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Sample records for natural overland colonization

  1. Stoats (Mustela erminea) provide evidence of natural overland colonization of Ireland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Natália; McDonald, R. A.; Searle, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 274, č. 1616 (2007), s. 1387-1393 ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cytochrome b * D-loop * last glacial maximum * mitochondrial DNA * phylogeography Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.112, year: 2007

  2. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  3. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  4. Ulysses S. Grant: Operational Art in the 1864 Overland Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ulysses S. Grant: Operational Art in the 1864 Overland Campaign Overland...not necessarily endorsed by the NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT During the Overland Campaign of 1864, Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant’s...lessons learned that are just as applicable today as they were in 1864. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ulysses S. Grant, Overland Campaign, Operational Art 16

  5. Overland flow model for asphalt oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J C Y

    2006-01-01

    Along the asphalt production line, the hot asphalt oil needs to undergo a cooling process that involves temporary storage in a tank. Safety is always a concern as to what if the tank is ruptured. Scenario studies of asphalt oil spills are required when designing the layout and open space for such a cooling process in the refinery yard. Applying the laminar flow theory to an asphalt oil spill, this paper presents an overland flow model to calculate the possible range of spread. The major parameters used in this model include fluid viscosity, ground slope, hydraulic conveyance, and asphalt oil volume. As a simplified model for a quasi-steady state flow condition, a hot asphalt oil spill for a typical case in a refinery yard can run approximately 400 to 600 feet before the asphalt mass cools down and becomes solid-like.

  6. Solitary impulse wave run-up and overland flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    2013-04-01

    Impulse waves are generated by landslides, rockfalls or avalanches impacting a reservoir or natural lake. These long waves generated by the impulse transferred to the water body in combination with the usually short propagation distance within a lake lead to a large damage potential due to wave run-up or dam overtopping. Damages are then caused by (1) direct wave load on structures, (2) driftwood and float impact and (3) their deposits after water retreat. Major historic events occurred at Lituya Bay, Alaska, in 1958, or at the Vaiont Reservoir, Italy, in 1963. Recent events were observed at Lake Chehalis, Canada, or Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, both in 2007, or at the Lower Grindelwald proglacial lake, Switzerland, in 2009. Whereas previous VAW research aimed at the generation phase of landslide-generated impulse waves with a special focus on the wave characteristics, the current research concentrates on the opposite wave-shore interaction. A particular focus is given to the transition point from the shore slope to the horizontal plane where the orbital wave motion is transformed into a shore-parallel flow. As most literature relates only to plain wave run-up on a linearly-inclined plane and the few studies focussing on wave-induced overland flow are case studies considering only a specific bathymetry, currently no general conclusions on wave-induced overland flow can be drawn. The present study therefore intends to fill in this gap by physical modeling. Testing involved a new test-setup including a piston-type wave maker to generate solitary waves, and a smooth impermeable PVC shore of height w = 0.25 m with a connected horizontal overland flow portion. By varying the shore slope tanβ = 1/1.5, 1/2.5 and 1/5.0, the still water depth h = 0.16 - 0.24 m, and the relative wave height H/h = 0.1 -0.7, a wide range of basic parameters was covered. Overland flow depths and front velocities were measured along the shore using Ultrasonic Distance Sensors. Further, flow

  7. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Al Riyami, Marwa; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A; Al-Issaei, Halima K; Farooq, Sardar A; Al-Alawi, Ahmed; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2014-02-18

    Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities.

  8. Design of colon targeting drug delivery systems using natural polymeric carriers and their evaluation by gamma scintigraphy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Sawarkar, S.P.; Deshpande, S.G.; Bajaj, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Of late, there has been a great awareness in the concept of drug targeting and delivery to a specific site (organ, tissue or cell) in the body to maximize therapeutic effect and reduce toxicity. The various approaches of site-specific drug delivery are implantable pumps, adhesive patches impregnated with drugs, vesicle enclosed drugs and drug carriers. Colonic drug delivery is intended for local and systemic treatment in the diseases of colon like inflammatory bowel conditions. Several approaches using viz. pro-drugs, biodegradable polymers and pH sensitive polymer coatings have been used to achieve colonic delivery. Natural polysaccarides like guar gum and pectin are promising candidates because they are susceptible to degradation by colonic bacteria and thus can release the entrapped drug in the colonic region. These indigenous natural polymers are cheaply and readily available. They comprise of polygalactouronic acid and refractory to host enzymes present in the upper gastrointestinal tract and are degraded by the enzymes produced by the colonic microflora. They were evaluated as a colonic carrier using 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) as a model drug. After successful in vitro testing, gamma scintigraphy technique was used to assess in-vivo behavior of the colon specific drug delivery after a coat of Guar gum and Pectin

  9. Colonization of Alcaligenes faecalis strain JBW4 in natural soils and its detoxification of endosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfen; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Wei, Kai; Yan, Tongxiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Fengxia

