problemáticas tecnológicas de relevancia sociopolítica. Tras este recorrido de sinergias y colaboraciones pasamos a presentar el nuevo “alojamiento” de Teknokultura, el grupo Cibersomosaguas, su trayectoria y líneas de investigación; un mapa que permitirá comprender el posicionamiento y las metas que ambicionamos.

  4. Analiza comparativa intre sinergia in comunicarea integrata de marketing si sinergia la nivelul fuziunii si achizitiilor

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Roxana Matei

    2010-01-01

    Acest articol ilustreaza o analiza comparativa intre sinergia in comunicarea integrata de marketing (CIM) si sinergia la nivelul fuziunilor. Pana in prezent s-a discutat despre acesti termeni ca fiind diferiti dar aceasta abordare isi propune sa demonstreze ca exista o legatura si chiar o suprapunere intre acestia. Sinergia la nivelul fuziunilor si achizitiilor a fost un concept care a precedat sinergia in CIM dar nu a beneficiat de atentia acordata celei din urma. Articolul isi propune sa id...

  5. Sinergia da radiação ionizante e do aquecimento na vida de prateleira da uva ?Itália?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domarco Rachel Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de uva cv. Itália, aquecida e irradiada com diferentes doses de radiação ionizante, foi estudado através de análises químicas (teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH e análise sensorial (aparência e firmeza. Para o experimento, foram utilizados aproximadamente 500g de uva por amostra e 4 repetições por tratamento. Uma parte foi aquecida por imersão em água (50°C por 5 minutos, antes da irradiação, outra parte foi irradiada à temperatura ambiente (22-25°C. Para a irradiação, utilizou-se uma fonte de Cobalto-60, tipo Gammabeam-650, a uma taxa de dose de 1,89 kGy/h. As doses utilizadas foram, 0 (controle, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 kGy. Após a irradiação as amostras foram acondicionadas em caixas de papelão e armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração (6°C - 8°C. As análises químicas e sensorial foram realizadas após 60 dias de armazenamento. Observou-se um aumento na acidez titulável e no pH, em função das doses de radiação. O teor de sólidos solúveis e a relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foram maiores nas amostras aquecidas. O tratamento térmico e a radiação gama, isolados ou combinados, não promoveram o aumento de vida de prateleira de uva Itália.

  6. La sinergia farmacológica aplicada a la analgesia: revisión de la combinación de ibuprofeno con codeína Pharmacological synergy applied to analgesia: review of the combination of ibuprofen with codeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. González-Escalada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La analgesia multimodal que participa actualmente en todos los protocolos de analgesia postoperatoria también se utiliza por los especialistas en dolor crónico que manejan la combinación de fármacos como una rutina para optimizar la eficacia de la analgesia; la combinación de fármacos es una práctica bien conocida y muy extendida, gracias a su demostrada rentabilidad terapéutica, y habitualmente se utiliza tanto en anestesia como en analgesia. El concepto del balance adecuado entre efectividad y seguridad es primordial, y aunque la calidad del tratamiento aplicado se mide según el alivio conseguido, el confort se evalúa teniendo en cuenta la combinación entre eficacia analgésica y la ausencia o mínima presencia de efectos secundarios, siendo primordial en el tratamiento del paciente con dolor. En este sentido, parece claro que la búsqueda de las dosis mínimas eficaces de cada fármaco es una premisa necesaria para plantear la combinación de dosis idónea. La búsqueda de los fármacos que deben componer una combinación y las dosis a emplear debe ser fruto de la investigación, pero debe ser corroborada por la experiencia clínica, la opinión de los expertos y las evidencias publicadas. En este trabajo, se realiza una extensa revisión de la experiencia clínica existente con la combinación de ibuprofeno con codeína, haciendo un análisis de los antecedentes históricos que llevaron a su uso, los trabajos que permitieron demostrar su sinergia y compatibilidad farmacocinética y los trabajos pioneros de investigación clínica que permitieron concluir que la dosis fija idónea de esta combinación es la mezcla de 400 mg de ibuprofeno con 30 mg de codeína. Es difícil sacar conclusiones acerca de la efectividad analgésica de los diferentes antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, pero no cabe duda que según los datos acumulados hasta la actualidad, el ibuprofeno se sitúa entre los más efectivos y es una buena opción para

  7. Bourdieu y Luhmann. Diferencias, similitudes, sinergias

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    Pfeilstetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    concluir en las sinergias que sugieren para la investigación social una mirada teórica que se nutre de ambas fuentes.

  8. Aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & Relacionamento Humano & Sinergia

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    Sergio Vieira Holtz Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As Tecnologias de Informação (TI estão entre os principais agentes de mudança sociais. Para gerir tais mudanças, uma miríade de áreas do conhecimento humano têm muito a contribuir para a abordagem dos aspectos sociotécnicos das TI e promover sinergia. Como uma organização empresarial atua no sentido de provocar mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, visando a melhoria contínua, esse processo de mudança provocada chama-se aprendizagem. Isto posto, neste artigo apresentaremos resultados observados em empresas em processo de reengenharia e submetidas a utilização de metodologias integradas (PDCA, Método Paulo Freire e Roteiro Integração de Equipes, abordando os aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & relacionamentos humanos pela praxe da pedagogia como elemento de sinergia.

  9. SINERGIA laparoscopic virtual reality simulator: didactic design and technical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Pablo; Gómez, Enrique J; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; López, Oscar; Monserrat, Carlos; García, Verónica; Alberola, Carlos; Florido, Miguel Angel Rodríguez; Ruiz, Juan; Usón, Jesús

    2007-03-01

    VR laparoscopic simulators have demonstrated its validity in recent studies, and research should be directed towards a high training effectiveness and efficacy. In this direction, an insight into simulators' didactic design and technical development is provided, by describing the methodology followed in the building of the SINERGIA simulator. It departs from a clear analysis of training needs driven by a surgical training curriculum. Existing solutions and validation studies are an important reference for the definition of specifications, which are described with a suitable use of simulation technologies. Five new didactic exercises are proposed to train some of the basic laparoscopic skills. Simulator construction has required existing algorithms and the development of a particle-based biomechanical model, called PARSYS, and a collision handling solution based in a multi-point strategy. The resulting VR laparoscopic simulator includes new exercises and enhanced simulation technologies, and is finding a very good acceptance among surgeons.

  10. Ruptura de tejidos relacionales: huella de una sinergia corporativa

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    Luz María Rivas Montoya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de implementación de estrategias sinérgicas tienen, inevitablemente, efectos no previstos en los actores sociales de la organización. En este artículo, se presenta la ruptura de tejidos relacionales como un claro ejemplo de estos efectos o huellas*, que emergieron al narrar la experiencia individual que los actores sociales tuvieron con la sinergia corporativa en un grupo económico líder del sector de servicios en Colombia. Desde un método cualitativo, una aproximación etnográfica y un enfoque hermenéutico, se exploraron las experiencias y percepciones de diversos actores sociales. La ruptura de tejidos relacionales fue una de las categorías que emergió como huella relevante; esta ruptura se caracteriza por cambios en las relaciones laborales, tensión autonomía/heteronomía y conflictos de poder, situaciones que expresan las consecuencias no previstas de la implementación de la integración de servicios compartidos o sinergia corporativa. Es conveniente advertir que la principal limitación de este estudio exploratorio es que no permite la proposición de modelos ni la construcción de un caso de estudio metodológicamente riguroso. El pensamiento complejo desde la perspectiva de Edgar Morin iluminó el camino de reflexión acerca de la ruptura de tejidos relacionales en cuanto a huella. Estos tejidos son esenciales en cualquier tipo de organización, pero lo son aún más en grupos económicos donde la diversidad de los negocios y culturas exige redes para hacer más productiva y amable la rutina organizacional.

  11. Sinergias ocio y comercio en la ciudad de Murcia

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    Mercedes Millán Escriche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente el comercio ha sido reconocido por su papel como estructurador de las prácticas urbanas y por su capacidad para crear en sus localizaciones polos de atracción que determinan nuevos paisajes urbanos. A ello hay que añadir la función que desempeña contribuyendo doblemente a colmar las necesidades de la población, tanto las relacionadas con el suministro de bienes de consumo, como las que enlazan con el deseo de ocupar los tiempos de ocio. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar las sinergias que se establecen entre el disfrute del tiempo de ocio y las prácticas comerciales que se llevan a cabo en la ciudad de Murcia. Para ello se ha utilizado como método de análisis la técnica de la encuesta, obteniendo así resultados que presentamos tanto desde un punto de vista cuantitativo como cualitativo.

  12. NA48 unravels one of nature's most subtle secrets

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    NA48 has just announced its final results confirming direct CP-violation with great precision. This phenomenon helps us to understand the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the Universe. At a seminar at CERN on 10 May Guillaume Unal of the Laboratory's NA48 collaboration announced NA48's final result on one of nature's best-kept secrets. Direct CP-violation, as it is called, is a subtle effect that betrays nature's preference for matter over antimatter, the reason why we are here. In 1993, an earlier CERN experiment, NA31, and the E731 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the USA published the first precise results on direct CP-violation. The CERN result suggested that direct CP-violation was a real effect. The Fermilab result, while not excluding the effect, was also compatible with no direct CP-violation. More precise measurements were clearly needed, and ambitious new experiments at the two laboratories - NA48 and KTeV - soon rose to the challenge. Both have now measure...

  13. Cultura organizacional: sinergias e alergias entre Hofstede e Trompenaars

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    Daniel Pacheco Lacerda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre os diferentes elementos a serem considerados na gestão atualmente, os aspectos culturais têm se colocado na centralidade das discussões organizacionais. Essa posição deriva do fato de que a vantagem competitiva sustentável se origina da compreensão, respeito e utilização das diferenças de hábitos, práticas, pontos de vistas e competências. Empresas com atuação local ou global precisam atentar para as características oriundas de seu capital humano. O presente trabalho busca apresentar algumas evidências das implicações culturais a partir do prisma das dimensões culturais. Para isso é realizada uma breve revisão sobre o tema, em seguida são discutidas algumas repercussões para as organizações.

  14. Interacción, sinergia y antagonismo en estudios prospectivos en Epidemiología

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J Orellana; Kaufman, Jay S.; Paulina Pino

    2013-01-01

    En Salud Pública existe una creciente conciencia sobre las ventajas de las escalas aditivas para una mejor comprensión del impacto de los factores involucrados en un evento de salud. Es necesario siempre recordar que el concepto de interacción estadística es escala dependiente. En la relación causal entre una respuesta y la presencia de dos o más factores de exposición los conceptos de interacción, sinergia y antagonismo cobran protagonismo. El objetivo de este documento es mostrar una aplica...

  15. La sinergia institucional en la gerencia de la explotación minera en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal Peña, Lina Paola

    2014-01-01

    El interés de este trabajo de grado es analizar el concepto de coordinación inter-agencial y trasladarlo a la práctica, para entender el funcionamiento de dos grandes agencias que gerencian el tema minero en el país: la Agencia Nacional de Minería y la Agencia Nacional de Licencias Ambientales. A partir de lo anterior, se demostrará que la falta de sinergia entre estas agencias es producto de la improvisación en la creación institucional; de la inestabilidad de las normas que las regulan y su...

  16. Interacción, sinergia y antagonismo en estudios prospectivos en Epidemiología

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    Juan J Orellana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En Salud Pública existe una creciente conciencia sobre las ventajas de las escalas aditivas para una mejor comprensión del impacto de los factores involucrados en un evento de salud. Es necesario siempre recordar que el concepto de interacción estadística es escala dependiente. En la relación causal entre una respuesta y la presencia de dos o más factores de exposición los conceptos de interacción, sinergia y antagonismo cobran protagonismo. El objetivo de este documento es mostrar una aplicación de los conceptos interacción, sinergia y antagonismo en estudios prospectivos con una mirada de la salud pública. Se presentan tres situaciones que ilustran dichos conceptos. Se utiliza Stata 12 para el ajuste de modelos (log-binomial y Poisson y estimación de parámetros. Se aportan anexos con conceptos y comandos de Stata usados en los procesos de simulación y estimación de parámetros.

  17. Triple sinergia: un método eficaz de sedoanalgesia para colonoscopías

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    Gerardo Jiménez-Trejos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías en el campo de diagnóstico, tanto radiológico como endoscópico, apareció un nuevo tipo de paciente, el cual se volvió un reto para el anestesiólogo, ya que por ser sometido a procedimientos invasivos y poco dolorosos, permitía el avance en las técnicas de sedación. Objetivos: A Comprobar la eficacia del método de sedación con triple sinergia. B Determinar el número de bolos de propofol necesarios para realizar el procedimiento. C Evaluar las complicaciones asociadas a la técnica de sedación hipnótica. Materiales y método: Se estudió en forma prospectiva una muestra consecutiva de 1500 pacientes entre los años 1998 y 2000, de edades mayores de los 18 años, que fueron sometidos a colonoscopía, en el Centro Endoscópico Internacional, San José, Costa Rica. Se aplicó la sedación hipnótica con la técnica de la triple sinergia (midazolam/fentanil/propofol. Resultados: De los 1500 pacientes, un 57,8% fueron hombres y un 42,4%, mujeres. La mayoría fueron de la categoría ASA II (n = 725. Un total de 208 pacientes (13,8% presentaron desaturación. La técnica de sedación fue placentera en el 94% de los pacientes. Un 1% presentó náusea y vómito. El 98% de los pacientes tuvieron amnesia del procedimiento. Solo el 2% de los casos sintió dolor. Conclusiones: La sedación hipnótica con la técnica de la triple sinergia es un método efectivo y seguro, tanto para el endoscopista como para el paciente. El costo es mínimo y la incidencia de efectos secundarios es baja. Todo lo anterior reduce de manera sensible el tiempo del procedimiento y la estancia del paciente. Dado a que la desaturación es un efecto relativamente frecuente, recomendamos colocar a todos los pacientes una cánula nasal con oxígeno profiláctico y monitorizarlos con pulsoximetría y electrocardiográficamente, en especial los casos de la categoría ASA III.

  18. Biología Cultural, psicología social y sinergia organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio Gómez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El presente escrito desarrolla una reflexión sobre los aportes de la biología cultural a la psicología social organizacional, como ciencias comprometidas respectivamente con la comprensión sistémica de la condición humana y con la comprensión del psiquismo humano en relación con el vivir social y con la sinergia organizacional. Para tal efecto, en primer lugar, se expone el significado de la expresión biología cultural, entendida tanto como fenómeno y como ámbito de reflexión.Luego se diferen...

  19. Social TV: a sinergia entre as hashtags e os índices de audiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Maria Veiga Sigiliano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o recente fenômeno chamado Social TV e analisar como o mesmo tem contribuído para a divulgação da série Pretty Little Liars. Fruto do novo ecossistema de conectividade que vivemos, a Social TV modifica as métricas da audiência, o nível de participação do público, as narrativas, a recepção do espectador e traz de volta o appointment television. A produção norte-americana Pretty Little Liars representa o encontro de três pontos fundamentais para o engajamento dos sujeitos midiáticos e a sinergia entre o backchannel e a TV.

  20. Tecnologia e "Morte Natural": o morrer na contemporaneidade Technology and "Natural Death": dying in contemporary society

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    Rachel Aisengart Menezes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de técnicas voltadas ao prolongamento da vida acarretou mudanças significativas na concepção de morte. Este artigo analisa as representações contemporâneas da "morte natural" e sua relação com o uso de tecnologias médicas. Através de revisão bibliográfica, são examinadas as concepções de "morte natural" e de "morrer bem" construídas pelos diversos atores sociais envolvidos no processo do morrer. A literatura evidencia a construção contemporânea de um ideário e de uma trajetória necessários à realização do modelo da "boa morte". Esse modelo do "morrer bem" é construído em contraposição ao uso de técnicas para o prolongamento da vida. Estudos apontam a complexidade e ambivalência presentes no que seriam a morte natural ou não-natural, pois essas representações se encontram imbricadas com a concepção da "boa morte" como escolhida e produzida pelo doente. Deste modo, a tecnologia médica torna-se intrinsecamente constitutiva do "morrer natural".The development of techniques to prolong life has brought significant changes in the conceptualization of death. This article analyzes contemporary representations of "natural death" and their relationship to the use of medical technologies. Based on a literature review, the article examines the concepts of "natural death" and "dying well" constructed by the various social actors involved in the process of dying. The literature reveals the contemporary construction of a necessary set of ideals and pathway for achieving the model of a "good death". The "dying well" model is constructed in opposition to techniques for prolonging life. The studies point to the complexity and ambivalence of what is presented as "natural" versus "unnatural" death, since such representations are intertwined with the concept of a "good death" as that which is "chosen and produced" by the patient. Thus, medical technology becomes intrinsically constitutive for a "natural death".

  1. Sinergia natural en las relaciones privadas internacionales: Comercio y arbitraje internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Andrade, Alix; Manasía Fernández, Nelly; Bermúdez Abreu, Yoselyn

    2005-01-01

    En la época contemporánea el quehacer humano comercial se realiza sin tomar en cuenta fronteras y, como consecuencia, adquiere significativa importancia la sociedad internacional. La investigación contiene un análisis sobre la actualidad en las relaciones privadas internacionales de intercambio comercial y las soluciones rápidas, efectivas y confiables que proporciona el arbitraje. En cuanto a la metodología, se revisan fuentes documentales y se realiza una investigación social cualitativa po...

  2. Simbolismo sobre "natural" na alimentação Symbolism on "natural" in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia da Veiga Soares Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sentidos incorporados representam um acervo de possibilidades para a vida futura capaz de construir identidades individuais e coletivas. Este trabalho aprofunda os habitus, nos termos de Bourdieu, associados aos estilos "natural" e fast-food, fazendo uma análise interpretativa das trocas simbólicas de elementos reproduzidos nas práticas de alimentação. Consideramos que o arranjo "bricolista" desses elementos possibilita permutas e hibridismos, marcado por uma tensão que reflete a insegurança das inovações tecnológicas. O "natural" é o representante do ideal de autossustentabilidade, da produção não poluidora, que aponta para um enfrentamento da crise sanitária e ecológica do planeta, resistindo à industrialização em larga escala e à urbanização acelerada, entendidos como fatores de depredação das condições básicas de vida. As trocas se dão em um jogo simbólico articulado com o econômico global, em que os atores sociais fazem apostas, illusio, de acordo com intenções particulares na ação concreta. Há chance para reformulação das regras do jogo "no jogo", pois ainda que com um equilíbrio precário de forças, com perdas para o lado mais fraco, um agente pode ter em seu acervo a possibilidade de não reproduzir as pressões da globalização alimentar, o que está distante do que possa aparecer como sobrenatural.The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary

  3. Desarrollo comunitario y desarrollo humano: aportes de una sinergia ONG-universidad

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    Eduardo Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de los efectos de la interacción dialogal y sinérgica entre una organización no gubernamental (ONG y una institución de educación superior del estado de Puebla, en relación con el desarrollo comunitario y humano. Se ofrece una síntesis de las relaciones sociales entre esta ONG y una comunidad indígena durante veintisiete años, los aportes recíprocos a las vidas personales y comunitarias de los involucrados en el proceso, y la manera de construir conocimientos en ese intento de hacer realidad una relación humana simétrica. La vinculación creada entre esa experiencia y la evolución de la Universidad Iberoamericana de Puebla, de 1994 a 2000, se dio a partir del enfoque epistemológico del Sistema Universitario Jesuita. El intercambio y las convergencias de esas dos maneras de abordar la realidad y el conocimiento aportaron al desarrollo de desafíos sociales como enfoque problematizador y orientador para la Universidad y a la propuesta de un marco sociohistórico para hacer relevante la tarea universitaria. La sinergia llevó a vislumbrar alternativas para una mejor inserción de la Universidad en su espacio social y propiciar lucidez acerca de su impacto real en el desarrollo comunitario y humano de la región.

  4. Triple sinergia: un método eficaz de sedoanalgesia para colonoscopías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Jiménez-Trejos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías en el campo de diagnóstico, tanto radiológico como endoscópico, apareció un nuevo tipo de paciente, el cual se volvió un reto para el anestesiólogo, ya que por ser sometido a procedimientos invasivos y poco dolorosos, permitía el avance en las técnicas de sedación. Objetivos: A Comprobar la eficacia del método de sedación con triple sinergia. B Determinar el número de bolos de propofol necesarios para realizar el procedimiento. C Evaluar las complicaciones asociadas a la técnica de sedación hipnótica. Materiales y método: Se estudió en forma prospectiva una muestra consecutiva de 1500 pacientes entre los años 1998 y 2000, de edades mayores de los 18 años, que fueron sometidos a colonoscopía, en el Centro Endoscópico Internacional, San José, Costa Rica. Se aplicó la sedación hipnótica con la técnica de la triple sinergia (midazolam/fentanil/propofol. Resultados: De los 1500 pacientes, un 57,8% fueron hombres y un 42,4%, mujeres. La mayoría fueron de la categoría ASA II (n = 725. Un total de 208 pacientes (13,8% presentaron desaturación. La técnica de sedación fue placentera en el 94% de los pacientes. Un 1% presentó náusea y vómito. El 98% de los pacientes tuvieron amnesia del procedimiento. Solo el 2% de los casos sintió dolor. Conclusiones: La sedación hipnótica con la técnica de la triple sinergia es un método efectivo y seguro, tanto para el endoscopista como para el paciente. El costo es mínimo y la incidencia de efectos secundarios es baja. Todo lo anterior reduce de manera sensible el tiempo del procedimiento y la estancia del paciente. Dado a que la desaturación es un efecto relativamente frecuente, recomendamos colocar a todos los pacientes una cánula nasal con oxígeno profiláctico y monitorizarlos con pulsoximetría y electrocardiográficamente, en especial los casos de la categoría ASA III.Justification: With the development of the new technology

  5. The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-11-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence\\/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and\\/or small numbers and\\/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence\\/regrowth.

  6. Turismo no Espaço Rural Oportunidades e Sinergias Contemporâneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andiara de Souza Valentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O livro Turismo no Espaço Rural: oportunidades e sinergias contemporâneas é uma obra que reúne seis artigos, que refletem sobre a temática do Turismo no Espaço Rural e as diversas oportunidades a ele atreladas. Os diferentes autores nos remetem a debater sobre este assunto, através de tópicos como pluriatividade, desenvolvimento regional, multifuncionalidade, roteiros turísticos rurais, turismo pedagógico e tantos outros. No primeiro artigo, "O rural no olhar do Turismo: novas possibilidades de desenvolvimento", a autora Andyara Lima Barbosa resgata conceitos importantes para o entendimento das novas dinâmicas do meio rural, como os conceitos de desenvolvimento, desenvolvimento econômico, crescimento econômico, consumismo e desenvolvimento sustentável.  Reforça-se a ideia de que o meio rural não pode mais ser visto como atrasado, pois este se tornou um espaço de multifuncionalidades, viável com a nova tendência de os turistas procurarem serviços personalizados, experiências únicas, locais que tenham uma história, onde a cultura seja diferenciada pois, hoje, o desenvolvimento rural é entendido como um conceito espacial e multissetorial e a agricultura é apenas uma parte dele. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  8. Natural variants of AtHKT1 enhance Na+ accumulation in two wild populations of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and therefore have developed mechanisms to adapt to their environment, including the soil mineral nutrient composition. Ionomics is a developing functional genomic strategy designed to rapidly identify the genes and gene networks involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate these mineral nutrients from the soil. Here, we report on the coupling of high-throughput elemental profiling of shoot tissue from various Arabidopsis accessions with DNA microarray-based bulk segregant analysis and reverse genetics, for the rapid identification of genes from wild populations of Arabidopsis that are involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate Na(+ from the soil. Elemental profiling of shoot tissue from 12 different Arabidopsis accessions revealed that two coastal populations of Arabidopsis collected from Tossa del Mar, Spain, and Tsu, Japan (Ts-1 and Tsu-1, respectively, accumulate higher shoot levels of Na(+ than do Col-0 and other accessions. We identify AtHKT1, known to encode a Na(+ transporter, as being the causal locus driving elevated shoot Na(+ in both Ts-1 and Tsu-1. Furthermore, we establish that a deletion in a tandem repeat sequence approximately 5 kb upstream of AtHKT1 is responsible for the reduced root expression of AtHKT1 observed in these accessions. Reciprocal grafting experiments establish that this loss of AtHKT1 expression in roots is responsible for elevated shoot Na(+. Interestingly, and in contrast to the hkt1-1 null mutant, under NaCl stress conditions, this novel AtHKT1 allele not only does not confer NaCl sensitivity but also cosegregates with elevated NaCl tolerance. We also present all our elemental profiling data in a new open access ionomics database, the Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS; http://www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. Using DNA microarray-based genotyping has allowed us to rapidly identify AtHKT1 as the casual locus driving the natural variation in shoot Na

  9. Nature of sodium atoms/(Na(+), e(-)) contact pairs in liquid tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, William J; Larsen, Ross E; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2010-09-09

    With no internal vibrational or rotational degrees of freedom, atomic solutes serve as the simplest possible probe of a condensed-phase environment's influence on solute electronic structure. Of the various atomic species that can be formed in solution, the quasi-one-electron alkali atoms in ether solvents have been the most widely studied experimentally, primarily due to the convenient location of their absorption spectra at visible wavelengths. The nature of solvated alkali atoms, however, remains controversial: the consensus view is that solvated alkali atoms exist as (Na(+), e(-)) tight-contact pairs (TCPs), species in which the alkali valence electron is significantly displaced from the alkali nucleus and confined primarily by the first solvent shell. Thus, to shed light on the nature of alkali atoms in solution and to further our understanding of condensed-phase effects on solutes' electronic structure, we have performed mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations of sodium atoms in liquid tetrahydrofuran (Na(0)/THF). Our interest in this particular system stems from recent pump-probe experiments in our group, which found that the rate at which this species is solvated depends on how it was created ( Science 2008 , 321 , 1817 ); in other words, the solvation dynamics of this system do not obey linear response. Our simulations reproduce the experimental spectroscopy of this system and clearly indicate that neutral Na atoms exist as (Na(+), e(-)) TCPs in solution. We find that the driving force for the displacement of sodium's valence electron is the formation of a tight solvation shell around the partially exposed Na(+). On average, four THF oxygens coordinate the cation end of the TCP; however, we also observe fluctuations to other solvent coordination numbers. Furthermore, we find that species with different solvent coordination numbers have unique absorption spectra and that interconversion between species with different solvent coordination

  10. Thermally stimulated depolarization currents in the natural fluorite; Correntes de despolarizacao termicamente estimuladas na fluorita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Mario Ernesto Giroldo

    1986-12-31

    The present work deals with natural calcium fluoride from Criciuma, Santa Catarina. Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) can be used to determine the properties of dipole defects present in this crystal. The TSDC spectrum of this material shows three bands in the temperature range of 80 to 450 K. The first one, at 130 K, is due the dipoles formed by a trivalent impurity and an interstitial fluorine ion in the next nearest position of an impurity ion (nn R{sub s}{sup 3+} -F{sub i}{sup -}). The second one, at 102 k, is due to the presence of small aggregates of dipoles (like a dimer). The last band, at 360 k is due to the formation of Large Clusters. The continuous distribution model gave the best fit for these bands with mean activation energies of 0.41 eV, 0.595 eV and 1.02 eV for the first, second and third band respectively. Thermal treatments can modify the number of dipoles, dimers and clusters present in the crystal. The variation in the areas under each band can be used to measure this effect. In this work we used thermal treatments between 15 minutes and 10 hours and temperatures between 200 deg C and 500 deg C. For thermal treatments at 300 deg C, the dipoles and dimers are created and the clusters are destroyed as the time of thermal treatment increases. At 400 deg C the clusters are created and the dipoles and dimers and 350 deg C for the clusters. (author) 60 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Molecular dynamics modeling of carbon dioxide, water and natural organic matter in Na-hectorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaydin, A Ozgur; Bowers, Geoffrey M; Kirkpatrick, R James

    2015-09-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) modeling of systems containing a Na-exchanged smectite clay (hectorite) and model natural organic matter (NOM) molecules along with pure H2O, pure CO2, or a mixture of H2O and CO2 provides significant new insight into the molecular scale interactions among silicate surfaces, dissolved cations and organic molecules, H2O and CO2 relevant to geological C-sequestration strategies. The simulations for systems containing H2O show the following results; (1) Na(+) does not bridge between NOM molecules and the clay surface at protonation states comparable to near neutral pH conditions. (2) In systems without CO2 the NOM molecules retain charge balancing cations and drift away from the silicate surface. (3) In systems containing both H2O and CO2, the NOM molecules adopt equilibrium positions at the H2O-CO2 interface with the more hydrophilic structural elements facing the H2O and the more hydrophobic ones facing the CO2. In systems with only CO2, NOM and Na(+) ions are pinned to the clay surface with the hydrophilic structural elements of the NOM pointed toward the clay surface. Dynamically, in systems with only CO2, Na(+) diffusion is nearly eliminated, and in systems with a thin water film on the clay surface diffusion perpendicular the surface is greatly reduced relative to the system with bulk water. Energetically, the results for the systems with only H2O show that hydration of the net charge neutral Na-NOM molecule outweighs the sum of its Coulombic and dispersive interactions with the net charge-neutral Na-clay particle and the interactions of the water molecules with the hydrophobic structural elements of the NOM. The aggregation of NOM molecules in solution appears to be driven not by Na(+) bridging between the molecules but by hydrophobic interactions between them. In contrast, for the systems with only CO2 the interaction between the Na-NOM molecules and the CO2 is outweighed by the interaction of NOM with the clay particle. With both H2O

  12. O butirato e o irinotecano : a sinergia na terapêutica do cancro do cólon

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biotecnologia Farmacêutica, apresentada à Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Coimbra O cancro é uma das causas principais de morte nos países economicamente desenvolvidos e a segunda causa de morte nos países em desenvolvimento. O cancro colorretal é o terceiro cancro com maior incidência em homens e o segundo em mulheres em todo o mundo. Em Portugal, o cancro colorretal é responsável pela morte de 11 portugueses por dia e cerca de 3 mil por ano, com uma in...

  13. Naïve Beliefs About the Natural World in a Case of Childhood Onset Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Winter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The individual profiled here (M.S. suffered an episode of severe oxygen deprivation (anoxia at the age of eight, damaging memory relevant structures in the mid-temporal lobes, including the hippocampus bilaterally. The resulting anterograde amnesia was characterized by profound deficits in autobiographical memory, but also a compromised ability to acquire new facts and information (semantic memory, resulting in the formation of idiosyncratic and naïve beliefs about the natural world that have persisted into his adult years. This article presents an interview with M.S. in which many of these idiosyncratic beliefs are detailed, and argues that they can be broadly viewed as the interaction of; 1 intact frontal lobe functioning that supports the application of rational analysis to his lived experience, and 2 an impoverished factual knowledge base upon which to construct sophisticated and evidence-based models of his lived experience and of natural world processes.

  14. Uma discussão sobre a possibilidade da criação institucional e sinergia entre Estado e sociedade: o caso do P1MC no Semiárido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Amantino de Andrade

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a criação institucional no processo de políticas públicas com base no conceito de sinergia definido por Evans (1996. Para tanto, é examinado um estudo de caso relativo ao Programa Um Milhão de Cisternas Rurais (P1MC, desenvolvido no campo das políticas hídricas no Semiárido brasileiro. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa cujo foco foi o Vale do São Francisco e que envolveu um conjunto de organizações da sociedade civil e públicas localizadas na microrregião de Juazeiro-BA. Além de dados documentais, a investigação contemplou a coleta e análise de dados oriundos de entrevistas. Observou-se um histórico de relações sociais pouco propensas à criação imaginativa de arranjos institucionais que facilitassem as interações sinérgicas Estado-sociedade naquele contexto, apesar do empoderamento e acúmulo de capital social ao longo de anos terem possibilitado algumas transformações e empreendimentos coletivos das comunidades estudadas.

  15. Sinergia entre alta rugosidad superficial y ambiente corrosivo en el comportamiento a la fatiga del acero sae 1045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON FERNANDO CEBALLOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el estudio del comportamiento a fatiga del acero SAE 1045 en cuatro condiciones diferentes: superficie pulida (acabado espejo, ambiente corrosivo (jugo de caña de azúcar, alta rugosidad superficial (superficie equivalente a la encontrada típicamente en los ejes de molino de caña y una condición que involucra la combinación de las dos últimas. Las anteriores condiciones están presentes en los ejes de maza de molino de caña de azúcar durante el proceso de molienda. Se realizaron pruebas de fatiga en flexión rotatoria y se obtuvieron los valores de resistencia a la fatiga para las diferentes situaciones de ensayo. La disminución en resistencia a la fatiga para la sinergia entre la alta rugosidad y ambiente corrosivo fue del 8,7%, resultado estadísticamente representativo con menos de 0,01% de incertidumbre.

  16. Sinergia natural en la globalización: Suite ofimática y organizaciones flexibles e inteligentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Aguirre Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios que presta la suite ofimática facilitan los procesos en las organizaciones, realizándolos en el espacio virtual, superando las limitaciones que impone la contextualización física. Las nuevas formas de emprender tareas utilizando componentes de la suite ofimática, incentivan la aplicación de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación como instrumentos estratégicos en suministrar respuestas a las organizaciones, en sectores públicos y privados. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la suite ofimática y su aporte en el desarrollo de las organizaciones y el crecimiento del talento humano apuntalando la interrelación de las personas en la sociedad de la información y comunicación. La investigación es descriptiva y se utiliza la técnica de la observación documental con revisión de textos impresos y electrónicos para el análisis de las argumentaciones expuestas. Los resultados permiten afirmar que actualmente, en época de globalización, las organizaciones requieren de la suite ofimática para su desarrollo y el crecimiento del talento humano. Se concluye que, debido a la utilización de los componentes de la suite ofimática, ésta ofrece una valiosa colaboración en la prestación de diferentes servicios, debido a que constituye una moderna y efectiva vía para el desarrollo de organizaciones flexibles e inteligentes.

  17. Sinergia natural en la globalización: Suite ofimática y organizaciones flexibles e inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Alix Aguirre Andrade; Nelly Manasía Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Los servicios que presta la suite ofimática facilitan los procesos en las organizaciones, realizándolos en el espacio virtual, superando las limitaciones que impone la contextualización física. Las nuevas formas de emprender tareas utilizando componentes de la suite ofimática, incentivan la aplicación de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación como instrumentos estratégicos en suministrar respuestas a las organizaciones, en sectores públicos y privados. El objetivo de este artículo e...

  18. Categorization of Natural Whistled Vowels by Naïve Listeners of Different Language Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands. To better understand the relation between whistled and spoken speech perception, we look herein at how Spanish, French, and Standard Chinese native speakers, knowing nothing about whistled speech, categorized four Spanish whistled vowels. The results show that the listeners categorized differently depending on their native language. The Standard Chinese speakers demonstrated the worst performance on this task but were still able to associate a tonal whistle to vowel categories. Spanish speakers were the most accurate, and both Spanish and French participants were able to categorize the four vowels, although not as accurately as an expert whistler. These results attest that whistled speech can be used as a natural laboratory to test the perceptual processes of language.

  19. Categorization of Natural Whistled Vowels by Naïve Listeners of Different Language Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands. To better understand the relation between whistled and spoken speech perception, we look herein at how Spanish, French, and Standard Chinese native speakers, knowing nothing about whistled speech, categorized four Spanish whistled vowels. The results show that the listeners categorized differently depending on their native language. The Standard Chinese speakers demonstrated the worst performance on this task but were still able to associate a tonal whistle to vowel categories. Spanish speakers were the most accurate, and both Spanish and French participants were able to categorize the four vowels, although not as accurately as an expert whistler. These results attest that whistled speech can be used as a natural laboratory to test the perceptual processes of language. PMID:28174545

  20. Natureza e economia na teoria freudiana Nature and economy in the Freudian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Furlan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apontar, em primeiro lugar, para a importância das noções de "força" e de "natureza" na obra freudiana e suas implicações para a cultura e a moral. De modo geral, apontar para a importância da Biologia no processo civilizatório, tanto à respeito das prerrogativas da espécie quanto do indivíduo. Em segundo lugar, apontar para a mudança ocorrida nessas questões com a introdução do conceito de "Eros". Privilegiamos a apresentação de dois textos para nosso propósito: o "Projeto de Psicologia" (1895 e "O mal-estar na civilização" (1930 [1929].The aim of this article is first, pointing to the importance of the "strenght" and "nature" notions in Freud's work and their implications to the civilization and the morals. In some way, pointing to the importance of biology in the civilization process, even about the prerrogatives of specie as of the individual. And secondly, pointing to the change occurred in these questions with the introduction of the "Eros" concept. Favoring the presentation of two texts for our purpose: "Project of Psychology" [1895] and "Civilization and its Discontents" (1930 [1929].

  1. Reflexões sobre o resgate do parto natural na era da tecnologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronila Libana Cechin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tece algumas considerações reflexivas sobre o resgate do parto natural, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos na área obstétrica. Retomar as nossas raizes culturais para humanizar o processo da gestação e do parto, é uma proposta alternativa ao modelo atual. A interferência da tecnologia médica sobre o parto está associada ao poder econômico que se apossou do corpo, preconizando que o nascimento seguro é aquele que ocorre no meio hospitalar, munido de alta tecnologia. Assim sendo, criou-se a filosofia do parto medlcalizado, com rigorosa assepsia e atitudes técnicas, multas vezes desnecessárias, interferindo nesta maravilhosa conquista evolutiva que é o parto normal.

  2. Textural and hydration properties of a synthetic montmorillonite compared with a natural Na-exchanged clay analogue.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; An aluminous montmorillonite has been synthesized at hydrothermal conditions (623 K, 120 MPa) and compared to the natural Na-exchanged Wyoming montmorillonite (Na-SWy2). The synthetic product is characterized by a high cation exchange capacity (83 meq/100g) and ethylene glycol specific surface area (764 m2/g) similar to Na-SWy2 but with a higher purity with one crystalline phase. Compacted smectite samples were percolated with water by using an œdometer cell equipped w...

  3. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  4. SINERGIAS AFECTIVAS. EL PAISAJE COMO ORIGEN DE UN PROCESO DE INTERMEDIACIÓN ECOLÓGICO-CULTURAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGEL L. GONZÁLEZ MORALES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eventos como “tomemos Wall Strett”, las “primaveras árabes” o el “15M” en España, que poseen un claro carácter de reivindicación social y de búsqueda de la recuperación, por parte de la población, del poder de elección sobre las cuestiones más cotidianas (trabajo, vivienda, educación, ocio, etc., nos hablan del resurgir de una necesidad colectiva de reapropiación de la ciudad y el territorio, a través de una mayor comprensión e implicación en los procesos que repercuten diariamente en la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. El objetivo principal de esta reflexión será la de aportar un nuevo punto de vista basado en aquella necesidad actual de buscar y definir nuevos mecanismos e instrumentos de diálogo y de relación, de integración e intermediación que, desde la arquitectura y el diseño territorial, permitan, a través de la creación y reactivación de las nuevas y antiguas sinergias y relaciones afectivas existentes en el territorio, la re-definición y recuperación de una escala local y un sentimiento de domesticidad y de apropiación, por parte de las poblaciones que habitan dichos territorios. En particular, partiendo de la reinterpretación del concepto de paisaje llevada a cabo por la Comisión Europea, proponemos indagar el origen de estas estrategias, no en los ámbitos urbanos, sino, al contrario, fuera de la ciudad, en los límites de esta, en ciertas áreas “naturales-rurales”, que mantengan aún, ya sea la escala adecuada vinculada a la conservación y desarrollo de una cotidianeidad, o bien la capacidad y el potencial simbólico-afectivo necesario para convertirse en la raíz de toda una serie de nuevas relaciones y procesos dialécticos y creativos.

  5. Los programas radiofónicos españoles de prime time en Facebook y Twitter: Sinergias entre la radio convencional y las redes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Operadores públicos y privados de las emisoras radiofónicas generalistas buscan en las redes sociales nuevas formas de explotación de contenidos que generen cambios en la cadena de valor de la marca y desarrollen un modelo de negocio diferente. Objetivos: Definir las sinergias entre la radio convencional y las redes sociales en la radio generalista española a partir del análisis de cuatro programas de prime-time considerados máximos exponentes de la marca radiofónica. Metodología: A través de la técnica cuantitativa de análisis de contenido se estudian los roles del emisor y la audiencia en las redes sociales y la radio convencional. Conclusión: Pese a la ampliación de las vías para la participación de la audiencia, el estudio demuestra una ausencia casi total de interacción lo que exige el establecimiento de sinergias entre la radio convencional y las redes sociales como estrategia para explotar el potencial de estos espacios virtuales.

  6. ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL GAMMA RAY SPECTRA BY HD—8004 NaI(T1) GAMMA SPECTROMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国钦; 郑仁淑

    1995-01-01

    The measurement principle and analysis method of natural gammaray spectra using NaI(T1) scintillation spectrometer are briefly described first,then block diagrams of the HD-8004 NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer,Finally,sample measurements are listed and discussed.The results are quite promising.Based on the analysis of these measurements,measures to improve the accuracy of spectrum measurement are proposed.It is well hoped that these measures can contribute to the development and application of gamma-ray spectrum measurement.

  7. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken.

  8. Security resolution minute for natural gas distribution pipeline; Minuta de resolucao de seguranca na distribuicao do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In the current scenery of natural gas distribution regulation, there is no specific resolution about security. The security is boarded in few concession contracts of some private gas companies, but not as principal theme. The security resolution minute presented in this paper aim break the direct and indirect causes of accidents, eliminating their potential. In this new point of view, the quality of services is the principal cause to guarantee the security of natural gas distribution systems. The methodology used to develop the minute was based on the research of Brazilian and American resolutions of state regulation agencies, concession contracts of private distribution gas companies, American code of federal regulation, ASME code for pressure piping B31.8 - 1999 edition and the NBR 12712 standard. The result of the research was the elaboration of an specific minute resolution of security that can be used as reference in the fiscalization of the natural gas distribution piping companies activities. This minute, can be an important instrument to avoid accidents and incidents, eliminating prejudices to the people, to properties, to environment and to the image of natural gas distribution companies and regulation agencies. (author)

  9. ABORDAGEM ESTOCÁSTICA NA AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICO-FINANCEIRA DO PROCESSO DE FUSÕES & AQUISIÇÕES – F&A: ESTUDO DE CASO DA TOTVS S/A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barros Pinheiro Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva verificar se o processo de fusão ou aquisição gera valor à empresa compradora envolvida por meio da determinação de uma função de distribuição de probabilidade de ocorrência de sinergia em um caso de Fusão e Aquisição (F&A de uma empresa cujo capital prioritário é intangível, nesse caso a TOTVS S/A. Para tanto, utilizou-se da metodologia de fluxo de caixa descontado, com o intuito de verificar o valor da empresa antes e depois da fusão, e assim calcular o valor da sinergia. Associada a essa técnica foi introduzida a Simulação Monte Carlo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das oscilações da economia no valor da empresa. Como resultado observou-se que houve uma sinergia positiva decorrente da fusão e que as oscilações simuladas na economia, apesar de diminuir o valor da empresa, garantiram com quase 100% de certeza que haveria sinergia positiva no caso da fusão.

  10. Hybrid Polymer/UiO-66(Zr) and Polymer/NaY Fiber Sorbents for Mercaptan Removal from Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace; Koros, William J; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-04-20

    Zeolite NaY and metal organic frameworks MIL-53(Al) and UiO-66(Zr) are spun with cellulose acetate (CA) polymer to create hybrid porous composite fibers for the selective adsorption of sulfur odorant compounds from pipeline natural gas. Odorant removal is desirable to limit corrosion associated with sulfur oxide production, thereby increasing lifetime in gas turbines used for electricity generation. In line with these goals, the performance of the hybrid fibers is evaluated on the basis of sulfur sorption capacity and selectivity, as well as fiber stability and regenerability, compared to their polymer-free sorbent counterparts. The capacities of the powder sorbents are also measured using various desorption temperatures to evaluate the potential for lower temperature, energy, and cost-efficient system operation. Both NaY/CA and UiO-66(Zr)/CA hybrid fibers are prepared with high sorbent loadings, and both have high capacities and selectivities for t-butyl mercaptan (TBM) odorant sorption from a model natural gas (NG), while being stable to multiple regeneration cycles. The different advantages and disadvantages of both types of fibers relative are discussed, with both offering the potential advantages of low pressure drop, rapid heat and mass transfer, and low energy requirements over traditional sulfur removal technologies such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) or adsorption in a pellet packed beds.

  11. Liberdade, lei natural e direito natural em Hobbes: limiar do direito e da política na modernidade Freedom, natural law and natural right in Hobbes: threshold of law and politics in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Maruyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Liberdade e poder são dois temas que se correlacionam ao longo da história da filosofia política moderna. Nos textos de Hobbes, a ideia da liberdade como ausência de impedimentos às ações ajuda-nos a pensar o dever de obediência ao poder soberano e as relações entre política e direito. Uma situação de vácuo jurídico, em que tudo é permitido, faz-se, contudo, impossível, de modo que a solução de Hobbes consiste em sustentar a ideia do direito natural como direito originário individual vinculado à preservação da vida. Suas ideias do direito natural e da lei natural, que servem de fundamento ao dever de obediência ao soberano, amparam-se em princípios jurídicos, teológicos e biológicos. Tais princípios, entretanto, não dão conta da questão da extensão do poder soberano. Hobbes recorre à análise da linguagem. Sua teoria contratual afirma o princípio de preservação da vida na base da política e sustenta a ideia da criação e da manutenção do poder soberano no ato de linguagem implicado na estrutura representativa do pacto político.Liberty and power are two subjects correlated along the history of the political modern philosophy. In the texts of Hobbes, the idea of liberty as absence of impediments to the actions helps us to think the duty of obedience to the sovereign power and the relations between politics and right. A situation of legal vacuum, in which everything is allowed, is, nevertheless, impossible, so that the solution of Hobbes consists in supporting the idea of the natural right like original individual right linked to the preservation of the life. His ideas of the natural right and of the natural law, which serve of basis to the duty of obedience to a sovereign, lean on legal, theological and biological principles. In spite of that, such principles do not surround the question of the extension of the sovereign power. Hobbes resorts to the analysis of the language. His contractual theory affirms

  12. Na-noparticles of activated natural zeolite on textiles for protection and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Kovaček

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural zeolite clinoptilolite is microporous hydrated aluminosilicates crystals with well-defined structures containing AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral linked through the common oxygen atoms. It is to point out that zeolites act as strong adsorbents and ion-exchangers but having many other useful properties. Due to its cationexchange ability, zeolites have catalytic properties and, for that, multiple uses in medicine and industry, agriculture, water purification and detergents. Zeolites are nontoxic substance, excellent for UVR and microbes protection, for proteins and small molecules such as glucose adsorption. In this paper its positive effect on the metabolism of living organisms and its anticancerogenic, antiviral, antimetastatic and antioxidant effect. The activity of natural zeolite as natural immunostimulator was presented as well as its help in healing wounds. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to modify cotton (by mercerization and polyester (by alkaline hydrolysis fabrics for summer clothing with addition of natural zeolite nanoparticles for achieving UV and antibacterial protective textiles

  13. NaDeA: A Natural Deduction Assistant with a Formalization in Isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We present a new software tool for teaching logic based on natural deduction. Its proof system is formalized in the proof assistant Isabelle such that its definition is very precise. Soundness of the formalization has been proved in Isabelle. The tool is open source software developed in Type......Script / JavaScript and can thus be used directly in a browser without any further installation. Although developed for computer science bachelor students who are used to study and program concrete computer code in a programming language we consider the approach relevant for a broader audience and for other...

  14. NaDeA: A Natural Deduction Assistant with a Formalization in Isabelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Alexander Birch; Schlichtkrull, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a new software tool for teaching logic based on natural deduction. Its proof system is formalized in the proof assistant Isabelle such that its definition is very precise. Soundness of the formalization has been proved in Isabelle. The tool is open source software developed in Type......Script / JavaScript and can thus be used directly in a browser without any further installation. Although developed for undergraduate computer science students who are used to study and program concrete computer code in a programming language we consider the approach relevant for a broader audience...

  15. Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from an aqueous solution by NaCl and surfactant-modified clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niri, Mehdi Vosoughi; Mahvi, Amir Hosein; Alimohammadi, Mahmoud; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Golastanifar, Hafez; Mohammadi, Mohamma Javad; Naeimabadi, Abolfazl; Khishdost, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Zeolitic tuffs are found in different parts of the world. Iranian zeolite is a low-cost material that can be frequently found in nature. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) can be used for the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption study was conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of SMZ; furthermore, the effects of contact time, initial pH, and the initial adsorbent dose on the adsorption process were investigated in a batch system. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of NOM on SMZ was a gradual process. The optimum initial pH values for the adsorption of NOM on SMZ were in the acidic ranges. The batch kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with good correlation coefficients. The equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The results show that the natural zeolite being modified with NaCl and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as a cationic surfactant was an appropriate adsorbent for the removal of NOM.

  16. A relação corpo-natureza na modernidade The body-nature relation in the Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Suassuna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma reflexão teórica sobre o significado da relação corpo-natureza tomando como contexto a modernidade. O debate teórico proposto subsidia-se na teoria social, seguindo como referencial o pensamento weberiano no que concerne à sua visão sobre a modernidade. Ampara-se em Habermas para mostrar que na modernidade o quadro configurado se constrói por meio de rupturas que se processam como conseqüências patológicas do mundo natural, momento em que se permite discutir a relação homem (corpo e meio ambiente (natureza. A recuperação da contribuição de Habermas ocorreu por meio do texto clássico Teoria da Ação Comunicativa e da leitura de Goldblatt no seu livro Teoria Social e Ambiente. Além desses autores, outros são utilizados dentro dessa linha de pensamento, entretanto, pretendendo-se fugir da visão instrumentalista, buscou-se em Mauss, por meio da teoria do fato social total e da noção de técnicas corporais, um esforço teórico para uma possível justificativa da perspectiva da interdisciplinaridade entre o campo disciplinar das Ciências Sociais e a Educação Física e, por conseguinte, do desporto.This paper presents a theoretical reflection about the meaning of the body-nature relation, taking Modernity as a context. The theoretical discussion proposed here is subsidized by the social theory, following the weberian thinking as a reference, where it concerns the view of Modernity. It uses Habermas to show that in modernity the shaped picture is built by means of breaches which occur as pathological consequences of the natural world; moment in which the man (body-environment (nature relation can be discussed. The recovery of the contribution of Habernas happened through the classic text Theory of the Communicative Action and the reading of Goldblatt in his book Social and Environment Theory. Besides these authors, others are used within this line of thought. However, attempting to dodge the

  17. Berkeley e o papel das hipóteses na filosofia natural Berkeley and the role of hypothesis in natural philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Seno Chibeni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A questão do estatuto epistemológico das hipóteses que postulam entes e mecanismos inobserváveis tornou-se proeminente com o advento da ciência moderna, no século XVII. Uma das razões para isso é que, por um lado, as novas teorias científicas passaram a empregá-las amplamente na explicação dos fenômenos naturais, enquanto que, por outro lado, a epistemologia empirista, geralmente adotada desde então para a análise da ciência, parecia proscrever seu uso. Neste artigo analisam-se as soluções propostas por George Berkeley para essa tensão. Mostra-se que nos Princípios do conhecimento humano ele introduz uma nova noção de explicação científica, segundo a qual a ciência poderia prescindir de hipóteses sobre inobserváveis, quaisquer que sejam. Depois, para acomodar epistemologicamente a mecânica newtoniana, ele propõe, no De motu, a interpretação instrumentalista das hipóteses sobre forças, que são centrais nessa teoria, considerada por ele "a melhor chave para a ciência natural". Finalmente, em sua obra tardia, Siris, Berkeley envolve-se, de forma aparentemente realista, na discussão e defesa de uma série de hipóteses sobre fluidos inobserváveis. Examina-se brevemente, no final do artigo, a possibilidade de conciliar essa posição com os princípios fundamentais da epistemologia e metafísica de Berkeley.The issue of the epistemological status of hypotheses postulating unobservable entities became prominent with the advent of modern science, in the 17th century. The basic reason is that such entities were widely employed by the new scientific theories in the explanation and prediction of natural phenomena, whereas empiricist epistemology, which at that time became very popular among philosophers and scientists, formed a clearly inhospitable background for unobservable elements in general. This paper examines the stands adopted, and the proposals made on this topic by George Berkeley, one of the most important

  18. Controllo e mitigazione dei rischia naturali attraverso la sinergia fra università e realtà imprenditoriale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mazzanti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available NHAZCA: a spin-off dedicated to natural risks control and mitigationThe mitigation of natural risks and risks related to large infrastructures is the main purpose of NHAZCA, a spin-off company of the “Sapienza” Università di Roma. NHAZCA aims at becoming a reference company, both at national and international level, by the constant interaction between the research and entrepreneurial worlds. NHAZCA offers to customers a strong geological experience coupled with innovative analysis and monitoring techniques such as Terretrial SAR Interferometry and numerical models for the simulation of natural events.

  19. Radiação gama na conservação do suco natural de laranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemma Juliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o efeito da radiação gama na população microbiológica, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH and conteúdo de vitamina C do suco natural de laranja. A atividade microbiana pode causar a deterioração do suco de laranja. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação dos microrganismos, porém pode afetar algumas características do produto. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial 4x5 referentes ao controle mais 3 doses de radiação (2,0; 4,0 and 6.0 kGy e 5 períodos de armazenamento (1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias com 2 repetições. As amostras de suco natural foram extraídas de laranjas da variedade "Pêra", irradiadas a uma taxa de dose de 2,0 kGy por hora (cobalto-60, e em seguida foram armazenadas sob refrigeração (5 ± 3ºC. Os resultados mostraram pequenas variações no teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH, em relação aos tratamentos testados. A razão sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foi determinada e também mostrou pequena variação em todos os tratamentos. Com o aumento da dose de radiação e o prolongamento do período de armazenamento houve redução no conteúdo de vitamina C do suco. A radiação gama se mostrou eficaz na redução da população microbiana do suco de laranja.

  20. Deficiency of pulmonary Valpha24 Vbeta11 natural killer T cells in corticosteroid-naïve sarcoidosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Peter; Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Kern, Izidor; Kosnik, Mitja; Osolnik, Katarina

    2010-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells might contribute to the amplified and prolonged T-cell immune response that characterizes sarcoidosis. Therefore, we want to investigate the frequency and distribution of pulmonary invariant NKT cells in corticosteroid-naïve patients with sarcoidosis. We used multi-parameter flow cytometry with antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD45, CD16/56, TCR Valpha24, and TCR Vbeta11, on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), to examine the frequency and distribution of pulmonary invariant NKT cells in 47 newly diagnosed sarcoidosis patients and in 8 control subjects. The frequencies of BALF Valpha24 Vbeta11 invariant NKT cells were significantly lower in patients with sarcoidosis in comparison to control subjects. Moreover, lower invariant NKT cell frequencies in patients with sarcoidosis significantly correlated with exaggerated BALF lymphocytosis and CD4 T cell responses. This study demonstrated a pulmonary deficiency in the frequency of a subset of T cells with immunoregulatory function in patients with sarcoidosis.

  1. Alterações na matéria orgânica e na biomassa microbiana em solo de mata natural submetido a diferentes manejos Changes in organic matter and in microbial biomass of a natural forest soil under different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILTON MARCHIORI JÚNIOR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em um Latossolo Roxo, o efeito de diferentes formas de manejo do solo sobre a matéria orgânica do solo e na biomassa microbiana. Os tratamentos usados foram: mata natural; mata natural até 1976 e café até 1994 (amostragem na projeção da copa e na entrelinha; mata natural até 1976, café até 1991 e milho até 1994; mata natural até 1940, café até 1960, citros até 1978, e cana-de-açúcar até 1994 (amostragem na linha e na entrelinha. A mata natural apresentou os maiores valores de C orgânico no solo e na fração humina e os menores valores foram obtidos nas áreas com cana-de-açúcar, que apresentaram os maiores valores de C microbiano em relação à mata natural. O uso agrícola do solo aumentou a porcentagem de C orgânico na forma de ácidos húmicos e fúlvicos, em relação à mata natural. Em geral, o solo apresentou mais de 74% do C orgânico na forma de húmus residual.The effect of soil management on forms of carbon and microbial biomass was studied in a Typic Euthortox soil. The treatments tested were: natural forest; natural forest till 1976 and coffee till 1994 (sampling on the shoot projection and between lines ; natural forest till 1976, coffee till 1991 and corn till 1994; natural forest till 1940, coffee till 1960, citrus till 1978 and sugar cane till 1994 (sampling on the planting line and between lines . The treatment with sugar cane presented the largest values of microbial carbon in relation to the natural forest. The agricultural management of soil increased the percentage of organic carbon in humic and fulvic acids forms. The soil presented more than 74% of organic carbon in the form of residual humus.

  2. Triosephosphate isomerase tyrosine nitration induced by heme-NaNO2 -H2 O2 or peroxynitrite: Effects of different natural phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanxia; Zhao, Jie; Li, Hailing; Gao, Zhonghong

    2017-06-01

    Peroxynitrite and heme peroxidases (or heme)-H2 O2 -NaNO2 system are the two common ways to cause protein tyrosine nitration in vitro, but the effects of antioxidants on reducing these two pathways-induced protein nitration and oxidation are controversial. Both nitrating systems can dose-dependently induce triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) nitration, however, heme-H2 O2 -NaNO2 was less destructive to protein secondary structures and led to more nitrated tyrosine residue than 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, a peroxynitrite donor). Both of desferrioxamine and catechin could inhibit TIM nitration induced by heme-H2 O2 -NaNO2 and SIN-1 and protein oxidation induced by SIN-1, but promoted heme-H2 O2 -NaNO2 -induced protein oxidation. Moreover, the antagonism of natural phenolic compounds on SIN-1-induced tyrosine nitration was consistent with their radical scavenging ability, but no similar consensus was found in heme-H2 O2 -NaNO2 -induced nitration. Our results indicated that peroxynitrite and heme-H2 O2 -NaNO2 -induced protein nitration was different, and the later one could be a better model for anti-nitration compounds screening. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

  4. Preparation of sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelim, Ni-on [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Magaraphan, Rathanawan, E-mail: rathanawan.k@chula.ac.th [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sreethawong, Thammanoon [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. {yields} A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO{sub 2}/clay thin film was proposed. {yields} The sol-gel-prepared TiO{sub 2}/clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO{sub 2} electrode. {yields} Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO{sub 2}/clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO{sub 2} electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO{sub 2} particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  5. Efeito do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio Effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Pereira Maia

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio de polpa kraft convencional (kraft e pré-deslignificada com oxigênio (kraft-O. Constatou-se que a eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento do conteúdo de lignina residual da polpa. O tratamento com ozônio é mais seletivo para polpas kraft-O, mas para um mesmo tipo de polpa a seletividade de branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento de lignina residual. A eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio aumenta com o teor de lignina fenólica na polpa, entretanto a seletividade é negativamente afetada pela presença destas estruturas.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching of conventional (kraft and oxygen delignified (kraft-O pulps. Ozone bleaching efficiency was found to be enhanced by increasing pulp residual lignin content. Ozone treatment is more selective for kraft-O pulps, but for a given type of pulp (kraft or kraft-O, ozone bleaching selectivity increases with increasing pulp lignin content. Ozone bleaching efficiency increases with increasing pulp lignin phenolic hydroxyl content whereas selectivity is negatively affected by these structures.

  6. Analysis of the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region (Brazil); Analise do mercado de gas natural na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Carlos Andre M.; Rabelo, Clarice A.C.; Santana, Lana L.P.; Sucupira, Marcos L.L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas has become one of the most important energy sources, as we can observe in most countries' energy sector, where its presence is very significant. In Brazil, natural gas corresponds to 7,5% of all energy Also available, and the government has plans to increase this number to 12% until 2010. However, in order to reach this goal, it is important to understand how market works, evaluating all the aspects that have some influence on it. This paper goal is to analyze the natural gas market in Fortaleza metropolitan region, emphasizing the industrial sector, the biggest consumer in Ceara State. The main aspects are characterized here, like professionals qualification in the area, service quality, from equipment and maintenance suppliers until gas distributors, legal aspects, and other factors that are also relevant to a possible future expansion of different natural gas market segments (industry, residence, commerce and transport). (author)

  7. Energy reforms of the natural gas industry in South America; Reformas energeticas da industria do gas natural na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales Palomino, Raul; Nebra de Perez, Silvia Azucena; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: rgpuni@fem.unicamp.br; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; Galarza Soto, Walter [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI), Lima (Peru).Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: w_galarza@uni.edu.pe

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the reforms in the natural gas policies, its regulation and integration in South America. Studying the main legislative reforms in the gas sector of the Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Finally, we sketched a map of South America with the pipeline of regional integration. The reforms have resulted in the liberalization of markets, elimination of state monopolies, the promotion of private investment and the reduction of the State business activity. The market failures, such as natural monopoly and asymmetric information, result of the regulatory bodies creation. The promotion of actions to reduce risks and facilitate the entry of new investments, the strengthening of competition, and the ability of regulatory agencies are important guidelines for the integration natural gas in South America.

  8. Importance of ethanol on natural attenuation of groundwater impacted by gasohol; Importancia do etanol na atenuacao natural de aguas subterraneas impactadas por gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Cristina Cardoso [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: crisnunes@ens.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry Xavier [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental. Lab. de Remediacao de Aguas Subterraneas

    2007-07-15

    In this study, results of 6.5 years of a controlled release experiment with Brazilian gasoline in groundwater were evaluated. Ethanol exhaustion after 32 months and the significant dissolved BTEX mass reduction of more than 90% after 79 months, associated with the electron acceptors use and their metabolic byproducts accumulation, demonstrated the efficiency of monitored natural attenuation for groundwater contamination without immediate risk to receptors. Moreover, ethanol degradation provided a natural bio barrier formation that increased BTEX biodegradation rate and prevented the BTEX plume expansion. (author)

  9. Reference price of natural gas produced in Bacia dos Solimoes; Preco de referencia do gas natural produzido na Bacia do Solimoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valim, Leandro S.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Correia, Irina S.; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de O.C.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Bispo, Luiz Henrique de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas are exhaustible resources. Thus, exploitation of these energy sources can lead to shortages and even the absence for future generations. In this context, royalties are included as a way to financially compensate future generations through a monthly payment made by the explorer. In Brazil, the control of the royalties and their distribution is charge of the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP). Its function is to establish reference prices used for the payment of royalties on oil and natural gas. In this study, three methods were used to calculate royalties, using data from Leste do Urucu field, located in Solimoes Basin. The first one is imposed by Resolution ANP No. 40/2009 that uses the calculation of the reference price of natural gas produced in Brazil. The second one is an alternative method of calculating royalties produced by Bispo, 2011, considering the different compositions of the gas produced and injected. And finally, the Resolution ANP RD No. 983/2011 that uses the calculation of the price of gas injected, considering this as the price of gas processed. When performing the calculation of royalties through the proposed methodologies by Bispo, 2011, and the ANP (Resolution No. 40/2009 and RD 983/2011), the results were similar to each other, and the methodology proposed by Resolution No. 40/2009 was the most different from the others. (author)

  10. Distinction of [220] and [204] textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} film and their growth behaviors depending on substrate nature and Na incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae-Hyung, E-mail: dhcho@etri.re.kr [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeha [Department of Solar & Energy Engineering, Cheongju University, 298 Daeseongro, Sangdang-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Duck [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    For better understanding of the structural property of polycrystalline tetragonal Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films grown on soda-lime glass, it is necessary to characterize the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures clearly that are related to the different physical properties. However, the distinction between the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures is very difficult because of their nearly identical plane spacings and atomic arrangements. Using X-ray diffraction techniques of high resolution θ–2θ scanning and reciprocal space mapping, we distinguished the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of CIGS films and observed that the behaviors of [220] and [204] textures independently depended on both substrate nature and Na presence. We report the Na- and substrate-related dependence of the physical properties of the CIGS film was attributed to the independent growth behaviors of the [220] and [204] textures in the CIGS. - Highlights: • We investigated [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • X-ray diffraction methods distinguished two textures. • The growth behaviors were influenced by underlying substrate and Na. • The [220] and [204] textures in CIGS should be differentially observed.

  11. The Employment of spatial autoregressive models in predicting demand for natural gas; O Emprego de modelos auto-regressivos espaciais na previsao de demanda para gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Alexandre Pinto Alves da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica

    2010-07-01

    Develop the natural gas network is critical success factor for the distribution company. It is a decision that employs the demand given location 'x' and a future time 't' so that the net allows the best conditions for the return of the capital. In this segment, typical network industry, the spatial infra-structure vision associated to the market allows better evaluation of the business because to mitigate costs and risks. In fact, economic models little developed in order to assess the question of the location, due to its little employment by economists. The objective of this article is to analyze the application of spatial perspective in natural gas demand forecasting and to identify the models that can be employed observing issues of dependency and spatial heterogeneity; as well as the capacity of mapping of variables associated with the problem. (author)

  12. The utilization of natural gas in the electricity production through fuel cell; A utilizacao do gas natural na geracao distribuida atraves de celulas combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2004-07-01

    In function of the necessity of electric energy as input of vital importance for the development of the country, this work aims at to offer plus an energy alternative for Brazil. The exploitation of the natural gas reserves recently discovered can be made through modern methods that give as priority the distributed generation and the low ambient impact. All these aspects can be gotten with the use of fuel cell, working with the remodelled natural gas. Increased to the factor of a low ambient impact in the proper generation, the project suggests that the generating source can be located next the consumer, diminishing still more the problems generated for transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. The fuel cell has received a great attention in the international community and some models, some already in commercial period of training, they have shown excellent possibilities of capsize to be one of the future technologies in the generation of electric energy with low ambient impact. (author)

  13. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  14. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  15. Virus inactivation by salt (NaCl) and phosphate supplemented salt in a 3D collagen matrix model for natural sausage casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa-Jelsma, Tinka; Wijnker, Joris J; Zijlstra-Willems, Esther M; Dekker, Aldo; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Maas, Riks; Wisselink, Henk J

    2011-08-02

    Due to possible presence and spread of contagious animal viruses via natural sausage casings the international trade in these food products is subject to veterinary and public health requirements. In order to manage these restrictions we determined the effect of casing preservation on four highly contagious viruses for livestock: foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV). We used an in vitro 3D collagen matrix model in which cells, infected with the four different viruses were embedded in a bovine collagen type I gel matrix and treated with either saturated salt (NaCl) or phosphate supplemented saturated salt at four different temperatures (4, 12, 20 and 25 °C) during a period of 30 days. The results showed that all viruses were faster inactivated at higher temperatures, but that stability of the various viruses at 4 °C differed. Inactivation of FMDV in the 3D collagen matrix model showed a clear temperature and treatment effect on the reduction of FMDV titres. At 4 and 12 °C phosphate supplemented salt showed a very strong FMDV inactivation during the first hour of incubation. Salt (NaCl) only had a minor effect on FMDV inactivation. Phosphate supplemented salt treatment increased the effect temperature had on inactivation of CSFV. In contrast, the salt (NaCl) treatment only increased CSFV inactivation at the higher temperatures (20 °C and 25 °C). Also SVDV inactivation was increased by phosphate supplemented salt, but salt (NaCl) treatment only resulted in a significant decrease of SVDV titre at a few time points. The ASFV results showed that both salt (NaCl) and phosphate supplemented salt were capable to inactivate ASFV within 48 h. In contrast to the other viruses (FMDV, CSFV and SVDV), ASFV was the most stable virus even at higher temperatures. The results obtained in this in vitro model underline the efficacy of a combined treatment using phosphate

  16. The importance of flexibility in supply and demand in the natural gas market - The Brazilian case; A importancia da flexibilidade na oferta e na demanda de gas natural - o caso do mercado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to identify and discuss the main tools in implementing flexibility in supply and demand in the natural gas market, as well as highlight those which are the most appropriate for the Brazilian market. Flexibility, in this context, means the ability to guarantee a balance of supply versus demand without deficits, considering, mainly, the seasonal variations (winter-summer). From there, the study analyzes these flexibility tools in detail. Next, it discusses which of these flexibility tools are currently being used in more mature foreign markets and which tools could be feasibly applied to the Brazilian market. This dissertation also addresses how the natural gas thermoelectric market in Brazil shows a wide range of seasonality due to this segment's nature of complementing the Brazilian hydroelectric complex. This occurs because the capacity to generate hydroelectricity depends on rainfall for supplying reservoirs. Because of this interdependence, it examines how each the natural gas industry and the power industry operate, and their convergence. The flexibility tools which are already implemented here in Brazil are then presented. Finally, additional relevant new concepts and information are discussed to support the conclusions and final comments about the flexibility tools evolution and new applications. (author)

  17. Model for negotiation on contingency plans for distribution of natural gas; Modelo de negociacao para planos de contingencia energetica na area de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Morais, Danielle Costa [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The high consumption of Natural Gas (NG), the environmental and economic turbulences that occurred in recent years raises questions about the supply of the product in critical situations. Characteristic factors of natural gas, like the high cost of storage, show the need for the establishment of contingency plans that define what procedures should be adopted in the distribution of Natural Gas or redistribute among consumers in times of restriction of supply, substantial increase on demand or reduction in the ability of supply. These plans aim to define in advance the actions that will be adopted, providing business and consumer segments clear rules indicate the time to search for alternative sources in case of crisis. The current models can not yet address the problem of negotiation for the division of the product following the concepts proposed by the science of trading, making things like proportionality and envy-free are not observed. The aim of this study is to propose a model for distribution of quotas for supply of NG between different consumer segments. The proposed algorithm combines the procedures of Knaster, Steinhaus and Divide the Dollar, seeking an allocation that minimize the feeling of jealousy and provide an equitable distribution. (author)

  18. Nature of Surface Layer and Electrochemical Behavior of NaOH Hydrothermally Treated NiTi Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Shi; F.T. Cheng; H.C. Man

    2004-01-01

    NiTi samples were hydrothermally treated in NaOH at 200℃ with different soaking times. The morphology of the surface layer formed was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the layer and the major phases present were determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. In contrast to the results reported by some authors, the surface layer was essentially Ni(OH)2 instead of being TiO2. The electrochemical behavior of the samples was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCI solution at 23℃, and analyzed using a simplified Randle circuit consisting of a resistance R and a capacitance C in parallel. After hydrothermal treatment, R was increased by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 times, depending on the treatment time. The value of R of all the samples became steady within a period of less than 15 h. Results of the present study indicate that alkaline treatment leads to the growth of an insulating layer on NiTi, but the method is not suitable for surface modification of NiTi implants due to the enhanced Ni content in the surface layer.

  19. Hydrodynamic dispersion effect on natural convection in porous surfaces by double diffusion; Efeito da dispersao hidrodinamica na conveccao natural por difusao dupla em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, Rubens S.

    1990-12-31

    This work discusses the problem of hydrodynamic dispersion on natural convection in porous medium near impermeable surfaces. The study considers the convection caused by density variation due to temperature and concentration gradients combination. The parametrization of the phenomenon is obtained through scale analysis. It is also presented four possible situations according to the intensity of dispersion term. In search of similarity solutions the similarity variables and parameters associated to dispersion are found through scale analysis. The Runge-Kutta algorithm and the `shooting` method are used to solve the equations resulting from the similarity transformations. Several cases are solved covering an extensive range of the governing parameters. 22 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  1. City gates maintenance - TBG experience; Experiencia da TBG na manutencao de estacoes de entrega de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Adir de Brito; Tavares, Cipriano Homem; Pinto, Jose Eduardo Christovao [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Owner and sole operator in Brasilian territory of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL), the largest of its kind in South America, TBG started operations on July 1 st, 1999. Since then, it has ensured transportation of Bolivian natural gas into Brazil swiftly and safely. This paper relates the TBG experiences on Natural Gas City Gates maintenance and its components like filtering, heating, pressure reducing redundant valves, turbine meters, flow computers, solar panel power supply, satellite monitoring system, acquired by 6 years of operation of Brazil Bolivia Gas Pipe Line. It describes the definitions of maintenance plans using RCM - Reliability-centered Maintenance concepts and the most important learning experiences. (author)

  2. COMUNICAÇÃO MÃE-FILHO DURANTE AMAMENTAÇÃO NATURAL E ARTIFICIAL NA ERA AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Gonçalves Vasconcelos; Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão; Simone de Sousa Paiva; Paulo César de Almeida; Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2010-01-01

    La lactancia natural de la madre infectada por el VIH al hijo es factor de riesgo para la transmisión del virus, por lo tanto se recomienda excluir la lactancia natural. El hecho de no darle el pecho puede dificultar la comunicación del binomio madre-hijo. Fue desarrollado un estudio comparativo a la luz de los factores proxémicos entre madre e hijo durante la alimentación artificial y lactancia materna entre madres seropositivas y seronegativas para el VIH. En alojamiento conjunto fueron ana...

  3. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  4. Membranas de látex natural na herniorrafia diafragmática experimental em cães Natural latex membranes in experimental diaphragmatic hernioplasty in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zimmermann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se membranas de látex para o reparo de defeitos diafragmáticos em 12 cães, distribuídos em três grupos: no G1 utilizou-se membrana comercial e no G2, membrana experimental. O G3 foi usado como controle. Foi feito um defeito retangular no músculo diafragma, com 4cm de comprimento por 3cm de largura, que nos grupos G1 e G2 foi substituído pelo implante da membrana de látex correspondente. Os animais foram avaliados por estudo radiográfico, hemograma, videocirurgia e análise histológica. Os resultados mostraram que a membrana de látex do grupo 2 foi eficiente na correção de defeito no diafragma, promovendo a reparação e neovascularização tecidual local, sem causar rejeição durante o período de avaliação.Latex membranes were experimentally used to repair diaphragmatic defects in 12 dogs, distributed in 3 groups. In group 1, a commercial membrane was used, and in group 2, an experimental membrane. Group 3, animals were used as control. A rectangular defect (4cm in length and 3cm in width was surgically performed in the diaphragm muscle, which was substituted, in group 1 and 2, by the implantation of corresponding latex membrane. The animals were evaluated by radiography, blood count, video-surgery, and histologic study. Results showed that the latex membrane of group 2, were efficient in the correction of the defect in the diaphragm, promoting the repairing and local neovascularization, without causing rejection during the evaluated period.

  5. The spatio-temporal perspective used in the projection of the demand for natural gas; A perspectiva espaco-temporal empregada na projecao de demanda de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Jorge Henrique de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Gas e Energia; Silva, Alexandre Pinto Alves da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The increase of the demand for energy resulted in a diversification of world-wide energy matrix. Specifically in the Brazilian scene, that historically prioritized the exploration of the oil and hydro electric power generation, it saw to grow the slice of participation of the natural gas in energy matrix, seen its versatility and low cost and environment impact. In the energy segment, the activity of demand forecast it has developed mainly using the boarding of time series, especially for the use of econometrics assumptions. However, in the econometric context, has been ignored the effect related with the spatial autocorrelation and the spatial heterogeneity, and not to consider these questions violate the premises of Gauss-Markov applied in the regression modeling. This article analyzes the influence and the use of the perspective time-space in the development of models of forecast of Natural Gas demand, with attention in the characteristics of the relationships between events in the time and the space. (author)

  6. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  7. Natural gas perspectives of diffusion on the brazilian structural ceramics industry; Perspectivas de difusao do gas natural na industria brasileira de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, Marcelo Rousseau Valenca

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluates the perspectives of the natural gas (NG) used by the Brazilian structural ceramics industry (BSCI), according to technological, economic and environmental aspects. It identifies the advantages of using NG, as well as the barriers faced by this energy source. Considering the amount of NG required by the thermal demand of the BSCI processes and the average energy specific use of the furnaces in operation in Brazil, the total consumption of NG will be nearly 12.06 Mm{sup 3/}day. However, the existence of few technical and economical adequate conversion conditions for ceramics furnaces (4% of continuous furnaces) limits the previous potential to only 0.67 Mm{sup 3/}day. In addition, considering the geographic intersection of the ceramics production clusters with the natural gas distribution grid of the Brazilian states, the estimated potential is lowered to 0.28 Mm{sup 3/}day. Yet, the perspective of the NG diffusion in the BSCI in the medium to the long term is more positive, owning to the increasing implementation of large scale production furnaces and cogeneration systems. Also worthwhile to this positive perspective are: the improving demand for certified structural ceramic products, with more quality and value added, and the expanding investment in low income classes dwelling programs. (author)

  8. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream,Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females,Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals) were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany) and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer). Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique stimulating oocytes

  9. Dynamics of the content of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg in the eggs of bream, Abramis brama L. in natural conditions and under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the dynamics of H2O, Na, K, Ca and Mg content in the oocytes of bream, Abramis brama observed in prespawning period on breeding ground and in reply to catching, transportation and subsequent remaining of spawners in a cage. Methods: For research on the dynamics of H2O and cations content in the oocytes of bream females, Abramis brama in the course of eggs transition from maturity Stage IV to Stage V, fishes were caught from breeding ground in the coastal zone of the Volga Reach of the Rybinsk reservoir at the Vereteya Station. For studying the influence of stress, the bream (76 individuals were caught from breeding ground by hauling the seine during 15 min. Capture, sorting and transportation for 3 h to the ponds were the stress factors. Samples of oocytes from 6–8 fishes were taken immediately after capturing, then two more were taken during transportation. Later fishes were removed from the cage in certain time intervals. Concentration of Na and K in the dissolved samples of oocytes was measured by the spectrometer (Flapho-4, Carl Zeiss, Iena, Germany and content of Ca and Mg was measured by atomic-absorption spectrometer-1 (the same producer. Results: In natural conditions before spawning in the course of maturation of oocytes from maturity Stage IV to V, H2O content in the ovicells of bream has increased by 3.3% and concentration of Na, K, Ca and Mg has decreased by 24.9%, 38.1%, 56.2% and 65.7%, accordingly. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage did not change parameters of water-salt exchange of the oocytes. Conclusions: In natural conditions before spawning, the maturation of oocytes of bream from maturity Stage IV to V take place. Stress caused by capturing, transportation and the subsequent remaining of bream spawners in a cage prevents the transition of eggs from maturity Stage IV to V. It is suggested that in order to develop optimal technique

  10. Suggestions to leak prevention in Fortaleza's natural gas piping system; Sugestoes para a prevencao de vazamentos de gas natural canalizado na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara (ARCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Leaks are the bigger problem in health, safety and environmental when the subject is gas distribution piping systems. Specially in high density human regions, like in the majority districts of Fortaleza, safety have to be the higher priority to the gas company responsible for the gas distribution piping systems. Leaks are able to cause accidents or incidents, depending on the circumstances which they happen. In order to be control the situation and overcome the luck factor, leaks must be previously avoided by the application of some security requirements. This paper present some suggestions to natural gas leak prevention in the Fortaleza's metropolitan region pipeline systems. First, the piping systems are analysed, observing the risk regions. Then, safety actions and basic requirements to avoid pipe corrosion are presented in order to improve safety in the gas distribution piping systems of Fortaleza's metropolitan region. (author)

  11. COMUNICAÇÃO MÃE-FILHO DURANTE AMAMENTAÇÃO NATURAL E ARTIFICIAL NA ERA AIDS

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    Simone Gonçalves Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La lactancia natural de la madre infectada por el VIH al hijo es factor de riesgo para la transmisión del virus, por lo tanto se recomienda excluir la lactancia natural. El hecho de no darle el pecho puede dificultar la comunicación del binomio madre-hijo. Fue desarrollado un estudio comparativo a la luz de los factores proxémicos entre madre e hijo durante la alimentación artificial y lactancia materna entre madres seropositivas y seronegativas para el VIH. En alojamiento conjunto fueron analizadas 84 interacciones entre cuatro binomios. La distancia íntima prevalece en el 100% de las interacciones, así como la postura sentada. Los bebés de las madres seropositivas permanecieron la mayor parte del tiempo activos en comparación a los verticalmente expuestos. Probablemente, la calidad de las interacciones a lo largo del tiempo y la responsividad materna al bebé irán determinar los efectos de la falta de lactancia natural en el desarrollo del apego entre madre e hijo.

  12. Influence of size, shape, type of nanoparticles, type and temperature of the base fluid on natural convection MHD of na

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    P. Sudarsana Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented MHD natural convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of nanofluid through porous media over a vertical cone influenced by different aspects of nanoparticles such as size, shape, type of nanoparticles and type of the base fluid and working temperature of base fluid. To increase the physical significance of the problem, we have taken dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity as the functions of local volume fraction of nanoparticles. The drift-flux model of nanofluids, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and enhancement ratio parameters are also considered in the present analysis. The influence of non-dimensional parameters such as magnetic field (M, buoyancy ratio parameter (Nr, conductivity parameter (Nc, viscosity parameter (Nv, Brownian motion parameter (Nb, thermophoresis parameter (Nt, Lewis number (Le on velocity, temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles in the boundary layer region is examined in detail. Furthermore the impact of these parameters on local Nusselt number (Nux and enhancement ratio hnfhbf is also investigated. The results of present study reveal that significant natural convection heat transfer enhancement is noticed as the size of nanoparticles decreases. Moreover, type of the nanoparticles and type of the base fluid also influenced the natural convection heat transfer.

  13. Model for the development of competition in the natural gas industry in Brazil; Modelo para o desenvolvimento da competicao na industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant Ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    In the last 20 years, several countries have undergone to structural reforms in the gas sector, to increase the economic efficiency through the introduction of competition. This work proposes a framework to stimulate the development of competition in the gas sector in Brazil, based on a market forecast, the international experience and the characteristics of the market, structure and regulation in Brazil; the impacts of this framework in the market are also analyzed. According to the market forecasting, there will be a likely surplus of natural gas in Brazil. This surplus, allied with retail trading competition to be introduced in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, together with a sound regulation that promote open access and transparency, moreover a regulated transmission, distribution and storage, may help to stimulate competition. If the framework is implemented, it would probably help the creation a wholesale and a retail gas market; stimulating risk management tools, i.e. derivative instruments; promoting a shift from long-term to short-term contracts between LDC's and shippers; creating a spot and future markets; and promoting a move towards spot and futures gas price indexing in mid- and long-term supply contracts. Competition would probably bring end-user prices down, as it happened in other countries that faced deregulation process. (author)

  14. GESTÃO AMBIENTAL DE ATIVIDADES RURAIS NO POLO DE AGRICULTURA NATURAL DE IPEÚNA, SP

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    Luiz Carlos Demattê Filho

    2014-12-01

    verificadas, como segue: Ecologia da paisagem (0,87, Qualidade da atmosfera (0,78, Qualidade da água (0,91, Qualidade do solo (0,85, Valores socioculturais (0,83, Valores econômicos (0,88 e Gestão e administração (1,00. Todos os indicadores apresentaram índices de desempenho superiores ao nível de conformidade preconizado no sistema de indicadores APOIA-NovoRural. Com estas características de desempenho ambiental, o Polo de Agricultura Natural de Ipeúna representa um empreendimento rural com excelente índice integrado de sustentabilidade (0,87, justificando sua posição de destaque como unidade de experimentação e pesquisa, transferência de tecnologia, e modelo de produção agrícola natural e orgânica.

  15. Reactive uptake coefficients for heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with submicron aerosols of NaCl and natural sea salt

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    D. J. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of uptake of gaseous N2O5 on submicron aerosols containing NaCl and natural sea salt have been investigated in a flow reactor as a function of relative humidity (RH in the range 30-80% at 295±2K and a total pressure of 1bar. The measured uptake coefficients, γ, were larger on the aerosols containing sea salt compared to those of pure NaCl, and in both cases increased with increasing RH. These observations are explained in terms of the variation in the size of the salt droplets, which leads to a limitation in the uptake rate into small particles. After correction for this effect the uptake coefficients are independent of relative humidity, and agree with those measured previously on larger droplets. A value of γ=0.025 is recommended for the reactive uptake coefficient for N2O5 on deliquesced sea salt droplets at 298K and RH>40%.

  16. Na-smectite s in the Cala de Tomate bentonite deposit (Spain): a natural analogue of the salinity effect on the bentonite barrier of a rad waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Fernandez, A.M.; Cozar, J.S. [CIEMAT - Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT/DIRE/CEAGP), Madrid (Spain); Delgado, A.; Reyes, E. [Ciencias de la Tierra y Quimica Ambiental Estacion Experimental del Zaidin Dpt., Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Soler, J.M. [Granada Univ., Dpt. de Mineralogia y Petrologia (Spain); Tsige, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Dpt. de Geodinamica, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of the ENRESA programme for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of the bentonite-engineered barrier for a deep radwaste geological repository, analogue studies on several bentonite deposits are conducted at CIEMAT. Among these analogue studies, the thermal effect induced by volcanic intrusions on bentonite deposits is highlighted. In the Cabo de Gata volcanic region, there are several analogue scenarios where these studies have been performed, such as the Cala de Tomate bentonite deposit that was intruded by a pyroxene andesite volcanic dome. However, geological, mineralogical, physicochemical, geochemical and stable isotopic data obtained from the smectites do not allow to establish any analogy with the thermal effect expected on the bentonite-engineered barrier of a deep geological repository after burial. Thus, the bentonitisation processes took place after the intrusion of the dome, as a result of meteoric diagenesis intensively developed on faulting zone affecting the parent pyroclastic acid tuffs. This faulting process occurred after the dome intrusion. However, the physicochemical characteristics of these smectites, specially the exchangeable cations, allow to consider this bentonite deposit as a natural analogue of the saline effect on the clayey barrier. This analogy has been established because Na-smectites are present in this deposit and, up to our present knowledge, it is the first time that these smectites occur naturally in the Cabo de Gata-La Serrata de Nijar volcanic region. As a consequence, the main objectives of this work are: i) to characterise these smectites; ii) to establish their genesis and processes affecting them after their formation and iii) to identify the effects on the bentonite-engineered barrier should it were affected by a Na-rich saline waterfront. (authors)

  17. Effects of dissolved Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ ions on the supramolecular aggregation of natural organic matter in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, W.; Kalinichev, A. G.; Clark, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    The complexation of natural organic matter (NOM) with metal ions, minerals and organic species in soil and water allows NOM to form water-soluble and water-insoluble aggregates of widely differing chemical and biological stabilities. Metal-NOM interaction induces strong correlations between the concentration of natural organic matter and the speciation, solubility and toxicity of many metals in the environment. In water purification and desalination, NOM is also implicated in fouling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, either as the primary foulant or as a conditioning layer for microbial attachment ("biofouling"). In this work we investigated the effects of various metal ions on NOM aggregation in aqueous solutions, by a combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. This allows a detailed molecular-scale statistical analysis of the size and the structural topology of metal-NOM aggregates. The DLS measurements show that Ca2+ ions present in a Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) solution lead to the formation of a wide range of supramolecular structures with sizes between 100 and 1,000 nm. In contrast, Mg2+ and Na+ do not affect the aggregation of SRNOM as strongly. SANS data are inconclusive but indicate the presence of quite large (>50 nm) fractal particles formed presumably through a cluster-cluster aggregation. MD simulations confirm these observations and show that NOM can aggregate in aqueous solutions by two different mechanisms. On the one hand, NOM molecules can spontaneously aggregate by hydrogen bonding between their functional groups when only Na+ and Mg2+ are present as background cations. This promotes the formation of uniformly shaped NOM clusters. On the other hand, if Ca2+ ions are present in solution, they can more strongly bind two different NOM molecules by co-complexing the carboxylate groups, thus promoting the formation of longer linear and

  18. Sobre determinado uso do enquadre na pesquisa qualitativa em saúde: a questão do analisador natural On a certain use of model in health qualitative research: the natural analyzer issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Vidal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura demonstrar a inclusão, nos limites do enquadre metodológico da pesquisa qualitativa em saúde, de um analisador natural surgido na dinâmica da relação entre pesquisador e sujeito da pesquisa. A investigação sobre o humor materno em mães de bebês prematuros após a alta hospitalar, objeto de pesquisa de doutoramento em Saúde da Mulher, apresentou uma interface com as reações emocionais experienciadas no interior do ambiente de tratamento intensivo. A análise e interpretação do material da pesquisa referente a esse período contribuíram de forma a reparar a condição de vulnerabilidade moral de um grupo frequentemente excluído do conhecimento sobre os processos de humanização de assistência à saúde, o das mães em alojamento conjunto na internação de seus filhos, contribuindo para reflexões sobre a ética em pesquisa com seres humanos.This article aims to demonstrate the inclusion, in the limits of the methodological model of health qualitative research, of a natural analyzer arising from the dynamics of the relation between researcher and research subject. The inquiry on the maternal mood among mothers of premature babies after hospital discharge, object of doctorate research in Woman's Health (Fiocruz-Institute Fernandes Figueira, had an interface with the emotional reactions lived within the intensive care environment. The analysis and interpretation of the material concerning this period helped repairing the condition of moral vulnerability of group that is often excluded of the awareness about the processes of humanized health care, of mothers in joint lodging during their children's internment, thus contributing for reflections on the ethics in research with human beings.

  19. Impregnação com resina natural na Figueira Branca como forma alternativa de impermeabilização Impregnation with natural resin in the 'Figueira Branca' as alternative form of impermeabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de S. Nogueira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se, neste trabalho, a capacidade de impregnação da Figueira Branca (Ficus monckii com a resina natural da árvore de Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril; trata-se de uma espécie de madeira de baixa densidade, originária do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram determinados os coeficientes de retração da madeira, preparando-se posteriormente, a resina, para impregnação, e depois se fez o ensaio inverso do inchamento da madeira impregnada. Compararam-se os dois coeficientes para a madeira não impregnada com o da madeira impregnada, a partir de testes estatísticos com amostras pareadas. O coeficiente de inchamento da madeira impregnada foi significativamente menor que o de retração da não impregnada, em todas as direções dos corpos de prova. Com isto, foi possível se constatar que a impregnação da Figueira Branca com a resina natural do Jatobá tornou-a mais impermeável aumentando, assim, a possibilidade dessa madeira ser empregada na construção civil ou na indústria moveleira.The capacity of impregnation of the 'Figueira Branca' (Ficus monckii, with the natural resin of 'Jatobá' tree (Hymenaea courbaril was investigated in this work. The Figueira Branca is a low density wood from Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The retraction coefficients of the untreated wood were determined and later the resin was prepared for impregnation and the inverse rehearsal of the swelling of the impregnated wood was made. The two coefficients for the impregnated wood and unimpregnated wood were compared by statistical tests of paired samples. The coefficient of swelling of the impregnated wood was significantly smaller than that of retraction of the unimpregnates wood for all directions. Therefore, it was possible to verify that the impregnation of the Figueira Branca, with the natural resin of Jatobá, made it more impermeable, increasing the possibility of its use in the construction of houses or in the furniture industry.

  20. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure. PMID:27618896

  1. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; The Sinergie-Umg Study Group

    2016-08-27

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  2. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Marascio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014 project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L, telaprevir (V36L, I132V, simeprevir (V36L, and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I. Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N. This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  3. SINERGIA Y EMPATÍA EN LA TOMA DE DECISIONES: UN APORTE AL VALOR DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN A TRAVÉS DE LA GERENCIA ESTRATÉGICA DE COSTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra dos perspectivas que interactúan en un proceso donde la información para la gestión es clave en la generación de valor de una organización. Cada perspectiva está relacionada a un elemento clave: en la que se denomina “perspectiva sinérgica”, el elemento clave es la “información” y en la denominada “perspectiva empática”, la “inteligencia del decisor”. Se enfatiza entonces en dos recursos claves: quién decide y sobre qué se decide. Este trabajo intenta relacionar ambos recursos desde dos cualidades que a entender del autor son claves (sinergia y empatía. ¿Cómo se relacionan? A través de un proceso simbiótico, continuo donde los elementos conceptuales de la Gerencia Estratégica de Costos y los ciclos gerenciales, se articulan generando información útil y brindando una visión holística y sistémica al decisor, apuntando a la prosperidad y por ende a la generación de valor a la organización.

  4. Eficiência agronômica de fosfato natural reativo na cultura da soja Agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock evaluated in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência agronômica relativa de uma fonte de fósforo na cultura de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill.]. O superfosfato triplo foi a fonte-padrão, e o fosfato natural reativo Arad foi a fonte testada, ambos aplicados em diferentes doses, em área total ou no sulco de semeadura. Em outubro de 2004, o experimento foi instalado em Balsas, MA, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, textura argilosa e baixa disponibilidade de fósforo, conduzido com soja cultivar BRS Sambaíba por três safras (2004/2005 a 2006/2007; a terceira safra foi conduzida sob efeito residual das aplicações anteriores. De forma geral, não foram observadas diferenças quanto à localização da fonte-padrão, ao passo que a localização do fosfato natural reativo Arad reduziu significativamente a eficiência. Quando aplicado a lanço, nos dois primeiros cultivos, o fosfato natural reativo Arad resultou em aproximadamente 76% de eficiência agronômica relativa, o que demonstra média viabilidade agronômica. Sob efeito residual, a aplicação localizada do superfosfato triplo resultou em resposta semelhante à verificada com a aplicação anual desta fonte, entretanto, o aumento na eficiência agronômica relativa foi mais acentuado, quando ambas as fontes foram aplicadas a lanço.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relative agronomic effectiveness of the application of broadcasted and banded phosphorus rates, testing a standard source (triple superphosphate and Arad phosphate rock in a soybean crop, in the Balsas, MA, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in October 2004, on a Typic Hapludox, clayey texture and very low available phosphorus, conducted with soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], cultivar BRS Sambaíba], for three consecutive harvests (2004/2005 to 2006/2007. The third harvest was carried out on residual effect of the previous applications. In general, it was not observed any differences related to the

  5. La méthode naturelle à l’école maternelle / O método natural na escola pré-primária

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    Bruno Klein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Appartenant à une forme scolaire qui allait devenir l’école maternelle, une pédagogue travaille, pendant près de quarante années, à l’édification d’une pédagogie adaptée à la scolarité de la petite enfance. Il s’agit de Marie PapeCarpantier (1815.1878 qui, depuis la direction de la première Ecole normale maternelle devenue Cours pratique, participe à la recherche des meilleures pratiques organisées autour de la méthode naturelle. Très influencée par l’empirisme de Locke et le courant sensualiste, cette méthode allait devenir l’élément central d’une pensée éducative oubliée.Pertencendo a um regime escolar que iria tornar-se a escola pré-primária, uma pedagoga trabalha, durantequarenta anos, na elaboração de uma pedagogia adaptada à escolaridade da primeira infância. Trata-se de MariePape-Carpantier (1815.1878 que, a partir da direcção da primeira Escola normal da pré-primária transformadaem Curso prático, participa na investigação das melhores práticas organizadas acerca do método natural. Muitoinfluenciado pelo empirismo de Locke e pela corrente sensualista, este método ia tornar-se o elemento central deum pensamento educativo esquecido.

  6. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles; Hu, Fengyu; Ning, Chuanyi; Lan, Yun; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph D.; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. Methods Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1–6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. Results Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. Conclusions The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed. PMID:27341031

  7. Natural crossing and isolation distance between cotton genotypes in turkey Cruzamento natural e distância de isolamento entre genótipos de algodão na turquia

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    Taner Bozbek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the percentage of out-crossing, isolation distance and pollinator insect species for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. seed production in the Aydin region in Turkey. The glandless and red-leaf traits in G. hirsutum were used as genetic markers. Two experiments were conducted over two years that monitored out-crossing in adjacent rows and adjacent plants and established that the percentage of out-crossing varied. The percentage of out-crossing varied between 0% and 13.3% depending on the genetic marker. In the experiment to determine isolation distance, natural crossing percentage was not observed in 2002, while this percentage was 0.8% in the first rows in 2003. In this study, cotton fields were also visited once a week during flowering periods for seven weeks in order to determine the numbers of pollinator insect species, where the only detected species was the honey bee. The numbers of pollinator insects were 2.14% (2002 and 1.30% (2003 for adjacent rows; 1.71% (2002 and 2.00% (2003 for adjacent plants in glandless parcels. It is recommended that the isolation distance between genotypes should be approximately 1 m.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a percentagem de cruzamentos livres, a distância de isolamento e as espécies de insetos polinizadores na produção de sementes de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. na região de Aydin, na Turquia. Foram utilizadas as características ausência de glândulas e folhas vermelhas como marcadores de G. hirsutum. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos durante dois anos, nos quais os cruzamentos livres em linhas e plantas adjacentes foram monitorados, tendo sido comprovada uma variação na percentagem de cruzamentos livres que variou entre 0 e 13,3% dependendo do marcador genético. No experimento de determinação da distância de isolamento, não se observou cruzamento natural em 2002, mas em 2003 sua percentagem foi de 0,8%, apenas nas primeiras linhas

  8. Estrutura da regeneração natural em Floresta Ombrófila Mista na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor da Silva Narvaes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a regeneração natural, pela análise fitossociológica, em Floresta Ombrófila Mista na Floresta Nacional de São Francisco de Paula (entre 29°23' e 29°27' S e 50°23' e 50°25' W, para fornecer subsídios à recuperação e conservação desses ecossistemas, e descrever as possibilidades de utilização futura da regeneração natural. Foram amostradas 180 subunidades de 100 m² (10 x 10 m nas quais foram medidas a altura total (h dos indivíduos com h  1,30 m, com circunferência mínima de 3,0 cm, até o máximo de 30,0 cm. A densidade total foi de 7.984 indivíduos/ha, pertencentes a 109 espécies, 88 gêneros e 46 famílias botânicas, além de indivíduos mortos, cipós e espécies não identificadas, com índice de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver (H' de 2,22. As espécies mais importantes foram Casearia decandra, Stillingia oppositifolia e Sebastiania brasiliensis. A Araucaria angustifolia apesar de ser a espécie fisionomicamente mais destacada e de maior interesse econômico da Floresta Ombrófila Mista apresentou valores baixos em todos os parâmetros avaliados, necessitando a implementação de tratamentos silviculturais e plantios de enriquecimento que beneficiem a sua regeneração.

  9. Microscopic magnetic nature of water absorbed Na{sub 0.35}CoO{sub 2} investigated by NMR, NQR and {mu}{sup +}SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Hiroto, E-mail: shioshio@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.j [Division of Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Mansson, Martin [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ikedo, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Jun [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute (Japan); Michioka, Chishiro; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi [Division of Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Brewer, Jess H. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ansaldo, Eduardo J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Stubbs, Scott L. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Chow, Kim H. [Dept. of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Lord, James S. [ISIS Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    In order to clarify the variation of the microscopic magnetic nature with the carrier density in Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2}.yH{sub 2}O, we have measured positive muon-spin rotation/relaxation ({mu}{sup +}SR) spectra for H{sub 2}O as well as D{sub 2}O absorbed samples. Based on the zero field (ZF-) {mu}{sup +}SR measurements, there was no clear difference between the two superconducting phases (SC-I and SC-II). Furthermore, the ZF-spectrum for the H{sub 2}O absorbed sample exhibits a clear oscillation in the whole T range measured (1.4-100 K), suggesting the formation of '[H{sub 3}O]{sup +}-like' H{sub 2{mu}}{sup +}O ions in the sample. Further, the absence of an oscillation in the D{sub 2}O absorbed sample also evidences the presence of H{sub 2{mu}}{sup +}O. We also measured {sup 59}Co nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra of magnetic sample. The temperature dependence of spectra shows that there is no evidence of charge ordering and CDW ordering around magnetic transition temperature.

  10. Intoxicação natural por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae em búfalos na Ilha de Marajó, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos e os sinais clínicos dos primeiros casos de intoxicação natural por Ipomoea asarifolia em búfalos. A doença foi diagnosticada em quatro bubalinos de três diferentes propriedades, no município de Cachoeira do Arari, Ilha de Marajó, PA, e ocorreu nos meses de novembro e dezembro, o período mais seco do ano nesta região e de escassez de alimento. Os sinais clínicos observados foram relacionados ao sistema nervoso central, como andar trôpego, hipermetria, acentuados tremores musculares, queda ao solo em posições incomuns, nistagmo e marcada excitação, sinais que se agravavam após movimentação. Baseado nos aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e na ausência de leões histopatológicas, concluiu se tratar de intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia.

  11. Compressed natural gas as a vehicle to promote development of consumer market in Campina Grande - PB (Brazil); O gas natural comprimido como fomentador do desenvolvimento do mercado consumidor de gas natural na regiao de Campina Grande - PB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Marcelo dos Santos; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Investments required for natural gas distribution networks are high. The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) is seen as a way to prepare and develop consuming markets to receive those networks. This paper outlines the socio-economic context and the reasons that motivated the creation of a CNG project in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraiba. Technical aspects of project implementation are described, including difficulties encountered and courses of action undertaken as a result. Other aspects considered include the social and economic impact and local consumer's expectations with the arrival of new fuel. The study also considers factors relevant to the project such as the distance from the pressure measurement and regulation station, transported volumes, technology used, infrastructure and road conditions. (author)

  12. Nature-Inspired Na2Ti3O7 Nanosheets-Formed Three-Dimensional Microflowers Architecture as a High-Performance Anode Material for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shoaib; Huang, Yongxin; Liu, Jia; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ziheng; Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Jiatao; Wu, Feng

    2017-04-05

    Low cycling stability and poor rate performance are two of the distinctive drawbacks of most electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, inspired by natural flower structures, we take advantage of the three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flower-like stable microstructures formed by two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets to solve these problems. By precise control of the hydrothermal synthesis conditions, a novel three-dimensional (3D) flower-like architecture consisting of 2D Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets (Na-TNSs) has been successfully synthesized. The arbitrarily arranged but closely interlinked thin nanosheets in carnation-shaped 3D Na2Ti3O7 microflowers (Na-TMFs) originate a good network of electrically conductive paths in an electrode. Thus, Na-TMFs can get electrons from all directions and be fully utilized for sodium-ion insertion and extraction reactions, which can improve sodium storage properties with enhanced rate capability and super cycling performance. Furthermore, the large specific surface area provides a high capacity, which can be ascribed to the pseudo-capacitance effect. The wettability of the electrolyte was also improved by the porous and crumpled structure. The remarkably improved cycling performance and rate capability of Na-TMFs make a captivating case for its development as an advanced anode material for SIBs.