    2014-02-01

    Alcaligenes faecalis strain JBW4, a strain of bacteria that is capable of degrading endosulfan, was inoculated into sterilized and natural soils spiked with endosulfan. JBW4 degraded 75.8 and 87.0 % of α-endosulfan and 58.5 and 69.5 % of β-endosulfan in sterilized and natural soils, respectively, after 77 days. Endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone were the major metabolites that were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This result suggested that A. faecalis strain JBW4 degrades endosulfan using a non-oxidative pathway in soils. The ability of strain JBW4 to colonize endosulfan-contaminated soils was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. This result suggested that strain JBW4 competed with the original inhabitants in the soil to establish a balance and successfully colonize the soils. In addition, the detoxification of endosulfan by strain JBW4 was evaluated using single-cell gel electrophoresis and by determining the soil microbial biomass carbon and enzymatic activities. The results showed that the genotoxicity and ecotoxicity of endosulfan in soil were reduced after degradation. The natural degradation of endosulfan in soil is inadequate; therefore, JBW4 shows potential for the bioremediation of industrial soils that are contaminated with endosulfan residues.

  10. The complete Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome during colonization of a natural host determined by RNAseq.

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    Michael E Taveirne

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of bacterial derived gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni regulates gene expression under various environmental conditions and stresses, indicative of its ability to survive in diverse niches. Despite this ability to highly regulate gene transcription, C. jejuni encodes few transcription factors and its genome lacks many canonical transcriptional regulators. High throughput deep sequencing of mRNA transcripts (termed RNAseq has been used to study the transcriptome of many different organisms, including C. jejuni; however, this technology has yet to be applied to defining the transcriptome of C. jejuni during in vivo colonization of its natural host, the chicken. In addition to its use in profiling the abundance of annotated genes, RNAseq is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying, as-of-yet, unknown transcripts including non-coding regulatory RNAs, 5' untranslated regulatory elements, and anti-sense transcripts. Here we report the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni during colonization of the chicken cecum and in two different in vitro growth phases using strand-specific RNAseq. Through this study, we identified over 250 genes differentially expressed in vivo in addition to numerous putative regulatory RNAs, including trans-acting non-coding RNAs and anti-sense transcripts. These latter potential regulatory elements were not identified in two prior studies using ORF-based microarrays, highlighting the power and value of the RNAseq approach. Our results provide new insights into how C. jejuni responds and adapts to the cecal environment and reveals new functions involved in colonization of its natural host.

  11. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and estrogenic characteristics. Variations in the effect of soy products have been correlated with the isoflavone metabolites found in plasma and urine samples of the individuals consuming soy products. The beneficial effects of the soy isoflavone daidzin, the glycoside of daidzein, have been reported in individuals producing equol, a reduction product of daidzein produced by specific colonic bacteria in individuals called equol producers. These individuals comprise 30% and 60% of populations consuming Western and soy-rich Asian diets, respectively. Since the higher percentage of equol producers in populations consuming soy-rich diets is correlated with a lower incidence of hormone-dependent diseases, considerable efforts have been made to detect the specific colonic bacteria involved in the metabolism of daidzein to the more estrogenic compound, equol, which should facilitate the investigation of the metabolic activities related to this compound.

  12. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.

  13. Natural range expansion and local extirpation of an exotic psittacine--an unsuccessful colonization attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax is native to Panama, northern South America, and the islands off the northern coast of Venezuela. It is widely believed that the parakeet was introduced to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, from Curacao before the mid-19th century, although no records exist as to when and how this may have occurred. The parakeet was not recorded from Vieques or Culebra islands or mainland Puerto Rico before 1975. However, in that year A. pertinax underwent an apparent natural range expansion from St. Thomas into each of these sites. The 5 birds in the eastern Puerto Rico population made 5 breeding attempts and fledged 11 young since their discovery in April1975. That population grew to a maximum size of 10 birds in June 1979. However there was only 1 bird left by July 1980, and the population no longer existed at the beginning of what would have been the 1982 breeding season. The populations on Culebra and Vieques islands were apparently extirpated by 1976. Losses in the eastern Puerto Rico population were low during the first four years of colonization, when reproduction was adequate and the mortality was low. However, between 1978 and the time of population disappearance in 1982, the expected extirpation was 0.999. Habitat use, general behavior, breeding biology, competitors and predators of the colonizing population in eastern Puerto Rico are described. Biogeographic, evolutionary, and conservation implications of these observations are discussed.