  13. La sinergia farmacológica aplicada a la analgesia: revisión de la combinación de ibuprofeno con codeína Pharmacological synergy applied to analgesia: review of the combination of ibuprofen with codeine

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. González-Escalada

    2010-01-01

    La analgesia multimodal que participa actualmente en todos los protocolos de analgesia postoperatoria también se utiliza por los especialistas en dolor crónico que manejan la combinación de fármacos como una rutina para optimizar la eficacia de la analgesia; la combinación de fármacos es una práctica bien conocida y muy extendida, gracias a su demostrada rentabilidad terapéutica, y habitualmente se utiliza tanto en anestesia como en analgesia. El concepto del balance adecuado entre efectivida...

  14. Natural lectin activity in the haemolymph of Panstrogylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduvidae Atividade lectínica na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Gomes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The haemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus showed a natural lectin activity for a wide range of vertebrate erythocytes. Agglutination was observed against all vertebrate erythrocytes tested (human ABO, duck, rabbit, mouse, sheep, chicken and cow. Cow erythrocytes showed the lowest titre. Concerning human erythrocytes, the lectin activity was similar in the types A+,B+ and AB+ while the highest activity was observed in the type O+. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations was carried out with human erythrocytes type O+. Agglutination was inhibited by several carbohydrates (rhamnose. D-galatose, raffinose, D-lactose and D-fucose. Rhamnose wasreported as the strongest inhibitor (0.78mM. The results suggest the presence of more than one lection in the haemolymph of P. megistus.A hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus mostrou uma atividade lectínica natural para eritrócitos de vários vertebrados e não mostrou especificidade para os diversos tipos de eritrócitos testados (humano ABO, pato, coelho,c amundongo,carneiro, galinha e boi. Com relação aos eritrócitos humanos a atividade lectínica foi similar nos tipos A+, B+ e AB+ enquanto a atividade mais alta foi observada no tipo O+. O título de aglutinação entre eritrócitos animais não mostrou diferença apreciável, excluindo eritrócitos de boi, que apresentaram o título mmais baixo. A determinação da concentração mínima de inibição foi realizada com eritrócitos humanos O+. A aglutinação foi inibida por vários carboidratos (ramnose, D-dalactose, rafinose, D-lactose e D-fucose. A ramnose foi o inibidor mais potente (0,78 mM. Os resultados sugerem a presença de mais de uma lectina na hemolinfa de P. megistus.

  15. Heparinoides naturais isolados de rodofíceas (Halymenia sp. arribadas na costa cearense =Natural heparinoids isolated from Halymenia sp. (Rhodophyceaes delivery on the Ceará coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A crescente carência de heparina (HEP motiva a busca por fontes alternativas de novos anticoagulantes naturais. Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS isolados de uma rodofícea do gênero Halymenia, nativa do litoral cearense, Brasil. Os PS totais foram obtidos por digestões consecutivas com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidas por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose. As frações obtidas foram concentradas por liofilização e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. Os ensaios anticoagulantes foram realizados pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma de coelho e uma curva padrão de HEP (100 UI mg-1. As extrações (53,96% mostraram diferenças marcantes durante o fracionamento e no grau de resolução dos PS. A espécie apresentou PS com atividade anticoagulante superior a HEP. O TTPA das frações modificou-se acentuadamente entre as extrações, expressando-se de maneira dose-dependente e sofrendo um acréscimo de 110,40 (1a extração para 143,10 UI mg-1 (3a extração. Os resultados sugerem que a atividadeanticoagulante dos PS isolados de Halymenia sp. foi promovida pela inibição da via intrínseca e/ou comum da cascata de coagulação. As modificações no TTPA possivelmente serão elucidadas pelos mecanismos de ação envolvidos na coagulação e caracterização estrutural desses compostos. Portanto, a rodofícea Halymenia sp. é uma boa fonte de heparinoides e sugerem-se estudos relacionados ao cultivo da espécie, em proteção aos bancos de algas.The increasing demand for heparin (HEP has led to a search for alternative sources of natural anticoagulants. This study aimed to evaluate the anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides (SP isolated from a Halymenia rhodophyceae genus native to the coast of Ceará, Brazil. Total SP were obtained by consecutive

  16. Natural latex graft in lamellar and penetrating sclerectomies in rabbits Enxerto de látex natural na cicatrização de esclerectomias lamelar e penetrante em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivia Carmem Talieri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the effects of natural latex with 0.1% of polylysine on lamellar and penetrating scleroctomies in rabbits. Two groups of twelve rabbits each (lamellar GI and penetrating GII were studied. Scleral square incisions near the limbus were performed on the left eye of each animal. The latex biomembrane was fixed to the recipient sclera and it covered with a conjunctival flap. The clinical evaluations were followed for 60 days. Aplannation tonometry, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy were performed during evaluation. Bright field microscopy and polarization microscopy were employed. Blepharospasm, graft infection, mucoid ocular discharge and chemosis were not observed in either treatment group. The conjunctival hyperemia varied from moderate to hardly noticeable. The postoperative IOP was not statiscally significant, comparing to the preoperative IOP, for GI and GII. The histopathology by polarization microscopy showed that the neoformed tissue was primarily dependent on adjacent vascularized tissues and was constituted by collagen type III. Both groups presented optimum graft adhesion to the receiving sclera. The natural latex biomembrane with 0.1% polylysine constitutes a new alternative for scleral reconstruction. Furthermore, this is a durable material, easy to obtain and manipulate.Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos do látex natural com polilisina a 0,1% na cicatrização de esclerectomias lamelar e penetrante em coelhos. Foram estudados dois grupos de 12 coelhos (GI - lamelar e GII - penetrante. As esclerectomias foram realizadas no olho esquerdo de cada animal. A biomembrana de látex foi fixada à esclera receptora e foi recoberta com conjuntiva bulbar. As avaliações clínicas foram realizadas durante 60 dias. Para tal, empregaram-se a tonometria de aplanação, a oftalmoscopia indireta binocular e a biomicroscopia em lâmpada de fenda. Realizou-se an

  17. A relação entre arte e ciência na bioarte: estudo do caso da obra Nature? (1999-2000 de Marta de Menezes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barros Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo do século XX assistiu-se a uma expansão sem precedentes dos materiais, meios e técnicas utilizados pelos artistas. A arte libertou-se para explorar novos campos do saber que se tornaram, não apenas fontes de inspiração, mas também métodos de trabalho. Disso são exemplos as obras incluídas na chamada “bioarte”, que utilizam o conhecimento e as técnicas do âmbito da biologia e da biotecnologia como materiais artísticos. Neste artigo analisaremos o caso de Nature? (1999-2000 da artista Marta de Menezes (n. 1975, atualmente pertencente à coleção do Museo Extremeño e Iberoamericano de Arte Contemporáneo (MEIAC, procurando realçar as dificuldades que coloca a sua musealização e conservação. Para além do levantamento e estudo do material publicado acerca deste assunto, esta investigação incluiu a realização de entrevistas a Marta de Menezes e aos responsáveis pela conservação da coleção do MEIAC. Foi também consultada a documentação acerca da obra existente neste museu. Esta instalação – que teve origem no trabalho desenvolvido pela artista durante a sua primeira residência num laboratório científico – inclui borboletas vivas, cujas asas são modificadas para fins artísticos. A inclusão de seres vivos implica um aumento significativo do conhecimento que é necessário preservar e transmitir para assegurar a sobrevivência da obra, obrigando a um repensar das estratégias museológicas utilizadas e abrindo novas possibilidades de colaboração entre artistas, cientistas e museus.

  18. NaBH{sub 4} reduction of alkenones to the corresponding alkenols: a useful tool for their characterisation in natural samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rontani, J.F.; Marchand, D. [Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille (France). Lab. d' Oceanographie et de Biogeochimie; Volkman, J.K. [CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    During a search for phytoplanktonic lipid photoproducts in sediment extracts that had been reduced with NaBH{sub 4}, we observed that the alkenones present had been reduced quantitatively to the corresponding unsaturated alcohols (alkenols). The silylated alkenols display better chromatographic characteristics than the corresponding alkenones and very useful EI mass spectra, which show strong fragment ions at m/z 117 or m/z 131 due to cleavage {alpha} to the functional group, allowing methyl and ethyl alkenols (and hence the parent alkenones) to be readily differentiated. Calculations of U{sup K{sub 37}} values using the alkenols formed by reduction agreed within experimental error ({+-}0.01 units) with values calculated from the original alkenones, suggesting that this might be a useful method for samples containing low contents of alkenones or where co-elution is a problem. Although small amounts of alkenols have been found in some sediments their presence does not appear to affect U{sup K{sub 37}} calculations. We have found large amounts of alkenols (up to 20% of the amount of the corresponding alkenone) in extracts of some sediments from Camargue (France), which we suggest are probably formed by a non-selective bacterial reduction of alkenones under anoxic conditions. The possibility of a natural contribution of alkenols from haptophytes was tested and we were able for the first time to detect traces (less than 1% of the amount of the corresponding alkenone) of alkenols in non-reduced extracts of Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana. We presume that their biosynthesis is closely related to that of the alkenones. Studies of other haptophytes (particularly those from benthic or coastal environments) are needed to ascertain whether other species might contain higher contents of alkenols. The reduction-silylation technique has also proven to be very useful for the characterisation of previously unreported alkenones in microalgae, sediments and seawater. A

  19. DiGIR1 and NaGIR1: naturally occurring group I-like ribozymes with unique core organization and evolved biological role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar; Einvik, Christer; Nielsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    introns (twin-ribozyme introns) in distantly related organisms. The Didymium GIR1 (DiGIR1) and Naegleria GIR1 (NaGIR1) share fundamental features in structural organization and reactivity, and display significant differences when compared to the related group I splicing ribozymes. GIR1 lacks...

  20. MAPEAMENTO PRELIMINAR DA SUSCETIBILIDADE NATURAL A MOVIMENTOS DE MASSA DA SERRA DO MAR PARANAENSE APOIADO NA ANÁLISE DIGITAL DO RELEVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Taborda da Silveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Apoiando-se na compreensão de que o relevo é um importante condicionante dos processos de movimentos de massa nas vertentes e que a morfologia pode ser representada por atributos topográficos extraído de MDT, empregou-se a hipsometria, declividade e plano de curvatura, integrados por meio de álgebra de mapas, como variáveis representativas na elaboração do mapa de suscetibilidade da Porção Norte da Serra da Prata (PNSP, na Serra do Mar Paranaense, área que concentrou um conjunto de processos no evento ocorrido em 11/03/2011. Os resultados obtidos foram classes de muito alta, alta e moderada suscetibilidade, contemplando: a processos de deslizamentos, b corridas de detritos, c deslizamentos e corridas de detritos em ação conjunta e d inundações associadas a corridas de lama. O mapa foi comparado com um inventário de cicatrizes que resultou em 89% de coincidência. Outra etapa de verificação apoiou-se em um conjunto de 86 pontos de controle de campo, desses 88% mostraram-se coincidentes com as unidades de suscetibilidade. Amparando-se na eficiência dos resultados obtidos para a PNSP os mesmos critérios foram empregados na elaboração do mapeamento preliminar da suscetibilidade a processos de movimentos de massa da Bacia Litorânea Paranaense, cujo produto deverá ser submetido à validação e controle de campo.

  1. Razão (prática e natureza na Crítica da faculdade do juízo (Practical reason and nature in Critique of Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner F. Klemme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Crítica da Razão Pura e em outros lugares, Kant apresenta uma aguda distinção entre natureza e razão prática. De acordo com Kant, não é possível deduzir ou derivar todos os sentidos dos imperativos morais dos conhecimentos empíricos sobre o mundo. Alguns intérpretes (como John MacDowell argumentam que a concepção de razão prática em Kant pode ser ilusória se baseada em uma visão da natureza indefinida, decorrente de um ponto de vista newtoniano. Nesse texto discutirei a relação entre razão prática e natureza na Crítica da faculdade de julgar de Kant. Argumentarei que na segunda parte da obra, Kant introduz um conceito de natureza muito mais rico que as críticas lhe têm atribuído.In this Critique of Pure Reason and elsewhere Kant argues for a sharp distinction between nature and pratical reason. According to Kant, it is not possible to deduce or derive in any way moral imperatives from our empirical knowledge about the world. Some of his readers (like John McDowell have argued that Kant's conception of pratical reason is misleading just because of his claim that nature itself is meaningless because of his mere Newtonian outlook. In my paper I will discuss the relation between practical reason and nature in Kant's Critique of Judgement. I will argue that in the second part of this work, Kant introduces a concept of nature that is much richer than critiques are willing to concede to him.

  2. Sinergias entre Luxemburgo, ACNUR y Skype

    OpenAIRE

    Bertout, Antoine; Bourcy, Marc de; Faisal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Una reciente asociación estratégica entre ACNUR, el Gobierno de Luxemburgo y el proveedor de software para comunicaciones Skype permite al personal de ACNUR en zonas de condiciones de vida difíciles mantenerse en contacto con sus familiares y amigos. Los socios evalúan de qué forma podría adaptarse la tecnología para otras organizaciones humanitarias.

  3. Mudanças das rotinas familiares na transição inesperada por desastre natural Cambios sobre las rutinas familiares en la transición inesperada por desastre natural Family routines changes in the unexpected transition due to natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Desastres naturais são eventos disruptivos às rotinas e rituais familiares e promovem mudanças significativas na vida e na saúde. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir as rotinas diárias ao longo das trajetórias na transição familiar pela ocorrência de um desastre natural ocorrido em uma área rural. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo de múltiplos casos, realizado com seis famílias com crianças. Os dados foram coletados em 2010, com técnicas de observação participante, entrevista narrativa, genograma, ecomapa e o calendário de rotinas familiares. Foi feita a análise das narrativas, e os resultados revelaram a mudança nas rotinas e rituais nas trajetórias entre o pré, o pós-desastre e atualidade. A transição abrupta gerou reações estressantes, afetando a saúde dos membros. São necessários mais estudos sobre a saúde no pós-desastre que contribuam ao conhecimento, ao ensino e à prática do cuidado de enfermagem, especialmente na estratégia de saúde da família.Los desastres naturales son eventos disruptivos a las rutinas y rituales familiares y promueven cambios significativos en la vida y en la salud. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir las rutinas diarias a lo largo de las trayectorias en la transición familiar debido a un desastre natural ocurrido en un área rural. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de múltiples casos, realizado con seis familias con niños. Los datos fueron obtenidos en 2010, con técnicas de observación participante, entrevista narrativa, genograma, ecomapa y el calendario de rutinas familiares. Se realizó un análisis de las narrativas y los resultados revelaron cambios en las rutinas y rituales, en las trayectorias entre el pre y el post desastre y la actualidad. La transición abrupta generó reacciones estresantes, afectando la salud de los miembros. Se hace necesario más estudios sobre la salud en el post desastre, que contribuyan al conocimiento, enseñanza y práctica del

  4. The effects of sulfur intercalation on the optical properties of artificial 'hackmanite', Na8[Al6Si6O24]Cl1.8S0.1; 'sulfosodalite', Na8[Al6Si6O24]S; and natural tugtupite, Na8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin; Hutzen Andersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    of sulfur into their structures was until now unknown. Artificial ‘hackmanite’, Na8[Al6Si6O24]Cl1.8S0.1 and ‘sulfosodalite’, Na8[Al6Si6O24]S were heated with sulfur in evacuated quartz-glass ampoules over the temperature range 450-1050 °C. This work has shown that sulfur intercalation into Na8[Al6Si6O24]Cl1...

  5. Self-organizing maps applied to two-phase flow on natural circulation loop study; Aplicacao de mapas auto-organizaveis na classificacao de padroes de escoamento bifasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Leonardo Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is found in many closed circuits using natural circulation for cooling purposes. Natural circulation phenomenon is important on recent nuclear power plant projects for decay heat removal. The Natural Circulation Facility (Circuito de Circulacao Natural CCN) installed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, is an experimental circuit designed to provide thermal hydraulic data related to single and two-phase flow under natural circulation conditions. This periodic flow oscillation behavior can be observed thoroughly in this facility due its glass-made tubes transparency. The heat transfer estimation has been improved based on models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. This work presents experiments realized at CCN to visualize natural circulation cycles in order to classify two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Images are compared and clustered using Kohonen Self-organizing Maps (SOM's) applied on different digital image features. The Full Frame Discret Cosine Transform (FFDCT) coefficients were used as input for the classification task, enabling good results. FFDCT prototypes obtained can be associated to each flow pattern, enabling a better comprehension of each observed instability. A systematic test methodology was used to verify classifier robustness.

  6. Efeito do silicato de cálcio e da autoclavagem na supressividade e na conducividade de dois solos à Rhizoctonia solani Influence of calcium silicate and sterilization on the natural suppressiveness and on the conduciveness of two soils to Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da aplicação de silicato de cálcio e da esterilização na supressividade natural de um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro (LEa álico textura muito argilosa e na conducividade natural de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (TRe ao fungo Rhizoctonia solani, em condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 2. Os fatores foram: duas classes de solo (LEa e TRe - 0-20 cm; três tratamentos (esterilização ou não por autoclavagem, aplicação de silicato e testemunha e infestação ou não com R. solani, com três repetições e 16 plântulas de feijoeiro por parcela. A aplicação de silicato foi feita incorporando 0,63 g do produto em 1 kg de cada material de solo, seguido de incubação por 30 dias. Para promover a infestação artificial, foram colocados 800 mg de inóculo em 1 kg de cada material de solo. O silicato de cálcio aumentou os teores de Ca trocável e a soma de bases nos dois solos. Um decréscimo na saturação por Al de 70 para 19% e um aumento na saturação por bases de 9 para 21% alteraram significativamente a supressividade natural do LEa à R. solani. Com relação à TRe, a aplicação de silicato não teve nenhum efeito na sua conducividade, dado ao seu natural caráter eutrófico, o qual já é favorável ao desenvolvimento deste fungo. A esterilização não influiu no desenvolvimento de R. solani, o que sugere que os fatores abióticos foram os responsáveis pela supressividade ou conducividade desses solos.The effect of calcium silicate slag and soil sterilization on the natural suppressiveness of a Typic Acrustox (clay Dark Red Latosol -- LEa and the natural conduciveness of an Oxic Haplustoll (TRe to Rhizoctonia solani were studied under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a three-replicate completely randomized one, with 2 x 3 x 2 factorial combination of the following treatments: two soil kinds (LEa and

  7. AS INFLUÊNCIAS DA FILOSOFIA NATURAL E DA NATURPHILOSOPHIE NA CONSTITUIÇÃO DO DARWINISMO: ELEMENTOS PARA UMA FILOSOFIA DA GEOGRAFIA FÍSICA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vitte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho argumenta que a teoria da evolução de Charles Darwin sofreu forte influência da naturphilosophie de Schelling e Hegel, representando um avanço positivo nas concepções de teleologia da natureza. Fortemente influenciado pelas obras de Alexander von Humboldt, de Werner e pelas pesquisas no campo da paleontologia, a Teoria da Evolução, concebeu a transformação dos organismos e a sua especiação a partir determinantes geográficos e temporais. Ideologicamente influenciado por Lyell, que acreditava na hipótese da vera causa, Darwin relegou a matriz espacial e concentrou suas argumentações nas mudanças temporais, basicamente climáticas, como determinante da evolução. Os impactos da teoria da evolução atingem tanto o campo da geografia física, quanto da geografia humana, influenciando fortemente na postura metodológica das pesquisas geográficas, mas chamando a atenção para a complexidade das relações entre o espaço e tempo que estão em constante mudança.

  8. Crianças em trilhas na natureza: jogos de percurso e reencantamento Children in nature's trail: itinerary games and re-enchantment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Vasconcellos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a atividade de caminhada por trilhas na floresta. Busca desvelar a estrutura dinâmica da atividade, seu universo simbólico e seu núcleo temático à luz dos estudos sobre o ato de brincar, os milenares jogos de percurso e as representações do meio ambiente. Inspirado no modelo da pesquisa etnográfica, teve na observação e registro suas principais ferramentas. As respostas emocionais aos diferentes apelos da paisagem, tais como as cavernas, a fenda, o mirante, a cachoeira que trouxeram a tona toda uma profusão de imagens que remetiam ao universo simbólico dos tradicionais jogos de percurso.The present study analyses children's tracking activity at Forest. It aims at showing the dynamic structure of the activity, its symbolic universe as well as its thematic nucleus according to the act of playing studies, the millenarian itinerary games and the environment representations. Inspired on the ethnographic research model, the main tools were observation and recording. The emotional answers to different landscapes appeals such as caves, cracks, sightseeing sand waterfalls brought up lots of images that would remind the symbolic universe of the traditional itinerary games.

  9. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL ARBÓREA DE UMA FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA NA RESERVA EXTRATIVISTA CHOCOARÉ-MATO GROSSO, PARÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Jesus Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural arbórea de uma floresta de várzea na Reserva Extrativista Chocoaré-Mato Grosso, Santarém Novo, Pará. O estudo foi realizado no período de janeiro a junho de 207 com a marcação de 10 parcelas temporárias de 10 x 100 m (1 ha e calculada a riqueza, a frequência relativa e a densidade relativa das espécies distribuídas em cinco classes de tamanho (CT baseada na altura e CAP. Foram registrados 33.738 indivíduos distribuídos em 20 famílias, 48 gêneros e 53 espécies. As famílias com as maiores densidades foram Clusiaceae, Fabaceae e Arecaceae. As espécies com maiores frequência e densidade relativas foram Symphonia globulifera L. f. (26,06%, Rheedia macrophylla (Mart. Planch. & Triana (11,83%, Inga alba (Sw. Willd. (6,34%, Inga edulis Mart. (6,11% e 91,6% indivíduos da regeneração ocorreram na classe de tamanho 1. A riqueza floristica foi inferior quando comparada com outras florestas de várzeas, contudo, os mecanismos de adaptação são estratégias para a dominância e representação quantitativa de algumas espécies na área como Symphonia globulifera. Palavras-chave: riqueza, classes de tamanho, unidade de conservação. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p139-145

  10. The natural gas for electric energy production and other industrial inputs by using cogeneration; O gas natural na producao de energia eletrica e outros insumos industriais atraves da cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of using natural gas in the cogeneration plants for electric power generation, and others inputs used in the different industrial sectors. Afterwards the end of the state monopoly on electrical energy generation, the cogeneration systems have been stimulated. The construction of the Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline gives the real possibility of utilization of natural gas as an effective energy alternative what can help to minimize the industrial energy blackout, mainly in the pipeline neighbourhood. This work also presents both the economic and technical advantages of using natural gas at existing industrial plants in the region of Jundiai city at the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  11. Especiarias como antioxidantes naturais: aplicações em alimentos e implicação na saúde Spices as natural antioxidants: their application in food and implication for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V Del Ré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescente interesse na substituição de antioxidantes sintéticos por naturais em alimentos tem fomentado a pesquisa sobre fontes vegetais, caracterização de matérias-primas e identificação de novos compostos antioxidantes. As reações de oxidação não são uma preocupação exclusiva das indústrias alimentícias, seu estudo é também amplamente necessário para evitar implicações indesejáveis na saúde humana. O objetivo desta revisão, depois de apresentar aspectos gerais sobre a oxidação, é concentrar-se nos benefícios da utilização das especiarias como antioxidantes naturais, em especial as da família Labiatae, amplamente utilizadas na culinária brasileira.The growing interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants by natural antioxidants in food has stimulated research on vegetable sources, raw material characterization and identification of new antioxidant compounds. Oxidation reactions are not an exclusive preoccupation of the food industry; studies regarding this issue are widely necessary in order to prevent undesired implications for human health. The aim of this review, after presenting overall aspects about oxidation, is to concentrate on the benefits of using spices as natural antioxidants, especially those from the Labiatae family, which are widely used in the Brazilian cuisine.

  12. Naturalização da dominação e poder legítimo na teoria política clássica The naturalization of domination and legitimate power in classical political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Varikas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A reflexão aqui desenvolvida aborda uma das maiores antinomias políticas do pensamento político moderno: aquela que consiste em fazer da comunidade política um artifício humano, fundamentando-a, ao mesmo tempo, em bases pré-políticas, anteriores à ação humana. Ao reinventar o político como espaço de liberdade, os modernos reinventaram o natural como limite dessa liberdade humana que a religião já não estava em condições de conter. Nesse contexto, a caça às bruxas decorre tanto de um obscurantismo religioso ou supersticioso quanto de uma iniciativa racional fundada na eficácia. As implicações políticas do politeísmo cognitivo, que explode na pluralidade das percepções científicas da natureza humana e da natureza das coisas, estabelecem um estreito laço entre a constituição da autoridade da "ciência" moderna, como modelo de conhecimento da natureza, e a constituição da autoridade religiosa e temporal. A naturalização da hierarquia dos sexos no mundo moderno é, ao mesmo tempo, o arquétipo e o sintoma desse processo histórico que desloca a legitimação da dominação do âmbito religioso para o da natureza.The reflection developed here deals with one of the greatest political paradoxes of modern political thought: the turning of a political community into a human artifact while basing it on premisses which are pre-political and therefore precede human action. As it reinvented the political as a free space, modernity reinvented the natural as a limit to this human freedom which religion could no longer contain. In such a context, the witch-hunt is a result both of a religious or superstitious obscurantism and of a rational enterprise based on efficacy. The political implications of cognitive polytheism, which explode in the plurality of scientific perceptions on human nature and on the nature of things, establish a close connection between the authority of modern "science" as a model for the knowledge of nature

  13. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  14. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  15. The NA48 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    The NA48 experiment is designed to study the Charge-Parity (CP) violation. CP violation is observed in certain very rare decays. Its study is important in understanding Nature's preference of matter over antimatter, which resulted in asymmetry soon after the Big Bang, creating a matter-dominated Universe.

  16. Historia natural de Phyllomedusa distincta, na Mata Atlantica do Municipio de Sete Barras, Estado de São Paulo (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Mendes Castanho

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: o objetivo deste estudo foi obter o maior número de informações possível sobre os hábitos de P. distincta, no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho (24°12'S; 47°SS'W; 60 m acima do nível do mar), Sete Barras, SP, sudeste do Brasil. Realizei as observações numa lagoa com cerca de 20 m x 7 m. Ao redor da lagoa, há um gramado com algumas árvores e pequenos arbustos na beira da água. Há pouca vegetação aquática, concentrada nas margens. A vegetação circundante é de Mata Atlântica típica. O...

  17. Relação entre a lagarta-do-cartucho e seus agentes de controle biológico natural na produção de milho Relationship between fall armyworm and their natural biological control agents in the maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Corrêa Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar as perdas na cultura do milho BRS 3123 decorrentes do ataque da lagarta-do-cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda, na ausência e presença de seus inimigos naturais. Aos 15 dias depois da emergência da planta, foi realizada uma infestação artificial da praga (uma postura por metro quadrado. As lagartas alimentaram-se da planta, sem a interferência de seus inimigos naturais, pela utilização de uma gaiola de proteção (inicial, de dois dias depois da infestação, até uma proteção máxima de 16 dias. O dano da praga, determinado por uma escala de notas de 0 (plantas sem dano a 5 (plantas mortas, foi em média de 4,01, 1,39, 1,09 e 0,93 para o período de proteção da praga de 16, 6, 4 e 2 dias, respectivamente. Na ausência de agentes de controle biológico, o ataque da praga ocasionou perdas na produção de matéria seca de 47,27% e perdas no rendimento de grãos de 54,49%. Os resultados evidenciaram a importância dos inimigos naturais na supressão de lagartas de S. frugiperda na cultura de milho.This work had the objective of quantifying the losses in the maize hybrid BRS 3123 due to the attack of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, in the absence or presence of its natural enemies. Fifteen days after the plant emergency, an artificial infestation (one egg mass per square meter was accomplished. The larvae fed on the plant, without the interference of its natural enemies, by using an appropriated protection cage (initial protection for two days after infestation, until a maximum protection period of 16 days. The damage caused by the pest, determined through a visual scale from 0 (plants without damage to 5 (dead plants, was on average, 4.01, 1.39, 1.09 and 0.93 for the pest protection period of 16, 6, 4 and 2 days, respectively. In the absence of the biological control agents, the attack of the pest caused losses of 47.27% in the dry matter production and losses of 54.49% in grain yield. The

  18. Virus inactivation by salt (NaCl) and phosphate supplemented salt in a 3D collagen matrix model for natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa-Jelsma, H.; Wijnker, J.J.; Zijlstra-Willems, E.M.; Dekker, A.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Maas, R.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to possible presence and spread of contagious animal viruses via natural sausage casings the international trade in these food products is subject to veterinary and public health requirements. In order to manage these restrictions we determined the effect of casing preservation on four highly co

  19. Differential effects of natural flavonoids on growth and iodide content in a human NA+/I_symporter-transfecred follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.; Heide, van der D.; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natural flavonoids (plant pigments) have been shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in vitro and the growth of thyroid cancer cell lines. We have studied the role of flavonoids on the iodide transport and the growth of the human follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC133) which was s

  20. Use of biogas generated from swine manure as preliminary agent in the feasibility construction of natural gas networks; Utilizacao do biogas gerado a partir de dejetos suinos como agente preliminar na viabilizacao da construcao de redes de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Antonio Rogerio; Ferraz, Andre; Rocha, Ivan; Azevedo, Jorge; Oshiro, Hugo K.; Konishi, Ricardo; Piazza, Walter; Lehmkuhl, Willian [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Santa Catarina state has over 800 km of natural gas distributed along the coast line, however, has an area of 95.700 km{sup 2}. Due to mountainous relief, constructing pipeline that will supply natural gas to remote areas will prove difficult. Supplying gas to remote areas through biogas from pig manure is a feasible alternative to building a gas pipeline to these regions. Using data from the IBGE and by aid of computer programs it was found that Santa Catarina has a potential to generate biogas from 900.000 m{sup 3}/day which are located predominantly in the western region of state. Thus, through the provision of biogas in this region a market that uses natural gas as an energy source can stimulate. As result the pay-back time and the feasibility risk of a network gas project can be reduced. It was found that only in the west there is an energy potential to be shifted to natural gas equivalent of 389.583 m{sup 3}/day and as expected output is estimated to reach 16.728 m{sup 3}/day. This helps anticipate the building of a natural gas network that links the coast with outskirts of the state, while the environmental impact of swine as methane emissions and waste are reduced. (author)

  1. Influence of natural or organophilic bentonite for flammable of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate); Influencia da bentonita natural ou organofilica na inflamabilidade do poli(etileno-co-acetato de vinila)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyder, Eduardo T.; Kloss, Juliana R.; Morita, Reinaldo Y., E-mail: yomorita1@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba,PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica e Biologia; Caetano, Elenice H.; Andrade, Andre Vitor C. de [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The manufacture polymeric applied in electrical sector in general use additives which act as flame retardants, for example, some borates, phosphates, and halogenated hydroxides. An alternative material for this purpose frequently reported in the literature because the flame resistance or flame retardancy is organoclay. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the flammability of mixtures of EVA/natural bentonite and EVA/organoclay containing modifier as a species free of quaternary ammonium ions. The natural bentonite and organoclay were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and materials were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the flammability test. Regarding the combustion rate values, there was a reduction of flame propagation in EVA/natural bentonite (3.0%), showing that in this case the clay without modifier acted as a physical barrier and promoted retardant action of flame. (author)

  2. Quality policy in the petroleum and natural gas in Brazil: new focusing and approaches; Politica da qualidade na industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: novos enfoques e abordagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Valcir dos Reis; Chagas, Nilo Koscheck das [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: valcir@ppe.ufrj.br; nilorruama@uol.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper approaches the post-service concept, and discusses the manifestation form on the present productive and organizational processes. The work proposes to consider the concept use in the formulation and implementation of public policies oriented to the improvement of goods and services quality, particularly the strategic and infra-structural activities as in the case of the petroleum and natural gas.

  3. Market evaluation and investment planning in natural gas industry in Brazil: development of the net distribution pipeline; Avaliacao de mercado e planejamento de investimentos na industria de gas natural no Brasil: perspectivas de crescimento da malha de gasodutos de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Pedro L.; Pamplona, Edson O. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes to develop a real options model to decision-making investments in flexible technologies. As a result, finding a closed-form solution, derived from the partial differential equation of the value of flexibility provided by alternative fuels. However, you can present and analysis the results of a practical application using the method to solve real options problems known as binomial model. Initially presents a brief explanation on the method of discounted cash flow, its failures and changes to the real options analysis. In the sequence chart an overview of the natural gas industry on Brazil, emphasizing the need for consistent investments evaluations in the sector. The next section shows the proposed development of mathematical model for assessing the flexibility to choose, obtained by the exchange of fuel for transport of gas pipeline distribution of natural gas. The model takes as the case scenario where the flexible pipeline can carry both natural gas and hydrogen, and the evaluation of the option of exchanging input gives more value to the investment opportunity, and consider the optimum conditions where the option to be exercised. Keywords: Decision Making, Real Options; Natural Gas, Flexible Technology. (author)

  4. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  5. Critic to the science and technology activities in the CTPETRO, Brazil, natural gas sector (National Plan of Science end Technology of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector); Critica as atividades de C and T na area de gas natural do CTPETRO (Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor de Petroleo e Gas Natural)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Wenerck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Grupo de Energia]. E-mails: edsantos@iee.usp.br; Poulallion, Paul; Correa Neto, Vicente [SINDE - Sinergia e Desenvolvimento S/C Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper performs an evaluation of the science and technology activities for the natural gas area at the CTPETRO - National Plan of Science and Technology for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector. The paper discuss the insufficiency of the present technological efforts in Brazil, aiming the increasing of the natural gas participation in the brazilian energy matrix. The work shows the great distance among those efforts and the national policy for the natural gas. Last, the paper discusses the necessity of a review in the science and technology activities in the gas sector, and makes some considerations on the great potential in the gas industry for employment generation, for new business and the increasing in the national competitiveness.

  6. Aplicações de fibras vegetais na secagem de concretos refratários Use of natural fibers to speed up the drying step of refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Isaac

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A secagem de concretos refratários é uma etapa crítica em seu processamento devido aos riscos de explosão durante a saída de água contida em sua estrutura. Para minimizar esses problemas e aumentar a velocidade de secagem, fibras poliméricas têm sido adicionadas às formulações de concreto. Uma variável importante a ser considerada no desempenho desse aditivo é o tipo de fibra utilizada. Trabalhos do grupo de pesquisa indicaram que fibras vegetais podem apresentar bom desempenho na geração de canais permeáveis. Esse fato, aliado à sua grande disponibilidade e baixo custo, sugere que estas fibras sejam uma alternativa interessante às fibras sintéticas utilizadas atualmente. Neste trabalho, comparou-se o desempenho de fibras vegetais com o do polipropileno utilizados como aditivos de secagem. Foram realizadas medidas de permeabilidade utilizando a Equação de Forchheimer, ensaios de permeametria em alta temperatura e análise termogravimétrica do concreto. As fibras foram caracterizadas por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e termogravimetria.The drying of refractory castables is a critical step during application due to the possibility of spalling. In order to decrease these risks and improve the drying rate, polymeric fibers have been added to the castables' formulation. The type of fiber is an important aspect to be studied. Authors' previous works indicated that vegetable fibers can be good candidates. This fact, associated with its wide availability and low cost, suggests that these fibers can be interesting substitutes to synthetic ones. In this work, vegetable and polypropylene fibers had their performance evaluated as drying agents. The results of permeability measurements and hot air permeametry were related with the thermogravimety of the fiber-containing castables. The fibers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

  7. Wood and natural gas as fuels for tunnel kilns in the clay-product industry; Serragem e gas natural como fontes energeticas em fornos tuneis na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gabriel M. dos; Bazzo, Edson; Nicolau, Vicente de P.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mann@emc.ufsc.br; ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; vicente@lmpt.ufsc.br; amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The clay-product industry is responsible to large part of the thermal energy consumption, especially on drying and burning process. In spite of the success obtained with the burning of wood like principal fuel for tunnel kilns, the clay-product industries of Santa Catarina have looked for alternatives to substitute it. The interest appears especially due to imminent shortage of the wood on the market and due to possibility of use natural gas as a good and environmentally favorable alternative to reduce the energy specific consumption of the kilns, to increase the production and to improve the quality of the ceramic products. Nowadays, the natural gas is more expensive when compared with the wood. However, we believe that additional studies can place this fuel as a viable alternative to the clay-product industries. (author)

  8. Monetization non associated natural gas offshore reserve in the Espirito Santo Basin; Monetizacao de uma reserva 'offshore' de gas natural nao associado na Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, Jose Ricardo; Barbosa, Leonardo Alcantara [BG Group, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cintra, Marcos Antonio Lins da Costa [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunet, Patricia Lima [Anadarko Exploracao e Producao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Longo, Rafael Rodrigo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes, from the perspective of a new player in the Brazilian market, the opportunities and the challenges to monetize a non-associated natural gas offshore resource, located in the Espirito Santo Basin. The fictitious exploration block 'BM-ES-07', located in shallow waters, near to the coast of Linhares, in Espirito Santo, was a hundred percent acquired, by an international independent oil and gas company during the fourth bid round of the ANP, occurred in 2002. With 10 (ten) billion cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of recoverable gas, the field will initiate its production in 2012, also producing condensate (C5+). The total investments are estimated (based in 2006 prices) in R$420 millions, including exploration, development and production costs. Considering the assumptions presented, the article describes the project development, presenting the economics results, and also discusses the alternatives for natural gas marketing. (author)

  9. Economic Valuation Related to Illegal Extraction of Orchid Cattleya granulosa Within the naTural Park Dom Nivaldo Monte from Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Margarida Zanbotto Ramalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest has been the subject of biopiracy and predation of ornamental plants like orchids that reach a high market value. The Natural Park Dom Nivaldo Monte is a fragment of the Atlantic Rain Forest, covering 64 hectares in the city of Natal-RN, which has been the target of this illegal market due to extraction plant of Cattleya granulosa, an endemic orchid endangered. This study aimed to do an economical valuation of the environmental damage caused by the illegal extraction of orchid C. granulosa. The methodology of the survey included the following steps: sample survey of the orchid in the study area and calculation of absolute density and frequency; Economic valuation of environmental damage by using the method proposed by the State Department of Natural Resource Protection – São Paulo – Brazil; proposition the public policies in order to control the environmental impacts in the area. The results pointed out an absolute density and frequency were 1.17 individuals/plot and 8.33%, estimated 1493 individuals, during the period analyzed. The environmental services provided by all individuals of C. granulosa society, in the study area represents a monetary value of R$ 9,555,200.00. It was proposed as a municipal public policies for the preservation of species: increased enforcement in the area, environmental education with the surrounding community, the recovery of damages to the offender, creation of ecological boarder and use of plant biotechnology techniques.

  10. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region; Caracterizacao da radioatividade natural de materiais utilizados na construcao civil da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the {sup 222}Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of {sup 222}Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  11. Considerations of an environmental insurance compulsory in the industry of petroleum and natural gas; Consideracoes acerca de um seguro ambiental obrigatorio na industria do petroleo e do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Luiz Paulo dos Santos; Medeiros, Mueller Eduardo Dantas de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2009-08-15

    With the flexibilizing of the monopoly activities related to oil and natural gas, introduced by Constitutional Amendment No. 9 / 1995 and Law No. 9.478/1997, other companies were introduced in the sector besides PETROBRAS, resulting in a bulky input of resources. It is estimated that the investments made by players in this market should reach a value of one hundred billion dollars by 2011, covering the purchase of equipment and services in Brazil and abroad. This picture of the industry expansion has generated significant impacts on the economy in general and in particular to the insurance industry. And the reason is simple. The new players in this market were not aware of the reality they faced. Nothing more natural, therefore, seek to protect their investment through insurance. Such openness has created a demand for insurance increasingly complex, covering not only the damage caused by the malfunction in the machinery business. Brazilian insurers sought to adapt to meet this new demand, seeking to adjust to international market standards. In recent years there have been some accidents in the industry of oil and natural gas. The consequence is a distortion in the insurance market caused by the insufficient volume of premiums to cover the damage resulting from these claims. The environment certainly is a very delicate and vulnerable position, given the magnitude of the damage they may suffer as a result of the activities of oil companies and natural gas. The figure comes from insurance, as well as a possible mechanism to achieve the intent of protecting the environment. In Congress, transact the Law Project that deal with the establishment of a environment insurance for companies. On them will be made some considerations.

  12. The regulation in the unitization process in the petroleum and natural gas exploration in Brazil; A regulacao no processo de unitization na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe Alvite; Silva, Moises Espindola [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents and analyses the unitization of exploration and production process of petroleum and natural gas in Brazil, focusing the regulatory aspects under the Petroleum Law 9478/97. Considering the deficiency and blanks of the existent regulation when referring the utilization, this work intends to present and discuss those non resolved points and, in concise way, to present international unitization cases, applying when possible, their resolutions to Brazil.

  13. Importância do etanol na atenuação natural de águas subterrâneas impactadas por gasolina Importance of ethanol on natural attenuation of groundwater impacted by gasohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cardoso Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesse estudo, foram avaliados os resultados de um experimento de derramamento controlado de gasolina brasileira em água subterrânea durante 6,5 anos de monitoramento. A exaustão do etanol, aos 32 meses de monitoramento, e a significativa redução de mais de 90% da massa máxima dos compostos BTEX dissolvidos no meio, aos 79 meses, associadas ao uso dos receptores de elétrons e acúmulo de seus subprodutos metabólicos, demonstraram a eficácia da atenuação natural monitorada para contaminações de águas subterrâneas sem riscos imediatos a receptores críticos. Constatou-se ainda que a biodegradação do etanol permitiu a formação de uma biobarreira natural que, após a sua completa degradação, acelerou a taxa de biodegradação dos BTEX e impediu o avanço da pluma destes contaminantes.In this study, results of 6.5 years of a controlled release experiment with Brazilian gasoline in groundwater were evaluated. Ethanol exhaustion after 32 months and the significant dissolved BTEX mass reduction of more than 90% after 79 months, associated with the electron acceptors use and their metabolic byproducts accumulation, demonstrated the efficiency of monitored natural attenuation for groundwater contamination without immediate risk to receptors. Moreover, ethanol degradation provided a natural biobarrier formation that increased BTEX biodegradation rate and prevented the BTEX plume expansion.

  14. Instinto e razão na natureza humana, segundo Hume e Darwin Instinct and reason in human nature in David Hume and Charles Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Morelli Matos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta discussão pretende mostrar pontos relevantes de uma comparação entre a obra de David Hume e de Charles Darwin, no que toca às capacidades cognitivas humanas e de outros animais. Hume tem uma teoria que explica o conhecimento causal em termos de um instinto natural - o hábito. A presença de tal instinto pode ser entendida remetendo-se a uma teoria geral da natureza, onde o mundo é entendido como governado por leis e regularidades constantes, e sem a suposição da interferência de um plano ou desígnio. Isto conduz Hume à aproximação entre a capacidade cognitiva humana e a de outros animais, que também manifestam um aprendizado instintivo do tipo causal. Darwin, por sua vez, menciona uma graduação de diversas capacidades de conhecimento, diferenciando a ação instintiva da ação que resulta de deliberação e inferência; e aponta para o fato de que muitos animais apresentam um grau significativo de comportamento inteligente. Seu mecanismo de evolução por seleção natural pretende explicar essas características, tanto no homem como nos animais. Disso resulta contemporaneamente uma corrente em epistemologia que tem recebido o nome de epistemologia evolutiva, a qual, ao seguir declaradamente Darwin, carece de uma interpretação mais detalhada do pensamento de Hume, que poderia, supõe-se, oferecer elementos para o tratamento de questões epistemológicas tais como a da capacidade para o conhecimento causal.This discussion intends to show some relevant elements, in order to establish a comparison between the works of David Hume and Charles Darwin concerning human and other animal's cognitive capacities. Hume develops a theory to explain causal knowledge in terms of a natural instinct - habit. The presence of this instinct can be understood by reference to a general theory of nature that conceives the world governed by constant laws and regularities, without any supposition of interference of an external design or intention

  15. Nature of the chemical bond in complex hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}, LiBH{sub 4} and LiNH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoshino@silky.numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Komiya, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shinzato, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yukawa, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2005-12-08

    The most stable crystal structures of complex hydrides, MXH{sub n} (NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}, LiBH{sub 4} and LiNH{sub 2}) were simulated by the plane-wave pseudopotential method. The local chemical bonds between constituent ions were simulated using the DV-X{alpha} molecular orbital method. As a result, it was found that the covalent interaction is operating between X and H ions to form a XH{sub n} ion in MXH{sub n}. In addition, the ionic interaction is operating between M and XH{sub n} ions through the charge transfer from M to XH{sub n} ions. On the basis of this understanding of the nature of the chemical bond between ions, a phase stability diagram of complex hydrides was proposed using two parameters. One is the bond energy of XH diatomic molecules and the other is electronegativity difference, {delta}{phi}{sub X-M}, between M and X ions. The calculated stability change by doping into NaAlH{sub 4} could by explained qualitatively following this diagram. This diagram will provide us a clue to the modification of hydrides to lower the hydrogen decomposition temperature.

  16. Urban index modelling for forecasting of channeled natural gas market: an example in Sao Paulo metropolitan region; Modelagem de indicadores urbanos para previsao do mercado de gas natural canalizado: um exemplo na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, Vanessa Meloni; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: vmassara@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a systemic model for analysis of the expansion and grow up of the natural gas distribution pipeline in a city. This methodology integrates the understanding of the urban dynamics to the strategies of expansion in the natural gas distribution network, through the grouping of information such as family income, demographic density and construction area, percentage of land use, number of households as well as commercial, service and industrial establishments, number of real state as well as indicative information released by the Urban Plan of the city regarding the increments in the peripheral districts. Relating the gas consumption esteemed by each type of land occupation and the cost for expanding the gas distribution network, the model will indicate, for each neighborhood, the viability of implementing a gas network as well as the places with potential for growing density in the existing gas distribution system. The aim is to propose an integration of aspects of city dynamics and new energy source development, taking the advance of natural gas in Sao Paulo Metropolitan area as a specific case study. Through the analysis of highly industrialized, residential and commercial suburbs of the City of Sao Caetano do Sul, the importance of urban parameters in the decision making process for network expansion is identified. (author)

  17. O DESGASTE DA PINTURA RUPESTRE E DOS ABRIGOS SOB ROCHA NA RESERVA PARTICULAR DO PATRIMÔNIO NATURAL (RPPN) POUSADA DAS ARARAS EM SERRANÓPOLIS-GOIÁS: ONDICIONANTES NATURAIS

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Esta dissertação propõe-se a realizar uma análise dos condicionantes naturais responsáveis pelo desgaste de pinturas rupestres e dos abrigos sob rocha. Na área da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Pousada das Araras, no município de Serranópolis, Sudoeste de Goiás, distante cerca de 450 Km de Goiânia. Foram escolhidos dois sítios arqueológicos, denominados GO-JA-03 e GO-JA-04, com representações rupestres em abrigos de rocha da Formação Botucatu. O primeiro sítio, conhecido c...

  18. DINÂMICA DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL NO SUB-BOSQUE DE Pinus caribaea Morelet. var. caribaea NA RESERVA BIOLÓGICA DE SALTINHO, TAMANDARÉ - PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Souza Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the structure and dynamics of natural regeneration in the understory of plantations with exotic species, such as those of the genus Pinus , makes it possible to provide information to management, conservation and re-establishment of native species in a plant community. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the dynamics of natural regeneration of woody tree species occurring in the understory of Pinus caribaea in Rebio of Saltinho, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Regenerating species were measured for 10 permanent plots, 1 x 50 m, and included individuals with circumference at the base to 30 cm from the ground (CAB 0, 30 m ≤ 15 cm and height of more than one meter. The height was classified in: Class 1, shrubby tree, individuals with height 1 ≤ H ≤ 2; Class 2 with 2 height 3 m and ≤ 15 cm CAP. Phytosociological parameters were calculated, the dynamics of the regeneration and the Shannon index (H ‘ and evenness (J ‘ by Pielou. Protium heptaphyllum had as many individuals and value of importance (VI and Miconia prasina the best frequency in the two surveys. How to index H ‘ of 3,32 nats. ind -1 (2007 went to 3,07 nats. ind -1 (2012, and the evenness of J ‘ of 0,85 to 0,62, and decrease for both the diversity and the distribution. The 2012 survey recorded 12,5% increase in the number of individuals, and the regenerating of 2007 had 48,31% mortality. With respect to the number of individuals and basal area, the percentage gains were greater than the losses. It is concluded that the ecological succession of understorey regeneration of the population studied, lies in positive modification, and the settlement of Pinus caribaea, is preventing the emergence of new individuals and species.

  19. The legal discipline of government participation in recent oil and natural gas industry in Brazil; A disciplina juridica das participacoes governamentais na hodierna industria brasileira de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Fabrizia Pessoa

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzes the legal discipline of government participation in today's oil and natural gas industry in Brazil, taking as an object of study financial compensation under Law 9.478/97 and those under discussion in Congress as part of the new regulatory framework for areas the pre-salt and other strategic areas. The primary goal of the work is to disseminate knowledge about the government take as a way to facilitate popular control (public governance) in an extremely central to the modern world. (author)

  20. Partner's interest conflict analysis in distribution of natural gas: a game theory approach; Analise de conflitos de interesse na distribuicao de gas natural em areas urbanas: uma aplicacao da teoria dos jogos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Bruno de Athayde; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The use of Natural Gas is nowadays increasing in Brazilian scene and this fact shows the necessity of effective planning tasks in that sector. In the case of Natural Gas Vehicular (NGV) distribution one can face problems of actor's (distributor, retailers, customers and non-users) point of view conflicts and fuel stations expand in most Brazilian urban areas in an uncontrolled way, despising counties regulation on land use. This paper reports a study using a model based in Game Theory concepts to determine some key-variables as the number of fuel stations which must deliver NGV in a given study area. Although some information could not be available the results of simulation shows the usefulness of using such an approach to give solutions to distribution questions in NGV sector. The model was applied to the case of a district in Fortaleza city which is the study area of a project entitled Projeto GASLOG presently on process under the sponsoring of Brazilian Government, PETROBRAS and Brazilian GasEnergy Research Network. (author)

  1. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  2. Substâncias de origem vegetal potencialmente úteis na terapia da asma Natural products from plant origin potentially usefull in the asthma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda P. Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    the development countries and scarcity of safety drugs lead the search for new drugs to asthma treatment. Herbal natural products have elevated pharmacological potential against asthma, once they provide several molecules with specific mechanisms for the pathology control and treatment. Thus, search in herbal natural products plays an important role to find out specific and effective mechanisms.

  3. Infestação natural de fêmeas bovinas de corte por ectoparasitas na Região Sudeste do Brasil Natural infestation by external parasites in beef cattle females in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o grau de infestação natural por ectoparasitas em fêmeas bovinas de corte de três grupos genéticos. Foram realizadas contagens, de julho de 2003 a dezembro de 2004, de carrapatos (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, moscas-dos-chifres (Haematobia irritans e bernes (larvas de Dermatobia hominis em fêmeas dos grupos genéticos Nelore (NE, Angus x Nelore (AN, Canchim x Nelore (CN e Simental xNelore (SN infestadas naturalmente. Foram feitas de 6 a 10 contagens em cada animal, totalizando 5.384 observações em fêmeas de sete estádios fisiológicos (bezerras, novilhas vazias, novilhas prenhes, vacas primíparas, com ou sem bezerro, e vacas pluríparas, com ou sem bezerro. Os dados, transformados por log10 (n + 1, foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, com um modelo estatístico que incluiu os efeitos de grupo genético da fêmea, de animal dentro de grupo genético (erro a, de ano-época da contagem, de estádio fisiológico e da interação grupo genético x ano-época da contagem. A diferença entre os grupos genéticos dependeu do ano-época da contagem, contudo, em geral, as fêmeas nelores foram as menos infestadas pelo carrapato e as Angus x Nelore, as mais infestadas pela mosca-dos-chifres e pelo berne. Houve efeito de estádio fisiológico da fêmea em todas as três características estudadas, e as diferenças variaram com a característica. Apesar da interação grupo genéitco x ano-época de contagem, existem diferenças entre os grupos genéticos Nelore, Canchim x Nelore, Angus x Nelore e Simental x Nelore quanto ao grau de infestação natural por carrapatos, por moscas-dos-chifres e por bernes.It was evaluated in this work, the degree of natural infestation by external parasites in beef cattle females from three genetic groups. Countings of cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, horn fly (Haematobia irritans and beef-worm (Dermatobia hominis were performed from July 2003 to December 2004 in

  4. Natural gas conversion program of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; Projeto de conversao do sistema de distribuicao de gas canalizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallottino, J.T.; Costa Filho, M.A.F.; Guarana, L.F.M.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, J.M. [Companhia Estadual de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the Conversion Project of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that converted all customers and the distribution network from Manufactured Gas (MG) to Natural Gas (NG), evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting those related to consumer safety. The Conversion Project was executed under the responsibility of CEG with the support of UERJ, specially on the definition and revision of the technical procedures as well as the quality assurance of the project execution. As main advantages followed by MG to NG network conversion, we can note: increasing of gas distribution network capacity and gas network operational condition improvements; elimination of production plant; revision and renovation of gas network; revision and repairing of building gas facilities; augmenting of NG usage; elimination of carbon monoxide as a supplied gas constituent. Conservation condition of most consumer internal gas facilities and ambient ventilation were so critical that conversion program resulted in no measurable accident prevention. The achieved safety level should be maintained through a periodically re-evaluation program of customer's gas facilities and appliances, with special focus on permanent ventilation required for NG safety usage. (author)

  5. Comparação de diferentes abordagens para avaliação da incerteza na cromatografia gasosa do gás natural Comparison of different approaches to evaluate the uncertainty of gas chromatography for natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of uncertainty associated with an analytic result is an essential part of the measurement process. Recently, several approaches to evaluate the uncertainty in measurement have been developed. Here, the gas chromatography assay uncertainty for natural gas is compared by some of these approaches: the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM approach, top-down approach (reproducibility estimate from an inter-laboratory study, Barwick & Ellison (data from validation, study of variability and fuzzy approach. The comparison shows that GUM, Barwick & Ellison and fuzzy approaches lead to comparable uncertainty evaluations, which does not happen with the top-down approach and study of variability by the absence of data normality.

  6. Technological trends and the P and D politics in petroleum and natural gas production and exploration; As tendencias tecnologicas e as politicas de P e D na area de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: arlindoas@uol.com.br; edsantos@iee.usp.br

    2003-07-01

    Complex technological, socioeconomic, legal and ecological issues are always presents in the petroleum and natural gas industry's routine. Currently, other facts such as the industry restructuring, the privatization and the security of energy supply on a very uncertain global scenario, strengthen the need for urgent revision regarding the technological effort in the strategic sector of oil/gas exploration. More energy availability for the nation requires the command of new technologies to reduce oil and gas exploration and production costs, as well as the solution of technological difficulties in deep-water offshore operation, for the economical production and refine of the heavy oils, the minimization of environmental impacts and more efficient uses of exploitable resources. A significant growth in the share of natural gas in the national energy mix is an important objective in the country's energy policy. For that, it is necessary to develop consistent technological strategies to increase the gas market by reducing substantially the current practices in gas flaring and use of gas micro-turbines in co-generation system. This requires integrated actions from energy regulators, universities, research centers, companies and government. The aim of this article is to discuss about the main technological trends in the oil and gas exploration and production area (E and P), focusing on the political, regulatory and strategic aspects that should govern such research lines in order to improve the country's competitiveness in the oil and gas sector as well as increase its oil and gas supply (author)

  7. Regeneração natural em clareiras de origem antrópica na Serra da Cantareira, SP. Natural regeneration in man-made clearings in the Serra da Cantareira, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alexandre Roccia Dal Pozzo ARZOLLA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As florestas estão sujeitas a ações antrópicas, diretas ou indiretas, que causamsua degradação ou supressão. Ao cessar essas atividades se inicia o processo de sucessão,originando florestas secundárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a composiçãoflorística da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea de áreaseminício de regeneração no Parque Estadualda Cantareira, São Paulo (SP. Foram avaliados onze sítios da Linha de TransmissãoGuarulhos–Anhanguera, onde houve o corte de 0,2 ha da vegetação para instalação de torres detransmissão, em julho de 2006.Olevantamento foi realizado em dois períodos de amostragem.Foram encontradas 101 espécies pertencentes a 32 famílias e 59 gêneros, sendo 60,4%pioneiras, 31,7% secundárias iniciais, 1% secundária tardia e 5,9% umbrófilas.Asíndrome dedispersão de sementes predominante na área de estudo foi a zoocoria, com 70,3% dasespécies amostradas.As famílias commaior riquezade espécies foramSolanaceae (16 espécies,Asteraceae (14, Piperaceae (10, Melastomataceae (8 e Euphorbiaceae (7, e os gênerosmais ricos foram Solanum(12 espécies, Piper (10, Miconia(5 e Piptocarpha e Vernonia,com quatro espécies cada. A composição de espécies encontrada foi provavelmenteinfluenciada pelo corte da vegetação, o tamanho das clareiras e a idade da regeneração.O presente trabalho identificou um conjunto de espécies que poderá ser utilizado emprojetos derevegetaçãonaSerradaCantareira.Forests are subject to direct or indirect anthropogenic actions, which causetheir degradation or removal. When these activities cease, the process of succession starts,resulting in secondary forests. This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition ofarboreal-shrubby vegetation in initial stages of regeneration in the Cantareira State Park,São Paulo State, Brasil. The study area consisted of eleven sites along Guarulhos–AnhangueraTransmission Line, where the vegetation was cut in July 2006

  8. Parâmetros nutricionais da pastagem natural em diferentes tipos de solos na APA do Ibirapuitã, Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Nutritional parameters of natural pasture in different soils at APA of Ibirapuitã, Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de ruminantes domésticos é influenciado por fatores intrínsecos ao animal, ao alimento e pela interação entre animal e alimento. O trabalho foi realizado na Estância do 28, pertencente à Fundação Maronna, Alegrete - RS, dentro da APA do Ibirapuitã. Para representar o fator solo, foram escolhidos os três tipos predominantes da APA do Ibirapuitã: Basalto Superficial, Basalto Profundo e Arenito. As amostras da pastagem natural foram retiradas por simulação de pastejo, através de coleta manual. Os parâmetros nutricionais avaliados foram: proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e taxa de degradação da matéria seca. A forragem da pastagem natural oriunda do solo Basalto Superficial apresentou diferença significativa (PIntrinsic animal and food factors and the interaction between them influence the performance of domestic ruminants. This study was done at Estância do 28, property of the Maronna Foundation, Alegrete - RS, inside the Ibirapuitã Area of Environmental Protection. In order to represent soil as a factor, the three main soil types were chosen: Superficial Basalt, Deep Basalt and Sandy. Hand plucking methods were used to obtain samples of natural pasture. Nutritional parameters considered were crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and dry matter degradation rate. The forage from natural pasture of the Superficial Basalt presented significant difference (P<0.05 in crude protein rates over the other two types of soil, which did not differ amongst themselves. The highest rate of neutral detergent fibre (84.54% was obtained in pasture originated from Sandy soil, in relation to Superficial and Deep Basalt, with values of 74.53% and 77.98%, respectively. There was also a significant difference in the degradation rate of dry matter (P<0.05. Sandy soil pasture presented an intermediate degradation value (3.61% h-1, not differing from other soils. The forage from natural pastures present similar degradation rates

  9. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  10. Avaliação da fixação biológica de nitrogênio em feijão-caupi submetido a diferentes manejos da vegetação natural na savana de Roraima = Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation in cowpea subjected to different managements of the natural vegetation of the savanna in Roraima, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio Jacob Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio em feijão-caupi submetido a diferentes manejos da vegetação natural, com e sem adubação orgânica com esterco bovino, da savana de Roraima. O experimento foi instalado na área experimental do CCA/UFRR, em Boa Vista, Roraima. O plantio das sementes de feijão-caupi, cultivar BRS Aracê, inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium BR 3262, foi realizado em julho de 2011 e os tratamentos foram dispostos em umdelineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial (3 x 2 com quatro repetições. O primeiro fator correspondeu ao manejo da vegetação natural: com aplicação de glifosato, com corte da vegetação natural e sem corte da vegetação natural. O segundo fator correspondeu à aplicação de esterco bovino: com e sem aplicação. Aos 35 dias após o plantio foi efetuada a coleta das plantas de feijão-caupi para mensurar o número de nódulos; massa fresca e seca dos nódulos; altura da planta; número de folhas, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea; massa fresca e seca da raiz. A aplicação a lanço de esterco bovino na quantidade de 2,0 L m-2 sobre a vegetação natural da savana de Roraima favorece o aumento do número de nódulos por planta de feijão-caupi.O manejo da vegetação natural com o uso do glifosato, independentemente do uso do esterco, favorece a nodulação das raízese contribui com o maior crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta de feijão-caupi.This study evaluated the biological fixation of nitrogen in cowpea beans subjected to different managements of the natural vegetation of the savannah in Roraima. The experiment was done in the experimental area of the CCA/UFRR, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. The planting of the BRS Aracê cowpea seeds, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium BR 3262, wasdone in July, 2011 and the treatments were arranged in factorial schemes (3 x 2 of experimental randomized blocks with fourrepetitions. The first factor was the

  11. Uso do solo e análise temporal da ocorrência de vegetação natural na fazenda experimental Edgardia, em Botucatu-SP Land use and temporal analysis of natural vegetation at Edgardia experimental farm - Botucatu-SP

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    Luiz Alberto Blanco Jorge

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram mapeados o uso do solo e as alterações das áreas de vegetação natural da Fazenda Experimental Edgardia, localizada em região de Cuesta no município de Botucatu-SP, em dois períodos (1978 e 1997, com o auxílio do sistema de informações geográficas ILWIS v.2.2 para Windows, de fotografia aérea e de imagens dos satélites Spot e Landsat-5. Cruzaram-se as informações de ocorrência da vegetação natural nas duas épocas, derivando-se um mapa temático que permitiu verificar a variação temporal das áreas dos fragmentos florestais, assim como foram observadas as associações da vegetação natural com a declividade e as unidades de solo. Analisado o intervalo de 19 anos, foram detectadas uma regeneração significativa de áreas de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na frente da Cuesta, em unidades de Neossolo Litólico, e uma pequena regeneração da tipologia cerradão, na depressão periférica, onde ocorrem solos de textura arenosa.The purpose of this paper was to study land use and the alterations of the natural vegetation at the Edgardia Experimental Farm, in Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Land use thematic maps for different dates (1978 and 1997 were derived from aerial photography, and Spot and Landsat-5 TM images. A G.I.S. program, ILWIS v.2.2 for Windows was used to generate spatial information. Variation in the occurrence of natural vegetation was assessed by overlaying the land use maps of both periods. This information was crossed with the slope and soil unit maps. There was a significant regeneration of the tropical moist seasonal forest fragments at the Botucatu Cuesta Front Range, and a little regeneration in the forest - savannah transition areas at the Peripheric Depression.

  12. Natural occurrence of nivalenol and mycotoxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum strains in wheat affected by head blight in Argentina Ocorrência natural de nivalenol e potencial micotoxigênico de cepas de Fusarium graminearum em trigo afetado por giberela na Argentina

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    V.E. Fernandez Pinto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The principal agents of Fusarium head blight in the main cropping area of Argentina were investigated in heavily infected samples. The ability of the isolates to produce trichothecenes was determined by GC and HPLC. Fusarium graminearum was the predominant species and of 33 isolates, 10 produced deoxinivalenol (DON (0.1- 29 mg kg-1, 13 produced both deoxinivalenol (1.0- 708 mg kg-1 and nivalenol (0.1- 6.2mg kg-1, 12 produced 3-acetyldeoxinivalenol (0.1- 14 mg kg-1, 13 produced 15-acetyldeoxinivalenol (0.1- 1.9 mg kg-1, 10 produced Fusarenone X (0.1- 2.4 mg kg-1 and 7 produced zearalenone (0.1- 0.6 mg kg-1. These results suggest that F. graminearum strains isolated from the wheat growing regions in Argentina belong to DON chemotype. Although some strains produced both deoxinivalenol and nivalenol, nivalenol was produced in lower levels. The natural occurrence of nivalenol in wheat affected by head-blight collected in the main production area during two years (2001-2002 was also determined. From 19 samples 13 were contaminated with deoxinivalenol in a range of 0.3 to 70 mg kg-1and 2 samples with both deoxinivalenol (7.5 and 6.7 mg kg-1 and nivalenol (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively. This is the first report of natural occurrence of nivalenol in wheat cultivate in Argentina.O principal causador de giberela no trigo na Argentina e sua capacidade de produzir tricotecenos foram estudados por GC e HPLC em amostras altamente infectadas. A espécie predominante foi Fusarium graminearum, sendo que de um total de 33 isolados, 10 produziram deoxinivalenol (0,1-29 mg kg -1, 13 produziram deoxinivalenol (1,0-708 mg kg-1 e nivalenol (0,1-6,2 mg kg-1, 12 produziram 3-acetildeoxinivalenol (0,1-14 mg kg-1, 13 produziram 15-acetildeoxinivalenol (0,1-1,9 mg kg-1, 10 produziram fusarenona X (0,1- 2,4 mg kg-1 e 7 produziram zearalenona (0,1- 0,6 mg kg-1. Esses resultados sugerem que as cepas de F. graminearum isoladas de trigo cultivado na Argentina pertencem ao

  13. A incorporação das rotas turísticas, como complemento ao turismo religioso e ao marketing mix – 4P’s, dos hotéis localizados em Fátima e o impacto na satisfação dos turistas portugueses e estrangeiros: o caso de hotéis de 4 e 3 estrelas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Marisa Raquel Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    O Turismo exerce influências económicas, sociais e culturais, sendo cada vez mais evidente as proporções deste fenómeno, tanto nos locais turísticos como nas unidades hoteleiras que acolhem os turistas. De facto, esta relação é notória na cidade de Fátima, onde o Turismo Religioso apresenta uma maior influência. Tendo em consideração que os turistas tendem a conhecer novas regiões e novas ofertas, é crucial que existam sinergias entre os locais turísticos e os hotéis. Assim, os hotéis deverão...

  14. Religiosidade afroindígena e natureza na Amazônia (Afroindigenous Religiosity and Nature in the Brazilian Amazon - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p476

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    Agenor Sarraf Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia constituiu-se, ao longo de sua formação histórica e sociocultural, em importante território de crenças em saberes de cura que expressam interculturalidades entre humanos e sobrenaturais. Nas fronteiras que separam e interligam o período colonial e os tempos contemporâneos, fios de memórias escritas e orais trazem à tona experiências em que religiosidades nativas, coloniais e diaspóricas se conformam em profunda bricolagem com a natureza, erigindo um panteão de divindades afroindígenas na região. Neste artigo, sob a orientação teórica dos Estudos Culturais, do Pensamento Pós-Colonial e da Antropologia das Religiões, exploramos diálogos realizados com memórias de um pai de santo, um curandeiro, uma irmã consagrada e uma “pajé”, além de percepções de um sacerdote católico e escritos de uma outra pajé. A análise dessas fontes evidencia que crenças em saberes de cura, aspectos constituintes das cosmologias afroindígenas, traduzem modos específicos com os quais populações amazônicas, com destaque para a Amazônia Marajoara, lidam com encantados, espíritos, santos, orixás em seu fazer religioso. Por esse ângulo, a cultura é apreendida como território de experiências intersticiais e a natureza se refaz como paisagem cultural, pois sofre intervenções e interfere na configuração do sistema religioso local. Palavras-chave: Saberes de Cura. Natureza. Afroindígena. Interculturalidade. Amazônia Marajoara.   Abstract The Amazon has been constituted, throughout its historical and socio-cultural formation, in an important area of beliefs towards healing knowledges that express interculturalism between the humans and the supernatural. Within the borders that separate and connect the colonial and contemporary times, written and oral memories bring up experiences where the native, colonial and diasporic religiosity configure themselves into a deep tinkering with nature and erect a pantheon of

  15. Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase coding region in ARV-naïve individuals in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam: an ANRS AC12 working group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhin, Janin; Donchai, Tawee; Hoang, Khanh Thu Huynh; Ken, Sreymom; Kamkorn, Jiraporn; Tran, Ton; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Lien, Truong Xuan; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The HIV integrase enzyme is essential for the HIV life cycle as it mediates integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA into the infected cell's genome. Recently, the development of drugs capable of inhibiting integrase has provided major new options for HIV-infected, treatment-experienced patients with multidrug resistant virus, as well treatment-naïve patients. More than 40 amino acid substitutions within integrase have been described as associated mostly with resistance of HIV B-subtypes to currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs). We have analyzed the natural polymorphisms of the integrase coding region in 87 antiretroviral-naïve subjects (32 from Cambodia, 37 from Thailand and 18 from Vietnam) infected with CRF01_AE virus, the predominant HIV-1 strain circulating in Southeast Asia. The 864bp integrase coding region was sequenced using the ANRS consensus sequencing technique from plasma samples, and amino acid results were interpreted for drug resistance according to the ANRS (Updated July 2009, version 18) and Stanford algorithms (Version November 6, 2009). Alignment of the 87 amino acid sequences against the 2004 Los Alamos HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence showed that overall, 119 of 288 (41.3%) amino acid positions presented at least one polymorphism each. Substitutions found in >60% of study subjects occurred at: K14, A21, V31, S39, I72, T112, T124, T125, G134, I135, K136, D167, V201, L234 and S283. Also, new amino acid substitutions of as yet unknown significance were identified: E152K/H, S153F/L, N155I and E157G. None of the known integrase resistance mutations were observed, except E157Q found in one Cambodian subject (1.1%, CI 95% 0.02-6.3%). The clinical impact of this substitution on resistance of B and nonB-viruses to the licensed INI raltegravir is unclear. If this substitution is confirmed to compromise the virologic response to raltegravir, further studies will be needed to better assess the prevalence of this substitution among CRF01_AE virus.

  16. Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Rosa Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos naturais (FNs, que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo. Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel.

  17. Analysis of private natural heritage reserves as a conservation strategy for the biodiversity of the cocoa region of the southern State of Bahia, Brazil Análise das reservas particulares do patrimônio natural como estratégia de conservação na região cacaueira do Sul da Bahia, Brasil

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    Alexandre Schiavetti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first country in Latin America to establish and regulate this type of reserve, and there are currently more than 700 Private Nature Heritage Reserves (RPPN in Portuguese officially recognized by either federal or state environmental agencies. Together, these RPPN protect more than a half million hectares of land in the country. The coastal forests in the southern part of Bahia State extend 100 to 200 km inland, gradually changing in physiognomy as they occupy the dryer inland areas. The coastal forest has been subjected to intense deforestation, and currently occupies less than 10% of its original area. For this work the creation processes of the RPPN were consulted to obtain the data creation time, size of property, the condition of the remaining forest, succession chain and the last paid tax. After that, interviews with the owners were made to confirm this data. Sixteen RPPN have been established in this region until 2005. Their sizes vary from 4.7 to 800 ha. Ten of these RPPN are located within state or federal conservation areas or their buffer zones. In spite of the numerous national and international conservation strategies and environmental policies focused on the region, the present situation of the cocoa zone is threatening the conservation of the region's natural resources. The establishment of private reserves in the cocoa region could conceivably improve these conservation efforts. This type of reserve can be established under a uniform system supported by federal legislation, and could count on private organizations.O Brasil foi o primeiro País na América Latina a estabelecer e regulamentar este tipo de reserva e hoje, há mais de 700 Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN oficialmente reconhecidas pelos órgãos ambientais federais ou estaduais. Juntos, estas reservas protegem mais de meio milhão de hectares em diferentes biomas dos Pais. A Floresta Atlântica na região Sul da Bahia se estende at

  18. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS AO COMPLEXO DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS NA CULTURA DO ALGODÃO (Gossypium hirsutum L. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES ON THE COMPLEX OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN COTTON CROP (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se a seletividade de inseticidas sobre o complexo de inimigos naturais na cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L., no município de Goiânia, GO. Utilizou-se a cultivar Deltapine e o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha, thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1, lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1, betacyflutrin (800 mL.ha-1, imidacloprid (70 g.ha-1, diflubenzuron (6,0 g.ha-1, endosulfan (1500 mL.ha-1, em suas apresentações comerciais. A pulverização dos inseticidas foi efetuada aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas. Além da avaliação prévia, foram efetuadas avaliações aos três e sete dias após a aplicação dos inseticidas. As amostragens foram realizadas através do método de batida de pano, com duas batidas ao acaso por parcela, identificando-se e contando-se, o número de inimigos naturais presentes. Três dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os inseticidas thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1, lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1 e diflubenzuron (60 g.ha-1, considerando os produtos comerciais, não apresentaram efeito de choque sobre o complexo de inimigos naturais presentes na cultura do algodoeiro. Entretanto, aos sete dias após a aplicação, apenas o tratamento com lufenuron manteve a seletividade.a esses artrópodes predadores.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; controle biológico; Gossypium.

  19. The effect of Cr2O3 doping on structures and dielectric constants of SiO2-Bi2O3-B2O3-Na2CO3 glass based on silica gel of natural sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantoro, M.; Zaini, M. B.; Muniroh, Z.; Nasikhudin; Hidayat, A.

    2017-05-01

    One of the abundant natural resources along the coastal lines of Indonesia is silica sand. One of the beaches which has a lot of silica content is Bancar-Tuban beach. Silica can be used as a raw material of glass that has multiple properties in optic, dielectric, and other physical properties by introducing specific dopants. Some oxides have been used as dopant e.g. Al2O3, Fe3O4, and NiO. However, there has not been any comprehensive study discussing the multiple properties of natural silica-sand-based glass with Cr2O3 dopant so far. A series of samples have been prepared, which mean two solid steps to state melting technique. Cr2O3 was selected as a dopant due to its potential to control its color and to increase the dielectric constant of the glass. The synthesis of silica (SiO2) sand from BancarTuban beach was conducted through the sol-gel process. The composition varied as the addition of Cr2O3on 50SiO2-25B2O3-(6.5-x) Bi2O3-18.5Na2CO3-xCr2O3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08mol), later called SBBN glass. The samples’ characterizations of the structure and morphology were conducted through the use of XRD, and SEM-EDX. The measurements were done by using a DC capacitance meter in order to investigate the dielectric properties of the sample, under the influence of light. It is shown that addition of Cr2O3 did not alter the crystal structure but changed the structure of the functional bond formation. It is also revealed that the dielectric constant increased along with the increasing of Cr2O3. An interesting result was that the dielectric constant of the glass was quantized decreasingly as the increase of light.

  20. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  1. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  2. Produtos naturais utilizados para tratamento de asma em crianças residentes na cidade de Salvador-BA, Brasil Natural products used for asthma treatment in children living in Salvador-BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan dos S. Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento popular é o passo inicial para a investigação científica de atividades terapêuticas de remédios caseiros. Diversas patologias podem ser tratadas ou amenizadas através de preparações de origem natural e muitos fármacos disponíveis são oriundos de fontes naturais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o uso de remédios caseiros derivados de plantas para tratamento de asma em crianças residentes no município de Salvador. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de estudo realizado em Salvador sobre fatores de risco, uso de medicações e vias imunológicas relacionadas à asma em crianças. Foram calculadas as freqüências de uso de preparações caseiras para tratamento de asma por esta população e realizado uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os efeitos das plantas mais usadas. Dentre as espécies mais citadas, destacam-se o Allium sativum (alho que teve a maior freqüência de utilização na preparação dos remédios caseiros (25%, seguido da Allium cepa (cebola, 19,74%. Após a revisão crítica de literatura, constatou-se que a maioria das espécies é utilizada com base em relatos fundamentados no saber popular, sendo assim carente de evidências científicas para as atividades farmacoterapêuticas esperadas. Neste sentido, há necessidade de mais estudos farmacológicos para comprovação das atividades terapêuticas peculiares a cada produto de origem natural bem como para avaliar possíveis efeitos tóxicos destes produtos.The popular knowledge is the initial step for the scientific inquiry of therapeutical activities of herb-based remedies. Several pathologies can be treated or brightened up through this kind of preparations and also many of the available drugs in the market have natural sources. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of herb-based remedies for treatment of asthma in children in the city of Salvador. Data were collected by a standard questionnaire during a transversal study carried

  3. ESTIMATIVA DO TEMPO DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE UM BANCO NATURAL DO MEXILHÃO PERNA PERNA (LINNAEUS, 1758 NA BAÍA DE SANTOS, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

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    Walter Barrella

    2001-01-01

    novembro (0,32 e os valores mínimos em março e abril (0,17. O tempo de recuperação estimado do banco natural foi de 14,05 meses, quando o animal atinge 50mm e está apto a ser extraído. Os resultados desse trabalho permitem concluir que a exploração econômica da espécie P. perna na região da Baía de Santos deve ser otimizada com a implantação da mitilicultura em escala comercial.

  4. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Efeito do composto "mais vida" na ativação de macrófagos de ratos diabéticos Effects of "mais vida", a commercial natural mix, on the activation of macrophages from diabetic rats

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    E.L. França

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade funcional de macrófagos de ratos diabéticos, através da liberação do ânion superóxido, na presença do composto "mais vida". Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, controle (N=20 e diabético (N=20. Avaliou-se a glicemia, massa corpórea e a liberação de superóxido pelos macrófagos de baço de ratos. O composto "mais vida" foi obtido através da mistura de extratos de sete plantas, sendo Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L., Maytenus ilicifolia Mart., Vernonia condensata Baker e Thuja occidentalis L. Observou-se que glicemia foi maior no grupo diabético. A liberação espontânea do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos foi menor no grupo diabético. O composto "mais vida", independente dos níveis glicêmicos, aumentou a liberação de superóxido dos macrófagos. Quando as células foram estimuladas pelos extratos vegetais isolados, também houve aumento na liberação do ânion superóxido pelos macrófagos em ambos os grupos. As maiores liberações de superóxido ocorreram quando os macrófagos foram estimulados pela Thuja occidentalis L., Rosa centifolia L., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G. e Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Estes dados sugerem que a ativação de macrófagos pelo composto "mais vida" pode representar um mecanismo alternativo de defesa para infecções em indivíduos diabéticos.This study investigated the effects of "mais vida", a commercial natural mix, on macrophages functional activity as evaluated by the superoxide release in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into two groups, control (N = 20 and diabetic (N = 20. This was achieved by determining blood glucose weight and the superoxide released by spleen macrophages. The "mais vida" mix was obtained by the combination of extracts from seven medicinal species, which were: Orbignia martiana Rodr., Tabebuia avellanedae L.G., Arctium lappa L., Rosa centifolia L

  6. DETERMINAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL NATURAL À EROSÃO LAMINAR NA BACIA DO RIO JACARÉ GUAÇÚ (SP - DETERMINATION OF NATURAL POTENTIAL FOR SOIL EROSION IN JACARÉ GUAÇÚ STREAM BASIN (SÃO PAULO STATE - BRAZIL

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    Vladimir Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar o potencial natural à erosão (PNE na bacia do rio Jacaré Guaçú (SP com base nos fatores físicos da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solos (EUPS. Dados pedológicos, de precipitação pluviométrica e de Sensoriamento Remoto foram usados para determinar as variáveis naturais do referido modelo, ou seja, erosividade das chuvas (fator R, erodibilidade dos solos (fator K, comprimento de rampa (fator L e declividade do terreno (fator S. Técnicas de Geoprocessamento desenvolvidas em Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG foram utilizadas para a estruturação e execução do modelo ambiental. Os resultados demonstram que o fator R da área de estudo varia entre 6392 e 8015 MJ.ha.mm-1.h-1.ano-1, o fator K está compreendido entre 0,0097 e 0,610 t.ha-1.MJ-1.mm-1 e o fator topográfico (LS predominante é menor que 4. Em relação ao PNE, dentre as classes definidas, destacam-se os locais classificados com alto, muito baixo, extremamente alto e muito alto potencial, com representatividade em mais de 90% da área de estudo. Os locais com PNE médio e baixo ocupam menos de 10% da bacia hidrográfica. Os resultados obtidos podem auxiliar no ordenamento territorial da área de estudo, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao gerenciamento e expansão das atividades agropecuárias. ABSTRACT This paper aims to determine the natural erosion potential in Jacaré Guaçú stream basin (São Paulo State - Brazil based in the physical factors of Universal Loss Soil Equation (ULSE. Pedological, rainfall and Remote Sensing data were used to define the natural variables of model, that is, rainfall erosivity (R factor, soil erodibility (K factor and topography (LS factor. Geoprocessing techniques developed in Geographic Information System (GIS were used to structure and execute the environmental model allowing determining areas with higher erosion risk. The results show that the areas classified as high, very low, extremely

  7. Avaliação da diversidade alfa de Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea na Amazônia Colombiana (Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, Putumayo Alpha diversity assessment of Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in the Colombian Amazon (La Paya National Natural Park, Putumayo

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    Larry Jiménez-Ferbansi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um inventário da fauna de Passalidae da região sudeste do Parque Nacional Natural La Paya, sendo a primeira coleta deste grupo de insetos para o Estado colombiano de Putumayo. As coletas, de indivíduos adultos, foram feitas durante os dias 9 a 16 de fevereiro de 2008, em percursos livres, nos quais foram revisados 80 troncos em decomposição. A porcentagem de troncos colonizados por passalídeos foi de 40%, nos quais foram coletados 225 indivíduos pertencentes a duas tribos, quatro gêneros e 16 espécies, representando entre 73-96% da riqueza estimada por curvas de acumulação de espécies. A tribo com maior riqueza foi Passalini, enquanto o gênero com maior diversidade foi Passalus Fabricius, 1792 com 12 espécies. A diversidade local do grupo estudado é alta, em comparação a outros registros obtidos na região neotropical.It is presented an inventory of the Passalidae fauna from Southeastern National Natural Park La Paya, Colombia. This corresponds to the first survey of this family for the Putumayo region. The collections were conducted from February 9-16th 2008, along forest tracks, assessing a total of 80 decaying logs. In general, 40% of the logs were colonized by passalids. The 225 individuals collected belong to two tribes, four genera and 16 species, which represent between 73 to 96% of the richness estimated by species accumulation curves. The tribe with the greatest richness was Passalini, while the most diverse genus was Passalus Fabricius, 1792 with 12 species. The local diversity of the study area is among the highest when compared to other Neotropical areas.

  8. O EFEITO DO MÉTODO DE PILATES NA PREVENÇÃO DE LESÕES EM BAILARINOS

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    S. Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Dança potencia a ocorrência de lesões (Meereis, Favretto, Bernardi, Peroni, & Mota, 2011, sendo mais frequentes no membro inferior (Rietveld, 2013. O centro é o ponto-chave do Método de Pilates e refere-se à sinergia muscular estabelecida entre os músculos Transverso Abdominal, Oblíquos Interno e Externo e o Multifidus. A sua estabilidade aumenta a performance, previne lesões e alivia a dor lombar. Existe uma relação entre a diminuição da estabilidade do centro e uma maior incidência de lesões do membro inferior. Existem poucos estudos que avaliem o centro em bailarinos (Rickman et al., 2012.O Método de Pilates é um exercício corpo-mente que requer estabilidade do centro dando atenção ao controlo muscular, postura e respiração (Wells, Kolt, & Bialocerkowski, 2012, o que contribui para um melhor alinhamento corporal (Cruz-Ferreira et al., 2011, e para a prevenção de lesões (Massey, 2011. Os estudos existentes em bailarinos concluíram que melhora o alinhamento corporal (Kuo et al. 2009 e previne lesões (McMillan et al., 1998. Objetivo: Determinar os efeitos de um programa do método de Pilates na estabilidade do centro, no alinhamento postural e na dor, na prevenção de lesões no membro inferior em bailarinos.

  9. Natural medicaments in endodontics: a comparative study of the anti-inflammatory action Medicamentos naturais na Endodontia: estudo comparativo da ação antiinflamatória

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    Fabiane Bortoluci da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the irritant potential of propolis, Casearia sylvestris, Otosporin and saline solution (control. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were selected, anesthetized and four experimental sites were designed on their backs. Injections of 2% Evans blue were intravenously administered in the lateral caudal vein and 0.1 ml of the tested solutions was injected intradermally into the experimental sites. The animals were killed 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 hours after the injection of the solutions. Each piece of skin containing the lesion was immersed in formamide and incubated at 45ºC for 72 h. After filtration, optical density was measured in a spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by a 2-way non-parametric test. The highest values of extracted dye were observed at 3 hours characterizing a peak in the inflammatory process. Propolis was the least irritant solution. The natural medicaments tested in this study may be a valuable alternative for endodontic treatment.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial irritativo de própolis, Casearia sylvestris, Otosporin e soro fisiológico (controle. Foram utilizados 28 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar. Os animais foram anestesiados e, em seguida, receberam a injeção do corante azul de Evans (2% por via intravenosa na veia caudal. Em quatro pontos predeterminados e depilados da região dorsal de cada animal, foram injetados 0,1 ml das substâncias teste. Os animais foram sacrificados meia, uma, três e seis horas após a injeção das substâncias, e cada pedaço de pele contendo a lesão foi colocado em frascos contendo formamida, que foram incubados a 45ºC por 72 h. Após esse período, as amostras foram filtradas e submetidas à análise em espectrofotômetro. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste estatístico não-paramétrico de medidas repetidas. No período de 3 h, foram observados os maiores valores de corante extraído, caracterizando, assim, o pico do

  10. A natureza no cotidiano urbano - o projeto da paisagem na cidade de Maringá = Nature and everyday urban life - the landscape planning in the city of Maringá

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    Karin Schwabe Meneguetti

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As cidades há muito tempo tentam incorporar a noção de equilíbrio estético, funcional e psicológico resultante da presença da natureza, de suas mais variadas formas, permeando e compondo o tecido urbano e o seu entorno. Os espaços livres públicos têm papel fundamental na conformação da cidade e em sua qualificação. O Planejamento, projeto e apropriação desses espaços são condicionantes da criação dos lugares e da identificação das pessoas com a cidade. Deste modo, o projeto da cidade, e conseqüentemente, dos espaços públicos, deve levar em consideração os aspectos ambientais e sociais, sendo enfocado como processo, uma vez que cria e é criado, continuamente.Assim, este artigo faz uma análise da cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, enfocando sua paisagem projetada, amplamente divulgada, e as relações que se estabelecem com as práticas cotidianas, nem sempre favoráveis à permanência da qualidade ambiental prometida.The cities have for a long time tried to incorporate the notion of aesthetic, functional balance, and psychological resultant of the presence of the nature in its diverse forms. The public spaces have their basic role in the conformation of the city and its qualification. The urban planning, urban design, and the appropriation of these spaces are conditions to achieve ambience, conviviality, and sense of place. In this way, the project of the city, and consequently, of the public spaces, must concern the ambient and social aspects, focused as a process, as it creates and is created, continuously. This paper analysis the design of the city of Maringá, State of Paraná, focusing its planned landscape, widelydivulged, and the relations established with the practices of everyday life, not always favorable to the permanence of the promised environmental quality.

  11. NA44 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    General view of NA44 experiment. NA44 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN'S Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter in which quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  12. Sinergias Entre el Modelo de Mezclas Espectrales y el Análisis de Imágenes Basado en Objetos en el Estudio de Incendios Forestales / Synergies Between Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and Object- Based Image Analysis to Study Forest Fires

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    Alfonso Fernández-Manso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Las metodologías unitemporales habitualmente utilizadas para cartografiar el área afectada por un incendio forestal se basan en la clasificación de una imagen NDVI post-incendio; sin embargo, presentan algunas limitaciones. Este trabajo propone una metodología basada en el empleo conjunto del Modelo de Mezclas Espectrales (Spectral Mixture Analysis - SMA y el análisis de imágenes basado en objetos (Object-Based Image Analysis - OBIA, con la finalidad de minimizar estos problemas. Por una parte, SMA, que trabaja a nivel subpíxel, posibilita minimizar las confusiones originadas por la influencia del suelo; y, por otra, OBIA, trabajando a nivel suprapíxel, permite considerar características no espectrales tales como la forma y la textura. La imagen fracción vegetación quemada, obtenida al descomponer espectralmente una imagen Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, ETM+, posterior al incendio considerado, fue la entrada de un clasificador orientado a objetos que empleó dos niveles de segmentación. La precisión de los resultados obtenidos utilizando esta metodología en el incendio ocurrido entre los días 13 y 17 de septiembre de 1998 en Tabuyo del Monte – León- España (3.309 ha, es muy prometedora, indicando sinergias entre ambos métodos, y con un gran potencial para la cartografía de áreas quemadas y estimación de niveles de severidad.AbstractUnitemporal methodologies used to mapping burned area are usually based on post fire NDVI image classification; nevertheless they present several limitations. In order to minimize these deficiencies, this work shows a methodology based on Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA. On the one hand, SMA, working at subpixel level, permits minimise the errors due to soil influence. On the other hand, OBIA, working at suprapixel scale, allows to consider not only spectral characteristics but also form and texture. The burned vegetation fraction image, obtained by

  13. Estudo comparativo das seqüências rápidas ponderadas em T2, utilizando-se sincronização respiratória, apnéia, supressão de gordura, bobina de corpo e bobina de sinergia para a avaliação do fígado pela ressonância magnética

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    Abbehusen Cristiane L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar, qualitativa e quantitativamente, as imagens de ressonância magnética do fígado, ponderadas em T2, utilizando-se seqüências rápidas, diferenciadas pela técnica de controle respiratório, pela utilização de supressão de gordura e pelo tipo de bobina de radiofreqüência. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em 71 pacientes consecutivos, sendo realizadas seis seqüências para comparação: 1 supressão de gordura com sincronização respiratória e bobina de corpo; 2 supressão de gordura em apnéia e bobina de corpo; 3 sem supressão de gordura com sincronização respiratória e bobina de corpo; 4 sem supressão de gordura em apnéia e bobina de corpo; 5 com supressão de gordura com sincronização respiratória e bobina de sinergia; 6 com supressão de gordura em apnéia e bobina de sinergia. A avaliação qualitativa foi baseada em três critérios: detecção de determinadas estruturas anatômicas do fígado, definição dos contornos hepáticos, e presença de artefatos de respiração. A análise quantitativa foi obtida através da relação das intensidades de sinal do fígado e do ruído de fundo. RESULTADOS: O valor médio dos índices globais de qualidade de imagem para cada uma das seis seqüências supracitadas foi de 7,8, 4,6, 7,9, 5,2, 6,7 e 4,6, respectivamente. As seqüências obtidas com sincronização respiratória apresentaram melhor qualidade de imagem e relação sinal/ruído superiores às seqüências com apnéia (p 0,05. As seqüências obtidas com bobina de sinergia apresentaram qualidade de imagem semelhante (p > 0,05 e relação sinal/ruído inferior àquelas com bobina de corpo (p < 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Associando-se as análises qualitativa e quantitativa das imagens, as melhores seqüências foram aquelas obtidas com sincronização respiratória e bobina de corpo, utilizando-se ou não supressão de gordura.

  14. Atuação de Acidithiobacillus na solubilização de fosfato natural em solo de tabuleiro cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus Effect of Acidithiobacillus on solubilization of natural phosphate in a coastal tableland soil under yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus crop

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    N. P. Stamford

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar a atuação do enxofre (S inoculado com Acidithiobacillus na disponibilidade de fósforo (P de fosfato natural (FN, em diferentes modos de aplicação do fertilizante, em um Espodossolo Ferrocárbico Órtico, do tabuleiro costeiro da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, cultivado com jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus. As plantas foram inoculadas com rizóbio (NFB 747 e NFB 748 e adicionado tratamento-controle sem inoculação com rizóbio. Os tratamentos com P foram: (1 FN revestindo o enxofre inoculado com Acidithiobacillus (FN S*, (2 FN revestido com S e com Acidithiobacillus (S* FN, (3 mistura FN com S e com Acidithiobacillus (FN + S*, (4 mistura FN com S e sem Acidithiobacillus (FN + S, (5 superfosfato triplo (ST e (6 sem aplicação de fósforo (P0. Os tratamentos foram aplicados: (a na superfície, (b em sulco 10 cm abaixo da semente, e (c em sulco 10 cm abaixo e ao lado da semente. A biomassa nodular foi maior no tratamento (FN + S* com melhor efeito quando aplicado ao lado e abaixo das sementes. O (FN + S* também aumentou a altura das plantas, a biomassa da parte aérea e das túberas e o N total da parte aérea, especialmente quando aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. O P total da parte aérea foi mais elevado com (S* FN aplicado 10 cm abaixo das sementes. Os melhores teores de P no solo foram obtidos com (FN + S* e (S* FN, com efeito mais evidente quando aplicados 10 cm abaixo das sementes.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of sulphur (S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus on phosphorus (P availability from natural phosphate (NP using different fertilizer application methods on yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus grown in a "Tableland Forest" soil (Podzol Hydromorphic dystrophic of the "Zona da Mata" in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plants were inoculated with rhizobia strains (NFN 747 and NFB 748 and control treatments added without rhizobia inoculation. The P

  15. Níveis crescentes de suplementação energética sobre o desenvolvimento de novilhos mantidos em pastagem natural na encosta do sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul Increasing levels of energy supplementation on development of grazing steers kept on a natural pasture at the southeastern region of Rio Grande do Sul

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    René Mauricio Patiño Pardo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido de 11 de agosto a 15 de novembro de 2000, com a finalidade de avaliar os efeitos de suplementação energética com sorgo moído sobre o desempenho de novilhos de corte em pastejo. Foram utilizados 38 novilhos de 12 a 15 meses de idade, sem raça definida, com 159,97 kg. Os animais foram mantidos em pastejo contínuo, em uma pastagem natural melhorada com Lotus subbiflorus e invadida por Eragrostis planna, Ness. Os tratamentos consistiram de controle (T0, sem suplemento; 0,75% do peso vivo (T0.75 e 1,5% do peso vivo (T1.5 de grão de sorgo moído. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente aos tratamentos, segundo delineamento completamente casualizado. Os efeitos da suplementação sobre o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD e o incremento de escore de condição corporal (IECC foram observados no primeiro período, de 11 de agosto a 6 de setembro, e na média geral do experimento, quando foram observadas respostas quadráticas do GMD e IECC aos níveis de suplemento. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de suplemento sobre o ganho de altura de cernelha e perímetro torácico. A suplementação energética permitiu maiores ganho de peso e incremento de escore de condição corporal nos animais suplementados em relação aos animais controle no período final de inverno, mas não apresentou efeito na primavera.The trial was conducted from August 11th to November 15th, to evaluate the effects of energetic supplementation with ground sorghum grain on grazing beef steers performance. Thirty eight steers without definite breed, aging 12 to 15 months and weighing 159,97 kg were used. Animals were kept under set stocking on a natural pasture improved with Lotus subbiflorus and invaded with Eragrostis planna, Ness. Treatments consisted of control or without supplement (T0; 0.75% of mean live weight (T0.75 and 1.5% of mean live weight (T1.75 of ground sorghum grain. Animals were randomly assigned to treatments according

  16. Effect of the natural and artificial drying of leaf biomass Piper hispidinervum on the chemical composition of the essential oilEfeito da secagem natural e artificial da biomassa foliar de Piper hispidinervum na composição química do óleo essencial

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    Marília Pereira Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum C.DC. is a plant native to the Amazon region, produces an essential oil rich in safrole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of drying biomass in chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum cultivated in Morretes (PR. The treatments were: fresh leaves; natural drying for 6 and 12 days; oven drying at 40°C for 6 and 12 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from samples of 50 g of each treatment in triplicate. The chemical composition of essential oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replication and four plants per plot. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. The type and drying time changes the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum. The dried at 40°C for 12 days reduce the amount of essential oil components, but with increasing content of safrole. Piper hispidinervum C.DC. é uma planta nativa da Amazônia, produtora de óleo essencial rico em safrol. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de secagem da biomassa folia de pimenta longa (P. hispidinervum, cultivada em Morretes (PR, na composição química do óleo essencial. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: folhas frescas; secagem natural por 6 e 12 dias; secagem em estufa à 40°C por 6 e 12 dias. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação a partir de amostras de 50 g de cada tratamento em triplicata. A determinação da composição química do óleo essencial foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa (GC/MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância. O tipo e tempo de secagem alteram a constituição química do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. A secagem em

  17. MnS clusters in natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacomi, Felicia; Vasile, Aurelia; Polychroniadis, E.K

    2003-08-15

    FTIR, ESR, optical absorption, photoconductivity, and luminescence measurements are used to evidence the nature of MnS clusters, synthesized by treating the Mn{sup 2+} forms of natural zeolites with Na{sub 2}S.

  18. A crise da Liga das Nações de 1926: realismo neoclássico, multilateralismo e a natureza da política externa brasileira The League of Nations crisis of 1926: neoclassical realism, multilateralism, and the nature of Brazilian foreign policy

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    Braz Baracuhy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a natureza da política externa brasileira na crise da Liga das Nações (1926, a partir de modelo teórico do realismo neoclássico. As dinâmicas por posições de poder nos tabuleiros geopolítico e multilateral do sistema internacional e as percepções e estratégias diplomáticas da elite de política externa brasileira são consideradas no estudo teórico.The article analyzes the nature of Brazilian foreign policy in the crisis of the League of Nations (1926 from a neoclassical-realist theoretical perspective. Within this theoretical framework, the dynamics of power positioning in the geopolitical and multilateral chessboards of the international system and the perceptions and diplomatic strategies of the Brazilian foreign-policy elite are taken into account.

  19. A Inovação Tecnológica na Sociedade do Conhecimento e o Papel Social da Embrapa no Desenvolvimento Regional

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    Fabiana Cunha Viana Leonelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Em um ambiente caracterizado, cada vez mais, pelo acesso a informação e, principalmente, pela transversalidade do conhecimento, faz-se necessário compreender como a inovação tecnológica pode ter reflexos tangíveis e intangíveis na organização.A inovação pode ser entendida como a capacidade que a empresa tem em gerar novas idéias, identificar oportunidades e transformar esforços em produtos comercializáveis, buscando vincular a inovação com a geração de valor para a empresa, quase sempre, financeiro. No caso da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária – Embrapa, a geração de valor advinda das inovações se expressa não apenas pela arrecadação de royalties, mas, sobretudo, pelo avanço do conhecimento e pelos benefícios sociais e ambientais que uma tecnologia pode gerar para quem a adota, para o entorno e para a sociedade. Neste sentido, pensar a inovação tecnológica nesta dimensão é complexo e envolve elementos que extrapolam os fatores tradicionais de produção. A capacidade inovadora é formada por uma sinergia entre cultura organizacional, processos internos e relacionamentos inter-organizacionais.

  20. A importância da hidrologia na prevenção e mitigação de desastres naturais / The importance of hydrology in the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters

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    Leandro Redin Vestena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os principais conceitos associados aos desastres naturais e destacar a importância da ciência hidrológica na prevenção e mitigação dos desastres naturais ocasionadospela dinâmica do movimento da água sobre, na e sob a superfície da Terra. A partir de uma breve revisão bibliográfi ca os fundamentos conceituais sobre desastres naturais são definidos e o número de ocorrências ofi ciais evidenciados quantitativamente por tipo, gênese e distribuição. Osdesastres naturais ocorridos no Brasil são essencialmente de origemhidrometeorológica, sendo assim analisa-se o papel da ciência hidrológicana prevenção e mitigação dos mesmos.

  1. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

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    Gerov Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  2. Aplicação de um modelo matemático na simulação da produção e importação de gás natural no Brasil até 2017

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    Antonio Carlos Gracias

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O governo federal, por meio de política de desenvolvimento, pretende ampliar a participação do gás natural na matriz energética nos próximos anos. Essa ampliação irá produzir um aumento da capacidade de abastecimento de energia elétrica com uso da geração de energia térmica com gás natural. Um modelo matemático capaz de possibilitar uma previsão futura do consumo e importação de gás natural é fundamental para o planejamento da matriz energética do Brasil. Este trabalho compara dois modelos matemáticos, o modelo de Verhulst (modelo logístico e o modelo de Malthus (modelo exponencial, com o objetivo de analisar as possibilidades desses modelos descreverem a evolução da produção e importação de gás natural no Brasil até 2017, a partir dos dados fornecidos pelo Balanço Energético Nacional desde 1970 até 2007. Toda parte computacional, gráficos, resolução das equações diferenciais e cálculos de linearização e método dos mínimos quadrados, foi feita com o uso do software MatLabÒ. Os resultados obtidos, por meio de gráficos, mostram que os modelos de dinâmica populacional (Verhulst e Malthus podem ser aplicados na modelagem da produção e importação de gás natural do Brasil.