  14. Evidence of localized resource depletion following a natural colonization event by a large marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Carey E; Baker, Jason D; Towell, Rodney G; Ream, Rolf R

    2014-09-01

    For central place foragers, forming colonies can lead to extensive competition for prey around breeding areas and a zone of local prey depletion. As populations grow, this area of reduced prey can expand impacting foraging success and forcing animals to alter foraging behaviour. Here, we examine a population of marine predators, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), which colonized a recently formed volcanic island, and assess changes in foraging behaviour associated with increasing population density. Specifically, we measured pup production and adult foraging behaviour over a 15-year period, during which the population increased 4-fold. Using measures of at-sea movements and dive behaviour, we found clear evidence that as the population expanded, animals were required to allot increasing effort to obtain resources. These changes in behaviour included longer duration foraging trips, farther distances travelled, a larger foraging range surrounding the island and deeper maximum dives. Our results suggest that as the northern fur seal population increased, local prey resources were depleted as a result of increased intraspecific competition. In addition, the recent slowing of population growth indicates that this population may be approaching carrying capacity just 31 years after a natural colonization event. Our study offers insight into the dynamics of population growth and impacts of increasing population density on a large marine predator. Such data could be vital for understanding future population fluctuations that occur in response to the dynamic environment, as natural and anthropogenic factors continue to modify marine habitats. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Colon-targeted delivery of piceatannol enhances anti-colitic effects of the natural product: potential molecular mechanisms for therapeutic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soohwan; Jeong, Seongkeun; Lee, Sunyoung; Nam, Joon; Kim, Wooseong; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Bok Luel; Jung, Yunjin

    2015-01-01

    Piceatannol (PCT), an anti-colitic natural product, undergoes extensive Phase II hepatic metabolism, resulting in very low bioavailability. We investigated whether colon-targeted delivery of PCT could enhance anti-colitic effects and how therapeutic enhancement occurred at the molecular level. Molecular effects of PCT were examined in human colon carcinoma cells and inflamed colons. The anti-colitic effects of PCT in a colon-targeted capsule (colon-targeted PCT) were compared with PCT in a gelatin capsule (conventional PCT) in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. Colon-targeted PCT elicited greatly enhanced recovery of the colonic inflammation. In HCT116 cells, PCT inhibited nuclear factor kappaB while activating anti-colitic transcription factors, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor 2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Colon-targeted PCT, but not conventional PCT, modulated production of the target gene products of the transcription factors in the inflamed colonic tissues. Rectal administration of PCT, which simulates the therapeutic action of colon-targeted PCT, also ameliorated rat colitis and reproduced the molecular effects in the inflamed colonic tissues. Colon-targeted delivery increased therapeutic efficacy of PCT against colitis, likely resulting from multitargeted effects exerted by colon-targeted PCT. The drug delivery technique may be useful for therapeutic optimization of anti-colitic lead compounds including natural products.

  16. Phytodiversity on fly ash deposits: evaluation of naturally colonized species for sustainable phytorestoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Prakash, Prem; Bajpai, Omesh; Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Nandita

    2015-02-01

    Proliferation of fly ash (FA) deposits and its toxicity have become a global concern, which contaminate the ecosystems of our Earth. In this regard, identification of potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration is the main concern. Keeping this view in mind, the present study was conducted to identify potential plant species naturally growing on FA deposits for the restoration purposes. Six intensive surveys were made during 2010-2014 to collect naturally growing plant species during different seasons from two FA deposits in Unchahar of Raebareli district, Uttar Pradesh, India. The plant species having potential for FA deposits' restoration were identified on the basis of their ecological importance, dominance at the study sites and socio-economic importance for rural livelihoods. Typha latifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum spontaneum L., Saccharum bengalense Retz. (syn. Saccharum munja), Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and Acacia nelotica L. are identified as potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration. Furthermore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for the phytorestoration during a revegetation plan of new FA deposits for multiple benefits.

  17. Overland Transport of Rotavirus and the Effect of Soil Type and Vegetation

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    Paul C. Davidson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil and vegetation are two critical factors for controlling the overland transport kinetics of pathogens in a natural environment. With livestock operations moving more towards concentrated animal operations, the need to dispose of a very large amount of manure in a localized area is becoming increasingly important. Animal manure contains a substantial amount of microbial pathogens, including rotavirus, which may pose a threat of contamination of water resources. This study examined the kinetics of rotavirus in overland transport, with an overall objective of optimizing the design of best management practices, especially vegetative filter strips. The overland transport of rotavirus was studied using three soil types (Catlin silt-loam, Darwin silty-clay, Alvin fine sandy-loam, spanning the entire spectrum of typical Illinois soil textures. A 20-min rainfall event was produced using a small-scale (1.07 m × 0.66 m laboratory rainfall simulator over a soil box measuring 0.610 m × 0.305 m. Each soil type was tested for rotavirus transport kinetics with bare surface conditions, as well as with Smooth Brome and Fescue vegetative covers. Surface runoff, near-surface runoff, soil cores, and vegetation were each analyzed for infective rotavirus particles using cell-culture infectivity assays. Results show that vegetation reduces the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by an average of 73%, in addition to delaying the time to peak recovery. The vegetation, in general, appeared to decrease the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by impeding surface flow and increasing the potential for infiltration into the soil profile.

  18. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Oprea, A.E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Polizu Street No. 1–7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Organic Chemistry, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • We deposited thin composite quercetin/polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic films with close resemblance to the starting/drop-cast composition by MAPLE. • Quercetin flavonoid shows an anti-biofilm activity comparable to that of the tested large-spectrum antibiotics (norfloxacin or cefuroxime), especially in case of 72 h biofilms. • These results could account for the possible use of quercetin as an alternative to antibiotics to combat the mature biofilms developed on different substrates. • MAPLE may be used to produce implantable medical devices that provide a relatively long term in vitro stability and resistance to the growth of microorganisms. - Abstract: Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization

  19. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A.V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Oprea, A.E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; Boehm, R.D.; Narayan, R.J.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We deposited thin composite quercetin/polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic films with close resemblance to the starting/drop-cast composition by MAPLE. • Quercetin flavonoid shows an anti-biofilm activity comparable to that of the tested large-spectrum antibiotics (norfloxacin or cefuroxime), especially in case of 72 h biofilms. • These results could account for the possible use of quercetin as an alternative to antibiotics to combat the mature biofilms developed on different substrates. • MAPLE may be used to produce implantable medical devices that provide a relatively long term in vitro stability and resistance to the growth of microorganisms. - Abstract: Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization

  20. Essential Role of Invasin for Colonization and Persistence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Its Natural Reservoir Host, the Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Drees, Anna; Grüning, Petra; Uliczka, Frank; Pisano, Fabio; Thiermann, Tanja; von Altrock, Alexandra; Seehusen, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an oral minipig infection model was established to investigate the pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. O:3 strains are highly prevalent in pigs, which are usually symptomless carriers, and they represent the most common cause of human yersiniosis. To assess the pathogenic potential of the O:3 serotype, we compared the colonization properties of Y. enterocolitica O:3 with O:8, a highly mouse-virulent Y. enterocolitica serotype, in minipigs and mice. We found that O:3 is a significantly better colonizer of swine than is O:8. Coinfection studies with O:3 mutant strains demonstrated that small variations within the O:3 genome leading to higher amounts of the primary adhesion factor invasin (InvA) improved colonization and/or survival of this serotype in swine but had only a minor effect on the colonization of mice. We further demonstrated that a deletion of the invA gene abolished long-term colonization in the pigs. Our results indicate a primary role for invasin in naturally occurring Y. enterocolitica O:3 infections in pigs and reveal a higher adaptation of O:3 than O:8 strains to their natural pig reservoir host. PMID:24343656

  1. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  2. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced

  3. Overland flow under rainfall : some aspects related to modelling and conditioning factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, de J.L.M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This study concerns the theory and some practical aspects of overland flow under rainfall. Of the conditioning factors and processes which govern the generation of overland flow, the following were studied: depression storage, infiltration, morphology and wind. Special attention was paid to

  4. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  5. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  6. Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Inundation for Categories 2 and 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The file geodatabase (fgdb) contains the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Maximum of Maximums (MOM) model for hurricane categories 2 and 4. The...

  7. Natural or naturalized? Phylogeography suggests that the abundant sea urchin Arbacia lixula is a recent colonizer of the Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen S Wangensteen

    Full Text Available We present the global phylogeography of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula, an amphi-Atlantic echinoid with potential to strongly impact shallow rocky ecosystems. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene of 604 specimens from 24 localities were obtained, covering most of the distribution area of the species, including the Mediterranean and both shores of the Atlantic. Genetic diversity measures, phylogeographic patterns, demographic parameters and population differentiation were analysed. We found high haplotype diversity but relatively low nucleotide diversity, with 176 haplotypes grouped within three haplogroups: one is shared between Eastern Atlantic (including Mediterranean and Brazilian populations, the second is found in Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean and the third is exclusively from Brazil. Significant genetic differentiation was found between Brazilian, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean regions, but no differentiation was found among Mediterranean sub-basins or among Eastern Atlantic sub-regions. The star-shaped topology of the haplotype network and the unimodal mismatch distributions of Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic samples suggest that these populations have suffered very recent demographic expansions. These expansions could be dated 94-205 kya in the Mediterranean, and 31-67 kya in the Eastern Atlantic. In contrast, Brazilian populations did not show any signature of population expansion. Our results indicate that all populations of A. lixula constitute a single species. The Brazilian populations probably diverged from an Eastern Atlantic stock. The present-day genetic structure of the species in Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean is shaped by very recent demographic processes. Our results support the view (backed by the lack of fossil record that A. lixula is a recent thermophilous colonizer which spread throughout the Mediterranean during a warm period of the Pleistocene, probably during the last