  3. Natural perovskite: (CaII0.95 (1CeIII0.011 (2NaI0.010 (4(FeIII0.022 (2TiIV0.98 (1O3

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    Nelson G. Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A natural sample of perovskite (calcium caesium sodium iron titanium oxide from the Tapira Alkaline Complex in southeastern Brazil was found by electron microprobe analysis to have the chemical formula (Ca2+0.95 (1Ce3+0.011 (2Na+0.010 (4(Fe3+0.022 (2Ti4+0.98 (1O2−3 and by IR spectroscopy to be an anhydrous mineral. Oxygen anions are arranged around Ti4+ in an almost perfect octahedron and around Ca2+ in a distorted 12-fold polyhedron.

  4. Influência da temperatura e da natureza do catalisador na polimerização do glicerol Influence of temperature and nature of the catalyst on glycerol polymerization

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    Miguel de A. Medeiros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a polimerização do glicerol na presença de catalisador ácido (H2SO4 ou H3PO4 e básico (NaOH, para produzir resinas termofixas foi investigada. Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis como a temperatura de reação, o tipo e a concentração do catalisador são críticas para a obtenção de bons rendimentos e seletividade para materiais poliméricos. Em condições otimizadas, i.e. H2SO4 como catalisador, 140 °C por 24 horas, foi possível obter polímeros com 98% de seletividade. Após polimerização, os materiais obtidos foram submetidos a extrações com diferentes solventes, i.e. água, THF e hexano. Os extratos foram caracterizados por ESI(+-MS e por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, que permitiram verificar a presença de oligômeros de até seis unidades monoméricas. Para menores tempos de reação, e.g. 4 horas, foi possível obter elevada seletividade (100% para oligômeros, mas com baixa conversão de glicerol (25%. Além disso, verificou-se que os outros catalisadores (H3PO4 e NaOH apresentam baixa atividade para promover a polimerização do glicerol, e.g. rendimento de 25% após 24 horas.In this work, an investigation was made of the glycerol polymerization in the presence of acid (H2SO4 or H3PO4 and base (NaOH catalysts to produce thermosetting resins. The results showed that the reaction temperature and catalyst concentration are critical to obtain good yield and selectivity. Under optimum condition, i.e. H2SO4 catalyst, 140 °C for 24 hours it was possible to obtain polymers with 98% selectivity. After the polymerization the materials were submitted to extractions with different solvents, i.e. water, THF and hexane. The extracts were characterized by ESI(+-MS (Electro-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and by FTIR, showing the presence of short-chain oligomers (up to six units. For shorter reaction times, e.g. 4 hours, it was possible to obtain high selectivity (100% for oligomers, but with low

  5. Alternatives for the Santos Basin natural gas insertion in the energetic matrix; Alternativas para a insercao do gas da Bacia de Santos na matriz energetica. Estudo de caso: cidade de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awazu, Ricardo de Mello [Grupo MKR, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios], e-mail: ricardo@mkr.com.br; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)], e-mail: edsantos@iee.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas difficult to penetrate in the residential market and compete with electrical energy is the main objective of this study, which will support that in big cities, where natural gas is already reality or will be the use of natural gas should not be considered competition for other types of energy resources but as a strategically complement of the overall power system. Electricity used as thermal source creates only demand for concessionaires and not consumption, in other words, there is short period of time when demand peaks and the amount of energy consumed by the electric shower is so high that requires a huge infra-structure of generation, transmission and distribution. However, it creates a big idle capacity in periods off-peak. The replacement of electricity to natural gas in water heating is critical factor to make the pipeline network economically feasible and to consolidate the residential market. The use of natural gas only to cooking purposes makes the network very costly and with high idle capacity. This study will discuss how an integrated planning of resources can lead to a better use of energy resources and distribution network of natural gas and electricity. (author)

  6. Entre a natureza e o artifício: a concepção de nação nos tempos da independência Between nature and artifice: the conception of nation in times of the independence

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    Elías Palti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Como mostrou a literatura recente sobre a revolução da independência, a articulação de uma certa identidade nacional, contrariamente ao que afirmam as histórias nacionais tradicionais, não foi o ponto de partida senão o término final do processo de ruptura do vínculo colonial. E isso terá consequências historiográficas decisivas, posto que faz surgir a pergunta do que, então, o colocou em marcha. A chamada crítica "revisionista" abrirá as portas a esta pergunta só ao preço de declará-la insolúvel de antemão. A afirmação da persistência de imaginários tradicionais resulta em um ponto de vista da revolução como o resultado de uma série de acidentes, sem chegar a explicar porque os ditos acidentes tiveram as consequências que tiveram. Sem dúvida, alguma ideia de nação se encontrava operando então, posto que do contrário a vacância real não havia tido as consequências que teve. Definitivamente, pretender explicar tais sucessos sobre a base de um conceito de nação que, na realidade, só na segunda metade do século XIX receberia forma é um simples anacronismo; a negação da existência de toda ideia de nação (como se ela antes de mencionada fosse a única possível e verdadeira também o é. À pergunta antes assinalada cabe então retraduzi-la do seguinte modo: que ideias de nação e autodeterminação puderam desenvolver-se no dito contexto político-intelectual e sem as quais não poderia haver se produzido o tipo de ruptura política que então se produziu; enfim, como pôde surgir a ideia de que os territórios americanos eram nações, e que puderam, portanto, reclamar direitos soberanos e autogovernar-se. O trabalho se propõe a reconstruir a série de deslocamentos político-conceituais que precederam a revolução da independência na América Latina e que, se bem que não a anteciparam, terminaram abrindo lugar para que esta se tornasse concebível.As shown by the recent literature on the

  7. Hábitos alimentares, infecção natural e distribuição de triotomíneos domiciliados na região nordeste do Brasil Feeding habits, natural infection and distribution of domiciliary Triatominae bugs Northeast of Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas as informações obtidas no inquérito triatomíneo levado a efeito na região nordeste do Brasil. As características biogeográficas incluem a presença de áreas semi-áridas da caatinga e amplas faixas transicionais com outras feições paisagísticas. Entre estas foram incluídas as da floresta tropical atlântica e as inclusões florestadas mais extensas. No período de 1975 a 1980 foram examinados 15.342 triotomíneos coletados no ambiente domiciliar, visando detectar as presenças de sangue ingerido e de infecção natural por Trypanosoma tipo cruzi. O conteúdo intestinal foi submetido a reações com antisoros para homem, cão, gato, roedor (Kattus, marsupial (Didelphis e ave (Gallus. Por ordem de freqüência, as espécies encontradas foram Triatoma pseudomaculada (40,6%, Panstrongylus megistus (19,7%, Triatoma brasiliensis e T. sordida (ambos com 14,3%, Rhodnius nasutus (6,1% e Triatoma infestans (1,1%; além de em algumas outras raras. A presença de sangue foi detectada em 42,4% e a infecção em 3,4% desse total de espécimens examinados. Observou-se elevada mobilidade alimentar, com coeficientes gerais de 54,8% para ave e 30,0% para homem. Em nível específico pôde determinar apreciável grau de antropofilia em P. megistus e, em menor intensidade, em T. brasiliensis. Por sua vez, T. infestans mostrou-se altamente antropófilo. Observou-se apreciável ornitofilia em T. pseudomaculata e T. sordida, com elevada intensidade em R. nasutus. Por outro lado, a presença de sangue humano em espécimens capturados no peridomicílio indicou a ocorrência de freqüente mobilidade espacial, com exceção de T. infestans que não mostrou evidências de abandonar o domicílio. A tendência à domiciliação, além desta, revelou-se apreciável em P. megistus, moderada em T. brasiliensi, T. pseudomaculata, T. sordida e praticamente nula em R. nasutus. A distribuição geográfica confirmou o caráter autóctone de T

  8. Efeito dos compostos naturais bioativos na conservação pós-colheita de frutos de mangueira cv. Tommy Atkins Effects of bioactive natural compounds on the postharvest conservation of mango fruits cv. Tommy Atkins

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    Maria Julia da Silva Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose causa severos danos na pós-colheita de manga. Como o controle químico tem demonstrado desvantagens, o potencial uso de óleos essenciais para o controle de fitopatógenos tem sido uma alternativa. Neste trabalho, objetvou-se avaliar a eficácia de produtos alternativos no controle da antracnose e na conservação de mangas (Mangifera indica cv. Tommy Atkins tratado com bicarbonato de sódio diluído em água destilada, na concentração de 3% (v/v, via imersão. Como tratamento, foram utilizados os óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana, Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus e Eucalyptus citriodora, via fumigação, na dosagem de 1000 μL e água destilada via fumigação; todos por 3 minutos. Frutos da Unidade CEASA-Maringá/PR, selecionados, pesados em balança semianalítica, desinfetados em imersão por 3 minutos em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 0,5% (v/v; foram submetidos aos tratamentos, permanecendo sob condições ambientes (26 ± 2ºC e UR 90 ± 5%. Exceto o tratamento com Citrus sinensis, que proporcionou um pH maior do que a testemunha, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos que elevaram a variável. A redução da acidez em todos os tratamentos e aumentos dos sólidos solúveis totais nos frutos, sendo que o tratamento com bicarbonato de sódio proporcionou 14,42 ºBrix. O número de frutos com antracnose foi menor no tratamento com Citrus sinensis e este diferiu dos demais comprovando o efeito de espécies do gênero Citrus como antifúngicos. O uso de óleos essenciais como o de Citrus sinensis controlou a antracnose e manteve a qualidade dos frutos.The anthracnose causes severe damages to the mango post-harvest. As chemical control has shown disadvantages, the potential of use of essential oils has been an alternative for the phytopathogen control. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of alternative products in the anthracnose control and in the conservation of mangos

  9. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  10. İlkokul Öğrencileri ve Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Doğaya İlişkin Algıları ve Sorumluluklarına Yönelik Düşünceleri Elemantary Scholl Students’ And Prospective Elemantary Scholl Teachers’ Perceptions of Nature And Thoughts of Their Responsibilities Towards The Nature

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    Nilüfer KÖŞKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature education provides important opportunities for learningabout nature, being aware of it and protecting it. The best way is tostart education of it from children. Education plays an important roleon the child in shaping his/her perceptions about nature andenvironment. Perception of people about nature affects their behaviorsand attitudes. Defining the perceptions of teachers that direct teachingprocess and students about nature and their responsibility towardsnature will be affective on the composition of nature education. The aimof this research is to define primary school students’ and prospectiveteachers’ perceptions of nature and thoughts of their responsibilitiestowards the nature. Data were collected from 150 primary schoolstudents and 123 prospective primary school teachers. Interview formswere used as data collection instrument Data were evaluated accordingto qualitative descriptive analysis and content analysis. According toresearch results, most of the primary school students define nature asplants while most of prospective primary school teachers define as aplace of life area. According to results, nature evokes those plants suchas tree and forest. Thoughts of their responsibilities towards the naturegathered under two themes: protection and greening. Most ofprospective primary school teachers and primary school students havefocused on their responsibility for protection more. It would be said thatboth students and prospective teachers pay attention to theirenvironment and their awareness level for protecting is very high. Doğayı tanımak, korumak ve farkındalık yaratmak açısından doğaeğitimi önemli fırsatlar yaratacaktır. Bu yönde bir eğitime çocuklardanbaşlamak ise en doğru adım olacaktır. Çocuğun içinde bulunduğu çevreve doğa hakkındaki algılarının şekillenmesinde eğitim belirleyici bir yertutmaktadır. Bireylerin doğaya ilişkin algıları, tutum ve davranışlarınıetkilemektedir.

  11. Teste do efeito de borda na predação de ninhos naturais e artificiais no Cerrado A test of the edge effect on predation of natural and artificial bird nests in the Cerrado

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    Letice C. França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado is still one of the most important ecosystems in Brazil, even though more than 50% of its area has been altered or converted to pastureland and plantations. Despite its intense degradation, few ecological processes that might affect its biodiversity have been evaluated. The goal of this study was to test the edge effect on the predation rates at natural and artificial nests, at the Ecological Station of Águas Emendadas, Federal District, Brazil. Natural nests were found and monitored every three to four days from September to December of 2004 in the interior and at the edge of the reserve. Artificial nests were placed at four distances from the edge (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 m in three spatial replicates in September and again in December of 2004. Each nest received one Japanese Quail and one plasticine egg and was monitored every five days, for 15 days. There was no difference between the rates of predation either in the natural nests or in the artificial nests between treatments. For one bird species, Elaenia chiriquensis (Lawrence, 1865, Tyrannidae, daily survival rates in the incubation and in the hatchling period had opposite values between the edge and the interior. Marks on plasticine eggs suggest that birds are the main predators. Estimates of the abundance of two potential nest predators, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823, Corvidae and Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758, Canidae, revealed no relationship with distance to the edge, nor with predation rates. Brood parasitism of natural nests was similar between the interior (0% and the edge (3.8% of the nests. The results described here do not support the edge effect hypothesis for nest predation rates on either natural or artificial nests, nor for brood parasitism rates.

  12. Terminação de novilhos de corte Angus e mestiços em pastagem natural na região da Campanha do RS Finishing of Angus and crossbred beef cattle on native pasture in the Campanha region of RS

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    Eduardo Tonet Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a viabilidade de abater animais de distintos grupos raciais com até quatro dentes em diferentes tipos de pastagem: natural, adubada, e melhorada por fertilização e sobressemeadura de espécies hiberno-primaveris. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os dados foram agrupados em estações do ano (inverno e primavera e submetidos à análise de variância. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte Angus e mestiços, ambos com média de idade inicial de 20 meses. A massa de forragem total e a altura do pasto apresentaram diferenças entre os tipos de pastagem e as estações do ano. A taxa de lotação e a massa de forragem verde sofreram interação entre o tipo de pastagem e a estação do ano. O ganho por área ao longo do experimento foi maior na pastagem adubada (259 kg/ha e melhorada (263 kg/ha em comparação à pastagem natural (126 kg/ha. O ganho médio diário foi maior para os novilhos Angus (1,087 kg/dia e na estação de inverno (1,251 kg/dia. Não houve diferença para a área de olho-de-lombo entre o tipo de pastagem e grupo racial na data do abate. A espessura de gordura subcutânea sofreu interação entre o tipo de manejo e o grupo racial, uma vez que novilhos mestiços depositaram mais gordura na pastagem adubada e novilhos Angus na melhorada. Animais mestiços atingiram menor peso ao abate (505 kg, porém maior rendimento de carcaça (51,6%. Somente os animais mantidos na pastagem natural não atingiram acabamento suficiente para a comercialização. A utilização de fertlizantes e sementes na pastagem natural possibilita o abate de novilhos precoces independente do grupo racial. O ambiente pastoril determina diferentes respostas produtivas conforme a genética utilizada. O cruzamento é uma alternativa para incrementar atributos importantes da carcaça e diminuir o tempo de terminação.The viability for slaughtering steers of distinct breeds with four teeth at most, on

  13. Efektite na prostaciklin vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija kaj staorci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikrovaskularnite komplikacii, a pred se dijabeticnata nefropatija, se edni od najteskite komplikacii na dijabetot, od koi vo golema mera zavisi i prognozata na dijabetot kaj ovie pacienti. Etiopatogenezata na ovaa komplikacija e multifaktorijalna i za sega se uste ne kompletno rasvetlena, a vklucuva morfoloski, patolosko-anatomski i biohemiski metabolni narusuvanja. Se smeta deka narusuvanjeto na modularnata funkcija na endoteliumot moze da bide kriticen i inicijalen faktor vo razvojot na dijabeticnite vaskularni komplikacii. Vrz osnova na farmakodinamskite efekti koi sto gi poseduva prostaciklinot (PGI2 i negovite analozi, se smeta deka istite moze da bidat korisni vo tretmanot na dijabeti~nata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na ovaa studija be{e da se procenat efektite na prostaciklin (PGI2 vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno predizvikana so streptozocin. Kaj normotenzivni staorci od sojot Wistar, eksperimentalno bese induciran najprvin dijabet so ednokratna i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ, a kako komplikacija na dijabetot i jasni znaci i simptomi na dijabeticna nefropatija (proteinurija, zgolemeno serumsko nivo na urea i kreatinin, poliurija, zgolemena aktivnost na NAG vo mockata. Tretman so prostaciklin (p.o. vo doza od 0.1 mg/kg /t.t./den, vo tekot na 4 nedeli, dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na simptomite i znacite na bubreznite ostetuvanja, vo odnos na grupata zivotni koi ne primaa prostaciklin. Vrz osnova na dobienite rezultati moze da se zakluci deka prostaciklinot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno inducirana so streptozocin.

  14. O papel de representações sociais sobre a natureza da homossexualidade na oposição ao casamento civil e à adoção por famílias homoafetivas The role of social representations about the nature of homosexuality: opposition to civil marriage and adoption by homoaffective families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Roberto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se as relações entre preconceito, apoio a políticas discriminatórias contra homossexuais e representações sociais sobre a natureza da homossexualidade. Participaram da pesquisa 297 estudantes do último ano de psicologia, serviço social e direito. Os resultados mostram que as representações sobre a homossexualidade baseadas em crenças religiosas, moralistas e psicológicas predizem o maior apoio às políticas discriminatórias contra os homossexuais, nomeadamente a oposição ao casamento e à adoção de crianças por casais homoafetivos. A crença na natureza cultural da homossexualidade prediz o menor apoio a essas políticas. As relações verificadas são mediadas pelo preconceito flagrante contra homossexuais. Esses resultados mostram o papel desempenhado por representações sobre a natureza dos grupos sociais na manutenção de preconceitos e práticas discriminatórias contra minorias sociais.In this study the relationship between prejudice, support of discriminating policies against homosexuals and people's social representations about the nature of homosexuality was analyzed. Participants were 297 final year psychology, social work, and law students. Results showed that the representations about homosexuality based on religious, moralist, and psychological beliefs are positively related to the support of discriminating policies against homosexuals, specifically the opposition to civil union and to children's adoption by homosexuals. Beliefs about the cultural nature of homosexuality predicted lower support of these policies. These relations were mediated by blatant prejudice against homosexuals. These results show the role played by social representations about the nature of social groups in the maintenance of prejudices and discriminatory practices against minority groups.

  15. Jundiaí (SP: transformações recentes na paisagem urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fornari Del Monte Fanelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar aspectos condicionantes das transformações e as tipologias presentes na paisagem urbana de Jundiaí na região situada às margens das rodovias Dom Gabriel P. B. Couto e João Cereser, nas proximidades da serra do Japi. A partir da conceituação de Magnoli (1982 de espaços livres, e através da análise de informações de diversas naturezas, como legislações urbanísticas, fotos aéreas e visitas in loco, pode-se afirmar que Jundiaí, cidade-polo do Aglomerado Urbano de Jundiaí (AUJ, caracteriza-se pela presença de grandes áreas de preservação ambiental, como a serra do Japi, e áreas de conservação de mananciais, que impedem a expansão urbana para os vetores sul ou leste, favorecendo o crescimento da forma urbana no sentido noroeste e oeste. Devido à sua localização, num espaço intersticial entre as Regiões Metropolitanas de São Paulo, Campinas e o Aglomerado Urbano de Sorocaba (AUS, a cidade convive com diversas influências socioeconômicas e espaciais decorrentes do processo de metropolização típico da macrometrópole paulista. Assim, as áreas de preservação ambiental, as presenças de espaços livres não urbanizados de grandes proporções e a sinergia de Jundiaí com a rede de cidades dos Aglomerados Urbanos tornaram-se os principais agentes transformadores da paisagem urbana deste território.

  16. Health, biodiversity, and natural resource use on the Amazon frontier: an ecosystem approach Saúde, biodiversidade e uso de recursos naturais na fronteira da Amazônia: uma abordagem ecossistêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsyn P. Murray

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the health of rural Amazonian communities through the development and application of a participatory ecosystem approach to human health assessment. In the study area marked seasonal fluctuations dictate food availability, water quality and disease outbreak. Determining the causal linkages between ecosystem variables, resource use and health required a variety of forms of inquiry at multiple scales with local participation. Landscape spatial mapping of resource use demonstrated the diversity of the ecological resources upon which communities depend. Household surveys detailed family and individual consumption and production patterns. Anthropometric measurements, parasite loading, water quality and anemia levels were used as indicators of health status. This was complemented with an ethnographic and participatory health assessment that provided the foundation for developing community action plans addressing health issues. Discussion is focused on three attributes of an ecosystem approach; (a methodological pluralism, (b cross-scale interactions and (c participatory action research.O estudo visa melhorar a saúde das comunidades rurais amazônicas mediante o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de abordagem ecossistêmica participante na avaliação da saúde humana. Na área estudada, oscilações sazonais definem a disponibilidade de alimentos, a qualidade da água e a incidência de doenças. A determinação dos elos causais entre variáveis ecossistêmicas, uso de recursos e saúde exigiu uma gama de formas de investigação, em múltiplas escalas, com participação local. O mapeamento espacial da paisagem quanto ao uso de recursos mostrou a diversidade dos recursos ecológicos de que as comunidades dependem. Inquéritos domiciliares detalharam padrões de consumo e produção familiares e individuais. Medidas antropométricas, carga parasitária, qualidade da água e níveis de anemia foram empregados como indicadores

  17. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Vale,Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino,José; Vale,Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  18. Use and misuse of the concepts of tradition and property rights in the conservation of natural resources in the atlantic forest (Brazil Uso e abuso dos conceitos de tradição e direitos de propriedade na conservação de recursos naturais na Mata Atlântica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Castro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between resource management, local populations, and property regimes has long puzzled researchers and policy-makers. The constant failure of conservation policy reliant upon privatization and statization, has led both policy makers and researchers to recognize the importance of customary practices to achieve conservation. Yet, the overemphasis on "traditional populations" and "collective property regimes" as the way to promote conservation can be misleading. In this paper, we discuss the debate on local populations and resource conservation in the Southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil. The analysis focuses on 1 the concept of traditional populations; 2 the complexity of overlapping property regimes; 3 the potential for a loose relationship between "traditional populations" and "collective property regimes," and; 4 the implications of this approach for "non-traditional populations." We conclude that the bias toward "tradition" and "collective property regimes" threatens the entire range of local communities along what might be called a traditional-non-traditional populations gradient.O entendimento da inter-relação entre as formas de manejo de recursos naturais, o papel das populações rurais na conservação ambiental, e os regimes de propriedades para controlar o uso de recursos tem sido um grande desafio para pesquisadoes e administradores públicos. Exemplos de insucessos de políticas ambientais baseadas no sistema de propriedade privada ou estatal tem levado ao reconhecimento da importância de práticas locais de uso de recursos naturais para atingir o objetivo de conservação. Entretanto, a ênfase apenas em "populações tradicionais" e "regimes de propriedades coletivas" como solução para a conservação de recursos naturais tem criado alguns problemas conceituais e práticos. O presente artigo discute o debate sobre populações locais e as propostas de conservação na Mata Atlântica, enfocando quatro aspectos

  19. Bolonja na hrvatski način

    OpenAIRE

    Krstović, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Iako je osnovna značajka obrazovnog sustava Republike Hrvatske horizontalna i okomita protočnost, ova se značajka još uvijek ne odnosi na obrazovanje odgajatelja. No u posljednje vrijeme događaju se pomaci i kvalitativne promjene koje su zahvatile i sustav obrazovanja hrvatskih odgajatelja.

  20. SEGREGAÇÃO NATURAL DE VIRÓIDES DOS CITROS DETECTADA NA INDEXAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA E BIOQUÍMICA E CONFIRMADA PELOS SINTOMAS DE PLANTAS DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STUCHI EDUARDO SANCHES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os procedimentos de indexação biológica e bioquímica em um experimento de avaliação do uso de viróides como agentes ananicantes para pomeleiro 'Marsh Seedless'. Em algumas parcelas, houve segregação de viróides, sendo que, em duas, a segregação foi de CEVd (viróide da exocorte dos citros e, em outras duas, não foi detectada a presença de CVd-II (viróide dos citros II. Como conseqüência desta segregação, não ocorreram sintomas típicos da exocorte em cidra nas parcelas nas quais houve segregação de CEVd, o que ocorreu nas parcelas em que a segregação foi de CVd-II, indicando que é necessária a presença de CEV para a manifestação de sintomas típicos de exocorte em cidra. Numa quinta parcela, não se detectaram viróides, provavelmente, devido à ausência dos mesmos no material de inoculação do teste biológico (escape, já que a planta de campo teve desenvolvimento vegetativo normal e ausência de sintomas no tronco. Finalmente, em uma sexta parcela, o que ocorreu, foi uma segregação drástica, não relatada na literatura, já que a planta de campo mostrou redução de porte e sintomas no tronco. A coleta de varetas para indexação deve ser mais rigorosa em função da ocorrência de segregação.

  1. Evaluation in public policy on renewable natural resources management in Paraná State: economic and environmental impacts/ Avaliação da política pública na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis no Estado do Paraná: impactos econômicos e ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of renewable natural resources management in the State of Paraná, in an approach aimed at economic and environmental impacts. It was based on a case study in areas with unsuccessful incentives and unclarified frauds. The research diagnosed the land tenure and possession structure on the coast of the State of Paraná, by relating data provided by Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA on heart-of-palm trees (Euterpe edulis Martius reforestation projects in the 1970’s with cutting and management plans granted. The results indicate that the researched areas are vitiated, with overlappings of tenure titles and land disputes. An analysis of native heart of palm management plans confirmed ineffectiveness, as cuts were allowed in illegal areas, contributing toward Atlantic Forest degradation. The distortions verified in the study remain to the present day, in acquisitions of Conservation Units, in proceedings for the acknowledgement of Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural – (RPPN – Private Natural Heritage Reserves, in Forest Certification – FSC, or in environmental ventures such as the carbon trade, and may constitute a network.O trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis no Estado do Paraná na abordagem de impactos econômicos e ambientais. Baseou-se num estudo de caso em áreas com incentivos malsucedidos e fraudes não esclarecidas. A pesquisa realizada diagnosticou a estrutura fundiária e possessória do litoral paranaense, relacionando com os dados fornecidos pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA sobre projetos de reflorestamento de palmito (Euterpe edulis Martius na década de 1970 e com planos de cortes e manejos concedidos. Os resultados apontam que as áreas pesquisadas são viciadas, com sobreposições de títulos dominiais e lit

  2. Voltage dependence of Na translocation by the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Gadsby, D C

    During each complete reaction cycle, the Na/K pump transports three Na ions out across the cell membrane and two K ions in. The resulting net extrusion of positive charge generates outward membrane current but, until now, it was unclear how that net charge movement occurs. Reasonable possibilities included a single positive charge moving outwards during Na translocation; or a single negative charge moving inwards during K translocation; or either positive or negative charges moving during both translocation steps, but in unequal quantities. Any step that involves net charge movement through the membrane must have voltage-dependent transition rates. Here we report measurements of transient, voltage-dependent, displacement currents generated by the pump when its normal Na/K transport cycle has been interrupted by removal of external K and it is thus constrained to carry out Na/Na exchange. The quantity and voltage sensitivity of the charge moved during these transient currents suggests that Na translocation includes a voltage-dependent transition involving movement of one positive charge across the membrane. This single step can thus fully account for the electrogenic nature of Na/K exchange. The result provides important new insight into the molecular mechanism of active cation transport.

  3. EFFECTS OF NaOH MODIFICATION ON THE MECHANICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    properties for natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Keywords: Alkaline modification, Tensile strength, Modulus of elasticity, Baobab fiber, FTIR. 1. .... the prepared 2 wt% of NaOH solution and heat at 40 oC ... There was change in.

  4. Integrar sociedade e natureza na luta contra a fome no século XXI Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Abramovay

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão do mundo contemporâneo exige um olhar naturalista do qual a obra de Josué de Castro é uma das mais importantes expressões: pensar de maneira articulada a vida social e a reprodução do ambiente natural em que se apóia - incluindo aí a natureza do próprio homem, seu corpo - é a pedra de toque do método geográfico praticado em Geografia da Fome. Esse método é importante não apenas para estudar aquelas regiões onde a fome se abate severamente sobre a vida da população, mas oferece uma importante chave de leitura dos problemas alimentares que se anunciam para o século XXI, quando a população mundial deverá ter um aumento de quase 50%. Os desafios produtivos dos próximos anos - que este artigo procura expor de maneira sumária - não poderão ser enfrentados com base nas técnicas que caracterizaram a Revolução Verde. Eles exigem uma compreensão refinada dos vínculos entre sistemas sociais e sistemas ecológicos, para a qual a obra de Josué de Castro é uma inspiração fundamental.Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years - and which this article discusses briefly - cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the

  5. THERMODYNAMICS OF ION-EXCHANGED NATURAL CLINOPTILOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural clinoptilolite from Castle Creek, Idaho, and its cation-exchanged variants (Na-Cpt, NaK-Cpt, K-Cpt, and Ca-Cpt) were studied by high-temperature calorimetry. The hydration enthalpy for all clinoptilolites is about -30 kJ/mol H2O (liquid water reference state) at 25 C. T...

  6. PÚBLICO, COMUNITÁRIO E PRIVADO: DIREITOS E BEM-ESTAR NA PERSPECTIVA DO PARADIGMA COMUNITARISTA / PUBLIC, COMMUNITY AND PRIVATE: RIGHTS AND WELL-BEING FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COMMUNITARIAN PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Schmidt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A cultura jurídica e política brasileira, perpassada pela dicotomia público/privado, vem legitimando arranjos institucionais e formulações legais que destacam excessivamente o papel do Estado (estatismo e do mercado (privatismo. Tais arranjos são inadequados para a garantia dos direitos, a proteção social e o bem-estar do conjunto dos cidadãos. Em lugar do viés dicotômico, é indispensável uma nova cultura, com nova arquitetura conceitual, centrada na cooperação entre Entes Estatais, comunitários e privados. A revisitação aos conceitos de público, comunitário e privado empreendida, à luz do paradigma comunitarista, fundamenta uma abordagem inovadora em defesa da sinergia entre os setores público, privado e terceiro setor. Resta evidente a importância do terceiro setor e a indispensável participação das organizações sociais e comunitárias na garantia de direitos e na proteção social no Brasil, bem como a necessidade de planejar as políticas públicas, visando ao equilíbrio entre os setores. O método é dedutivo. A técnica de pesquisa é bibliográfica e estatística, utilizando-se dados do Cadastro Central de Empresas e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, para a caracterização dos setores econômicos. Palavras-chave: Público. Comunitário. Privado. Terceiro setor. Comunitarismo.

  7. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-01-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…

  8. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-01-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…

  9. Displaying Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing Museum of Natural History is located in Chongwen District, close to the Temple of Heaven and Tianqiao Theater. It was founded in 1951 and formally named Beijing Museum of Natural History in 1962.

  10. The relationship between the industry of natural gas and the sector of electric power: perspectives for the united development of such segments in Bahia; Estudo da industria do gas natural e sua relacao com o setor eletrico na Bahia: perspectivas para uma integracao sinergica entre tais segmentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Daniel O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Georges S. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural

    2005-07-01

    The industry of natural gas is finding great inter-relationship with the electric power section due to aspects technical, economical and institutional. In Brazil, this world tendency is increasing quickly, above all, starting from the crisis of energy lived by the Country in 2001. In spite of, in spite of being the third producing largest and consume-pain in Brazil, Bahia now is deficient in natural gas, committing the thermal-electricity generation due to lack of this energy one as well as, of the deficiency in the transport and distribution infrastructure. Besides, Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest population without access the electric power. This motivates reflections concerning the potentialities of the natural gas to lessen this situation. Therefore, this work has an objective to evaluate the structures of the industry of the natural gas and the electric section in Bahia and the relationship among these segments. Initially, it tries to present the reasons that it is taking the development of the electric power generation in consonance with the industry of the gas. Soon afterwards, it comes a retrospective abbreviation of the electric power generation in Brazil and in Bahia, emphasizing the recent tendency of use of the natural gas for the thermal-electricity generation. In the following point, it talks about the reservations and production of natural gas and he/she comes the structure of commercialization of gas from the production/importation to the distribution in Brazil and in Bahia. To proceed, the investment plans are evaluated for the enlargement of the production, transport and distribution of natural gas and electricity in Bahia. Finally, the article is concluded being discussed the difficulties and perspectives of increase and integration of the segments of natural gas and electric power in Bahia, tends in view the institutional aspects, technique and economical of a model that influences the use of the natural gas and contribute to the

  11. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  12. Verificação de antagonismo entre larvas de Schistosoma mansoni e larvas de outros Digenea em Biomphalaria tenagophila, molusco planobídeo de criadouro natural situado na região de Campinas, SP, Brasil Verification of the antagonism between larvae of Schistosoma mansoni and those of other Digenea in Biomphalaria tenagophila, a planorbid molusc from a natural breeding ground in the region of Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Maria Pissini Machado

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi observado o comportamento de larvas de S. mansoni em moluscos prévia e naturalmente infectados por larvas de outros Digenea. Foi verificado que as larvas de S. mansoni não se desenvolveram nos moluscos previamente infectados com purcocercárias longifurcadas com ocelos ou com furcocercárias longifurcadas sem ocelos. Observou-se resistência parcial ao desenvolvimento de S. mansoni nos moluscos previamente infectados por equinostomocercárias ou por distomocercárias com acúleo. A ausência de reação amebocitária em torno dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nos moluscos infectados por outros digenéticos parece indicar a não participação dos amebócitos na resistência oferecida ao desenvolvimento das larvas de S. mansoni.The objective of the present work is to study the development of S. mansoni larvae in snails found naturally infected by other digenetic trematode larvae. It was found that S. mansoni larvae did not develop in snails previoulsy infected by furcicercariae either with or without ocelli. Partial resistance to the development of S. mansoni was observed in snails previously infected by cercariae of Echinostomatidae or by cercariae with aculeus of Distomata. Absence of amoebocitary reaction around the S. mansoni sporocysts in snails previously infected by other digenetic trematodes indicates that amoebocytes did not play any role in the resistance mechanism.

  13. Implantação de Reservas Legais: uma nova perspectiva na conservação dos recursos naturais em paisagem rural Implantation of Legal Reserves: a new perspective in the conservation of the natural resources in rural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme F. G. Déstro

    2010-01-01

    . According to such diagnosis, some proposals for the establishment of Legal Reserves are discussed here based on scientific arguments aimed at the conservation of water resources, soil and biodiversity. It is hoped, that from this study, the environment receives a new tool for diagnosis, pollution control, recovery and conservation of natural resources.

  14. ETAŽNA LASTNINA S POUDARKOM NA ZVEtL

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je lastnina posameznega dela zgradbe in solastnina na skupnih delih, ki služijo vsem ali nekaterim posameznim delom zgradbe. Etažna lastnino na območju Republike Slovenije je uvedel Zakon o lastnini na delih stavbe kot odgovor na potrebo po hitri nacionalizaciji stanovanj in odrazu doslednega uvajanja osnovne ideje takratnega socialističnega duha t.j. družbene lastnine. Slovenija kot mlada demokratična država je ob tranziciji iz socialističnega v demokratični sistem poskušala ...

  15. Economic and market feasibility analysis, by the point of view of gas and electrical companies, for replacement of the electric powered showers by the natural gas powered showers in ABC Paulista area; Analise da viabilidade economica e do mercado, do ponto de vista das concessionarias de gas e de energia eletrica, pela substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por gas natural, na area do ABC paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callari, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of an exchange of energy for heating residential water should be seen, by the point of view of the concessionaires, as a single market and exclusionary, in which the development of new customers by the concessionaire of electric energy directly involves the development of these non-customers for the distributor of natural gas. The study shows that, under the terms of concession of electricity, the loss of any part of the markets, current and expansion would be attractive only if the natural gas concessionaire could pass part of their earnings with customers users of electric showers that change their profile to the gas heaters, for electrical distribution. Under the terms of the concession to natural gas, the condition of massive investments replacement of electric showers and absorption of growth and expansion entrant with customers, increase the turnover to allow the search of a mechanism for transferring part of that revenue to absorb also customers of electricity. Thus, both the concessionaire of electricity preserve their revenue and, in turn, the concessionaire of natural gas would have an effective gain of revenue for the absorption of the customers of electric showers. (author.

  16. Mimesis e rememoração da natureza no sujeito em Theodor W. Adorno: para pensar a educação do corpo na escola Mimesis and remembrance of nature in the subject by Theodor W. Adorno: thinking body education at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison José Bassani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir das contribuições da Teoria Crítica da Sociedade, de Theodor W. Adorno, o presente trabalho dedica-se a uma reflexão epistemológica e pedagógica sobre o tema do corpo e suas expressões, em especial no que se refere a dois de seus motivos originais: a questão da mimesis e a da rememoração da natureza no sujeito. Como resultado, destaca-se a posição dialética que o corpo ocupa no processo de esquecimento e denegação da natureza no sujeito, na medida em que, se a ideia de natureza e da memória do sujeito em relação a ela é expressão de uma subjetividade incerta e petrificada, por outro lado, no entanto, a partir da valorização do comportamento mimético no âmbito das práticas corporais, constitui-se a possibilidade de resistência aos imperativos da racionalidade instrumental.Based on the contributions from the Critical Theory of Society of Theodor W. Adorno, this paper makes an epistemological and pedagogical reflection on body and its expressions, specially on two original forces: mimesis and remembrance of nature in the subject. The body finds a dialectical place in the process of forgetting and refusing nature in the subject. If nature and the subject's memory are an expression of an uncertain and stoned subjectivity, mimetic behavior in corporal practices is however a possibility or resistance against instrumental rationality.

  17. Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations of melting in $Na_{8}$ and $Na_{20} melting in steps

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A; Alonso, J A; Stott, M J; Aguado, Andres; Lopez, Jose M.; Alonso, Julio A.; Stott, Malcolm J.

    1999-01-01

    The melting-like transitions of Na8 and Na20 are investigated by extensive ab initio constant energy molecular dynamics simulations, using a variant of the Car-Parrinello method which employs an explicit electronic kinetic energy functional of the density, thus avoiding the use of one-particle orbitals. Several melting indicators are evaluated in order to determine the nature of the different transitions, and comparison with other theoretical calculations is made. Both Na8 and Na20 melt over a wide range of temperature. For Na8, a first transition is observed at approx. 110 K, between a rigid phase and a phase involving isomerization between the different permutational isomers of the ground state structure. The ``liquid'' phase is completely established at approx. 220 K. For Na20, three successive transitions are observed: the first phase transition, at approx. 110 K, is associated with isomerization transitions between those permutational isomers of the ground state structure which are obtained by interchang...

  18. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  19. Nature seconded

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Heidegger�s remark that the banks of the river (representing nature in its supposedly pure state) only become apparent because of the presence of the bridge (representing the artificial in its supposed opposition to that nature) will lead this presentation to a discussion of whether or not the idea of �nature� as prior to architecture remains unequivocally valid. If nature/the site - that which claims to come before the artificial/architecture - only appears as a result of the presence ...

  20. Natureza rica, povos pobres? - questões conceituais e analíticas sobre o papel dos recursos naturais na prosperidade contemporânea Rich nature, poor people? Conceptual and analytical questions on the role of natural resources for contemporary prosperity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Drummond

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo questionaa tendência atual de se igualar a riqueza de recursos naturais de uma região à prosperidade e ao bem-estar dos seus habitantes. Discute formulações clássicas da "sociologia do desenvolvimento" de Prebisch e Hirschman e os seus desdobramentos nas obras mais recentes de Bunker e Freudenburg. Todos esses autores ressaltam que regiões e atividades intensivas em recursos naturais têm sérias desvantagens desenvolvimentistas quando comparadas a regiões e atividades transformadoras de recursos naturais ou intensivas em tecnologia e informação.This article questions the current trend which supposes that the rich natural resource endowment of a region leads to the prosperity or weel-being of its inhabitants. It discusses classic statements by Prebisch and Hirschman as well as more contemporary ones by Bunker and Freudenburg. These authors stress the idea that regions and activities intensive in natural resources have serious developmental handicaps when compared to regions and activities intensive in industrial transformation of natural resources or in technology and information.

  1. NAKUPOVANJE NA SPLETU

    OpenAIRE

    Visenjak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  2. Effect NaOH Concentration on Bagasse Ash Based Geopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a natural adhesive material which can be developed as a substitute for cement. The natural ingredients which want to use should contain silica and alumina. This paper uses bagasse ash as a basic material of mortar geopolymer. As an adhesive, the bagasse ash should be mixed with water and another activator alkali such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The NaOHs molarity variation are 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 M with Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1,0 sand/bagasse ash = 2,75 and activator/bagasse ash = 0,42. This research use 50 × 50 × 50 mm cube sized specimen and conduct a compressive strength test with 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The fresh mortar test result showed that the use of NaOHs molarity variation influences the slump value and time setting. The bigger NaOH molarity variation that been used, the smaller slump value. But, the time setting is increased. While the result for density and compressive strength shown that the bigger NaOH molarity variation, the bigger density and the compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength resulted from the mixture of mortar geopolymer with 16 M concentration.

  3. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  4. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  5. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  6. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  7. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  8. Natural death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. Landscape architecture might, however, provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  10. Possible impacts of the natural gas three-part tariff on the great industrial consumers over 500.000 m{sup 3}/month at the COMGAS distribution area; Possiveis impactos da tarifa trinomial de gas natural nos grandes consumidores industriais acima de 500.000 m{sup 3}/mes na area de concessao da COMGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Ana, Paulo Henrique de Mello; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: phsantana@fem.unicamp.br; jannuzzi@fem.uncamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The problem of saturation in the natural gas distribution pipelines in Brazil is not urgent, but it's possible to notice the need of reinforcements in some extensions. Price regulation does not consider this problem yet, but it's already predicted the adoption of a three-part tariff considering a contracted capacity for some industrial consumers - industries that buy more than 500.000 m3/month in the COMGAS distribution area. Some industries, like potteries and glass makers, would probably not suffer strong impacts with the implementation of this three-part tariff, since the majority of their manufacturing processes are continuous. Others sectors would probably have negative impacts with the contracted capacity, like pulp and paper, metallurgy and textile industries. The way that industry will manage the contracted capacity is still unknown. Some possibilities are: considering natural gas as one of the variables in the productions' decision; having a 'Back-up' system when the consumption surpass the contracted capacity; switch fuels when total consumption is above 500.000 m{sup 3}/month, so that the company does not fit in the three-part tariff. The three-part tariff has not been published yet, but it's already necessary a sign to the market that this will occur in the near future, so that the companies involved can already create a strategy for the use of natural gas. This signal is already predicted in the Technical Paper number X of CSPE. (author)

  11. Development of gas-to-liquid (GTL) processes in the PETROBRAS: a joint process with university through the CTPETRO projects (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas ); Desenvolvimento de processos GTL na PETROBRAS: um processo conjunto com a academia via projetos CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Sugaya, Marcos de Freitas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: falabella@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the conversion the natural gas into liquid fuels, the GTL (gas-to-liquid) process, for the Brazilian energetic matrix. The different routes of synthesis gas generation (CO + H2) from the methane are presented. The paper comments on the role played by PETROBRAS and her policy of GTL process development, by using a model jointly with various universities. The work also presents the preliminary results of catalysts development and the respective pilot scale supports, aiming a posterior evaluation in a GTL synthesis pilot plant.

  12. Observations on the natural history of the lizard Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae in Queimada Grande Island, São Paulo, Brazil Observações sobre a história natural do lagarto Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Scincidae na Ilha da Queimada Grande, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vrcibradic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data are presented on the on diet, thermal biology, microhabitat use, reproduction and helminth infection parameters of a population of Mabuya macrorhyncha hoge, 1946 inhabiting the small island of Queimada Grande, on the southern coast of São Paulo State. The lizards were collected on November 1997 (spring and on July 1998 (winter. Most lizards were perched above ground, mainly on herbaceous vegetation. Mean lizard body temperatures were significantly higher in spring (32.6 ± 1.9ºC than in winter (28.5 ± 2.4ºC, as were air temperatures. Mean litter size of females was 2.7 (range 2-3. The diet was composed of a diverse array of arthropods and some small fruits. Of the 19 lizards examined, 16 (84.2% harboured helminths. Three species of helminth (one acanthocephalan and two nematodes were found infecting the lizards. Compared to other M. macrorhyncha populations previously studied in mainland areas, the Queimada Grande population appears to be less strongly associated to bromeliads, to consume plant matter (fruits more frequently, and to have a poorer helminth fauna.Dados são apresentados referentes à dieta, biologia térmica, uso de microhabitats, reprodução e parâmetros de infecção por helmintos de uma população de Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946 habitando a pequena ilha da Queimada Grande, na costa sul do Estado de São Paulo. Os lagartos foram coletados em novembro de 1997 (primavera e em julho de 1998 (inverno. A maioria dos lagartos foi encontrada empoleirada acima do solo, principalmente sobre vegetação herbácea. As temperaturas corpóreas médias dos lagartos foram significativamente mais altas na primavera (32,6 ± 1,9ºC do que no inverno (28,5 ± 2,4ºC, como ocorreu com as temperaturas do ar. O tamanho médio de ninhada das fêmeas foi de 2.7 (amplitude 2-3. A dieta foi composta por artrópodes variados e por alguns pequenos frutos. Dos 19 lagartos examinados, 16 (84.2% estavam infectados por helmintos. Três esp

  13. Sanitary Surveillance of natural latex male condoms commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: analysis of volumetric capacity and burst pressure / Vigilância Sanitária de preservativos masculinos de látex natural comercializados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: análise da capacidade volumétrica e pressão de estouro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Teixeira Duarte

    2014-08-01

    ária. Um dos principais ensaios para o controle de qualidade do preservativo masculino é o teste de insuflação, que avalia a resistência por meio da determinação da capacidade volumétrica e da pressão de estouro. Método: Foram avaliadas 20 marcas de preservativos masculinos, nacionais e importados, de oito fabricantes, comercializados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram testados 200 unidades de preservativos por marca. Resultados: Todas as marcas atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos na Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada da Agên-cia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Resolução nº RDC 62/2008, que permite até oito unidades não-conformes. No entanto, em 12 marcas foram observadas unidades não conformes. Conclusão: A partir de uma perspectiva da Vigilância Sanitária, uma unidade não conforme tem sérias implicações para a saúde pública.

  14. Aspectos da história natural de Mimon bennettii (Gray na Escarpa Devoniana, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Notes on the natural history of Mimon bennettii (Gray in the Devonian Scarp, State of Paraná, Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de sua ampla distribuição, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 é uma espécie pouco conhecida. Cinco indivíduos foram capturados com redes de neblina no Distrito do Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W e quatro no Distrito de São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W ambos no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. As áreas encontram-se nos domínios da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, e na região da Escarpa Devoniana. Além do registro de dois novos pontos de ocorrência de uma espécie pouco amostrada no Estado, este trabalho também apresenta alguns dados sobre a biologia reprodutiva e utilização de abrigo diurno por M. bennettii.Despite its broad geographical distribution, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 is a poorly studied species. Five individuals were captured using mist nets in the District of Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W and four in the District of São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W, both in the Municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. These areas are located within the domain of the Araucaria Pine Forest, in the region of the Devonian Scarp. In addition to the record of two new points of occurrence of this poorly know species in the State of Paraná, this study also reports on data on reproductive biology and use of daily roost by M. bennettii.

  15. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  16. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Carrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.

  17. Remoção de metais pesados de efluentes aquosos pela zeólita natural escolecita - influência da temperatura e do pH na adsorção em sistemas monoelementares Heavy metals removal from wastewater by the natural zeolite scolecite - temperature and pH influence in single-metal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sarti Jimenez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cation exchange capabilities of a Brazilian natural zeolite, identified as scolecite, were evaluated for application in wastewater control. We investigated the process of sorption of chromium(III, nickel(II, cadmium(II and manganese(II in synthetic aqueous effluents, including adsorption isotherms of single-metal solutions. The natural zeolite showed the ability to take up the tested heavy metals in the order Cr(III > Cd(II > Ni(II > Mn(II, and this could be related to the valence and the hydration radius of the metal cations. The influence of temperature (25, 40 and 60 ºC and initial pH value (from 4 to 6 was also evaluated. It was found that the adsorption increased substantially when the temperature was raised to 60 ºC and that maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 6. These results demonstrate that scolecite can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous effluents, under optimized conditions.

  18. Acaricidal efficacy of topical formulation of fipronil in naturally infested dogs in Amazonic region, Brazil Eficácia carrapaticida de fipronil tópico em cães naturalmente infestados na região amazônica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Labs Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to show the effectiveness of a novel formulation of fipronil in a spot-on formulation for the therapeutic and preventive control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus in naturally infested dogs. Ticks on all dogs were counted at the moment of treatment and weekly after treatment (therapeutic efficacy or infestation (preventive efficacy. The profile of the therapeutic efficacy for Rhipicephalus sanguineus suggested that the formulation was able to control the Ixodid species for at least 42 days after the treatment.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia de uma nova formulação “spot-on” à base de fipronil na terapêutica e prevenção do parasitismo por Rhipicephalus sanguineus em cães naturalmente infestados. Foi realizada contagem dos carrapatos no momento da aplicação do produto e semanalmente após o tratamento (eficácia terapêutica, bem como avaliando sua reinfestação (eficácia preventiva. Perfis terapêuticos e preventivos sugerem que a formulação controla o parasitismo por R. sanguineus em cães por pelo menos 42 dias após o tratamento.

  19. Limites e possibilidades para a efetivação da integralidade na atenção à saúde: o Cenário de Ensino em questão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Varjabedian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A atuação do fisioterapeuta ainda é voltada para o tratamento dos distúrbios cinéticos funcionais em órgãos e sistemas do corpo humano, privilegiando a atenção secundária e terciária à saúde. Deseja‑se, no entanto, alcançar no processo de formação, o perfil manifesto no ideário que norteia os princípios da integralidade, que enfatiza a importância da atenção primária. Apesar das mudanças curriculares experimentadas na formação superior em Fisioterapia, organizadas de forma integrada e apoiadas na interdisciplinaridade, percebe‑se que o conceito de integralidade não é reproduzido e incorporado de forma efetiva, desde o início da graduação até o momento do estágio prático na clínica/escola da Universidade. Objetivos: Verificar se as propostas presentes na concepção do cenário de ensino foram efetivadas de acordo com as premissas de integralidade de atenção à saúde. Métodos: Na tentativa de buscar respostas para tais questionamentos, foram analisados os documentos diretivos da instituição de ensino – Projeto de Desenvolvimento Institucional (PDI, Projeto Pedagógico Institucional (PPI e o documento Centro Integrado de Saúde (CIS –, para podermos verificar se tais documentos permitem a proposição de estratégias agregadoras da integralidade na atenção à saúde. Resultados e Conclusão: Tais documentos demonstraram uma sinergia com os princípios humanos fundamentais, para com o ser, para com o aluno e para com a sociedade como um todo, agindo assim, em consonância com os preceitos da integralidade. Não significando, no entanto, que a integralidade fora utilizada como um dos pilares norteadores destes documentos.