  8. Nature of bacterial colonization influences transcription of mucin genes in mice during the first week of life

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    Bergström Anders

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal regulation of the small intestinal mucus layer is potentially important in the development of adult gut functionality. We hypothesized that the nature of bacterial colonization affects mucus gene regulation in early life. We thus analyzed the influence of the presence of a conventional microbiota as well as two selected monocolonizing bacterial strains on the transcription of murine genes involved in mucus layer development during the first week of life. Mouse pups (N = 8/group from differently colonized dams: Germ-free (GF, conventional specific pathogen free (SPF, monocolonized with either Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (Lb or Escherichia coli Nissle (Ec were analyzed by qPCR on isolated ileal tissue sections from postnatal days 1 and 6 (PND1, PND6 after birth with respect to: (i transcription of specific genes involved in mucus production (Muc1-4, Tff3 and (ii amounts of 16S rRNA of Lactobacillus and E. coli. Quantification of 16S rRNA genes was performed to obtain a measure for amounts of colonized bacteria. Results We found a microbiota-independent transcriptional increase of all five mucus genes from PND1 to PND6. Furthermore, the relative level of transcription of certain mucus genes on PND1 was increased by the presence of bacteria. This was observed for Tff3 in the SPF, Ec, and Lb groups; for Muc2 in SPF; and for Muc3 and Muc4 in Ec and Lb, respectively. Detection of bacterial 16S rRNA genes levels above the qPCR detection level occurred only on PND6 and only for some of the colonized animals. On PND6, we found significantly lower levels of Muc1, Muc2 and Muc4 gene transcription for Lb animals with detectable Lactobacillus levels as compared to animals with Lactobacillus levels below the detection limit. Conclusions In summary, our data show that development of the expression of genes encoding secreted (Muc2/Tff3 and membrane-bound (Muc1/Muc3/Muc4 mucus regulatory proteins, respectively, is distinct and

  9. NK-cell-dependent killing of colon carcinoma cells is mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and stimulated by parvovirus infection of target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rauf; Rommelaere, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Investigating how the immune system functions during malignancies is crucial to developing novel therapeutic strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, play a vital role in immune defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The poor survival rate in colon cancer makes it particularly important to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses, in addition to lysing tumor cells, may have the potential to augment antitumor immune responses. In the present study, we investigate the role of NK cells and how parvovirus H-1PV can modulate NK-cell mediated immune responses against colon carcinoma. Human NK cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors. The cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated inhibition of NK cells were measured in chromium release assays. Phenotypic assessment of colon cancer and dendritic cells was done by FACS. The statistical significance of the results was calculated with Student’s t test (*p <0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001). We show that IL-2-activated human NK cells can effectively kill colon carcinoma cells. Killing of colon carcinoma cells by NK cells was further enhanced upon infection of the former cells with parvovirus H-1PV. H-1PV has potent oncolytic activity against various tumors, yet its direct killing effect on colon carcinoma cells is limited. The cytotoxicity of NK cells towards colon carcinoma cells, both mock- and H-1PV-infected, was found to be mostly mediated by a combination of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), namely NKp30, 44, and 46. Colon carcinoma cells displayed low to moderate expression of NK cell ligands, and this expression was modulated upon H-1PV infection. Lysates of H-1PV-infected colon carcinoma cells were found to increase MHC class II expression on dendritic cells. Altogether, these data suggest that IL-2-activated NK cells actively kill colon carcinoma cells and that this killing is mediated by several natural cytotoxicity receptors

  10. Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, Induces a Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptotic Mechanism in Caco-2 p53-Deficient Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; Medina, Pedro P.; Parra, Andrés; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene present in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives. We have previously reported that MA induces apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HT29 colon cancer cells. Here, we show that MA induces apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. MA triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis, including the cleavage of caspases -8 and -3, and increased the levels of t-Bid within a few hours of its addition to the culture medium. MA had no effect on the expression of the Bax protein, release of cytochrome-c or on the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggests that MA triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in this cell type, as opposed to the intrinsic pathway found in the HT29 colon-cancer cell line. Our results suggest that the apoptotic mechanism induced in Caco-2 may be different from that found in HT29 colon-cancer cells, and that in Caco-2 cells MA seems to work independently of p53. Natural antitumoral agents capable of activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways could be of great use in treating colon-cancer of whatever origin. PMID:26751572

  11. Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.

  12. Colonization of America by Drosophila subobscura: Experiment in natural populations that supports the adaptive role of chromosomal-inversion polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Prevosti, Antonio; Ribo, Griselda; Serra, Luis; Aguade, Montserrat; Balaña, Joan; Monclus, Maria; Mestres, Francisco

    1988-01-01

    North America and South America have recently been colonized by the Palearctic species Drosophila subobscura. This double colonization offers a rare opportunity for evolutionary studies. Correlations between chromosomal arrangement frequencies and latitude were calculated for the colonizing populations. Signs of these correlations are highly coincident with those found in the Old World. These results provide experimental support for the adaptive value of the chromosomal-inversion polymorphism...