  20. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  1. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...

  2. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  3. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...

  4. The effects of sulfur intercalation on the optical properties of artificial 'hackmanite', Na8[Al6Si6O24]Cl1.8S0.1; 'sulfosodalite', Na8[Al6Si6O24]S; and natural tugtupite, Na8[Be2Al2Si8O24](Cl,S)2-δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin; Hutzen Andersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    .8S0.1 destroys the tenebrescence and induces a permanently pale blue and, at higher temperature, a pale green coloration. The effect on Na8[Al6Si6O24]S induced similar colorations but of a deeper hue. Annealing tugtupite, Na8[Be2Al2Si8O24](Cl,S)2-x under a sulfur atmosphere over the range 600-700 °C...

  5. O JORNALISTA NA PESQUISA E NA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marocco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O jornalista tem sido objeto das artes e das ciências. Nesta incisão no tema do painel “Configurações e perspectivas da pesquisa em jornalismo no Brasil em diálogo com os estudos latinoamericanos em jornalismo”, realizado no Encontro Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo/SBPJor (Curitiba, 10/11/2012, reconheci que o âmbito acadêmico projeta dois tipos de ação: em rede de pesquisadores de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, com participação de países da América Latina, na pesquisa colaborativa e em projetos de investigação com outras bases de colaboração. Ambas as modalidades dialogam com a produção do cinema e da literatura – que visibiliza a grande potência do profissional para tramas e tensões. 

  6. Gestão dos espaços naturais de Manaus: uma interpretação da sensibilização e participação pública na conservação de áreas protegidas Management of naturals of Manaus: an interpretation of sensibilization and public participation in conservation of protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Ribeiro da Costa Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento demográfico da população de Manaus, principalmente a partir da metade do século XX, pressionou a ocupação de novos espaços com o uso, exploração, descaracterização, fragmentação e sub-fragmentação da paisagem e, em alguns casos, até a destruição da mesma. O envolvimento e a participação das comunidades do entorno das áreas protegidas, é fundamental em qualquer modelo ou plano de gestão. Com o objetivo de identificar e avaliar o grau de participação da população local no contexto da proteção dessas áreas, adotou-se procedimentos metodológicos exploratórios por intermédio de pesquisas qualitativa e quantitativa de abrangência sócio-natural. Em regiões próximas a cinco unidades de conservação situadas em locais estratégicos e de distintas categorias de manejo, a interpretação foi realizada utilizando as técnicas de percepção ambiental e a representação social. Dos resultados da pesquisa, pode-se inferir que os níveis de participação através das representações sociais, refletem os conflitos existentes entre o homem e a natureza, fortemente influenciados pelos níveis de escolaridade, faixa etária, estratificação social e percepção ambiental dos sujeitos da pesquisa sobre o meio em que compartilham suas diversas relações. Os cenários atuais, tendencial e normativo das paisagens naturais, modificadas ou mesmo organizadas da área de estudo, quando observados e analisados sob uma ótica investigativa, refletem essas diversas relações "in naturas" que vêm ocorrendo de forma dinâmica e com elevadíssimo grau de intensidade e rapidez, traduzida na violenta fragmentação dos ecossistemas naturais pela ação antrópica.The demographic growth of Manaus, mainly since mid-twentieth century, has pressured the occupation of new spaces with the use, exploration, discharacterization, spalling and sub-spalling of the landscape and, in some cases, its very destruction. Involvement and

  7. Os conhecimentos alternativos e científicos na área de ciências naturais: uma revisão a partir da literatura internacional Scientific and alternative knowledge in the field of natural sciences: a review of the international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Ribeiro de Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto trata dos aspectos teóricos dos conhecimentos alternativos e científicos com crianças em faixa etária entre sete e 11 anos de idade, na área de Ciências Naturais. Deriva de uma dissertação de mestrado que estudou os de conceitos de microrganismos e funções vitais de animais e plantas numa escola cooperativista da cidade de Central, estado da Bahia, em 2009-2010. Neste estudo, organizamos uma síntese das concepções espontâneas e científicas, baseada essencialmente na literatura internacional, para fins de contribuir com a análise de conhecimentos das crianças da referida escola. Os principais aspectos estudados sobre os microrganismos foram a estrutura, tamanho e importância; enquanto, para os animais e plantas, foram consideradas, no estudo, as funções de nutrição, trocas gasosas, respiração e transporte, enfatizando as funções digestórias no ser humano. Discutimos as implicações desse referencial para o planejamento de um ensino para as séries iniciais, destacando o conhecimento biológico da criança.This text deals with the theoretical aspects of alternative and scientific knowledge with children between seven and 11 years of age, in the area of natural sciences. It derives from a dissertation that studied the concepts of microorganisms and vital functions of animals and plants in a cooperative school in Central town, in 2009-2010. In this study, we organize a synthesis of spontaneous and scientific conceptions, based essentially on international literature for the purpose of contributing to the analysis of children's knowledge of that school in this area. The main aspects studied about microorganisms were their structure, size and importance; While, for the animals and plants the functions of nutrition, gas exchange, respiration and transportation were considered, emphasizing the digestive functions in humans. There is a discussion of the implications of this benchmark work for the planning of

  8. O ambiente da escola - o ambiente na escola: uma discussão sobre a relação escola-natureza em educação infantil The environment of school - the environment at school: a discussion of the school-nature relationship in the education of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Azambuja Elali

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Em um momento sócio-histórico no qual ecologia, sustentabilidade e educação ambiental perderam o status de temas emergentes e palavras-de-ordem para se tornarem fatores essenciais à sobrevivência humana, é essencial investigar "o que nossas escolas ensinam em termos de relações pessoa-ambiente". Partindo dessa questão-geradora são abordados aspectos relativos à presença da natureza em estabelecimentos de ensino. Evitando discutir o conteúdo disciplinar ministrado pelos professores, optou-se por abordar tal tema avaliando o ambiente físico de estabelecimentos educativos, sua ocupação e a percepção dos usuários. A pesquisa, utilizando multi-métodos, envolveu vistoria técnica (levantamento e documentação arquitetônica, observação comportamental (traços e mapeamento, questionários, entrevistas e desenhos-temáticos. Como na primeira infância o contato com o ambiente é fundamental, optou-se por estudar escolas para educação infantil (até sete anos em Natal-RN, tendo se evidenciado a dicotomia entre o discurso e a prática tanto na definição quanto no uso do ambiente escolar.During a social and historic moment at which ecology, sustainability and environmental education have lost the status of emergent themes and slogans to become essential factors to human life, an important aspect to investigate is "what our schools are teaching to their students in terms of person-environment relationships". Taking this question as its generating point, this paper dedicates special attention to contact with the nature. Avoiding examination of subjects taught in class, we opted to discuss this theme by evaluating the schools' environment, analyzing their space occupation, and users' perception. The investigation used multi-methods involving: technical inspection (architectural survey and documentation, behavioral observation (traces and mapping, questionnaires, interviews and thematic-drawing. Since the contact with the

  9. Vaginose Bacteriana na Colpocitologia

    OpenAIRE

    Consolaro,Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Suzuki, Linda Emiko

    2008-01-01

    A flora vaginal representa um ecossistema dinâmico influenciado por fatores diversos, existindo mecanismos desconhecidos que alteram esta flora, desencadeando distúrbios como vaginoses bacterianas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de vaginoses bacterianas detectadas por colpocitologia na população atendida pelo Setor de Citologia Clínica do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (LEPAC) da Univers...

  10. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  11. Financial methodology for Brazilian market of small producers of oil and natural gas, based on Canadian and North American experiences in reserves quantification, evaluation and certification; Metodologia de financeiamento para pequenos produtores do mercado brasileiro de petroleo e gas natural, baseado nas experiencias canadense e americana na quantificacao, valoracao e certificacao de reservas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Enrico Brunno Zipoli de Sousa e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geologia; Coelho, Jose Mario [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Minas

    2008-07-01

    ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural gas and Biofuels), through auctions of exploratory blocks in the subsequent years from the break of the monopoly of PETROBRAS with the Law 9.478 of 1997, had important role in the opening of the section and in the attainment of the self-sufficiency of petroleum. However the petroleum production in ripe and marginal fields were left off, since the initial interest in the first rounds was to attract the major companies. - International Oil Companies (IOC) - when ANP granted great blocks offshore. Ripe fields are defined as fields in phase of irreversible declination and marginal fields are also defined as economical concept, certain for business decision and external economical factors (price of the oil, etc.). Canada and USA, worldwide leaders in the market of petroleum and gas, possess politics that benefit and maintain the small companies protected of the competition of INOC's by assuring small companies finance through the guarantee of proved reserves of oil. This paper assemble Canadian and American experiences in regulation for small companies investments and compares it with Brazilian financing types, which is restricted due to the Brazilian finance agent's despite about oil and gas activity. (author)

  12. Naturalness redux

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The idea of naturalness, as originally conceived, refers only to the finite renormalization of the Higgs boson mass induced by the introduction of heavier states. In this respect, naturalness is still a powerful heuristic principle in model building beyond the standard model whenever new massive states are coupled to the Higgs field. The most compelling case is provided by the generation of neutrino masses. In this paper we confront this problem from a new perspective. The right-handed sector responsible for the seesaw mechanism---which introduces a large energy threshold above the electroweak scale---is made supersymmetric to comply with naturalness while the standard model is left unchanged and non-supersymmetric. Cancellations necessary to the naturalness requirement break down only at two loops, thus offering the possibility to increase the right-handed neutrino mass scale up to one order of magnitude above the usual values allowed by naturalness. If also the weak boson sector of the standard model is mad...

  13. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  14. Ley Natural

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    1. La expresión «ley natural» en la historia de las ideas. Uso ético y uso científico. 2. La cuestión de las leyes naturales en el ámbito de la naturaleza y en el ámbito de la conducta humana. 3. La ley natural como teoría moral se desarrolla en dos planos: a) plano práctico: el obrar humano responde a razones, depende de principios que constituyen una única ley; b) plano de fundamentación metafísica: la ley natural como participación de la ley eterna en la criatura racional. 4. La ley nat...

  15. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  16. Natural games

    CERN Document Server

    Anttila, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, wh...

  17. [Natural selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, E

    1985-05-01

    Much of the resistance against Darwin's theory of natural selection has been due to misunderstandings. It is shown that natural selection is not a tautology and that it is a two-step process. The first step, the production of variation, is under the control of chance; the second step, selection proper, is an anti-chance process, but subject to many constraints. The target of selection is the individual as a whole, and many neutral mutations can be retained as hitchhikers of successful genotypes. Sexual selection results from selection for pure reproductive success.

  18. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...

  19. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon.......Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  20. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  1. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  2. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos da infecção natural em bovinos por Trypanosoma vivax na Paraíba Clinical, epidemiological and pathological signs of natural infection in cattle by Trypanosoma vivax in Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dois surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos, ocorridos em dois estabelecimentos do alto sertão da Paraíba. Os sinais clínicos, a patologia e a epidemiologia da doença foram estudados no período de maio de 2005 a novembro de 2006.T. vivax foi identificado em esfregaços da capa leucocitária e mediante a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Os animais afetados apresentaram anorexia, depressão, febre, anemia, perda de peso, redução da produção leiteira, cegueira transitória, aborto e sinais nervosos caracterizados por incoordenação motora, salivação, opistótono, nistagno, tetania e bruxismo. Todos os animais que apresentaram sintomatologia nervosa morreram. As alterações macroscópicas observadas em um bovino submetido à necropsia foram aumento de volume dos linfonodos, atrofia serosa dos depósitos de gordura, aumento de volume do baço com evidência da polpa branca, hidropericárdio, além de petéquias e equimoses no epicárdio. Histologicamente havia meningoencefalite. O controle da doença na propriedade com tratamento específico dos casos clínicos com aceturato de diminazene foi eficiente, pois após o tratamento não se verificou mais a presença do parasita em esfregaços sanguíneos nem evidência clínica da enfermidade em até 2 meses após o início do surto. Os fatores epidemiológicos favoráveis à ocorrência dos surtos foram a abundância de vetores mecânicos, como tabanídeos e Stomozys spp., e a entrada, no rebanho, de animais oriundos de propriedades onde ocorreu a doença em questão. Sugere-se que o semi-árido do Nordeste, devido a períodos prolongados de secas e altas temperaturas, é região de instabilidade enzoótica para a tripanossomíase, em conseqüência, provavelmente, ao ambiente desfavorável para o desenvolvimento de vetores durante a maior parte do ano.Two outbreaks of trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma vivax, reported in cattle, occurred on two farms

  3. Nature Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Children are naturally curious about the world in which they live. To focus this sense of wonder, have your students investigate their local habitat as it changes over the year. This multiseason study will build connections and add relevance to the habitats that children learn about. This series of activities for grades 4-6 explores the changing…

  4. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  5. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  6. Natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  7. Qualidade da pastagem nativa obtida por diferentes métodos de amostragem e em diferentes solos na Apa do Ibirapuitã, Brasil Quality of natural pasture evaluated with different methods and soils at the Apa of Ibirapuitã, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado do Rio Grande do Sul apresenta ecossistemas heterogêneos, devido ao grande número de tipos de solo e à variação em altitude e clima, que se reflete na diversidade da composição florística das diferentes comunidades vegetais. A Área de Proteção Ambiental do Ibirapuitã (APA do Ibirapuitã, é a única unidade de conservação federal, representante do bioma campos sulinos no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informação sobre a qualidade do campo natural oriundo de três tipos de solos predominantes na APA do Ibirapuitã: Basalto superficial, Basalto profundo e Arenito obtidos por três formas de amostragem: Corte de emparelhamento, Simulação de pastejo através de coleta manual e Corte total acima da fração mantilho. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente, no período de outubro/2001 a setembro/2003. A pastagem nativa no solo de Basalto superficial apresenta forragem com qualidade nutricional superior quando comparado ao Basalto profundo e ao Arenito, comprovada pelas diferentes análises de qualidade realizadas. O método de coleta de amostras de forragem de pastagem nativa somente não influencia os resultados da análise de Fibra em Detergente Neutro. Os resultados indicam a simulação de pastejo como um método adequado de amostragem para avaliação da qualidade da pastagem nativa, devido à sua efetividade e facilidade de coleta.Heterogeneous ecosystems are found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul as a consequence of the great number of soil types and variation in altitude and climate. These conditions reflect on the great variety of flora present in the grassland communities. The Area of Environmental Protection of the Ibirapuitã (APA of Ibirapuitã is the only conservation unit under federal jurisdiction representative of the Campos bioma in Brazil. The objective of this work was to obtain information about the quality of the natural pasture on three types of soils in APA of Ibirapuitã: Superficial

  8. Natural Radioactivity in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Medina, N. H.; Okuno, E.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2008-08-01

    The content of 40K natural radionuclide in bananas (Musa sapientum) from the Vale do Ribeira region, São Paulo, Brazil, has been measured. We have collected several samples of bananas prata and nanica, its peels, leaves, and also different soils where the banana tree was planted, such as soil with a standard amount of fertilizer, the fertilizer itself and also soil without fertilizer for comparison. We have used the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique with a NaI(T1) crystal inside a 12 cm thick lead shield to detect the gamma-radiation. The results indicate that only part of the available potassium is absorbed by the plant, which is mainly concentrated in the banana peel.

  9. Efeito da umidade e do período de armazenamento hermético na contaminação natural por fungos e a produção de micotoxinas em grãos de aveia Effects of grain moisture and hermetic storage on fungi contamination and mycotoxin production in oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileu Rupollo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a contaminação natural por fungos, produção de micotoxinas, composição em ácidos graxos e concentração de CO2 intergranular em grãos de aveia armazenados no sistema hermético por 12 meses. Grãos de aveia, da cultivar UPF 18 foram colhidos com 16% de umidade e realizado a secagem estacionária em protótipo silo-secador até as umidades de 15%, 12% e 9%. Para os tratamentos com 18% e 21% de umidade foi realizada a reidratação pela colocação dos grãos em atmosfera saturada por cinco dias. Determinou-se a composição centesimal aproximada, composição em ácidos graxos, contaminação natural por fungos, presença de micotoxinas e concentração de CO2 intergranular. Os resultados foram analisados pela análise de variância, comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey e análise de regressão. Não foi detectada a presença das micotoxinas aflatoxina B1, B2, G1, G2, zearalenona e ocratoxina A. A quantidade de CO2 na atmosfera intergranular apresentou comportamento linear e foi proporcional à umidade dos grãos e tempos de armazenamento. O aumento do tempo de armazenamento e da umidade dos grãos intensificou a redução de ácidos graxos insaturados, com predominância de ação sobre linoléico e linolênico.This research aimed to evaluate the natural contamination by fungi, production of mycotoxins, fatty acids composition and the intergranular CO2 concentration in oat grains stored in a hermetic system for 12 months. The oat grains were harvested with 16% of moisture, being dried until 15%, 12% and 9% of moisture. Oat grains with 18% and 21% of moisture were obtained by a rehidrated, setting the grains in a saturated atmosphere for 5 days. The proximate percent composition, fatty acids profile, natural fungi contamination, mycotoxin production and the CO2 concentration were evaluated. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and comparisons of means by Tukey's test and

  10. na Perua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de se caracterizar como tentativa de ensaio ou de análise a qualquer coisa, o presente artigo tem, antes de mais nada, a pretensão de se constituir uma provocação ao debate acerca da questão do esporte na escola. A provocação parte basicamente do relato da minha experiência pessoal como Secretário da Educação do Município de Aracaju, cargo que exerci no período de 1º de janeiro de 1986 a 27 de janeiro de 1987.

  11. Fractais na arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  12. A escola na internet

    OpenAIRE

    Albino, Ayrán Lavra

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. O presente trabalho pretendeu analisar o uso do suporte tecnológico do ensino a distância (computador e internet) como elemento complementar do ensino presencial. Procurou-se demonstrar, na fundamentação teórica, que as tendências pedagógicas contemporâneas e as características da tecnologia digital viabilizam esta possibilidade. Operacionalizou-se essa ...

  13. Fractais na arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    Ganhão, Susana Maria Gouveia Rosado

    2009-01-01

    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  14. Report from NA49

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, M; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Filip, P; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege9, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2004-01-01

    The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.

  15. 43. Calmodulin regulating calcium sensitivity of Na channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vegiraju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By extrapolating information from existing research and observing previous assumptions regarding the structure of the Na Channel, this experiment was conducted under the hypothesis that the Na Channel is in part regulated by the calmodulin protein, as a result proving calcium sensitivity of the Na Channel. Furthermore, we assume that there is a one to one stoichiometry between the Na Channel and the Calmodulin. There has been extensive research into the functionality and structure of sodium ion channels (Na channels, as several diseases are associated with the lack of regulation of sodium ions, that is caused by the disfunction of these Na channels. However, one highly controversial matter in the field is the importance of the protein calmodulin (CaM and calcium in Na channel function. Calmodulin is a protein that is well known for its role as a calcium binding messenger protein, and that association is believed to play an indirect role in regulating the Na channel through the Na channel’s supposed calcium sensitivity. While there are proponents for both sides, there has been relatively little research that provides strong evidence for either case. In this experiment, the effect of calmodulin on NaV 1.5 is tested by preparing a set of cardiac cells (of the human specie with the NaV 1.5 C-Termini and CaM protein, which were then to be placed in solutions with varying concentrations of calcium. We took special care to test multiple concentrations of calcium, as previous studies have tested very low concentrations, with Manu Ben-Johny’s team from the John Hopkins laboratory in particular testing up to a meager 50 micromolar, despite producing a well-respected paper (By comparison, the average Na channel can naturally sustain a concentration of almost 1-2 millimolar and on some occasions, reaching even higher concentrations. After using light scattering and observing the signals given off by the calcium interacting with these Nav1.5/Ca

  16. Satellite (Natural)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  17. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  18. Laser na medicina: avanços na Oftalmologia

    OpenAIRE

    João Alberto Holanda de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Entre os grandes avanços tecnológicos dos últimos anos, o laser sem dúvida ocupa lugar de destaque. Desde a construção do primeiro aparelho a laser em 1959, novas aplicações surgem continuadamente. O laser está presente de maneira marcante na pesquisa básica, na indústria e na medicina.

  19. Heparinoides naturais isolados de rodofíceas (Halymenia sp. arribadas na costa cearense - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.6282 Natural heparinoids isolated from Halymenia sp. (Rhodophyceaes delivery on the Ceará coast - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.6282

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente carência de heparina (HEP motiva a busca por fontes alternativas de novos anticoagulantes naturais. Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS isolados de uma rodofícea do gênero Halymenia, nativa do litoral cearense, Brasil. Os PS totais foram obtidos por digestões consecutivas com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidas por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose. As frações obtidas foram concentradas por liofilização e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. Os ensaios anticoagulantes foram realizados pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma de coelho e uma curva padrão de HEP (100 UI MG-1. As extrações (53,96% mostraram diferenças marcantes durante o fracionamento e no grau de resolução dos PS. A espécie apresentou PS com atividade anticoagulante superior a HEP. O TTPA das frações modificou-se acentuadamente entre as extrações, expressando-se de maneira dose-dependente e sofrendo um acréscimo de 110,40 (1ª extração para 143,10 UI MG-1 (3ª extração. Os resultados sugerem que a atividade anticoagulante dos PS isolados de Halymenia sp. foi promovida pela inibição da via intrínseca e/ou comum da cascata de coagulação. As modificações no TTPA possivelmente serão elucidadas pelos mecanismos de ação envolvidos na coagulação e caracterização estrutural desses compostos. Portanto, a rodofícea Halymenia sp. é uma boa fonte de heparinoides e sugerem-se estudos relacionados ao cultivo da espécie, em proteção aos bancos de algas.The increasing demand for heparin (HEP has led to a search for alternative sources of natural anticoagulants. This study aimed to evaluate the anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides (SP isolated from a Halymenia rhodophyceae genus native to the coast of Ceará, Brazil. Total SP were obtained by consecutive

  20. Evaluation of public policies on renewable natural resources management: a forest approach/ br Avaliação da política pública na gestão de recursos naturais renováveis: uma abordagem florestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius reforestation projects carried out in the 70s’, in the coast of the State of Paraná, with funds collected under the Law 5,106/66 and the Judicial Decree 1,134/70, using a forest approach. Data were provided by IBAMA – The Brazilian Environment and Natural Resources Protection Agency, an autarchy that took on the function once exercised by the IBDF – Brazilian Institute for Forest Development. Results showed that there was an over-dimensioning of plant quantity in these projects, reaching a density level of 5,000 trees/ha, and creating conditions for resources embezzlement. Analysis of the cut down plans throughout history showed that, after 32 years of incentives, only 1.22% of planted trees had been chopped down, according to the plan. This research confirms the non-correlation between palm trees planting areas and cutting down plans, placing the inspection reports elaborated by the IBDF under suspicion. Cost per cut down and subsidized palm tree unit is R$12.57 (twelve reais and fifty seven cents, while, currently, this same adult tree can be bought for R$2.00 (two reais each, characterizing mismanagement of public resources.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do projeto de reflorestamento de palmito (Euterpe edulis Martius na década de 70, no litoral paranaense, com recursos captados sob a égide da Lei n. 5.106/66 e Decreto-lei n. 1.134/70, numa abordagem florestal. A pesquisa foi realizada com base nos dados que foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA, autarquia que sucedeu as funções do extinto Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal – IBDF. Os resultados mostram ter havido um superdimensionamento da quantidade de plantas empregadas nos projetos, chegando a uma densidade de plantio de 5.000 árvores/ha, propiciando condições para o desvio

  1. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  2. O real na psicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Castejón Herrmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a noção de real na psicose, a partir das formulações de Lacan sobre o tema, presentes no Seminário 3 - As Psicoses, no Seminário 20 - Mais, Ainda e no texto Televisão. Considerando-se que a concepção de real tem uma indicação clínica, a hipótese que se formula é a de que a noção de real trabalhada no Seminário 20, Mais, Ainda representa uma continuidade da concepção de real desenvolvida no Seminário 3, As Psicoses

  3. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  4. Leadeship: na effective relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Roberto Guimarães Pantoja

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a eficácia da liderança em três instituições de ensino superior em São Luís -MA, sendo a instituição A (particular), a B (pública federal) e a C (pública estadual). Adotou-se os estilos de liderança: democrático, autocrático e liberal, baseando-se na Teoria dos Estilos de Kurt Lewin e seus colaboradores e nas qualidades de liderança (objetividade, compreensão dos outros, flexibilidade, comunicação e autoridade), definidas por Uris A.(196...

  5. Raytracing na GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Straňák, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Raytracing je základnou technikou pro vizualizaci trojrozměrných objektů. Cílem práce je demonstrovat možnost implementace sledovaní paprsků pomocí grafického akcelerátoru.  Popíšem základní algoritmus a jeho modifikovanou verzi, která byla implementována pomocí jazyka CUDA C. Výsledný raytracer je optimalizovaný pro dynamické scény. Pro tento účel byla použita akcelerační struktura KD strom, hierarchické obalové tělesa a přenos dat pomocí PBO. Pro realističtější výstupy byla také implementov...

  6. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.Tostudy thepulmonary complications in leptospirosis case records of 23 such patients admitted at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil, were reviewed. Hemoptysis were seen in 21.7% and sputal blood in 30.4% of patients. Arterial gasometry detected hypoxemia and hypocapnia in most cases. Thoracic radiology showed an alveolar pattern in 60% of the patients, alveolo-interstitial in 20%, interstitial in 6%, and in 14% the lungs were considered to be normal Necropsy of 13 cases showed edema, congestion and hemorrhage in the lungs in all cases. Hyaline membrane was found in 30% and fibrin thrombi in 46% of these cases, resulting in a diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (consumption coagulopathy in leptospirosis.

  7. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  8. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  9. Planejamento de redes logísticas: um estudo de caso na indústria petroquímica brasileira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Medeiros Frias

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento de redes logísticas emerge como decisão estratégica a ser tomada na busca da manutenção da competitividade empresarial. O presente estudo desenvolveu um modelo de Programação Não Linear Inteira Mista contemplando os principais componentes de custo envolvidos no processo de planejamento de redes associados à realidade brasileira: transportes, estoques e tributos. O modelo foi testado na empresa Nova Braskem. Foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade em que se apreciaram os principais trade-offs relativos às premissas assumidas. Constatou-se que, no caso estudado, o modelo desenvolvido proporciona economia nos custos tributários e nos custos logísticos de transporte, e, consequentemente, nos custos totais. Mais precisamente, os resultados apontam que, apesar da importância dos custos de transporte ante os demais, o aspecto fiscal se apresentou como o principal potencial de retorno financeiro a ser perseguido, e, dessa maneira, foi possível demonstrar o valor associado à questão dentro da atmosfera empresarial brasileira. Para o design ótimo de uma rede, confirma-se, portanto, a tese de que não é plausível a dissociação entre logística e planejamento tributário. Ademais, dada a natureza do estudo de caso, é factível a consideração do planejamento de redes logísticas como um importante ferramental capaz de subsidiar a busca de sinergias em operações de fusões e aquisições de empresas. Há, por exemplo, diversos outros casos recentes no cenário empresarial brasileiro, como a fusão entre Sadia e Perdigão e entre outras empresas do agronegócio. Para dar continuidade aos estudos dos trade-offs entre logística e os aspectos tributários brasileiros, sugere-se a inclusão de novos tributos (PIS, Cofins etc. e a concessão de benefícios fiscais na modelagem de redes logísticas futuras. Especificamente com relação ao estudo de caso, observa-se que a forma de agregação dos mercados consumidores

  10. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  11. Natural relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by natural inflation, we propose a relaxation mechanism consistent with inflationary cosmology that explains the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and Planck scale. This scenario is based on a selection mechanism that identifies the low-scale dynamics as the one that is screened from UV physics. The scenario also predicts the near-criticality and metastability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum state, explaining the Higgs boson mass observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Once Majorana right-handed neutrinos are introduced to provide a viable reheating channel, our framework yields a corresponding mass scale that allows for the seesaw mechanism as well as for standard thermal leptogenesis. We argue that considering singlet scalar dark matter extensions of the proposed scenario could solve the vacuum stability problem and discuss how the cosmological constant problem is possibly addressed.

  12. Estratégias para luz natural: sistemas inovadores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Saiter Garrocho

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversos sistemas, estratégias e componentesinovadores de alta tecnologia paraa otimização do uso da luz natural noprojeto de arquitetura têm se desenvolvidoatualmente, principalmente na EuropaCentral, nos Estados Unidos e na Austrália.Este artigo apresenta algumas dessasestratégias descrevendo suas principaiscaracterísticas. Palavras-chave: luz natural, estratégias deprojeto, sistemas inovadores de alta tecnologia.

  13. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  14. Estrutura genética espacial de duas populações naturais de Myracrodruon urundeuva M. Allemão na região semi-árida, Brasil Spacial genotype structure of two natural populations of Myracrodruon urundeuva M. Allemão in a semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Batista de Lacerda

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar se a distribuição espacial dos genótipos é aleatória ou se está estruturada, utilizou-se a autocorrelação espacial dos genótipos para investigar dados alozímicos de duas populações naturais de Myracrodruon urundeuva do semi-árido brasileiro (Estação Ecológica do Seridó/RN, com 1.166,38/ha e Sítio Mata dos Alves/PB com 84/ha. A primeira população encontra-se em áreas mais preservadas, enquanto a segunda está em uma área fragmentada. O programa utilizado foi o "Autocorr". A autocorrelação estimada para os locos polimórficos foi realizada nos indivíduos adultos. Foram analisados dois alelos na Estação Ecológica do Seridó e quatro no Sítio Mata dos Alves. Utilizaram-se de três métodos para o pareamento de indivíduos a serem comparados: conexão de Gabriel (Ig, vizinho mais próximo (Ivmp e comparações dentro de classes de distâncias preestabelecidas. Os resultados obtidos para Ig e Ivmp (Pgm-2: 0,032 e 0,236; Est-1: 0,263 e 0,242, respectivamente na estação ecológica e Ig e Ivmp (Pgm-1: -0,349 e -0,288; Pgm-2: -0,341 e-0,278; Est-1: -0,349 e -0,284 e Mdh-1: -0,345 e 0,282, respectivamente no sítio não mostraram a presença de estruturação genética espacial, o que possibilita pressupor que exista uma distribuição aleatória dos genótipos dentro delas. O mesmo foi detectado para as comparações dentro de classes de distâncias preestabelecidas. Os resultados mantiveram o mesmo padrão encontrado para algumas populações naturais de espécies arbóreas tropicais já estudadas.To determine whether genotype spacial distribution is random or structured, spacial genotypic autocorrelation was used to compare two natural populations of Myracrodruon urundeuva in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil (Estação Ecológica do Seridó/RN - 1166,38/ha and Sítio Mata dos Alves/PB - 84/ha. The former is characteristic of preserved areas, while the latter is found in areas with marked

  15. A CORPOREIDADE NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Xavier Bonorino Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, visa-se a investigar como a escola tem construído um corporeidade para a submissão dos estudantes ao sistema de dominação vigente. Propõe-se, também, a descobrir a corporeidade expressa nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças. Realizaram-se observações do espaço escolar de uma sala de aula durante um ano letivo, bem como duas entrevistas com cada uma das crianças de uma turma de 1ª série do 1º grau, em uma escola pública de periferia. Constatou-se que a escola, através de uma série de normas, explícitas ou implícitas, vai construindo uma corporeidade baseada no individualismo, na massificação e nos privilégios de uma minoria. A análise das brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos infantis revelou que estes veiculam valores contrários àqueles impostos pela escola. Em vista disso, elaborou-se uma proposta incipiente de trabalho corporal que tenha nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças o seu ponto de partida para uma práxis transformadora.

  16. O SUBLIME NA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  17. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  18. Ulogata na endoetelin-1 vo razvojot na dijabeticna nefropatija inducirana so streptozocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dijabeticnata nefropatija pretstavuva edna od hronicnite mikrovaskularni komplikacii na dijabetot, so multifaktorijalna i ne do kraj rasvetlena etiopatogeneza. So ogled na toa sto kaj pacientite so dijabet, osobeno kaj onie so dijabeticna nefropatija, se najdeni zgolemeni vrednosti na endotelin-1, se pretpostavuva deka istiot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na nasata studija bese da se detektiraat promenite vo plazmatskoto nivo na endotelin-1 po eksperimentalno induciran dijabet, i dijabeticna nefropatija kaj staorci so streptozocin. So ogled na dobro poznatite efekti na AKE-inhibitorite, vo ovaa studija go ispituvavme i vlijanieto na enalapril (AKE inhibitor na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, kako i negovite efekti vo tretmanot na dijabeti~na nefropatija. Ednokratnata i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ predizvika signifikantno zgolemuvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, proprateni so jasno izrazeni simptomi i znaci na dijabeticna nefropatija (mikroalbuminurija, zgolemeni urinarni vrednosti na N-acetyl-fl-D-glucosamidase, zgolemeni serumski koncentracii na urea, poliurija. Cetiri nedelniot tretman so enalapril dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1 i do podobruvanje na simtomite i znacite na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Dobienite rezultati potvrduvaat deka endotelin-1 moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot i progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija, a AKE inhibitorite, odnosno enalapril, mozat da ja ublazat i usporat progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija

  19. Investigação dos saberes psicológicos presentes em material produzido entre 1870 e 1930, na Faculdade de Direito de São Paulo, e suas relações com o Direito Natural vigentes à época

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Gomes Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Os elos entre Direito e Psicologia são antigos, embora sua estruturação em moldes científicos tenha se dado apenas a partir do século XIX, na interface dos estudos dos saberes psicológicos com as doutrinas da lei criminal. Desse liame pontual, a conexão interdisciplinar se desenvolveu em vários outros ramos, sendo hoje vasto o campo de pesquisa. O presente trabalho visa abordar as relações entre os saberes psicológicos suscitados em material produzido na Faculdade de Direito de São Paulo no p...

  20. Oviposição de Alabama argillacea Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em cultivares de algodoeiro e parasitismo natural de ovos por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) na região de Chapadão do Sul, MS

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elias Almeida [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Alabama argillacea (Hübner) é praga chave do algodoeiro no Brasil. Com o objetivo de estudar a intensidade de oviposição de A. argillacea e o parasitismo de seus ovos por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, nos estágios fenológicos de sete cultivares, instalou-se o experimento na Fazenda Savana na região de Chapadão do Sul, MS, no ano agrícola 2006/07. As cultivares FMT 701, FMX 966, Acala 90, NuOPAL, Delta Penta, CD 409 e DeltaOPAL, foram semeadas em 20/12/2006, no Delineamento de Blocos Casualiza...

  1. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Solange Oliveira; Trugillo, Edneuza Alves

    2011-01-01

    Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enri...

  2. SPOLNO NADLEGOVANJE NA DELOVNEM MESTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rubič, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  3. Ion exchange of ammonium in natural and synthesized zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yifei [College of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxin, Zhejiang 314001 (China); Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: yifeiwang0206@yahoo.com.cn; Lin Feng [Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Pang Wenqin [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China)

    2008-12-30

    In this study, zeolite Na-P and Na-Y was prepared by hydrothermal treatment of the Chinese natural clinoptilolite with NaOH. The ion exchange of NH{sub 4}{sup +} into the three zeolites in the temperature range of 288-333 K was also investigated, and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The selectivity sequence for NH{sub 4}{sup +} entering the sodium form of the three materials was Na-clinoptilolite > Na-Y > Na-P, as indicated by values of {delta}G{sup o}. The results demonstrated that the Si/Al molar ratio of zeolites determined the selectivity for NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  4. Toward Triplet Ground State NaLi Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Sepehr; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The NaLi molecule is expected to have a long lifetime in the triplet ground-state due to its fermionic nature, large rotational constant, and weak spin-orbit coupling. The triplet state has both electric and magnetic dipole moments, affording unique opportunities in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. We have mapped the excited state NaLi triplet potential by means of photoassociation spectroscopy. We report on this and our further progress toward the creation of the triplet ground-state molecules using STIRAP. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  5. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  6. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  7. Rationality in management of the social sector: studies in organizations having a solidary nature La racionalidad en la gestión del sector social: estudios en organizaciones de carácter solidario A racionalidade na gestão do setor social: estudos em organizações de caráter solidário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jássio Pereira de Medeiros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the practice of solidary work opens the way for researchers to again focus on various types of social organizations. Taking as a field of empirical research, the growing number of people who are dedicated to working in Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs, this work describes research carried out in four NGOs in the city of Natal, RN, where the type of rationality used by workers in their activities was viewed in light of the theoretical discussion of Ramos (1989 about rationality. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews and free association techniques, from the perspective of social representation. Results highlight the value given to substantive rationality, even when it does not appear to be widespread throughout the organization. It was also found that, by seeking to work in organizations having a solidary nature, people strive to grow in a personal and professional senseEl crecimiento de la práctica del trabajo solidario abre espacio para que los investigadores puedan dirigir el foco de sus investigaciones a los diversos tipos de organizaciones sociales. Tomando como campo de investigación empírica el creciente número de personas que se dedican al trabajo en Organizaciones No Gubernamentales (ONGs, este estudio retrata la investigación desarrollada en cuatro ONGs actuantes en la ciudad de Natal-RN, en las cuales fue explotado el tipo de racionalidad presente en las acciones de sus actores, a la luz de la discusión teórica de Ramos (1989 sobre racionalidad. La colecta de datos se constituyó de entrevista semiestructurada y técnicas de asociación libre, bajo la óptica de la representación social. Los resultados destacan la valorización de la racionalidad sustantiva, aun cuando esta no aparezca difundida en toda la organización. Se verificó también que, al buscar trabajo en organizaciones de carácter solidario, las personas anhelan crecer, tanto en el sentido personal como en el profesional

  8. Effects of insecticides used in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B control and their selectivity to natural enemies in soybean cropEfeitos dos inseticidas utilizados no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e sua seletividade aos inimigos naturais na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Silva Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent crop seasons, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B has become a serious pest in soybean crops due to high infestations and its control difficulties. Therefore, it is important to search control alternatives in the integrated pest management approach. Thus, it was evaluated in this study the efficacy of the whitefly control using different insecticides in greenhouse conditions and their selectivity to the parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus. Buprofezin 150 g. a.i.ha-1 + mineral oil 0.2% v/v and pyriproxyfen 100 g. a.i.ha-1 were considered the best options for the whitefly management due to combine good pest control efficacy with higher selectivity to the parasitoids except Encarsia formosa for which no treatment was classified as harmless. Betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 g. i.a. ha-1 was efficient on controlling whiteflies nymphs but was not harmless to the studied natural enemies. In general, the treatments including pyretroids compounds (betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 + spiromesifen 60, betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 and lambda-cyhalothrin 26.5 + thiametoxan 35.25 g. a.i. ha-1 were the most harmful to the evaluated parasitoids and therefore it use should be avoid whenever possible. Nas últimas safras a mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae tornou-se praga de importância econômica para a cultura da soja devido à ocorrência de altas infestações e à dificuldade de controle desta praga. Sendo assim, é importante buscar alternativas de manejo com base em um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, avaliaram-se neste trabalho a eficiência de diferentes inseticidas no controle da mosca-branca em casa-de-vegetação e a seletividade destes aos parasitoides Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum e Telenomus remus. Buprofezina 150 g i.a. ha-1 + óleo mineral 0,2% v/v e piriproxifem 100 g. i.a. ha-1 foram consideradas as melhores opções para

  9. Na via do Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Rabinovitch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O momento nazista permanece um enigma impensado de que a cultura contemporânea continua cativa. O autor levanta a hipótese de que a persistência desse enigma e seus estragos duráveis se devem à insistência dos pensamentos político, sociológico e filosófico em construírem o nazismo à luz da metáfora hobbesiana do Leviatã. Propõe retomar a questão do nazismo sob a perspectiva do Behemoth, antônimo do Leviatã. Para tanto, sugere a necessidade de retornar a Freud e à psicanálise, balizas de um possível novo pensamento do político que escrutine a destrutividade nazista. Propõe ainda sondar as homologias entre nazismo, corjas e máfias, com base na figura da " heroicização da violência" que lhes seria comum. E avança um modelo " econômico" : a quimera, suscetível de capturar o caráter heterotópico e heterocrônico de sua construção criminosa.The paths of Behemoth. The Nazi moment remains as the thoughtless enigma of which contemporary culture is still captive. The author raises the hypothesis where the persistency of this enigma and its durable damages are due to the insistence of the political, social and philosophical thoughts in building the Nazism at the view of the Hobbesian metaphor of Leviathan. It is here proposed to resume the Nazism matter under Behemoth's perspective, antonym to Leviathan. For such, it is suggested a necessity to look back at Freud and the psychoanalysis, structured by a possible new political thought which scrutinizes the destructivity of the Nazism. It is also here proposed to gaze at the homologies between Nazism, mafias and gangs, with a base in the figure of " violence as a heroically act" that are their common ground. The author also advances an economical model: the chimera susceptible to capture the heterotopic and heterochronic character of its criminal construction.

  10. Results from NA61/SHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize recent results from NA61/SHINE relevant for heavy ion physics, neutrino oscillations and the interpretation of air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  11. Risbjerg: Historisk stemmeskred med NA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007......ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007...

  12. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  13. Salt and divalent cations affect the flexible nature of the natural beaded chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, J

    1977-01-01

    A natural chromatin containing simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA and histone has been used to examine changes in chromatin structure caused by various physical and chemical treatments. We find that histone H1 depleted chromatin is more compact in solutions of 0.15M NaCl or 2 mM MgCl2 than in 0.01 M Na......Cl or 0.6M NaCL, and is compact in 0.01 M NaCl solutions if histone H 1 is present. Even high concentrations of urea did not alter the fundamental beaded structure, consisting of 110A beads of 200 base pair content, each joined by thin DNA bridges of 50 base pairs. The physical bead observed by EM...

  14. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  15. Efficacy of natural cycle IVF : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, MJ; Hoek, A; Simons, AHM; Heineman, MJ

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of IVF treatments, natural cycle IVF has been largely replaced by IVF with ovarian stimulation. However, natural cycle IVF has several advantages. It is associated with a close to zero multiple pregnancy rate, and a zero risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Per cycle, na

  16. Direct Reactions with MoNA-LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchera, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear reactions can be used to probe the structure of nuclei. Direct reactions, which take place on short time scales, are well-suited for experiments with beams of short-lived nuclei. One such reaction is nucleon knockout where a proton or neutron is removed from the incoming beam from the interaction with a target. Single nucleon knockout reactions have been used to study the single-particle nature of nuclear wave functions. A recent experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory was performed to measure cross sections from single nucleon knockout reactions for several p-shell nuclei. Detection of the residual nucleus in coincidence with any gamma rays emitted from the target allowed cross sections to ground and excited states to be measured. Together with input from reaction theory, ab initio structure theories can be tested. Simultaneously the accuracy of knockout reaction models can be validated by detecting the knocked out neutron with the Modular Neutron Array and Large multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (MoNA-LISA). Preliminary results from this experiment will be shown. Knockout reactions can also be used to populate nuclei which are neutron unbound, thus emit neutrons nearly instantaneously. The structure of these nuclei, therefore, cannot be probed with gamma ray spectroscopy. However, with large neutron detectors like MoNA-LISA the properties of these short-lived nuclei are able to be measured. Recent results using MoNA-LISA to study the structure of neutron-rich nuclei will be presented. The author would like to acknowledge support from the NNSA and NSF.

  17. A naturalidade na tradução: quem garante?

    OpenAIRE

    Alvamar Helena de Campos Andrade Lamparelli

    2007-01-01

    Este estudo se baseou em dados extraídos de um corpus paralelo composto por textos originais em inglês de artigos da Revista National Geographic, suas respectivas traduções publicadas em português na National Geographic Brasil, e os textos traduzidos antes da revisão para publicação. O objetivo foi cotejar os três textos a fim de identificar, na tradução, elementos que promovem a produção de um texto natural e fluente, que reflete o uso mais corrente na língua. Sua inserção no âmbito da lingü...

  18. Sonochemical synthesis of zeolite NaP from clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, natural clinoptilolite was converted to zeolite NaP using ultrasonic energy, in which the transformation time shortened remarkably. The effect of post-synthesis treatment using conventional hydrothermal was also investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, TGA/DTA, SEM, and PSD analysis. The results showed that, increasing the sonication time (energy) has no significant effect on the product's morphology. The crystallinity of the synthesized samples increased slightly with increasing sonication time, but their yield remained relatively unchanged. Furthermore, post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment showed very little influence on properties of the final product. Because the ultrasonic irradiation creates acoustic cavitation cracks on the surface structure of clinoptilolite particulates and increases the concentration of soluble alumino-silicate species, which favors the prevailing super-saturation, crystallization and crystal growth of zeolite NaP happen faster. The particles of zeolite NaP synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation consist of small crystallites of uniform size.

  19. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Oliveira Nascimento

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enrique Cártula Fita, Elisabete da Assunção Jóse, Jésus Alonso Tapia, Maria Tereza Coelho e Ruth Caribe da Rocha Drouet. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas à professora e três alunos que estão com dificuldades na leitura. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir e mostrar ao professor em sala de aula a importância de incentivar os alunos a aprenderem a ler com prazer motivando-os a despertar o interesse e gosto pela leitura. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a professora pesquisada está ciente de seu papel e procura meios para enfrentar os problemas existentes em sala de aula, em especial às dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura e os alunos percebem a importância da leitura e tem vontade em avançar nesse aprendizado.Palavras-chave: educação; dificuldades na aprendizagem. professor; aluno; sala de aula.

  20. Integração entre logística e marketing: fatores críticos na perspectiva de interação e colaboração Integration between logistics and marketing: critical factors in the interaction and collaboration's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Lopes Pimenta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos pesquisadores destacam a existência de estreita relação entre as funções de Marketing e Logística. É percebido que a integração destas funções exerce influência positiva no desempenho das organizações. A literatura sobre integração interfuncional sugere configurações de estratégias formais e informais, no intuito de estudar a sinergia dentro das organizações. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e caracterizar elementos que facilitam ou dificultam a integração entre as funções de Logística e Marketing, no âmbito interno de organizações do setor de laticínios. O trabalho consiste em uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o tema, seguido de um estudo de caso múltiplo, de modo a evidenciar os conceitos e os pressupostos obtidos na literatura. Entrevistas em profundidade foram conduzidas com quatro gerentes, com base na técnica do incidente crítico (FLANAGAN, 1954, que também contribuiu para a análise e interpretação dos dados. Como resultados, tem-se que a percepção dos gerentes de Marketing e de Logística revela a existência de elementos que inibem a integração entre estas áreas, bem como elementos que facilitam a integração. Além disso, foram evidenciadas situações de integração formais (estruturas hierárquicas entre Marketing e Logística e informais (relações de confiança e sinergia entre os dois gerentes de área que, conforme a literatura pesquisada, são adotadas diante da necessidade de maiores níveis de interação ou de colaboração, respectivamente. Os elementos inibidores e facilitadores de integração, aqui mencionados, bem como suas definições, podem subsidiar futuros trabalhos no âmbito da integração interfuncional entre Marketing e Logística, e ainda, entre diversas áreas internas das organizações.Many researchers highlight the existence of a close relationship between Marketing and Logistics functions. It is perceived that the integration of these functions

  1. Regulação social e acumulação por espoliação: reflexão sobre a essencialidade das teses da financeirização e da natureza do estado na caracterização do capitalismo contemporâneo Social regulation and accumulation by spoliation: reflection on the essence of the theses of financialization and the nature of the state in the characterization of contemporary capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeyer Almeida Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estrutura-se a partir da interpretação da natureza do capitalismo contemporâneo de David Harvey, particularmente de sua proposição de que esta natureza é essencialmente espoliadora. Esta proposição é confrontada e qualificada pelas teses da financeirização expressas na contribuição de François Chesnais. Daí em diante, mostra-se como a discussão do Estado, de sua forma de operação, sobretudo de suas funções de regulação social, introduz elementos essenciais do "campo político" na caracterização do capitalismo contemporâneo. Neste particular, incorporam-se elementos teóricos de Joachim Hirsch, relativos ao processo de regulação social, mostrando que, para ele, há um "sistema de regulação social" diversificado, que torna o tema da regulação bem mais complexo do que usualmente se reconhece. O artigo busca, assim, mostrar que a associação entre as teses da regulação social e da acumulação por espoliação pode ampliar o escopo de caracterização do processo social de reprodução no capitalismo de hoje, bem como a análise de suas condições de superar as crises.The article is structured from David Harvey's interpretation of the nature of contemporary capitalism, particularly his proposal that this nature is essentially predatory. This proposition is confronted and qualified by the theses of financialization expressed in the contribution by François Chesnais. Thereafter it is shown how the discussion of the State, its mode of operation, especially its functions of social regulation, introduces key elements of "politics fields" in the characterization of contemporary capitalism. In doing so, there is an incorporation of theoretical elements of Joachim Hirsch, concerning the process of social regulation, showing that for him there is a "system of social regulation" diversified, which makes the issue of regulation more complex than usually recognized. The article thus seeks to show that the association

  2. Exploring Natural and Social Scientists' Views of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Eylem; Cakici, Yilmaz; Ertas, Ozge

    2014-01-01

    Science education researchers recently turned their attention to exploring views about nature of science (NOS). A large body of research indicates that both students and teachers have many naïve views about the NOS. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed at the issue of exploring the views of the scientists. Also, the little research in…

  3. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  4. Jezična analiza lista Naš glas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    U radu se analizira jezik Našega glasa (list „Riviere“ – radne organizacije za ugostiteljstvo, turizam, trgovinu i proizvodnju) koji je izlazio u Poreču od 1969. do 1982. godine. Nakon kratkoga osvrta na strukturu, sadržaj i ulogu toga lista te njegov značaj za stanovništvo lokalne zajednice, slijedi prikaz jezičnih zbivanja u vrijeme njegova izlaženja. U žarištu su istraživanja pravopisne, morfološke, sintaktičke, tvorbene, leksičke i stilske karakteristike lista. Rezultati istraživanja poka...

  5. All new for NA62

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    This week sees the start of the first run of the new NA62 experiment. This will be a unique opportunity for the collaboration to test its new beam, new detectors and new data acquisition system before the physics run in 2014. Speaking to the Bulletin, the NA62 technical coordinator Ferdinand Hahn shares the many challenges that the various teams faced to be on time for beam. Ready, steady, start!   A Large Angle Veto detector (white) in place in the NA62 decay volume (blue). With components from almost all the detectors in place downstream of the decay point of the mother particles – the kaons – and of the KTAG detector that tags the kaons before they decay, NA62 is ready for its first technical run. This unique run will test all the equipment as well as the trigger and the data acquisition systems. “This year, we will have about five weeks of beam from the SPS before the long shutdown of all the CERN machines,” says Ferdinand Hahn, NA62 Technical Co-...