  13. Colonic Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  14. Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Patiño, Leandro; Constantinou, Andreas; Kramer, Laura D; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-06-23

    Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife have been recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity. Endemic species on isolated oceanic islands, such as the Galápagos, are particularly at risk in the face of introduced pathogens and disease vectors. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only mosquito widely distributed across the Galápagos Archipelago. Here we show that this mosquito naturally colonized the Galápagos before the arrival of man, and since then it has evolved to represent a distinct evolutionary unit and has adapted to habitats unusual for its coastal progenitor. We also present evidence that A. taeniorhynchus feeds on reptiles in Galápagos in addition to previously reported mammal and bird hosts, highlighting the important role this mosquito might play as a bridge-vector in the transmission and spread of extant and newly introduced diseases in the Galápagos Islands. These findings are particularly pertinent for West Nile virus, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles, and which recently has spread from an introductory focus in New York to much of the North and South American mainland and could soon reach the Galápagos Islands. Unlike Hawaii, there are likely to be no highland refugia free from invading mosquito-borne diseases in Galápagos, suggesting bleak outcomes to possible future pathogen introduction events.

  15. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens. PMID:21555397

  16. "I Fear the Consequences to Our Animals": Emigrants and Their Livestock on the Overland Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    The diaries, letters, and guidebooks written by the emigrants who crossed North America on the overland trails during the mid-nineteenth century reveal a new awareness of the animals that journeyed with them. Often written as advice to those who might follow them, the travelers worried about their animals in ways beyond what theologians and…

  17. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  18. Formation and mechanics of granular waves in gravity and shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment transport in overland flow is a highly complex process involving many properties relative to the flow regime characteristics, soil surface conditions, and type of sediment. From a practical standpoint, most sediment transport studies are concerned with developing relationships of rates of s...

  19. Formation and mechanics of granular waves in gravity and shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römkens, Mathias J. M.; Suryadevara, Madhu R.; Prasad, Shyam N.

    2010-05-01

    Sediment transport in overland flow is a highly complex process involving many properties relative to the flow regime characteristics, soil surface conditions, and type of sediment. From a practical standpoint, most sediment transport studies are concerned with developing relationships of rates of sediment movement under different hydraulic regimes in channel flow for use in soil erosion and sediment transport prediction models. Relatively few studies have focused on the more basic aspects of sediment movement in which particle-to-particle, particle-to-boundary, and particle-to-fluid interactions determine in an important way the nature of the movement. Our experimental work under highly controlled experimental conditions with both gravity flow of granular material (glass beads) in air and sediment transport (sand particles and glass beads) in shallow overland flow have shown that sediment movement is not a simple phenomenon solely determined by flow rates on a proportional basis, but that it is represented by a highly structured and organized regime determined by sedimentary fluid mechanical principles which yield very characteristic waves during transport. In the gravity flow case involving granular chute flow, two-dimensional grain waves developed into the rolling and saltating moving grain mass at certain grain concentrations. This phenomenon appeared to be related to an energy exchange process as a result of collisions between moving grain particles that led to reduced kinetic velocities. As a result, particle concentration differences in the direction of flow developed that were noted as denser zones. In these zones, particles dropped out at the upstream part of these denser zones to resume their accelerating motion once they reached the downstream part of the zone until, during the next collision event, the process is repeated. Thus a periodic granular wave structure evolved. Depending on the addition rate, the granular flow regime may be a fluidized

  20. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Abecia

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART while the other remained with the mother (NAT. Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001. Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28. Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  1. Urban stormwater inundation simulation based on SWMM and diffusive overland-flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Guoru; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    With rapid urbanization, inundation-induced property losses have become more and more severe. Urban inundation modeling is an effective way to reduce these losses. This paper introduces a simplified urban stormwater inundation simulation model based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and a geographic information system (GIS)-based diffusive overland-flow model. SWMM is applied for computation of flows in storm sewer systems and flooding flows at junctions, while the GIS-based diffusive overland-flow model simulates surface runoff and inundation. One observed rainfall scenario on Haidian Island, Hainan Province, China was chosen to calibrate the model and the other two were used for validation. Comparisons of the model results with field-surveyed data and InfoWorks ICM (Integrated Catchment Modeling) modeled results indicated the inundation model in this paper can provide inundation extents and reasonable inundation depths even in a large study area.