  6. Corpo e sexualidade na gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalúcia Matos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo etnográfico que teve como objetivo compreender como as gestantes vivenciam os processos fisiológicos do seu corpo durante a gestação e a sua repercussão na sexualidade. A pesquisa envolveu sete mulheres residentes em bairro popular de São Paulo. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se observação participante e entrevista com questões norteadoras. Os dados foram apresentados na forma de narrativa e posteriormente organizados nas categorias: Percebendo as transformações corporais; Convivendo com as mudanças no corpo; Sentimentos e sensações na vida sexual durante a gestação e imaginando o corpo e a sexualidade após a gestação. As mulheres referiram-se às transformações do corpo como desconfortos e expressaram a preocupação de que fossem definitivas. Expressaram o desejo de que, após o parto, o corpo volte a ser como era e que volte a sentir desejo sexual. O reconhecimento destes fatos constitui-se numa ferramenta primordial na adequação das práticas profissionais.

  7. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, E. M.; Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  8. gigapanorama of NA 62 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The image shows the new rare Kaon decay experiment at CERN, called NA62. The NA62 experiment is 270 metres long and includes a 120-metre-long vacuum tank, shown here, housing several of the particle detectors. (Note: the experiment axis is a straight line, the curving of the tank is an optical effect of the photo.) Kaons are particles that decay into lighter elementary particles. The kaon decay processes are mostly well known, except for some very rare decay modes. For example, NA62 is investigating a rare decay predicted by the Standard Model in which a kaon decays into one pion and two neutrinos. This process occurs only once every 10 billion decays. The understanding of such ultra-rare decays are of great importance because they test the Standard Model in energy ranges not accessible by direct measurements. They are therefore complementary to the measurements at the LHC. ultra high definition on demand (photolab@cern.ch).

  9. Alcool e drogas na esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia Montoya Boscolo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o fenômeno do uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas (maconha e cocaína) na esquizoftenia. Trata-se de estudo comparativo, casocontrole, de dois grupos de esquizoftênicos pareados para sexo e idade, que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos do DSMIV para esquizoftenia. O grupo caso é definido por esquizofrênicos que têm história de ter feito uso de álcool, pelo menos no último mês e/ ou história de ter feito uso de drogas (maconha e cocaína), pelo menos al...

  10. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar a contribuição de alguns autores que discorreram sobre o tema da criatividade em suas obras, iniciando por Kurt Goldstein e sua Teoria Organísmica, que consideramos o principal substrato teórico para se pensar a criatividade na Gestalt–terapia.

  11. Lei natural e lei civil em Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo aborda a relação entre lei natural e lei civil na filosofia de John Locke. Embora leituras consagradas tenham afirmado que a relação entre ambas é dedutiva, este artigo tentará apresentar uma interpretação diferente, qual seja, a de que a relação entre lei civil e lei natural é de determinação. Longe de ser mera dedução de uma lei natural imutável, a lei civil possui papel determinante com relação à lei natural. Como mostraremos, esta interpretação realça algo que Locke tinha em alta estima: o caráter deliberativo da lei natural. A deliberação dos cidadãos na legislatura cria, em certa medida, a lei natural. Os cidadãos são livres para determinar a lei, e a participação em tal determinação é crucial para a manutenção de sua liberdade política. Nesse sentido, como veremos, a liberdade política lockiana é tributária do republicanismo.

  12. The NA48 trigger supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, R; Berotto, F; Bertolino, F; Govi, G; Menichetti, E; Sozzi, M

    2000-01-01

    The NA48 experiment aims to measure direct CP violation in the K/sub L//sup 0/ decays system with an accuracy of 2*10/sup -4/. High performances are required to the trigger and acquisition systems. This paper describes the NA48 Trigger Supervisor, a 40 MHz pipelined hardware system which correlates and processes trigger informations from local trigger sources, searching for interesting patterns. The trigger packet include a timestamp information used by the readout systems to retrieve detector data. The design architecture and functionality during 98 data taking are described. (5 refs).

  13. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima

    2009-01-01

    Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar...

  14. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M

    2000-07-01

    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  15. Novos produtos naturais capazes de atuar na estabilização de microtúbulos, um importante alvo no combate ao câncer New natural products able to act on the stabilization of microtubules, an important target against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora de Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are involved in many aspects of cellular biology and represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. In the past five years, novel natural products such as epothilones, discodermolide, sarcodictyin, eleutherobin, and laulimalide, all of which have biological activities similar to those of paclitaxel (Taxolâ, have been discovered. Taxolâ is an important antitumor drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of ovarian, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and became the first natural product described that stabilized microtubules avoiding the cellular replication. The present article reports new natural products that are able to act on the stabilization of microtubules.

  16. Efeito da natureza do eletrólito e da força iônica na energia livre da reação de adsorção de níquel em solos Effect of electrolyte nature and ionic strength in the free energy of nickel adsorption reaction in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Silva Moreira Iglesias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção é o principal processo responsável pelo acúmulo de metais pesados na superfície dos colóides do solo. O conhecimento detalhado desse fenômeno pode fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento das práticas de remediação de solos contaminados. Avaliou-se a energia livre (deltaG0 de adsorção de Ni em amostras superficiais (0,0-0,2 m e subsuperficiais (na maior expressão do horizonte B de um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico típico textura argilosa (LVwf e de um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico textura muito argilosa (NVef, utilizando-se soluções de NaCl e CaCl2 em três forças iônicas (1,0, 0,1 e 0,01 mol L-1. As amostras de solo receberam 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 70 mg dm-3 de Ni, na proporção solo:solução de 1:10. A adsorção de Ni pelos solos foi espontânea, visto que a deltaG0 apresentou valores negativos em todas as concentrações estudadas. Os valores de deltaG0 diminuíram com o aumento da dose de Ni adicionada. O NVef apresentou maior deltaG0 que o LVwf devido, principalmente, às suas características químicas e mineralógicas. Os horizontes superficiais apresentaram, em geral, maior deltaG0 em relação aos subsuperficiais, em razão do elevado teor de matéria orgânica encontrado em superfície. A deltaG0 foi maior para as menores forças iônicas do meio, tanto para CaCl2 quanto para NaCl.The adsorption is the main process responsible for the accumulation of heavy metals in the surface of soil colloids. Detailed knowledge of this phenomenon can contribute to improve the remediation practices for contaminated soil. The free energy (deltaG0 of Ni adsorption was evaluated in surface (0.0-0.2 m and subsurface (in the maximum expression of B horizon samples of a clayey Rhodic Acrudox (RA and a very clayey Eutric Kandiudalf (EK. Ni was added (2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 70 mg dm-3, in a 1:10 soil:solution ratio. Two background electrolytes (NaCl and CaCl2 and three ionic strengths - IS (1.0; 0.1 and 0

  17. NA60 frees the quarks

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.

  18. NA62: Hidden Sector Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cesarotti, Carissa Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Modern experimental physics is often probing for new physics by either finding deviations from predictions on extremely precise measurements, or by looking for a new signal that cannot be explained with existing models. The NA62 experiment at CERN does the former by measuring the ultra-rare decay $K^+ \\rightarrow \\pi^+ \

  19. Li Na Aces French Open

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese tennis player becomes the first Asian to win a Grand Slam singles title Chinese tennis player Li Na beat defending champion Francesca Schiavone from Italy,6-4,7-6,on the clay court at Roland Garros,winning the 2011 French Open Tennis Tournament on June 4.She made history by becoming the first Chinese to win a grand slam singles title.

  20. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  1. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  2. Modification of thermal and electronic properties of bilayer graphene by using slow Na+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Mintae; Lee, Paengro; Kim, Jingul; Park, Heemin; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-12-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) has an extensive list of industrial applications in graphene-based nanodevices such as energy storage devices, flexible displays, and thermoelectric devices. By doping slow Na+ ions on Li-intercalated BLG, we find significantly improved thermal and electronic properties of BLG by using angle-resolved photoemission and high-resolution core level spectroscopy (HRCLS) with synchrotron photons. Our HRCLS data reveal that the adsorbed Na+ ions on a BLG produced by Li-intercalation through single layer graphene (SLG) spontaneously intercalate below the BLG, and substitute Li atoms to form Na-Si bonds at the SiC interface while preserving the same phase of BLG. This is in sharp contrast with no intercalation of Na+ ions on SLG though neutral Na atoms intercalate. The Na+-induced BLG is found to be stable upon heating up to T = 400 °C, but returns to SLG when heated at T d = 500 °C. The evolution of the π-bands upon doping the Na+ ions followed by thermal annealing shows that the carrier concentration of the π-band may be artificially controlled without damaging the Dirac nature of the π-electrons. The doubled desorption temperature from that (T d = 250 °C) of the Na-intercalated SLG together with the electronic stability of the Na+-intercalated BLG may find more practical and effective applications in advancing graphene-based thermoelectric devices and anode materials for rechargeable batteries.

  3. Natural inflation and low energy supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kappl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural (axionic inflation provides a well-motivated and predictive scheme for the description of the early universe. It leads to sizeable primordial tensor modes and thus a high mass scale of the inflationary potential. Naïvely this seems to be at odds with low (TeV scale supersymmetry, especially when embedded in superstring theory. We show that low scale supersymmetry is compatible with natural (high scale inflation. The mechanism requires the presence of two axions that are provided through the moduli of string theory.

  4. Variação da alimentação natural de Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860 (Pisces, Serrasalmidae em função do ciclo lunar e das estações do ano na lagoa de Extremoz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2003 Natural feeding of Serrasalmus spilopleura KNER, 1860 (Pisces, Serrasalmidae from Extremoz Lake, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da alimentação natural de 377 exemplares de Serrasalmus spilopleura (Kner, 1860, capturados na lagoa de Extremoz, (5º 42’76”S e 35º17’69”W, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período entre julho de 1998 e abril de 1999, associando-se o ciclo lunar às estações do ano. Foram utilizadas 5 redes de espera com malhas, variando de 2,0cm a 5,0cm entre nós opostos em 4 pontos, com despesca a cada cinco horas, horário (17h-22h. A espécie mostrou atividade alimentar durante todo o período de estudo, independentemente da estação do ano e fases da lua, havendo pequenas variações nos itens alimentares. Insetos aparecem como o principal item alimentar, caracterizando a espécie como carnívora com tendência a insetívora.The present paper aims to study feeding aspects of Serrasalmus spilopleura (Kner, 1860 from Extremoz Lake (5º 42’76”S and 35º17’69”W, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, in the period from July/1998 to April/1999 connecting lunar cycle to the seasons of the year. 337 specimens were collected in each phase of the moon, being used five ambush nets which varied from 2,0 to 5,0 centimeters with knots in four different points and catchings of five hours, times (17h00 - 22h00. The species showed feeding activity during the study period, independently of the season of the year and the phase of the moon, with small variations in the alimentary items. Insects appeared as principal food characterizing the species as carnivorous with tendency to insectivorous.

  5. Verdade na Cena, Verdade na Vida: Boal e Stanislavski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available À luz do conceito de verdade cênica, o presente artigo discute a influência do método Stanislavski nos primeiros experimentos no seio do Teatro Arena de São Paulo e também aponta rastros do mestre russo nos princípios da Poética do Oprimido de Augusto Boal. O objetivo primordial consiste em incentivar a construção de espetáculos-fórum, partindo de um trabalho com rigor físico e detalhamento psicológico stanislavskianos. Trabalho este, que pode ser desenvolvido na lógica interna do processo, na fase que precede a todo produto de criação, antes da intervenção do espectador e no âmbito de montagens profissionais de teatro-fórum, em projetos mais duradouros.

  6. Definition of a short-cut methodology for assessing earthquake-related Na-Tech risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busini, Valentina; Marzo, Enrico; Callioni, Andrea; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-15

    Na-Tech (Natural and Technological) refers to industrial accidents triggered by natural events such as storms, earthquakes, flooding, and lightning. Herein, a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of earthquake Na-Tech risk has been developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA). The proposed methodology, through suitable Key Hazard Indicators (KHIs), identifies the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation (i.e., a process plant located in a given territory), using the Analytical Hierarchy Process as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such KHIs. The developed methodology was validated by comparing its computational results with QRA results that involved Na-Tech events previously presented in literature.

  7. Love thy nature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rokab, Sylvie; Souda, Elaine; Raven, Tamra; Roland, David Garfield; Chitraker, Rohan; Neeson, Liam; Rossi, Fernanda; Almeida, Eriberto

    2014-01-01

    Narrated by Liam Neeson, Love Thy Nature shows how deeply we've lost touch with nature, and takes viewers on a cinematic journey through the beauty and intimacy of our vital relationship with the natural world...

  8. Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  9. Fragmentos da história das concepções de mundo na construção das ciências da natureza: das certezas medievais às dúvidas pré-modernas Episodes in the history of conceptions of the world of natural sciences: from medieval certainties to pre-modern doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A concepção filosófica do mundo se inicia com os gregos sintetizados por Platão e Aristóteles. Para o primeiro o mundo físico é aparente e para se chegar à verdade é preciso se lembrar das idéias originais que determinam seu significado. Para o segundo as coisas físicas são dirigidas pelas idéias e para entendê-las é preciso a lógica. Durante o helenismo a escola de Alexandria elabora o neoplatonismo, a base da Patrística. Após a queda de Roma, os filósofos bizantinos guardam a herança clássica. A Igreja constrói uma visão neoplatônica da cristandade, a Escolástica. No oriente os persas também sofreram a influência grega. Entre os árabes do Oriente o pensamento neoplatônico orienta filósofos e religiosos de forma que para eles a razão e a fé não se separam. Aí a ciências se desenvolvem na física, na alquimia, na botânica, na medicina, na matemática e na lógica, até serem subjugadas pela doutrina conservadora dos otomanos. Na Espanha mulçumana sem as restrições da teologia, a filosofia de Aristóteles é mais bem compreendida do que no resto do Islã. Também aí todas as ciências se desenvolvem rápido. Mas a Espanha sucumbe aos cristãos. Os árabes e judeus apresentam Aristóteles à Europa Ocidental que elabora um Aristóteles cristão. A matemática, a física experimental, a alquimia e a medicina dos árabes influenciam intensamente o Ocidente. Os artesãos constroem instrumentos cada vez mais precisos, os navegadores constroem navios e mapas mais eficientes e minuciosos, os armeiros calculam melhor a forma de lançamento e pontaria de suas armas e os agrimensores melhor elaboram a medida de sua área de mapeamento. Os artistas principalmente italianos, a partir dos clássicos gregos e árabes, criam a perspectiva no desenho, possibilitando a matematização do espaço. Os portugueses, junto com cientistas árabes, judeus e italianos, concluem um projeto de expansão naval e ampliam os horizontes

  10. Hidrelétricas no Rio Madeira-RO: tensões sobre o uso do território e dos recursos naturais na Amazônia Hydroélectriques dans la rivière Madeira-RO: les tensions sur l´usage du territoire et des les ressources naturelles d’Amazonie Hydroelectric at the Madeira River: tensions about the territory using and the natural resources in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Cordeiro Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A construção das usinas hidrelétricas (Jirau e Santo Antônio, iniciadas em 2008, no Rio Madeira, município de Porto Velho-RO, confere à parte da Amazônia Sul Ocidental Rondoniense, uma (revalorização diante do contexto nacional e internacional devido ao potencial energético e ainda por compor parte de complexos para circulação e energia Sul-Americana. A materialização da obra incide sobre a intensificação dos conflitos sobre o uso do território e de seus recursos, fato comprovado a partir das análises feitas sobre as escalas de atuação dos atores e as estratégias na utilização dos recursos naturais na área de estudo. Os resultados ratificam que na Amazônia Rondoniense as políticas de infraestrutura estabelecidas são resultantes de interesses externos a região e, quando implantadas, desestruturam a lógica de organização local, elevando as tensões ambientais e sociais.La construction des usines hydroélectriques (Jirau et Santo Antônio, commencée en 2008, sur le Rio Madeira, dans le município Porto Velho-RO, (revalorise la partie d’ Amazonie Sud Occidentale dú Rondônia en raison du potentiel énérfetique qu’elle gènére et son inscription dans le réseau d’alimentation électrique de l’Amérique du Sud. Mais l´rélisation des ouvrages intensifie les conflits d’utilisation du territoire et de ses ressources, comme le conferment les analyses produites par cette recherché sur les échelles d’intervention des acteurs et les estratégies d’utilisation des ressources naturelles dans la zone d’éstude. Les résultats montrent que dans l’Amazonie du Rondônia, les politiques d’infrastructure telles qu’elles sont conçues resultant d’intérêts externes à la région et, lorsqu’wlles sont implantées, déstructurent les logiques d’organisation locale et provoquent des tensions environnementales et sociales.The building of the hydroelectric plants (Jirau and Santo Antônio, which started

  11. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms....... This work reviews the most effective nature-inspired algorithms and describes learning strategies based on nature oriented thinking. Examples and the benefits obtained from applying nature-inspired strategies in test generation, learners group optimization, and artificial immune systems for learning...

  12. Ruido ambiental y paisaje sonoro.Sinergias en el medio urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Alves Monteiro, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Dentro del ambiente sonoro urbano, habitualmente se evalúa el ruido ambiental a través de mapas de ruido, que se basan en mediciones y modelos predictivos. Los resultados ofrecidos por estas herramientas determinan las zonas de conflicto y la población afectada, lo que condiciona las directrices para la aplicación de los Planes de Acción contra el ruido. El enfoque de Paisaje Sonoro sugiere explorar ruido en su complejidad y su ambivalencia cambiando el foco hacia el sonido. Se consideran las...

  13. Sinergia entre prácticas de física: entorno simulado vs no simulado

    OpenAIRE

    Búrdalo, Gabriel; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández-Raga, María

    2013-01-01

    Se han realizado dos experiencias diferentes, una de ellas en la Facultad de CC Biológicas y otra en la Escuela de Ingenierías. Hemos observado que, intentando explicar el mismo concepto físico (carga y descarga de un condensador) en 2 titulaciones diferentes, cada uno de los profesores responsables hemos diseñado experiencias con enfoques prácticos distintos pero con idéntico fin. En el caso de la licenciatura, la docencia se centraba en el uso de herramientas para la ejecución de ejemplos p...

  14. Social TV: a sinergia entre as hashtags e os índices de audiência

    OpenAIRE

    Daiana Maria Veiga Sigiliano; Gabriela Borges

    2013-01-01

    O artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o recente fenômeno chamado Social TV e analisar como o mesmo tem contribuído para a divulgação da série Pretty Little Liars. Fruto do novo ecossistema de conectividade que vivemos, a Social TV modifica as métricas da audiência, o nível de participação do público, as narrativas, a recepção do espectador e traz de volta o appointment television. A produção norte-americana Pretty Little Liars representa o encontro de três pontos fundamentais para o engajamento...

  15. Sinergia, red y asociacionismo en la antropología. La experiencia de AIBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Collado Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el congreso de la SEAA celebrado en Granada en el año 2002, la asociación AIBR presentó una aportación relativa a la comunicación profesional en antropología a través del aprovechamiento de nuevas tecnologías de la información (Bezos-Daleske, 2005. Desde entonces y hasta la fecha, esta entidad ha trabajado para servir como espacio de intercambio y comunicación en idioma español. Este texto reflexiona sobre la situación asociativa de la disciplina en países como España, y plantea la experiencia de cuatro años de historia en la Asociación de Antropólogos Iberoamericanos en Red. La exposición será también una invitación a los lectores para compartir estos fines y recibir sus ideas a través de la edición u opinión sobre esta ponencia mediante un foro y un espacio “wiki”, creado para tal efecto en la dirección URL indicada en la parte superior de esta página.

  16. Procedimiento para evaluar las variables generadoras de sinergias en los cambios organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia María Pérez-Vallejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones se desarrollan en entornos que cambian rápida yconstantemente derivado de dos factores principales: las propiastransformaciones de los agentes económicos y sociales; y la actividad ydinamismo de la competencia y el desarrollo tecnológico. Es por ello que enesta investigación, partiendo del estudio de un conjunto de modelos, seproponeun procedimiento para evaluar las variablespara la generación desinergiascomo una vía favorecedora de los cambios organizacionales.Losprincipales métodos utilizados fueron:la búsqueda bibliográficayencuestas. Alvalidarloen una entidad hotelera cubana se determinó que el cambionecesario fue implementar un enfoque por proceso que permita mejorar eldesempeño empresarial. Se logró aportar la proyección acorde con lasnecesidades de la organización, así como el mejoramiento continuo de laefectividad de los procesos.

  17. Sinergias de organizaciones en redes: la simbiosis del agente en la firma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Orellana Pino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La división del trabajo especialmente en situaciones cuando las requieren se torna altamente eficiente cuando la gestión se centra en actividades de procesos estratégicos de relacionamientos del tipo redes. Al observar el sector productivo que orienta las estrategias para la formación de alianzas y relaciones permanentes a empresas junto a los proveedores y clientes se centran en las oportunidades de nuevos mercados. Crean por tanto emprendimientos que estimulan la expansión de asociaciones a redes económicas de relacionamientos para desarrollar actividades conjuntas. Fortalecer los lazos no garantiza la potenciación de los miembros de la red, sino que estimula la competitividad junto a la cooperación constructiva de los accionistas (GRAY & WOOD 1991 y la participación en las decisiones estratégicas. Las diferentes visiones de los miembros hace de la red un vínculo simbiótico que participan en la elección de los mercados objetivos y por tanto, complementa la cartera de empresas en la red.

  18. Social TV: a sinergia entre as hashtags e os índices de audiência

    OpenAIRE

    Daiana Maria Veiga Sigiliano; Gabriela Borges

    2013-01-01

    O artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o recente fenômeno chamado Social TV e analisar como o mesmo tem contribuído para a divulgação da série Pretty Little Liars. Fruto do novo ecossistema de conectividade que vivemos, a Social TV modifica as métricas da audiência, o nível de participação do público, as narrativas, a recepção do espectador e traz de volta o appointment television. A produção norte-americana Pretty Little Liars representa o encontro de três pontos fundamentais para o engajamento...

  19. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  20. Subjetividade e pós-modernidade na enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se refletir neste artigo a respeito da transição ou ruptura paradigmática e da premência deinvestigações que privilegiem a essência da subjetividade. Projeta-se uma ideia de transformação, de mutaçãode áreas do conhecimento diante das novidades da cultura pós-moderna. Uma das definições que se atribui àpós-modernidade é a sinergia entre o arcaísmo e o desenvolvimento tecnológico. Os estudos da subjetividadepressupõem a incursão num referencial epistemológico diverso do modelo clássico positivista. Uma práticasocial como a Enfermagem voltada para o cuidado de pessoas que sofrem alterações do processo saúdedoença,deve necessariamente compreender e problematizar os modos de subjetivação, as novas concepçõesde sujeito e de conhecimento do que é humano. A questão epistemológica diz respeito à incursão das ações decuidado para um território de contestação onde seja possível intercambiar a racionalidade com o sensível diantede significados culturais.

  1. Efeitos do uso de órteses na Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth: atualização da literatura Orthoses effects in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Barbosa Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (DCMT é a neuropatia periférica hereditária mais comum em seres humanos, apresentando incidência de 1:2.500 pessoas. A fraqueza distal crural na DCMT provoca inúmeras alterações na marcha, como, por exemplo, na velocidade, no comprimento, na largura e cadência dos passos. Vários recursos em reabilitação têm sido propostos para gerenciar os problemas de deambulação, dentre eles, destaca-se a utilização de órteses. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir os resultados de estudos sobre os efeitos da utilização de órteses nos padrões de marcha na DCMT. Neste estudo foi utilizada atualização da literatura através das principais bases de dados nacionais/internacionais (SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE, publicados entre os anos de 2006-2012. O tratamento da DCMT consiste em fisioterapia e utilização de equipamentos de assistência, visto que ainda não há fármacos ou terapia gênica capaz de atenuar os danos clínicos e funcionais. Tal associação busca maximizar a função e melhorar a qualidade de vida desses pacientes, na tentativa de evitar agravos adicionais relativos à incapacidade física. A partir de atualização de literatura é possível concluir que existe consenso sobre a utilização de órteses nos membros inferiores para promover a estabilização das articulações do tornozelo e um padrão de deambulação mais funcional, evitando sinergias inadequadas de movimento e atenuando o risco de quedas.Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy in humans, presenting incidence of 1:2.500 people. The distal crural weakness of the CMT causes numerous gait impairment changes, for example, velocity, length, width and cadence of the steps. Several rehabilitation resources have been proposed to manage the walking problems, among them, the use of orthoses is highlighted. The objective of this study was to present and discuss the results of

  2. Geothermal-brine modeling - prediction of mineral solubilities in natural waters: the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO{sub 4}-OH-HCO{sub 3} CO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system to high ionic strengths at 25{sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weare, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mineral solubility model of Harvie and Weare (1980) is extended to the eight component system, Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO{sub 4}-OH-HCO{sub 3}-CO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at 25{sup 0}C to high concentrations. The model is based on the semi-empirical equations of Pitzer (1973) and co-workers for the thermodynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions. The model is parameterized using many of the available isopiestic, electromotive force, and solubility data available for many of the subsystems. The predictive abilities of the model are demonstrated by comparison to experimental data in systems more complex than those used in parameterization. The essential features of a chemical model for aqueous electrolyte solutions and the relationship between pH and the equilibrium properties of a solution are discussed.

  3. NA

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Significant research in high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) has been directed at retaining part of the high-speed flash ADC architecture, while reducing the total number of comparators in the circuit. The symmetrical number system (SNS) can be used to preprocess the analog input signal, reducing the number of comparators and thus reducing the chip area and power consumption of the ADC. This thesis examines a Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design for a folding circuit for ...

  4. Kolesarske poti in prostorski razvoj na Ptuju

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Matjaž

    2017-01-01

    Diplomska naloga Kolesarske poti in prostorski razvoj na Ptuju govori o kolesarjenju kot alternativi osebnemu avtomobilu za dnevne vožnje na delo, v šolo ali po opravkih. Predstavljene so prednosti in slabosti kolesarjenja ter primerjava med kolesom in osebnim avtomobilom, predvsem na kratkih razdaljah, kjer lahko kolo več kot uspešno nadomesti uporabo osebnega avtomobila. V diplomski nalogi je prav tako podrobno predstavljena kolesarska infrastruktura ter pravilno načrtovanje gradnje kolesar...

  5. Search for WIMPs dark matter by means of thin NaI(Tl) scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Ken-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    The segmented detector system made of inorganic crystal is applied to serach for WIMPs dark matter. The NaI(Tl) crystal has great advantages to search for WIMPs dark matter;. *100% of natural abundance of odd A nuclei (^23Na and ^127I). *^127I has a low energy excited state at 57.6keV which is excited by spin-dependent interaction. The prototype detector of thin NaI(Tl) was tested. The energy resolution and the low energy threshold will be reported. The future prospect of WIMPs dark matter search by various detector will be discussed.

  6. Crescimento, morfologia radicular e liberação de compostos orgânicos por plântulas de soja em função da atividade de alumínio na solução do solo de campo natural Growth, root morphology and organic compounds released by soybean seedlings as a function of aluminum activity in a field soil solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Nolla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do alumínio em solos é considerada uma das maiores limitações para a produção das culturas. No entanto, algumas plantas são capazes de tolerar altas concentrações de alumínio por sua complexação com ácidos orgânicos exsudados pelas raízes. No intuito de estudar os efeitos concomitantes de faixas pH e de alumínio no desenvolvimento radicular de plântulas de soja, desenvolveu-se um trabalho na solução de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico de campo natural. Cultivou-se, em câmara de crescimento, plântulas pré-germinadas de soja durante três dias dentro de tubos de ensaio aerados contendo 40ml da solução do solo (4,2µmol de Al L-1, submetidos a quatro concentrações de alumínio (0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 1,2µmol L-1 e três níveis de pH (4,0; 5,0 e 6,0. O crescimento radicular e da parte aérea da soja foi menor em condições mais ácidas (pH 4,0. Em condições de acidez intermediária (pH H2O 5,0, o crescimento radicular foi menos afetado pelas espécies rizotóxicas de alumínio, mesmo quando submetidas a elevadas concentrações de alumínio na solução do solo.Aluminum toxicity in soils is considered one of the major limitations to crop production. However, some plants are able to tolerate high aluminum concentrations due to its complexation with root organic acids exudates. The simultaneous effect of pH ranges and aluminum concentration in soil solution on soybean seedlings root development was studied in a Rhodic Paleudult soil solution under natural grasses vegetation. Soybean seedlings were grown in growth chamber for three days in aerated test tubes containing 40ml soil solution (4.2µmol Al L-1, submmited to four aluminum concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2mmol L-1 and three pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. Root and aerial growth decreased under more acidic conditions (pH 4.0. Root growth was less affected by rhyzotoxic aluminum species at pH 5.0, even when submitted to high concentration of

  7. O valor da ressonância magnética na detecção de nódulos hepáticos utilizando-se diversas técnicas ponderadas em T2: existe consenso? The value of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of focal liver lesions using different T-2 weighted techniques: is there a consensus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Andrade e Silva Palácio

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde o início da década de 80 a ressonância magnética vem sendo utilizada para o estudo do abdome e principalmente na detecção de nódulos hepáticos. As imagens ponderadas em T2 são as que trouxeram maior benefício quando comparadas à tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Inúmeras técnicas e seqüências de ressonância magnética ponderadas em T2 surgiram desde então, na tentativa de aumentar a eficácia diagnóstica, com menores tempos de exame. Neste sentido, foram publicados inúmeros trabalhos demonstrando a utilidade de seqüências rápidas e ultra-rápidas, com e sem supressão de gordura, em apnéia, com sincronizador respiratório e com bobinas de sinergia, entre outros avanços tecnológicos. No entanto, não há um consenso sobre qual a técnica mais apropriada e sensível para a detecção de lesões hepáticas focais. Neste artigo fazemos uma revisão bibliográfica e análise crítica das diversas técnicas de imagens ponderadas em T2, no que diz respeito às suas sensibilidades na detecção de nódulos hepáticos.Since the early 1980's several magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences have been developed in order to determine the optimum imaging technique for the detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. T2-weighted images play an important role in the evaluation of the liver and present equal or greater sensitivity than enhanced computed tomography for the detection of liver lesions. New techniques for obtaining T-2 weighted images have been developed in the attempt to optimize the method. These techniques have improved the image quality by shortening examination time, reducing motion artifacts, and improving contrast-to-noise ratio. The effectiveness of the different techniques (fat suppression, breath-hold, respiratory-triggered and phased-array coils has been tested in many comparative studies, although the results are controversial. In this article we review the literature and discuss the several

  8. Hrvatska milja na starim kartama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Viličić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karta Stjepana Glavača iz 1673. godine vrijedan je i jedinstven primjerak hrvatske kartografske baštine. Na njoj je ucrtana hrvatska milja kojoj nema traga na kartama izrađenima prije Glavačeve karte. Više autora spominje vrijednost duljine hrvatske milje, ali nisu suglasni s iznosom njezine vrijednosti. Za potrebe ovoga rada, pored kopije Glavačeve karte pribavljene su i istražene kopije karata Janeza Vajkarda Valvasora iz 1689., Giacoma Cantellija da Vignole iz 1690., Antuna Belavića iz 1739. i karta Kraljevinâ Dalmacije, Hrvatske i Slavonije… iz 1746. na kojima je, pored ostalih milja, ucrtana i hrvatska milja. S pomoću tih ucrtanih milja izračunan je odnos između hrvatske i njemačke milje, zatim talijanske i hrvatske milje te potom francuske i hrvatske milje. Pored tih odnosa, dan je i pregled odnosa hrvatske milje i nekih drugih milja. Utvrđeno je da je duljina hrvatske milje jednaka 1/10 duljine ekvatorskog stupnja. Duljina hrvatske milje za Zemljin radijus R = 6371 km iznosi 11 120 m, odnosno približno 11 km.

  9. Corpo e velhice na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Felten da Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A inegável atenção dada ao corpo na sociedade inspirou a construção deste trabalho, visto que os imperativos atuais são a beleza, a forma e o vigor. A velhice e a inexorabilidade da morte apresentam-se para este ideal como incômodos que devem ser afastados através de diversos hábitos "saudáveis" e “rejuvenescedores”, como a ginástica, os cosméticos, as vitaminas, procedimentos estético-cirúrgicos, entre outros. O modo de “ser velho”, então, passa a ser configurado não mais por estereótipos negativos, mas a partir de um ethos em que os idosos são apresentados como saudáveis, joviais, engajados, produtivos e autoconfiantes. São corpos que ultrapassam as marcas do tempo, atléticos, firmes e lisos. Logo, aqueles que não aderem a este ethos podem tornar-se desviantes, estranhos, velhos, ultrapassados e precisam, portanto, serem descartados ou escamoteados. Tendo em vista estas questões, o presente trabalho propõe-se a discutir sobre o tema velhice, corpo e sociedade, na tentativa de problematizar sobre os atuais modos de subjetivação e o envelhecimento na contemporaneidade.

  10. Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Stefanie; Mojet, Jozina; Shimojo, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associated with a decrease in consumer acceptance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not it would be possible to reduce the NaCl content in standard Western European foods by replacing it with naturally brewed soy sauce. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing (n = 56), soup (n = 52), and stir-fried pork (n = 57). In the 1st step, an exchange rate (ER) by which NaCl can be replaced with soy sauce without a significant change in the overall taste intensity was established per product type, by means of alternative forced choice tests. In the 2nd step, the same consumers evaluated 5 samples per product type with varying NaCl and/or soy sauce content on pleasantness and several sensory attributes. The results showed that it was possible to achieve a NaCl reduction in the tested foods of, respectively, 50%, 17%, and 29% without leading to significant losses in either overall taste intensity or product pleasantness. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with naturally brewed soy sauce without lowering the overall taste intensity and to reduce the total NaCl content in these foods without decreasing their consumer acceptance. Health concerns related to salt consumption cause an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, the development of foods with reduced salt content without decreasing the consumer acceptance is an important challenge for the food industry. A new possible salt reduction approach is described in the present article: The replacement of salt with naturally brewed soy sauce.

  11. The mineralogy and chemistry of the German and Portuguese tiles used to face a historic building in the Amazon region and their natural susceptibility to tropical weathering Mineralogia e química de azulejos Alemães e Portugueses de prédios históricos na região Amazônica e sua susceptibilidade natural à degradação tropical (intemperismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes L. da Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, the most prominent buildings of the city of Belém were faced entirely with tiles manufactured in Portugal and Germany, which now exhibit distinct degrees of degradation. The Pinho mansion is one of the most important of these buildings and was selected for the investigation of the action of the tropical Amazonian climate on the degradation of the tiles. To achieve this objective, the tiles were mapped for organic and inorganic degradation, and samples were collected for analysis. The minerals were determined by XRD, the chemical composition by classical wet methods and SEM/EDS, and the microorganisms under the microscope. The results show that the German and Portuguese tiles are quite different in their composition. While both ceramic bodies are composed of SiO2 and Al2O3, CaO was found only in the Portuguese tile. The low Na2O and K2O contents indicate the addition of materials to reduce the fusion temperature. SiO2 and PbO are the main constituents of the glaze, with CoO and FeO being added as pigment. The ceramic body of the German tiles is constituted of quartz, mullite, and cristobalite, in contrast with the Portuguese tiles, which are made of quartz, gehlenite, diopside, calcite, and feldspars. The glazes are XRD-amorphous. The chemical and mineralogical differences between the German and Portuguese tiles indicate that they were produced from different raw materials under distinct thermal processes. The most prominent weathering-related modifications are the thin layers (German tiles, oxidation stains, dark stains, the detachment of the tile (Portuguese tiles, loss of the glaze and powdering of the ceramic body (Portuguese tiles through the establishment of Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta.. The distinct degradation patterns of the tiles exposed to the tropical Amazon climate are a consequence of their distinct mineralogy and chemistry.As proeminentes edificações da cidade de Belém foram revestidas durante o s

  12. Homocisteína Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindalva Batista Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A homocisteína, formada a partir da metionina hepática, é metabolizada nas vias de desmetilação e de transulfuração, sendo que seus valores plasmáticos e urinários refletem a síntese celular. Sua determinação, realizada em jejum e após sobrecarga de metionina, caracteriza as diferenças dessas vias metabólicas, principalmente quando de natureza genética. A hiper-homocisteinemia tem sido associada a maior risco de eventos aterotrombóticos, e a literatura sugere associação causal, independente de outros fatores de risco para doença arterial. Diminuição da homocisteína plasmática para valores normais é seguida de redução significante na incidência de doença aterotrombótica. A relação entre homocisteína e o fígado vem adquirindo importância nos dias atuais, uma vez que alterações das lipoproteínas e da depuração de metionina são comuns em pacientes com doença hepática crônica (hepatocelular e canalicular. O tratamento da hiper-homocisteinemia fundamenta-se na suplementação alimentar e medicamentosa de ácido fólico e vitaminas B6 e B12.Homocysteine, formed from hepatic methionine, is metabolized through the pathways of demethylation and transsulfuration. Its plasmatic and urinary values reflect the cell synthesis. Its determination after fasting and increased infusion of methionine shows the differences of these two metabolic pathways, mainly when it is related to genetic diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with a higher risk of vascular thrombotic events. Several authors suggest a causal relationship between these events independently of other risk factors for vascular diseases. Decrease in plasmatic homocysteine to normal levels is followed by a significant reduction on the incidence of vascular thrombotic events. The correlation between the liver and homocysteine is becoming more important because of the recent findings that alterations of lipoproteins and methionine clearance are

  13. Estudo da posição natural da cabeça em relação ao plano horizontal de Frankfurt na avaliação mandibular de indivíduos com padrão facial de Classe I e Classe II Study of the natural head position in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane in mandibular evaluation of the Class I and Class II skeletal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carmelo Tôrres

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o comportamento do Plano de Frankfurt e da leitura de posição mandibular em indivíduos com padrões faciais de Classe I e II, relacionados à postura natural da cabeça. METODOLOGIA: fotografias do perfil em PNC foram obtidas dos pacientes em pé e relaxados, olhando a imagem de seus próprios olhos refletida em um espelho colocado 1m à frente deles. Um prumo foi utilizado para definir a linha vertical (VER nas fotografias e uma linha passando pela glabela e pogônio mole foi transferida das fotografias para as telerradiografias laterais. Uma linha horizontal (HOR, perpendicular à linha vertical, comparada com a referência intracraniana plano horizontal de Frankfurt (HF, foi utilizada para avaliação da variação deste plano em posição natural da cabeça. Foram avaliadas as alterações da PNC sobre a medida cefalométrica da posição sagital do contorno anterior da mandíbula pela diferença entre Nperp-P (McNamara e Nvert-P. Analisou-se os registros fotográficos e radiográficos pré-tratamento de 60 pacientes selecionados em dois grupos baseados no padrão esquelético facial de Classe I e Classe II. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados obtidos demonstraram uma alta variação interindividual entre o plano horizontal de Frankfurt (HF e a linha horizontal verdadeira (HOR em ambos grupos. Porém, a diferença média apresentou-se mínima entre estas referências, estatisticamente não significante e semelhante nos dois grupos. A relação observada da variação do ângulo HOR.HF para o cálculo estimado da diferença entre Nperp-P e Nvert-P retornou um coeficiente de 1: 2,119 ± 0,029. Esta discrepância do diagnóstico sagital mandibular compromete o planejamento ortodôntico nos pacientes que apresentaram diferença entre os planos horizontais intra e extra-cranianos. Destacamos a importância das avaliações faciais e cefalométricas em norma lateral serem realizadas em posição natural da cabe

  14. Utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu

    OpenAIRE

    Kirin, Slavko

    2001-01-01

    U radu je istraživan utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu. U sadašnjoj proizvodnji (Lura, Tvornica Bjelovar), sir Trapist zrije na prirodan način s oblikovanjem kore, te vakuumski upakiran u termoskupljajuče plastične vrećice, čime se dobije sir bez kore. Utvrđeno je da spomenuti načini zrenja uvjetuju signifikantne razlike u udjelu vode u bezmasnoj tvari sira. On je 5,34 % viši kod sira Trapista u vrećici u odnosu na sir Trapist s korom. Udje...

  15. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments.

  16. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  17. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  18. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  19. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  20. A Perspectiva de estudos sobre os sujeitos na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ávila Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arquivologia, Biblioteconomia e Museologia se constituíram, como disciplinas científicas, no final do século XIX, a partir da consolidação de um modelo custodial patrimonialista e, depois, com sua superação a partir de duas perspectivas: uma funcionalista e outra crítica. Posteriormente, uma outra tradição de pesquisa se desenvolveu: estudos realizados a partir do ponto de vista dos sujeitos (usuários, públicos que se relacionam com as instituições arquivo, biblioteca, museu, e que experimentam seus espaços e se apropriam dos conteúdos de seus acervos. O objetivo deste texto é analisar o desenvolvimento desta perspectiva na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia, bem como defender a importância de um diálogo maior entre os achados de pesquisa realizados neste âmbito em cada uma das três áreas analisadas.

  1. Tetrahydroacridine inhibits voltage-dependent Na+ current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Yi-ping WANG; Guo-yuan HU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of tetrahydroacridine (tacrine) on voltage-gated Na+ channels in cardiac tissues.METHODS: Single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from adult guinea-pig heart. Voltagedependent Na+ current was recorded using whole cell voltage-clamp technique. RESULTS: (1) Tacrine reversibly inhibited Na+ current with an IC50 value of 120 μmol/L (95 % confidence range: 108-133 μmol/L). (2) The inhibitory effects of tacrine on Na+ current exhibited both a tonic nature and use-dependence. (3) Tacrine at 100 μmol/L caused a negative shift (about 10 mV) in the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation of Na+ current, and retarded its recovery from inactivation, but did not affect its activation curve. (4) Intracellular application of tacrine significantly inhibited Na+ current. CONCLUSION: In addition to blocking other voltage-gated ion channels,tacrine blocked Na+ channels in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Tactine acted as inactivation stabilizer of Na+channels in cardiac tissues.

  2. NaCl Potentiates Human Fibrocyte Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nehemiah Cox; Darrell Pilling; Gomer, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can p...

  3. Src-independent ERK signaling through the rat α3 isoform of Na/K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Namrata; Xu, Yunhui; Duan, Qiming; Banerjee, Moumita; Larre, Isabel; Pierre, Sandrine V; Xie, Zijian

    2017-03-01

    The Na/K-ATPase α1 polypeptide supports both ion-pumping and signaling functions. The Na/K-ATPase α3 polypeptide differs from α1 in both its primary structure and its tissue distribution. The expression of α3 seems particularly important in neurons, and recent clinical evidence supports a unique role of this isoform in normal brain function. The nature of this specific role of α3 has remained elusive, because the ubiquitous presence of α1 has hindered efforts to characterize α3-specific functions in mammalian cell systems. Using Na/K-ATPase α1 knockdown pig kidney cells (PY-17), we generated the first stable mammalian cell line expressing a ouabain-resistant form of rat Na/K-ATPase α3 in the absence of endogenous pig α1 detectable by Western blotting. In these cells, Na/K-ATPase α3 formed a functional ion-pumping enzyme and rescued the expression of Na/K-ATPase β1 and caveolin-1 to levels comparable with those observed in PY-17 cells rescued with a rat Na/K-ATPase α1 (AAC-19). The α3-containing enzymes had lower Na(+) affinity and lower ouabain-sensitive transport activity than their α1-containing counterparts under basal conditions, but showed a greater capacity to be activated when intracellular Na(+) was increased. In contrast to Na/K-ATPase α1, α3 could not regulate Src. Upon exposure to ouabain, Src activation did not occur, yet ERK was activated through Src-independent pathways involving PI3K and PKC. Hence, α3 expression confers signaling and pumping properties that are clearly distinct from that of cells expressing Na/K-ATPase α1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  5. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  6. A escolarização e a sua obrigatoriedade: debates na província do Espírito Santo (1870-1880 Schooling and its compulsory nature: debates in the province of Espírito Santo (1870-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Schneider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa busca compreender os debates sobre a escolarização e sua obrigatoriedade na Província do Espírito Santo, entre os anos de 1870 e 1880. Estuda as disputas em relação à implantação de uma forma escolar que se colocava como lugar privilegiado para a formação das futuras gerações, obrigadas a frequentar esse novo espaço de socialização. Os debates indicam que, entre os anos de 1870 e 1880, a escola primária era percebida como o local em que se produziria o homem industrioso, capaz de movimentar a economia e com capacidade inventiva, virtuoso e patriótico para defender a Nação de inimigos internos e externos. Nesse sentido, a confiança no poder da educação também é uma confiança no poder da ciência, no caso, da ciência pedagógica e de seus métodos renovadores da didática de ensino. As disputas permitem perceber representações que faziam parte de um movimento político que reivindicava a obrigatoriedade e a gratuidade do ensino como obrigação do Estado, que busca na escolarização meios para controlar a formação dos professores, com a criação de instituições voltadas para a habilitação para a docência e o investimento em escolas para a infância, com vistas a uma formação modelar do futuro cidadão do Império.This research paper has, as its aim, an understanding of the debates regarding schooling and its compulsoriness in the Province of Espírito Santo, between the years of 1870 and 1880. It examines the disputes that took place with respect to a new school form being implanted, marketed as a place of privilege, with the purpose of preparing the citizens of the future, but with the premise that attending this new "socializing" space, is obligatory. The debates indicate that, between the years 1870 and 1880, primary schools were seen as a place where the industrious man was to be prepared, with a capacity for getting the economy moving and for inventiveness, virtuous and patriotic and

  7. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  8. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yifei, E-mail: yifeiwang0206@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314001 (China); Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Lin Feng [Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2009-07-30

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100 g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100 g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Mg{sup 2+}.

  9. Synthesis of high capacity cation exchangers from a low-grade Chinese natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Lin, Feng

    2009-07-30

    The Chinese natural zeolite, in which clinoptilolite coexists with quartz was treated hydrothermally with NaOH solutions, either with or without fusion with NaOH powder as pretreatment. Zeolite Na-P, Na-Y and analcime were identified as the reacted products, depending on the reaction conditions such as NaOH concentration, reaction time and hydrothermal temperature. The products were identified by X-ray diffraction, and characterized by Fourier transform IR and ICP. With hydrothermal treatment after fusion of natural zeolite with NaOH, high purity of zeolite Na-Y and Na-P can be selectively formed, their cation exchange capacity (CEC) are 275 and 355 meq/100g respectively, which are greatly higher than that of the natural zeolite (97 meq/100g). Furthermore, the ammonium removal by the synthetic zeolite Na-P in aqueous solution was also studied. The equilibrium isotherms have been got and the influence of other cations present in water upon the ammonia uptake suggested an order of preference Ca(2+)>K(+)>Mg(2+).

  10. Docência na universidade: professores inovadores na USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamlian Helena Coharik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata de pesquisa realizada com um grupo de professores inovadores da Universidade de São Paulo tendo como objetivo procurar subsídios para a formação do professor universitário. Esses docentes foram entrevistados, solicitando que detalhassem melhor suas experiências inovadoras; explicassem as razões pelas quais haviam introduzido modificações em sua forma de trabalho; explicitassem as relações entre sua atividade de docência e de pesquisa, expressassem o papel que atribuíam ao ensino na universidade, bem como a forma pela qual sua trajetória acadêmica havia se cumprido até então. A diversidade de experiências relatadas e, ao mesmo tempo, a convergência de visões a respeito de suas funções de ensino e de pesquisa na universidade permitem-nos afirmar que, mais do que uma formação pedagógica específica, a sensibilização para as dificuldades do ensino e a valorização institucional dessa atividade consistiriam em grande avanço para a formação do professor.

  11. Pneumonia bacteriana adquirida na comunidade

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Lais Del Prá Netto

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia, Florianópolis, 2015. A pneumonia pode ser causada por diversos microrganismos e classificada de forma abrangente, havendo poucos e frágeis estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos sobre pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade (PACs). Os patógenos mais frequentes nas PACs são Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae (em pneumonias típicas) e Mycoplasma pneumoni...

  12. New results from NA49

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Behler, M; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cerny, V; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Filip, P; Fischer, H G; Foder, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Lasiuk, B; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Perl, K; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Putschke, J; Reid, J G; Renfordt, A; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Koo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2002-01-01

    Recent results of the NA49 experiment are presented. These cover first results on pion and kaon production, HBT, and charge fluctuations from Pb+Pb reactions at 40 AGeV and their comparison to 158 AGeV beam energy. Furthermore a study on baryon number transfer in p+p, centrality selected p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV and new results on the system size dependence of kaon yields, including C+C and Si+Si data, are presented. Additionally, a first result on Lambda Lambda correlations is shown. (11 refs).

  13. The NA52 strangelet search

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, M; Baglin, C; Beck, H P; Borer, K; Bussière, A; Elsener, K; Gorodetzky, P; Guillaud, J P; Kabana, S; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Lindén, T; Lohmann, K D; Mommsen, R K; Moser, U; Pretzl, Klaus P; Schacher, J; Spiwoks, R; Tuominiemi, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    The NA52 experiment searches for long-lived charged strangelets in 158 a GeV c/sup -1/ Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS. The experiment is able to identify single particles coming from the collisions at p/sub t/=0. We collected 10/sup 13/ Pb+Pb interactions looking for negatively charged strangelets and 3*10/sup 11/ Pb+Pb interactions for positively charged ones. No evidence for the production of strangelets has been observed. We present here resulting experimental differential and total upper production limits. (8 refs).

  14. Identidades Homossexuais na Territorialidade Tradicionalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edipo Djavan dos Reis Göergen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o debate teórico que sustenta a pesquisa de mestrado desenvolvida pelo autor. Tendo por base suas vivências em contextos de tradicionalismo gaúcho, o autor deste trabalho tem percebido a grande quantidade de homossexuais, ou indivíduos que se auto-denominam não-heterossexuais, integrando as atividades artísticas do Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, ou a territorialidade tradicionalista. Interessado em investigar tal fenômeno, o autor tem desenvolvido o projeto de pesquisa “Os Espaços Paradoxais de Relações Homoeróticas na Territorialidade Tradicionalista”, sob orientação do prof. Dr. Benhur Pinós da Costa, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia (UFSM. Para que essa pesquisa seja realizada, levam-se em conta as relações de gênero e de sexualidade que estão envolvidas no tema. Dessa forma, por ainda se tratarem de temáticas tidas como insignificantes na sociedade em geral e marginalizadas no campo científico, para que o presente trabalho fosse empreendido, buscou-se amparo teórico nas geografias feministas e queer, segmentos contemporâneos da ciência geográfica.