  2. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF KINEMATIC WAVE EQUATIONS FOR OVERLAND FLOW UNDER GREEN-AMPT INFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baiamonte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical solution of kinematic wave equations for overland flow occurring in an infiltrating hillslope. The infiltration process is described by the Green-Ampt model. The solution is derived only for the case of an intermediate flow regime between laminar and turbulent ones. A transitional regime can be considered a reliable flow condition when, to the laminar overland flow, is also associated the effect of the additional resistance due to raindrop impact. With reference to the simple case of an impervious hillslope, a comparison was carried out between the present solution and the non-linear storage model. Some applications of the present solution were performed to investigate the effect of main parameter variability on the hillslope response. Particularly, the effect of hillslope geometry and rainfall intensity on the time to equilibrium is shown.

  3. The Effect of Road Upgrading to Overland Trade in Asian Highway Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyodullo PARPIEV

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an impact of road upgrading and improvement on overland trade in 18 out of 32 Asian Highway Network member countries. A regression based cost model was developed. The results indicate that approximately 6.5 billion US dollars is required to upgrade and improve surface condition of the selected roads with total length of 15,842 km. The gravity model approach was adopted to quantitatively evaluate overland trade expansion assuming pessimistic and optimistic scenarios: improvements in road quality indices up to 50 and up to 75, respectively. The results suggests that in the first scenario total intra-regional trade will increase by about 20 percent or 48.7 billion US dollars annually, while second scenario predicts that trade will increase by about 35 percent or 89.5 billion US dollars annually.

  4. Overland flow generation processes in sub-humid Mediterranean forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils in north and central Portugal have suffered and continue to suffer major structural changes as a result of forest management techniques, such as clear-felling and as a result of wildfire and rip-ploughing, which is carried out to prepare the ground for planting tree seedlings. In soils that have undergone these changes, the characteristics tend to be different for coniferous plantations, where the root system tends to die when the trees are cut following fire and subsequently may be consumed by fire to form a macropore network, and other types of tree plantations where the root system remains alive and allows regrowth from the sawn tree stumps. Overland flow thresholds decrease sharply as a result of rip-ploughing and forest fires and increase following clear-felling. The time taken for trees to reach maturity after wildfire differs markedly betwen the two main species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) stands. In this paper, overland flow is considered in relation to rainfall, throughfall and throughflow, both in terms of hydrology and hydrochemistry in an attempt to understand overland flow generation mechanisms for a variety of forest land uses (mature pine and eucalyptus, pine seedling regrowth and eucalyptus regrowth from tree stumps, eucalyptus plantations and burned pine). Overland flow generation processes change sharply, even within a single rainfall event, as reflected in the soil hydrological processes and the hydrochemical fingerprints. These effects result from the different contact times for water and soil, which cause differences in the absorption and exhudation processes for the two species

  5. Overland flow connectivity on planar patchy hillslopes - modified percolation theory approaches and combinatorial model of urns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlobin, David; Pariente, Sarah; Lavee, Hanoch; Sachs, Eyal

    2017-04-01

    Source-sink systems are very common in hydrology; in particular, some land cover types often generate runoff (e.g. embedded rocks, bare soil) , while other obstruct it (e.g. vegetation, cracked soil). Surface runoff coefficients of patchy slopes/plots covered by runoff generating and obstructing covers (e.g., bare soil and vegetation) depend critically on the percentage cover (i.e. sources/sinks abundance) and decrease strongly with observation scale. The classic mathematical percolation theory provides a powerful apparatus for describing the runoff connectivity on patchy hillslopes, but it ignores strong effect of the overland flow directionality. To overcome this and other difficulties, modified percolation theory approaches can be considered, such as straight percolation (for the planar slopes), quasi-straight percolation and models with limited obstruction. These approaches may explain both the observed critical dependence of runoff coefficients on percentage cover and their scale decrease in systems with strong flow directionality (e.g. planar slopes). The contributing area increases sharply when the runoff generating percentage cover approaches the straight percolation threshold. This explains the strong increase of the surface runoff and erosion for relatively low values (normally less than 35%) of the obstructing cover (e.g., vegetation). Combinatorial models of urns with restricted occupancy can be applied for the analytic evaluation of meaningful straight percolation quantities, such as NOGA's (Non-Obstructed Generating Area) expected value and straight percolation probability. It is shown that the nature of the cover-related runoff scale decrease is combinatorial - the probability for the generated runoff to avoid obstruction in unit area decreases with scale for the non-trivial percentage cover values. The magnitude of the scale effect is found to be a skewed non-monotonous function of the percentage cover. It is shown that the cover-related scale

  6. Experimental analysis of colloid capture by a cylindrical collector in laminar overland flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Bin; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2011-09-15

    Although colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in water flow is a well-known contamination process, little research has been conducted to investigate the transport of colloidal particles through emergent vegetation in overland flow. In this work, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the single-collector contact efficiency (η(0)) of colloid capture by a simulated plant stem in laminar lateral flow. Fluorescent microspheres of various sizes were used as experimental colloids. The colloid suspensions were applied to a glass cylinder installed in a small size flow chamber at different flow rates. Two cylinder sizes were tested in the experiment and silicone grease was applied to the cylinder surface to make it favorable for colloid deposition. Our results showed that increases in flow rate and collector size reduced the value of η(0) and a minimum value of η(0) might exist for a colloid size. The experimental data were compared to theoretical predictions of different single-collector contact efficiency models. The results indicated that existing single-collector contact efficiency models underestimated the η(0) of colloid capture by the cylinders in laminar overland flow. A regression equation of η(0) as a function of collector Reynolds number (Re(c)) and Peclet number (N(Pe)) was developed and fit the experimental data very well (R(2) > 0.98). This regression equation can be used to help construct and refine mathematical models of colloid transport and filtration in laminar overland flow on vegetated surfaces.