  15. Identidades Homossexuais na Territorialidade Tradicionalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edipo Djavan dos Reis Göergen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o debate teórico que sustenta a pesquisa de mestrado desenvolvida pelo autor. Tendo por base suas vivências em contextos de tradicionalismo gaúcho, o autor deste trabalho tem percebido a grande quantidade de homossexuais, ou indivíduos que se auto-denominam não-heterossexuais, integrando as atividades artísticas do Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, ou a territorialidade tradicionalista. Interessado em investigar tal fenômeno, o autor tem desenvolvido o projeto de pesquisa “Os Espaços Paradoxais de Relações Homoeróticas na Territorialidade Tradicionalista”, sob orientação do prof. Dr. Benhur Pinós da Costa, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia (UFSM. Para que essa pesquisa seja realizada, levam-se em conta as relações de gênero e de sexualidade que estão envolvidas no tema. Dessa forma, por ainda se tratarem de temáticas tidas como insignificantes na sociedade em geral e marginalizadas no campo científico, para que o presente trabalho fosse empreendido, buscou-se amparo teórico nas geografias feministas e queer, segmentos contemporâneos da ciência geográfica.

  16. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  17. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Cox

    Full Text Available Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  18. Nature's Nature: Ideas of Nature in Curricula for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Maurice, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Two contrasting sets of ideas about nature in environmental education are described. An analytical framework is developed from inter-disciplinary histories of ideas and used in evaluating a specific curriculum. In conclusion, some general implications are suggested for curricula in environmental education. [This article was reprinted from…

  19. Micotoxinas e Micotoxicoses na Avicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santurio JM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão tem como objetivo principal mostrar, baseado em dezenas de pesquisas realizadas, os efeitos tóxicos das micotoxinas aflatoxinas, tricotecenos, zealenona e fumonisinas sobre o desempenho das aves. O descobrimento das propriedades hepatotóxicas e hepatocarcinogênicas de algumas linhagens de Aspergillus flavus e A. parasiticus em perus, na Inglaterra, no início da década de 1960, seguida pela elucidação da estrutura de seus metabólitos tóxicos, as aflatoxinas, deu novo enfoque e prioridade para a pesquisa sobre micotoxinas. Análises de aflatoxinas realizadas no Laboratório de Análises Micotoxicológicas (LAMIC da Universidade Fedaral de Santa Maria, entre os anos de 1986 e janeiro de 2000, em 15.600 amostras de alimentos destinados principalmente ao consumo animal, demonstram que no milho analisado, 41,9% das amostras estavam contaminadas por aflatoxinas. Em surtos de aflatoxicose no campo, uma das características mais marcantes é a má absorção que se manifesta como partículas de ração mal digeridas na excreta das aves. Também observa-se, em frangos e poedeiras que recebem AFL, extrema palidez das mucosas e pernas. Dietas deficientes em riboflavina ou colecalciferol (vit. D tornaram frangos sensíveis, nos índices de desenvolvimento corporal, a concentrações muito baixas de AFL. O efeito aflatoxina nos frangos é maior na fase inicial de crescimento, ou seja, quando as aves ingeriram aflatoxina nos primeiros 21 dias de vida, e quanto maior o nível de stress do lote, menor a quantidade de AFL para afetar negativamente seu desempenho, seja na produção de carne ou de ovos. As principais micotoxinas do grupo dos tricotecenos são: toxina T-2; deoxynivalenol (DON; diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, todas produzidas através de diversas espécies de fungos do gênero Fusarium. Além dos tricotecenos, o fusarium também pode produzir zearalenona e fumonisinas. Dessas fusarium-toxinas, somente toxina T-2 gera patologias s

  20. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in natural populations of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, in the Central Amazonia Padrão geográfico de diversidade genética em populações naturais de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora, na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae is an Amazonian evergreen tree and a source of the purest linalool, the main component of its essential oil, which is very valuable in the international perfumery market. After decades of over-exploitation it is currently considered as threatened. We evaluated the genetic diversity and its distribution in four populations in Central Amazonia. Thirty-five reliable RAPD markers were generated, of which 32 were polymorphic (91.4%. Variation was higher within the populations (76.5%; p O Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae é uma árvore amazônica fonte do mais puro linalol, o qual é o principal componente do seu óleo essencial e muito valioso no mercado internacional de perfumaria. Após várias décadas de intensa exploração, a espécie foi levada à categoria de ameaçada de extinção. Quatro populações naturais distribuídas na bacia Amazônia Central foram avaliadas quanto ao nível e a distribuição da diversidade genética. Trinta e cinco marcadores RAPD reprodutíveis foram gerados, dos quais 32 foram polimórficos (91,4%. A diversidade foi maior dentro das populações (76,5%; p < 0,0001 e a distribuição geográfica contribuiu para a diferenciação entre as populações (23,4%; p < 0,0001. A AMOVA indicou que pode haver uma influência parcial do Rio Amazonas no fluxo gênico (3,3%; p < 0,0001, mas foram identificadas evidências de fluxo gênico atravessando o rio. Houve diferenças significativas nas freqüências dos marcadores (p < 0,05 e o fluxo gênico estimado foi relativamente baixo (Nm = 2,02. A correlação entre a distância genética e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,95 (p = 0,06 e para a distância geográfica e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,78 (p = 0,12. Houve um padrão geográfico de variabilidade ao longo do eixo Leste - Oeste, influenciado também pelo Rio Amazonas, o que sugere que o rio poderia funcionar como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico. Apesar de amea

  1. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  2. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  3. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  4. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the Natural Resources Atlas is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  5. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  6. Alterações na bioquímica hepática em cães com leptospirose aguda determinada por amostras do sorogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae Hepatic biochemistry alterations in dogs with naturally occurring acute leptospirosis determined by Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Alexandre Freire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram testadas 120 amostras séricas de cães com títulos (³100 perante Leptospira spp. serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae para a determinação da atividade sérica de alanina aminotransferase (ALT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, fosfatase alcalina (FA, gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT e dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, proteína total, albumina, globulinas e bilirrubinas total, direta e indireta. Um grupo de 34 animais sem qualquer sintomatologia clínica e idade semelhante ao grupo testado foi utilizado como controle, tendo sido submetido às mesmas dosagens bioquímicas. Os animais com títulos ³200 apresentaram dosagens de FA e bilirubina direta superiores ao grupo controle e também aos animais com títulos menores que 200 (POne hundred and twenty serum samples obtained from dogs with specific titres (³100 against Leptospira spp. serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were tested in order to determine the enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamaglutamyltransferase (GGT, as well as of the total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulins and total, direct and indirect bilirubins serum concentrations. Thirty four animals free from clinical signs with the same age of the tested group were used as control group and submitted to the same biochemical tests. The animals with titres ³200 showed increased ALP activity and greater direct bilirubin concentration when compared to the control group and also to the group of dogs with titres <200 (P<0.05. A clear correlation was observed between hepatic damage, without hepatocellular necrosis, and specific seroreactivity for leptospirosis caused by serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.

  7. Fotografia na Imprensa: conflitos na câmara escura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lúcio da Silva Menezes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo recupera o teor ideológico do discurso que a Revista Veja elaborou sobre a classe trabalhadora que emergiu no cenário brasileiro, no final da década de 1970. O destaque dado aos trabalhadores como temática central resgatada, deve-se aos movimentos grevistas por eles encetados, após anos de ocultamento de sua resistência sob a repressão da ditadura civil-militar (1964-1985. Com a rebeldia operária, as matérias a respeito deste grupo, na Revista,foram se tornando mais constantes e visíveis, pois já não era mais possível, para a Revista Veja, ignorar a existência da classe operária que, com a força insurgente das greves, ocupava as ruas do Brasil.

  8. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  9. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  10. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  11. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Natural gas annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  13. AÇÃO CIVIL PÚBLICA SOBRE ÁREA DE RESERVA LEGAL: (DESNECESSIDADE DO SEU REGISTRO NA MATRÍCULA DO IMÓVEL / CIVIL ACTION PUBLIC ON AREA OF LEGAL NATURE RESERVES: (NO NEED OF ITS REGISTRY IN THE PROPERTY RECORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Cordeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to show our position on the (no need of the civil action filing the record in property, subject of the registration of the demand that is intended to be obliged to institute legal nature reserve area, making use, therefore, of the adoption of hypothetical deductive method, combined with the execution of theoretical and documentary research. Legal Nature Reserve is understood as the area of rural land that can not suffer human intervention by deforestation and exploitation of its resources. Its institution and subsequent registration with the Rural Environmental Registry is an propter rem obligation, given the tracking of it and the attachment to the holder of real right. It must be obeyed even that forests or other type of vegetation no longer exist in the property, which thus externalizes its institution being a mandatory requirement for regular registration of the property, making it impossible to any claim of its ignorance, because it clings to the ownership of the property, passing to new owners, they being able to be charged regardless of their proceeding.

  14. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  15. Synergistic kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Malmos, Christine; von Solms, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Rocking cells were used to investigate the natural gas hydrate formation and decomposition in the presence of kinetic inhibitor, Luvicap. In addition, the influence of poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and NaCl on the performance of Luvicap was investigated using temperature ramping and isothermal...

  16. Phase transitions on dehydration of the natural zeolite thomsonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny

    2001-01-01

    The dehydration of the natural zeolite thomsonite, Na4CasAl20Si20O80 24H(2)O, has been studied using a combination of conventional and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. A preliminary in situ dehydration study revealed two distinct unit cell changes at approximately 540 and 570 K, respectively...

  17. Passion, Rational, Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying

    2014-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, both being naturalists, emphasize a close relation between humans and nature. However, their views over the influences of nature towards human world are different in many aspects. Basing on a close discussion of“Nature”by Emerson and Walden by Thoreau, the paper would make a detailed comparison between the two naturalists’views over nature.

  18. Human nature and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  19. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  20. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  1. Relative contributions of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport to ischemic Na-i(+) overload in isolated rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hove, M; Nederhoff, MGJ; Van Echteld, CJA

    2005-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and/or the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) were blocked during ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)), intracellular pH (pH(i)), and energy-related phosphates were measured by using simultaneous Na-23 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy. Hearts wer

  2. SISTEMI IPTV NA IP MULTIMEDIJSKEM PODSISTEMU

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava arhitekture sistemov IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu ter pripadajoče storitve in funkcije IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu. Predstavljene arhitekture prinašajo veliko novih funkcionalnosti, ki so podrobneje predstavljene po posameznih enotah. V nalogi je tudi podrobneje opisana arhitektura IP multimedijskega podsistema z ravninami in protokoli. Naloga se zaključuje s storitvami na takšnih arhitekturah.

  3. PREZENTACIJA RAZVALIN GRADU NA PIRAMIDI V MARIBORU

    OpenAIRE

    Šegula Seršen, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Diplomsko delo podaja predlog za ohranitev ostalin razvalin gradu na Piramidi v Mariboru. V njem načrtujemo ureditev arheološkega območja Piramida ter problematiko prezentiranja izkopanin v povezavi z umestitvijo novih kulturnih in izobraževalnih funkcij. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz analitičnega in projektnega dela. V prvem delu so raziskani arhitekturni, zgodovinski in kulturnovarstveni aspekti, na podlagi katerih je razvit idejni projekt, opisan v drugem delu naloge.

  4. Wordsworth and Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉洁

    2013-01-01

    William Wordsworth was England’s Poet Laureate. He is the Romantic poet who is most often described as a“na⁃ture”write, and he is always sensitive to every subtle change in the world around him. In my opinion, his love for nature is boundless. To him, nature acts as a substitute for imaginative and intellectual engagement with the development of embodied hu⁃man beings in their diverse circumstances. It’s nature that gives him knowledge and strength. In this paper, I want to narrow Wordsworth’s conception of nature, and then we can find the harmony in the community of men and nature.

  5. Eficácia da aromaterapia na redução de níveis de estresse e ansiedade em alunos de graduação da área da saúde: estudo preliminar Effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing stress and anxiety levels in undergraduate health science students: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Santantonio de Lyra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a eficácia de aromaterapia na diminuição de níveis de estresse e ansiedade (traço e estado de alunos de graduação de cursos na área da saúde. Participaram do estudo 36 sujeitos, com idade entre 18 e 29 anos, que foram divididos entre os que receberam tratamento (grupo aroma, n=18 e o grupo controle (n=18. Os sujeitos foram avaliados quanto a níveis de estresse e ansiedade antes e após o período de intervenção, pela Lista de Sintomas de Estresse e pelo Inventário de Ansiedade Traço e Estado. O tratamento de aromaterapia consistiu em sete sessões (duas vezes por semana de dez minutos de inalação com uma sinergia de óleos essenciais elaborada especificamente. Os escores de estresse e ansiedade antes e depois do tratamento foram comparados estatisticamente, com nível de significância de 5% (pThe purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of aromatherapy in decreasing stress and anxiety levels in undergraduate health science students. Thirty-six students aged 18 to 29 were divided into those who received treatment (aroma group, n=18 and a control group (n=18. All subjects were assessed as to stress and anxiety levels before and after the treatment, by means of the List of Stress Symptoms and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The aromatherapy treatment consisted in twice weekly, 10-minute inhalations of a synergy of essential oils made specifically for this study, for a total of 7 sessions. Stress and anxiety scores measured before and after treatment were statistically compared, with significance level set at 5% (p<0.05. The aroma group showed a significant (p<0,05 decrease in stress (less 24% and anxitey (less 13% and 19% levels, while in control group only a significant, though lesser (11% stress level decrease could be noticed. Aromatherapy thus proved effective in reducing stress and anxiety levels in graduate health students, but there is still great need to further studies to

  6. Compatibilidade e efeito da mistura de isolados de rizobactérias na indução do enraizamento e crescimento de clones de eucalipto Compatibility among rhizobacteria isolates and effect of mixture of isolates in inducing rooting and growth of eucalyptus clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas ao desenvolvimento de um produto biológico à base de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de plantas, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a compatibilidade e o efeito da mistura de isolados de rizobactérias pré-selecionados na indução do enraizamento e crescimento de clones de eucalipto. A compatibilidade entre os isolados de rizobactérias foi determinada por antibiograma nos meios de cultivo de Kado e Heskett e em meio B de King, enquanto o efeito da mistura de isolados foi avaliado por meio da aplicação dos isolados, individualmente ou em misturas, em substrato de enraizamento, empregando-se a mesma proporção de inóculo dos co-inoculantes. Em 64% das possíveis combinações entre dois isolados, não se constataram reações de incompatibilidade. Os isolados VC2 e CIIb foram os mais compatíveis. De forma geral, não se observou sinergia entre misturas de isolados compatíveis, assim como também não ocorreu, geralmente, redução na eficiência da mistura de isolados incompatíveis.Isolates of rhizobacteria that induced both rooting and growth of eucalyptus clones were previously selected. To assist developing a biological product based on those isolates, the compatibility among them and the effect of mixture of isolates were evaluated. The compatibility among rhizobacteria isolates was assessed by antibiograms in both Kado & Heskett and King B culture media, whereas the effect of isolate mixtures was evaluated by applying the isolates, either alone or mixed but always in the same proportions, in rooting substrate. No antagonism between isolates was observed in 64% of the possible combinations of two isolates. Isolates VC2 and CIIb were the most compatible. In general, it was observed no synergistic interaction in mixture of compatible isolates, as well as no efficiency reduction in mixture of incompatible isolates.

  7. O crescimento da Nectandra megapotamica Mez., em floresta nativa na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul The growth of the Nectandra megapotamica Mez., in natural forest in the central depression of the State of the Rio grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento em diâmetro, volume comercial, fator de forma comercial e incremento corrente anual do volume comercial em porcentagem (ICA% para duas árvores dominantes de canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual, localizada no município de Santa Maria na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram obtidos mediante análise de tronco e as tendências de crescimento em diâmetro, volume comercial, fator de forma e ICA%, foram ajustados com a utilização dos modelos de Mitscherlich & Sontag (1982, Backman (1943, Richards (1959, e um modelo parabólico do segundo grau. O ajuste dos modelos indicou que, para as variáveis diâmetro e volume comercial, o melhor modelo foi o de Mitscherlich & Sontag, para a árvore 1,sendo que, para a árvore 2, o modelo de Richards apresentou melhor ajuste. Para o incremento corrente anual do volume comercial em porcentagem, o melhor modelo foi o de Backmam, sendo o modelo parabólico, o de melhor ajuste para o fator de forma comercial.This work was carried out with the objective of studying the growth in diameter, commercial volume, form factor, mean annual increment of the commercial volume in percentage for two dominant trees of Nectandra megapotamica, in a Decidual Seasonal Forest, located in the municipal district of Santa Maria in the central depression of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were obtained from stem analysis and the growth trend in diameter, commercial volume, form factor and mean annual increment of the commercial volume in percentage, were fitted using the models of Mitscherlich & Sontag (1982, Backman (1943, Richards (1959, and a second degree parabolic model. The adjustment of the models indicated that for the diameter and commercial volume, the best model was that one from Mitscherlich & Sontag, for tree number one and for tree number two, the Richard's model

  8. O consumo na vida digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Yudi Furukita Baptista

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O modelo de consumo não possui as mesmas características sempre: suas relações, motivações, formatos, espaços, interesses e atividades são construções sociais que se modificam atreladas ao cenário econômico, político e tecnológico. O presente trabalho repassa o surgimento da sociedade do consumidor para então conjecturar sobre as propriedades distintivas do consumo na vida digital. O que se defende ao final é que o consumidor já não se restringe ao papel de consumir.

  9. Fabrication of implanted $^{22}$Na targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A knowledge of the $^{22}$Na(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$ Mg reaction rate is of significant astrophysical interest. In order to complete previous studies of this reaction, radioactive $^{22}$Na targets of high purity are required. We ask for support to fabricate these targets via the implantation technique at ISOLDE GPS (off—line mode) using $^{22}$Na nuclides in an Al matrix produced in Nov. 1990 at the PSI (Zürich). The $^{22}$Na nuclides are released and ionized in a surface ionisation source, mass-analyzed at ISOLDE GPS, and implanted in a Ni-Ta backing and a C—foil in a special implantation setup.

  10. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  11. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  12. IZGRADNJA MIKRO HIDROELEKTRARNE NA SKRBINSKEM POTOKU

    OpenAIRE

    Brezočnik, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Namen diplomske naloge je izgradnja mikro hidroelektrarne na Skrbinskem potoku. Predstavljene so splošne komponente potrebne za proizvajanje električne energije na manjšem vodotoku ˝Skrbinski˝ potok z možnostjo agregata do moči 36 kVA. Tema diplomske naloge je zanimiva, saj je nekoč visokogorska kmetija že imela manjšo postrojenje za samooskrbo domačije z električno energijo v mlinu na potoku Žavc in na potoku Radoljna, kjer je proizvajala električno energijo za potrebe žage torej za razrez ...

  13. A Biotecnologia na esfera pública

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho foca o envolvimento de cidadãos ligados à agricultura, à I&D agronómica e ao meio rural em assuntos de inovação na agricultura,tomando como caso de estudo ‘a biotecnologia na agricultura’ designada por agrobiotecnologia ou biotecnologia verde, na qual se incluem os organismos geneticamente modificados (‘OGM’) ou transgénicos. O seu uso na agricultura tem gerado desacordo entre os seus adeptos e os seus opositores, incluindo-se nestes dois grupos diversos actores. Pelo facto d...

  14. STRES NA DELOVNEM MESTU X BANKE

    OpenAIRE

    Trtnik, Matjaž

    2010-01-01

    POVZETEK Namen tega diplomskega dela je predstaviti dejstva o prisotnosti stresa na delovnem mestu v X banki, ki sem jih pridobil s pomočjo raziskave v konkretni organizaciji. Cilj dela je zajeti različna poglavja in področja izbrane teme, jih preučiti in oceniti obstoječe stanje v podjetju, ter na podlagi zbranih podatkov podati predloge za izboljšave. Diplomsko delo sestavlja osem poglavij, kot celoto pa bi ga lahko razdelil na tri dele: V prvem, teoretičnem delu, bom za boljše r...

  15. Bulk crystal growth and electronic characterization of the 3D Dirac semimetal Na3Bi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K. Kushwaha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High quality hexagon plate-like Na3Bi crystals with large (001 plane surfaces were grown from a molten Na flux. The freshly cleaved crystals were analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, allowing for the characterization of the three-dimensional (3D Dirac semimetal (TDS behavior and the observation of the topological surface states. Landau levels were observed, and the energy-momentum relations exhibited a linear dispersion relationship, characteristic of the 3D TDS nature of Na3Bi. In transport measurements on Na3Bi crystals, the linear magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations are observed for the first time.

  16. Algoritmos evolucionários na determinação da configuração de custo mínimo de sistemas de co-geração de energia com base no gás natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco César Goldbarg

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta um caso especial do problema geral da determinação de uma configuração para um sistema de co-geração de energia que utiliza o gás natural como fonte energética. O problema visa determinar a configuração de custo mínimo de um sistema de co-geração. É um problema computacionalmente difícil devido a restrições técnicas, operacionais e econômicas. Para solucioná-lo, são apresentados e comparados algoritmos evolucionários desenvolvidos de acordo com as metáforas dos Algoritmos Genéticos, Algoritmos Meméticos e da Transgenética Computacional. Os algoritmos são aplicados a um conjunto de trinta e cinco instâncias geradas de acordo com cinco diferentes ciclos de co-geração. Os experimentos computacionais relatados nesse trabalho indicam uma dominância de melhores resultados da metáfora transgenética.This work presents a special case of the general problem of determining the configuration of cogeneration systems in which the primary source of energy is natural gas. The objective is to determine the configuration with the minimum cost. Technical, operational and economic features impose constraints to the problem making it computationally hard to solve. Evolutionary algorithms based upon genetic, memetic and transgenetic algorithms are presented to solve the problem. A computational experiment with thirty-five instances generated in accordance with five distinct cogeneration cycles is reported. The results show that the transgenetic algorithm exhibits an overall best performance.

  17. Supervisory utilization as a support information instrument of the data base acquisition and availability by Intranet and Internet natural gas micro-cogeneration; Utilizacao de um supervisorio como ferramenta de suporte de informacoes na aquisicao e disponibilizacao dos dados via Intranet e Internet de um sistema de micro-cogeracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Paulo; Sousa, Walter [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); Petch, Moacir; Diogenes, Pedro; Carrasco, Benjamim [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The globalization effects intensify the information of technology's usage, not only on the creation of new products and processes, as well, support to operation of new equipment. The Information Technology turns to being more penetrating in the companies' activities, making and changing paradigms and, consequently, in the way how information is conceived. In the partnership PETROBRAS, the Centro de Tecnologias do Gas - CTGAS and the group FOCKINK, was developed and has been launched in the brazilian market the first system of generation and micro-cogeneration by natural gas, activated by an engine diesel derivative by natural gas. The prototype is able to make 35 kW/55 kVA of electric energy, 7TR's (84.000 BTU's) of energy for refrigeration and has a capacity of warming 2200 l / h of water in the temperature of 25 deg C until 85 deg C. The equipment utilizes as a monitoring system a supervisor Elipse Scada, produced by Elipse, which is composed by acquisition and monitoring tools that turns possible the creation of screens with graphics to make easier the support, monitoring, activating and variable control, just like: pressure, temperature, electrical and mechanical. The supervisor keeps in touch with (02) two computers: the first, makes the communication with the supervisor system and the other is used to select the information to be able by web, through CTGAS home page. The access by home page of the information about the data on the co-generator will make easier the client's decision for the acquisition of the equipment. The main objective of this work is, through Information Technology is to present an application case of Elipse Scada Software in micro-cogeneration system installed at CTGAS to turn easier the obtainment of this information, change the relations into an integrate changing, expanding frontiers, creating by this way new challenges. (author)

  18. NaHCO3 and NaC1 tolerance in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, F C; Nolph, K D; Maher, J F

    1975-08-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).

  19. Nature as Dissonant Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    concerns situations of mismatch between people and their heritage. The aim of the paper is to uncover the latent cultural dissonance in relation to nature restoration and to explain how landscape architecture could play an important role in the management of this dissonance. If one accepts that heritage...... of others, or in how landscapes sometimes are zones to accommodate different natures. In both cases the heritage production or nature restoration divides rather than unites. However, landscape architecture might provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that unites rather than divides......-evident. But who define and decide what kind of nature to restore? And is nature restoration not a contradiction in terms in our deeply cultivated landscapes? To examine these questions it makes sense to draw parallels between nature restoration and the concept of ‘dissonant heritage’ (Ashworth 2010), which...

  20. On nature and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  1. Protection by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA against cadmium-induced anemia in growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, W G; Yen, J T

    1983-07-01

    Weanling Landrace X Yorkshire swine were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 3% clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 or 3% zeolite NaA (a synthetic zeolite) with or without 150 ppm CdCl2 for 31 days. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were depressed significantly in animals fed Cd in the absence of zeolites, but not in their presence. Liver Cd concentration was increased dramatically by added dietary Cd but was significantly lower in animals fed clinoptilolite with Cd than in those fed Cd alone (11.4 vs 16.5 ppm). Liver Fe and Zn were decreased by dietary Cd; liver Fe was not affected significantly by clinoptilolite or zeolite NaA, but liver Zn was increased by zeolite NaA. Kidney dry matter, Zn, and Cd concentrations were increased by dietary Cd; neither clinoptilolite nor zeolite NaA affected kidney Cd concentration. Zeolite NaA increased kidney dry matter both in the presence and in the absence of dietary Cd. Plasma urea-N, K, Na, and Mg were unaffected by Cd or by either zeolite. The data illustrate the different effects of dietary clinoptilolite compared with zeolite NaA on blood plasma, liver, and kidney concentrations of minerals and provide evidence that both zeolites offer some protection against Cd-induced Fe-deficiency anemia; the magnitude of this protection and the effects of each zeolite on tissue concentrations of Cd and other materials need further quantification.

  2. Odpowiedź na pytanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Foucault

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prezentowany artykuł Michela Foucaulta został opublikowany w 1963 roku. Foucault rozwija w nim koncepcję archeologii wiedzy – metody analizy historycznych dyskursów, którą zaprezentuje w sześć lat później w książce o tym właśnie tytule. Artykuł powstał na kanwie pytania wybranego przez autora spośród zadanych mu przez redakcję „Esprit”, które dotyczyło możliwości pojęciowego opracowania przymusu systemu dyskursywnego przy jednoczesnym zaakcentowaniu nieciągłości w jego obrębie a tym samym możliwości twórczego działania w historii ducha. A także, czy tak sformułowana aporia zakładałaby z konieczności zgodę na przymus systemu lub afirmację siły zdolnej do przekształcenia go za pomocą zewnętrznej przemocy? Tekst jest wprawką do sformułowania dojrzałej teorii dyskursu, rodzajem autoanalizy, która pozwala Foucaultowi powiązać własną metodę historyczną z „progresywistyczną polityką” myśli i rozwiązać w ten sposób dylemat pełnej determinacji i wolnego sprawstwa obecny w rozważaniach wielu strukturalistów.

  3. Generalized urticaria induced by the Na-ASP-2 hookworm vaccine: implications for the development of vaccines against helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemert, David J; Pinto, Antonio G; Freire, Janaina; Jariwala, Amar; Santiago, Helton; Hamilton, Robert G; Periago, Maria Victoria; Loukas, Alex; Tribolet, Leon; Mulvenna, Jason; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein 2 (Na-ASP-2) is secreted by infective hookworm larvae on entry into human hosts. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-ASP-2 provides significant protection against challenge infections. In endemic areas antibodies to Na-ASP-2 are associated with reduced risk of heavy N americanus infections. To assess the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Na-ASP-2 adjuvanted with Alhydrogel in healthy Brazilian adults previously infected with N americanus. Participants were randomized to receive Na-ASP-2 or hepatitis B vaccine. Major IgG and IgE epitopes of the Na-ASP-2 molecule were mapped by using sera from these same subjects. Seroepidemiologic studies in adults and children residing in hookworm-endemic areas were conducted to assess the prevalence of IgE responses to Na-ASP-2. Vaccination with a single dose of Na-ASP-2 resulted in generalized urticarial reactions in several volunteers. These reactions were associated with pre-existing Na-ASP-2-specific IgE likely induced by previous hookworm infection. Surveys revealed that a significant proportion of the population in hookworm-endemic areas had increased levels of IgE to Na-ASP-2. Epitope mapping demonstrated sites on the Na-ASP-2 molecule that are uniquely or jointly recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies. Infection with N americanus induces increased levels of total and specific IgE to Na-ASP-2 that result in generalized urticaria on vaccination with recombinant Na-ASP-2. These data advance knowledge of vaccine development for helminths given their propensity to induce strong T(H)2 responses. Study data highlight the important differences between the immune responses to natural helminth infection and to vaccination with a recombinant helminth antigen. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Practical Approach to Knowledge-based Question Answering with Natural Language Understanding and Advanced Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This research hypothesized that a practical approach in the form of a solution framework known as Natural Language Understanding and Reasoning for Intelligence (NaLURI), which combines full-discourse natural language understanding, powerful representation formalism capable of exploiting ontological information and reasoning approach with advanced features, will solve the following problems without compromising practicality factors: 1) restriction on the nature of question and response, and 2) limitation to scale across domains and to real-life natural language text.

  5. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan;

    2007-01-01

    of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells....... Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.......Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2...

  6. Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycosides are natural non-caloric sweeteners which are extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Present study deals the effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia plant for steviol glycoside (SGs) production. Yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of NaCl (0.05-0.20%) and Na2CO3 (0.0125-0.10%) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension biomass cultured on salts showed less growth as well as browning of medium when compared with control. Quantification of SGs content in callus culture (collected on 15th day) and suspension cultures (collected at 10th and 15th days) treated with and without salts were analyzed by HPLC. It was found that abiotic stress induced by the salts increased the concentration of SGs significantly. In callus, the quantity of SGs got increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.43 and 1.57% with 0.10% NaCl, and 0.025% Na2CO3, respectively. However, in case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 enhanced the SGs content from 1.36 (control) to 2.61 and 5.14%, respectively, on the 10th day.

  7. Human Nature and the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the procedural and philosophical perspectives taken by science in examining human characteristics. Discusses the different levels of accuracy of various scientific fields. Encourages discussion of what biological and behavioral sciences can and cannot reveal about complex human nature. Considers some characteristics of quality science…

  8. Relationship between intracellular Na+ concentration and reduced Na+ affinity in Na+,K+-ATPase mutants causing neurological disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Einholm, Anja P.; Schack, Vivien;

    2014-01-01

    The neurological disorders familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) are caused by mutations of Na+,K+-ATPase α2- and α3-isoforms, expressed in glial and neuronal cells, respectively. Although these disorders...... are distinct, they overlap in phenotypical presentation. Two Na+,K+-ATPase mutations, extending the C-terminus by either 28 residues ("+28" mutation) or an extra tyrosine ("+Y"), are associated with FHM2 and RDP, respectively. We describe here functional consequences of these and other neurological disease......, addressing the question to what extent they cause a change of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations ([Na+]i and [K+]i) in COS cells. C-terminal extension mutants generally showed dramatically reduced Na+ affinity without disturbance of K+ binding, as did other RDP mutants. No phosphorylation from ATP...

  9. Análise da Fragilidade e Vulnerabilidade Natural dos Terrenos aos Processos Erosivos como Base para o Ordenamento Territorial: o Caso das Bacias do Córrego Carioca, Córrego do Bação e Ribeirão Carioca na Região do Alto Rio das Velhas-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clibson Alves dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As bacias do Córrego Carioca, do Córrego do Bação e do Ribeirão do Carioca fazem parte da bacia do rio Itabirito, tributário no alto rio das Velhas, afluente do Rio São Francisco. Essa região é marcada por intensos processos erosivos, decorrentes do uso inadequado dos solos. Sendo evidenciados diversos conflitos de uso dos terrenos e recursos hídricos, devido ao desenvolvimento da atividade minerária, das atividades industriais, das práticas agropastoris, da crescente ocupação urbana e da expansão imobiliária por condomínios residenciais de classe alta. Nesse trabalho, analisou-se a susceptibilidade natural dos terrenos aos processos erosivos, tendo como base as unidades geomorfológicas definidas por Santoset al. (2006 e os métodos propostos por Crepani et al. (1996; 2001 e Ross (1992; 1994; 2000, visando contribuir no processo de planejamento ambiental e ordenamento territorial dessa região. Os resultados hierarquizam a área segundo o grau de fragilidade e vulnerabilidade aos processos erosivos, que associadas às análises realizadas no presente estudo, constituem-se em ferramentas orientativas no processo de ordenamento territorial das bacias hidrográficas estudadas.

  10. Nature as Dissonant Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Many former sites of land reclamation, where rivers and wetlands have been cultivated for the purpose of modern agriculture, are now subject to projects of nature restoration. In this context nature is often referred to as ‘the nature’ or simply ‘nature’ as it was something objective and self......-evident. But who define and decide what kind of nature to restore? And is nature restoration not a contradiction in terms in our deeply cultivated landscapes? To examine these questions it makes sense to draw parallels between nature restoration and the concept of ‘dissonant heritage’ (Ashworth 2010), which...... concerns situations of mismatch between people and their heritage. The aim of the paper is to uncover the latent cultural dissonance in relation to nature restoration and to explain how landscape architecture could play an important role in the management of this dissonance. If one accepts that heritage...

  11. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  12. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  13. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  14. Structure and ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte interphase layer on tin anodes in Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Liang-Yin; Moradabadi, Ashkan; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2017-02-01

    Structure, stability, and ionic conductivity of the SEI layer on Sn anodes in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are studied using experimental and theoretical methods. Raman spectra show that the SEI layer consists of Na2O and Na2CO3, the latter becoming more dominant close to the discharged state (at 0.3 V). According to our theoretical phase diagrams, Na2O can be stable in the whole voltage range of charge/discharge (from 0.0 V to 1.90 V), but Na2CO3 can decompose under carbon and/or oxygen poor conditions, leading to the formation of Na2O. These findings are in agreement with our experimental cyclic voltammetry and Raman spectra as function of voltage. Both compounds of the SEI layer have very low ionic conductivity close to the discharge state (0.2-0.3 V), but the ionic conductivity of Na2O is much larger than that of Na2CO3 for a wide range of voltages from 0.4 V to the charge state (∼1.5 V). This work suggests that engineered artificial SEI with Na2O or naturally formed SEI in a carbon and/or oxygen poor environment can improve the conductivity of the SEI layer in NIBs.

  15. Bullying na Escola: um sofrimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Silva Sardinha Gurpilhares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O bullying é uma forma de violência presente nas escolas e o termo é utilizado para caracterizar todas as formas de agressões repetitivas psicológicas e físicas, direta ou indiretamente. Esta violência causa sofrimentos, intimidação e medo, sempre numa relação de poder entre pares. Esta pesquisa trata de um estudo do bullying escolar: o que é, como surgiu, como identificá-lo e sua caracterização, conseqüências, causas, o papel da escola, de professores e pais e uma proposta prática que pode ser adotada para sua prevenção e contenção. O objetivo é organizar materiais para leitura dos atores educacionais para uma possível reflexão, através de pesquisas bibliográficas. Esta violência é grave e deveria ser tratada como saúde pública, devido às conseqüências que traz, como queda na aprendizagem, na autoestima e em casos mais graves, até o suicido e outras tragédias. A escola necessita atentar para esse tipo de violência, revendo suas ações em todos os momentos, tendo um olhar integral e diferenciado em relação aos alunos. É fundamental que o bullying não seja tratado como brincadeira de criança e para ser identificado e combatido é necessária uma ação entre a família e todos da escola, que pode ser desenvolvida através de projetos que ajudem a apontar caminhos para a solução do problema. Tais ações devem ser pautadas por constantes debates e reflexões, nas quais o aluno se torne o protagonista. Não existem fórmulas prontas, pois a intervenção deve ser feita através da realidade de cada escola.

  16. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  17. The City and Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Tovmasyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animate “nature–1” around us is transforming into supported or non-supported by man “nature-2” within the framework of the urban development of town areas. Interaction of town and nature is a bilateral process. Experts underline 4 groups of town planning risks related to the interaction of town and nature: ecological, natural and biosphere, sanitary-epidemiologic risks as well as planning and management risks. The latter is often connected with protest population activities. The magazine is looking forward to readers comments.

  18. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  19. A mathematical nature walk

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2009-01-01

    How heavy is that cloud? Why can you see farther in rain than in fog? Why are the droplets on that spider web spaced apart so evenly? If you have ever asked questions like these while outdoors, and wondered how you might figure out the answers, this is a book for you. An entertaining and informative collection of fascinating puzzles from the natural world around us, A Mathematical Nature Walk will delight anyone who loves nature or math or both. John Adam presents ninety-six questions about many common natural phenomena--and a few uncommon ones--and then shows how to answer them using mostly b

  20. Natural Ventilation in Atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Hendriksen, Ole Juhl

    This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions.......This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions....

  1. A água na Ilha da Madeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel de Lemos Baptista

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a problemaÅLtica da aÅLgua na Madeira, desde a origem do povoamento ateÅL aos nossosdias, com especial atencao para a exploracao e salvaguarda deste recurso natural.Na Madeira, a aÅLgua existe em abunda^ncia, gracas aos fenoÅLmenos climaÅLticos que ocorrem na ilha, devidotambeÅLm ao relevo e a` natureza das rochas serem predominantemente basaÅLlticas (impermeaÅLveis etambeÅLm devido aos investimentos que o Governo Regional tem efetuado, nomeadamente a niÅLvel daexploracao, atraveÅLs da construcao de furos e de galerias para extrair a aÅLgua subterra^nea, como forma desatisfazer as necessidades da populacao no seu todo e dos turistas que nos visitam.Nao obstante, eÅL fundamental continuar com uma gestao equilibrada e sisteÅLmica da aÅLgua, para que nofuturo este liÅLquido continue nas nossas vidas. Felizmente que na Madeira, a empresa de capitaispuÅLblicos IGA – Investimentos e Gestao da AÅLgua, S.A. tem realizado um trabalho excelente em termosde exploracao, tratamento e abastecimentos a`s populacoes da Madeira e do Porto Santo, assim comouma gestao sustentaÅLvel deste recurso.This article discusses the problem of water in the wood, from the origin of the settlement to the presentday, with special attention to the exploitation and protection of this natural resource. In Madeira, waterexists in abundance, thanks to the weather phenomena that occur on the island, also due to relief andthe nature of the rocks are predominantly basaltic (waterproof and also due to the investments thatthe Regional Government has made, particularly in terms of the exploration, through the constructionof boreholes and galleries to extract groundwater as a way to meet the needs of the whole populationand the tourists who visit us.Nevertheless, it is essential to continue with a balanced and systematic management of water, so thatin future this fluid continues in our lives. Fortunately in Madeira, the company —owned IGA

  2. Razvitak naselja na kvarnerskim otocima - primjer Dobrinja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Bradanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Na dosad slabo poznatom i sa stajališta povijesti umjetnosti još posve neobrađenom primjeru Dobrinja na otoku Krku, raspravlja se o razvitku naselja na kvarnerskim otocima. Uz isticanje štetnosti dosad prevladavajućih uopćavanja, karakteristični položaj i razvitak Dobrinja tumače se u širem, komparativnom kontekstu. Analiziraju se prostiranje i obilježja pojedinih dijelova ovog naselja, a naglasak je na vremenu kasnog srednjeg i ranijeg novog vijeka. Tada je najuži dio povijesnog središta Dobrinja poprimio čvrstu, na tlorisnoj osnovi i danas, usprkos opsežnim pregradnjama i arhitektonskim preinakama, jasno uočljivu, urbanu fizionomiju.

  3. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  4. Culpa e prazer: imagens do consumo na cultura de massa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Rocha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estudar algumas das principais representações do consumo no senso comum e na cultura de massa. Essas representações tendem a classificar o consumo como algo hedonista, ou exercer sobre ele um discurso moralista, ou vê-lo como algo natural ou, ainda, como utilitário. Ao estudar as implica ções ideológicas dessas visões, este artigo pretende contribuir para o estudo do consumo como um sistema cultural central na sociedade moderno-contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Cultura e consumo; cultura de massa e ideologia; Teoria da comunicação; Antropologia do consumo. ABSTRACT The objective of this article is to study some of the main representations of consumption in the general sense and in mass culture. These representations tend to classify consumption as something hedonist, or answer to it with a moralistic rhetoric, or to see it as something natural or even as something utilitarian. While studying the ideological implications of these views, this article intends to contribute to the study of consumption as a central cultural system in the modern contemporary society. Keywords: Culture and consumption; mass culture and ideology; Theory of communication; Anthropology of consumption.

  5. Anodic Synthesis and Characterization of Na-Pb-O, Na-Pb-Bi-O Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei QIU; Fen LIU; Liang Zhong ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of Na-Pb-O and Na-Pb-Bi-O were electrosynthesized on the anode from molten salts. The resulting crystals have a hexagonal structure, in which the base ions (Pb and Bi) are in high oxidation states. By using KOH/NaOH (atomic ratio K:Na=1:1) mixture as a flux,incorporation of K ions into the lattice is inhibited while incorporation of Bi ions is enhanced. The magnetic measurement shows that the Na-Pb-Bi-O crystals are dominated by diamagnetism.

  6. Barroco: A tempestade na Biblioteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que Heinrich Wölfflin, nos últimos vinte anos do século XIX, se interessou por trazer à tona as formas arquitetônicas do século XVII conferindo-lhes caráter autônomo de estilo histórico determinável, não é nenhuma novidade que os estudos sobre o barroco pudessem polarizar – quase sempre em um tom colérico – os pesquisadores da arte e da cultura. Em terras do Brasil, não chega a ser de todo descabido recordar a severíssima crítica operada por Sérgio Buarque de Holanda em Raízes do Brasil. O livro, que pretende detectar a avalanche de equívocos que teria povoado o passado nacional com as vistas voltadas para a concretização de um projeto de emancipação e progresso na linha da história brasileira, apresenta em seu quarto capítulo uma impugnação explícita ao passado colonial.

  7. Barroco: A tempestade na Biblioteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784x.2008v8n12p167 Desde que Heinrich Wölfflin, nos últimos vinte anos do século XIX, se interessou por trazer à tona as formas arquitetônicas do século XVII conferindo-lhes caráter autônomo de estilo histórico determinável, não é nenhuma novidade que os estudos sobre o barroco pudessem polarizar – quase sempre em um tom colérico – os pesquisadores da arte e da cultura. Em terras do Brasil, não chega a ser de todo descabido recordar a severíssima crítica operada por Sérgio Buarque de Holanda em Raízes do Brasil. O livro, que pretende detectar a avalanche de equívocos que teria povoado o passado nacional com as vistas voltadas para a concretização de um projeto de emancipação e progresso na linha da história brasileira, apresenta em seu quarto capítulo uma impugnação explícita ao passado colonial.

  8. Terapia de linguagem na afasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spinelli

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia da linguagem na afasia foi estudada em 15 pacientes, 8 do sexo masculino e 7 do sexo feminino; a idade variou de menos de 10 anos a mais de 50 anos; em 11 casos a afasia era sequela de acidente vascular cerebral e, em 4, de traumatismo crânio-encefálico. Quanto ao tipo de afasia, 5 pacientes apresentavam déficits predominantemente de expressão e 10 apresentavam déficits receptivos e expressivos em graus equiparáveis. Em 6 casos a terapia foi iniciada dentro dos 3 primeiros meses de instalação do quadro; nos restantes foi iniciada mais tardiamente. Dos 15 pacientes, 11 apresentaram evolução satisfatória, a qual não depndeu do grau de afasia, do tipo de afasia, da idade do paciente, do tipo de patologia e do intervalo entre a instalação do quadro afásico e o início da terapia. A terapia da linguagem no paciente afásico é efetiva, o prognóstico não pode ser feito a priori. Somente a evolução do caso com sua retestagem criteriosa poderá dar dados realmente úteis para se falar em evolução.

  9. Functionalization of Liquid Natural Rubber via Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhawati Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (NR is a high molecular weight natural polymer and can be degraded to liquid natural rubber (LNR leaving certain functional groups at the end of chains. In this study, LNR samples prepared via oxidative degradation using H2O2 and NaNO2 as reagents were found to have different end groups depending on the pH of the reaction medium. In an acidic medium, LNR with hydroxyl terminal groups was formed as the degradation reaction was initiated by hydroxyl radicals produced from decomposition of peroxynitrite acid. In contrast, a redox reaction took place in an alkaline medium to yield LNR with carbonyl terminal groups. The mechanisms of reaction are discussed and proposed to explain the formation of different end groups when reaction carried out in acidic and alkaline media. Chain degradation in an acidic medium seems to be more effective than in an alkaline medium, and thus yields LNR with lower Mn.

  10. 7th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Andries; Abraham, Ajith; Plessis, Mathys; Snášel, Václav; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC) is organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues with respect to Nurturing Intelligent Computing Towards Advancement of Machine Intelligence. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Seventh World Congress (NaBIC’15) held in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa during December 01-03, 2015. The 39 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The Volume would be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  11. Education reform, race, and politics in Bahia, Brazil Reforma escolar, racismo y políticas locales en Bahia, Brasil Reforma educacional, racial e política na Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Reiter

    2008-03-01

    educação primária em áreas onde tal acesso era longe de universal. Minha pesquisa também aponta para algumas falhas desta reforma, em particular referente à situação de afro-brasileiros. Racismo estrutural é uma das causas mais indicativas desta falha. Racismo estrutural na Bahia reduz as expectativas de professores e diretores do potencial acadêmico de afro-brasileiros pobres; isto amplia o abismo entre estudantes e diretores, contribuindo para uma alienação mútua destes dois grupos e põe em perigo a criação de alianças estratégicas e sinergias dentro de escolas; o racismo ainda aliena escolas dos seus bairros, obstruindo um envolvimento significativo da comunidade na gestão da escola. Finalmente, o reconhecimento baixo que professores públicos recebem da sociedade como um todo, refletido por baixos salários, e uma falta geral de estruturas institucionais de incentivos capazes de recompensar desempenhos excelentes e sancionar desempenhos deficientes transformou a educação pública baiana num sistema desesperado, onde as motivações de professores e estudantes são sistematicamente negadas e suas esperanças frustradas.

  12. A New Dopant of NaN3 for High-Concentration-Nitrogen Diamond Synthesized by HPHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhong-Zhu; JIA Xiao-Peng; Hisao Kan-da; MA Hong-An; WANG Dong-Mei; LIU Wan-Qiang; YU Run-Ze

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen is successfully doped in diamond by adding sodium azide (NaN3) as the source of nitrogen to the graphite and iron powders. The diamond crystals with high nitrogen concentration, 1000-2200 ppm, which contain the same concentrations of nitrogen with natural diamond, have been synthesized by using the system of iron-carbonadditive NaN3. The nitrogen concentrations in diamond increase with the increasing content of NaN3. When the content of NaN3 is increased to 0.7-1.3 wt.%, the nitrogen concentration in the diamond almost remains in a nitrogen concentration range from 1250 ppm to 2200 ppm, which is the highest value and several times higher than that in the diamond synthesized by a conventional method without additive NaN3 under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions.

  13. OS SISTEMAS DE RECOMENDAÇÃO NA WEB COMO DETERMINANTES PRESCRITIVOS NA TOMADA DE DECISÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colmenero Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Confinado com o volume explosivo de informações na Internet, é difícil a um utilizador, manter-se informado sem um esforço enorme. A abundância de informações na Internet não veio simplificar o processo de escolhas. Paralelamente, as empresas, no sentido de reterem os seus consumidores, empregam cada vez mais amiúde sistemas de recomendação nos seus sites, e os utilizadores parecem encontrar nesta alternativa, uma estratégia prescritiva para resolver os seus problemas de procura de informação e consequente tomada de decisão. Como é que a recomendação pode influenciar a tomada de decisão? Isolando esta pergunta, aspirou-se a encontrar atributos que lançassem a pesquisa e que definissem caminhos e objetivos. Na materialização da pesquisa, refuta-se a recolha de elementos em ambientes laboratoriais, ao invés disso, a atenção da pesquisa centra-se nas pessoas reais que executam tarefas reais em condições reais, com a pesquisa centrada no processo pelo qual as decisões são tomadas no ambiente de cada pessoa. A pesquisa segue uma abordagem qualitativa do processo natural de procura de informação produzida num quadro quasi-experimental. Os resultados da pesquisa indicam que, para resolver os seus problemas de tomada de decisão, na fase de procura de informação, as pessoas avaliam as recomendações que os sítios lhe fornecem progressivamente, com recurso a uma procura interna dentro dos sítios das empresas, deixando praticamente de recorrer aos tradicionais motores de procura.

  14. The local structure of Ca{sub N}a pyroxenes. I. XANES study at the Na K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottana, Annibale [Rome, Univ. III (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Murata, T. [Kyoto, Univ. of Education (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Wu, Ziyu; Marcelli, Augusto [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Paris, E. [Camerino, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1996-07-01

    X-ray absorption Na K-edge spectra have been recorded on synthetic end member jadeite and on a series of natural Ca-Na pyroxenes compositionally straddling the Jd-Di. The disordered C2/c members of the series are systematically different from the ordered P2/n members. These differences can be interpreted and explained by comparing the experimental spectra with theoretical spectra. These have been calculated by the multiple-scattering formalism from the atomic positional parameters determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure refinement on the same samples. In the full multiple scattering region of the spectrum (1075 to 1095 eV) C-pyroxenes exhibit three features which reflect the 6-2 configuration of the O back-scattering atoms around the Na absorber located at the center of the cluster (site M2 of the jadeite structure). P-pyroxenes show more complicated spectra in which at least four features can be recognized; they reflect the two types of the configuration (6-2 and 4-2-2) of the oxygens around Na in the two independent M2 and M21 eight-fold coordinated sites of the omphacite structure. A weak, sometimes poorly resolved peak at 1079 eV diagnostic and discriminates C- from P-pyroxenes. The Garnet Ridge C2/c impure jadeite exhibits a spectrum which is intermediate between those of jadeite and omphacite. The Hedin-Lundqist potential proves best for these insulating materials and allows multiple-scattering calculations agreeing well with experiments. The assessment of the local electronic properties of compositionally and structurally complex minerals such as clinopyroxenes is thus enhanced.

  15. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  16. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  17. Nature as Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    The potential for biomimicry lies far beyond the direct imitation of natural forms. Guest-editor Terri Peters describes how Janine Benyus, the biologist and innovation consultant, is using biomimicry to create performance metrics from natural technologies and processes for assessing aspects...

  18. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  19. Nature Foil Reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

  20. Nature Experience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathunde, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Kevin Rathunde turns his research lens to the task of finding out the relevance of the natural world, its impact on adolescent motivation, and its positive sustaining of concentration and focus. He cites "disembodiment and denaturing" as needing to be countered by contact with nature, leading to higher creativity, less drudgery, and more…