  7. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying

  8. Colonização micorrízica natural de porta-enxertos de citros em campo Natural mycorrhizal colonization of citrus rootstocks under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara de Souza Nunes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em campo, a colonização micorrízica de porta-enxertos tradicionais e híbridos de citros, do Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros, da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, selecionados como tolerantes à seca. Raízes finas de citros e amostras de solo foram coletadas em duas épocas do ano. A colonização micorrízica foi elevada nos dois pomares amostrados, com variação entre os genótipos e as épocas de avaliação. Todos os porta-enxertos apresentaram porcentagens elevadas de colonização micorrízica, de 42 a 83%, mesmo em condições de alto teor de fósforo no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the mycorrhizal colonization of citrus rootstocks (traditional and hybrid, in the field, selected as tolerant to water deficit by the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical. Fine roots and soil samples were collected in two seasons of the year. The mycorrhizal colonization was high in both citrus orchards sampled, and varied among the genotypes and the seasons of the year. All citrus rootstocks presented high percentages of root colonization, varying from 42 to 83%, even in high soil phosphorous conditions.

  9. Contractile responses to natural tachykinins and selective tachykinin analogs in normal and inflamed ileal and colonic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, A; Hellström, P M

    2001-05-01

    Tachykinins and acetylcholine are main physiological motility stimulators in the gut by their effects exerted through neurokinin and muscarinic receptors. Longitudinal and circular muscle strips from normal ileum and colon or corresponding tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied in organ baths. Contractile responses to the tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B and neuropeptide gamma and specific analogs for their respective receptors were compared to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine caused concentration-dependent phasic contractions in longitudinal and circular muscle of normal ileum and colon (both P tachykinins and their specific analogs caused concentration-dependent phasic, tonic and rhythmic contractions (each P tachykinin analogs, Nle10-NKA(4-10) was more potent than substance P methyl ester and senktide, indicating neurokinin 2 receptors are predominant for contractile effects of tachykinins. In inflamed tissues, contractile responses to tachykinins were reduced to 0%-42% in ileum (P tachykinins exert gut contractile effects, of similar strength as acetylcholine, predominantly through activation of neurokinin 2 receptors. These responses are greatly reduced in inflamed tissues of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

  10. Colonic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ulcerative colitis - ulcers of the colon and rectum Diverticulitis - inflammation or infection of pouches in the colon Irritable bowel syndrome - an uncomfortable condition causing abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  11. Root colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP concentration in hypoxic soils in natural CO2 springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changed ratios of soil gases that lead to hypoxia are most often present in waterlogged soils, but can also appear in soils not saturated with water. In natural CO2 springs (mofettes, gases in soil air differ from those in typical soils. In this study, plant roots from the mofette area Stavešinci (Slovenia were sampled in a spatial scale and investigated for AM fungal colonization. AM fungi were found in roots from areas with high geological CO2 concentration, however mycorrhizal intensity was relatively low and no correlation between AM fungal colonization and soil pattern of CO2/O2 concentrations (up to 37% CO2 was found. The relatively high abundance of arbuscules in root cortex indicated existence of functional symbiosis at much higher CO2 concentrations than normally found in soils. In addition, concentration of two different glomalin-related soil protein fractions – EE-GRSP and TG-GRSP – was measured. No significant correlation between any of the fractions and soil gases was found, however the concentration of both fractions was significantly higher in the upper 0–5 cm, compared to the 5–10 cm layer of the soil.

  12. Chemical composition of overland flow produced on soils covered with vegetative ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bodí

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ascertain the differences between the soluble elements of ash obtained under laboratory conditions and the dissolved in overland flow from soils covered with a layer of ash. The overland flow was obtained during series of rainfall simulations over soils covered with two different types of ash. This study indicates that the soluble elements released from ash can modify water quality increasing its pH, electrical conductivity and especially cation content. The nutrients solubilised are not necessarily the same as the elemental composition of ash itself. Runoff composition depends on the volume of water produced, on the solubility of the ash components and on the chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil. After the first intense rain event, most of the elements are solubilised and lixiviated or washed out, however, some of them may increase in the runoff or soil water some weeks later due to chemical interactions with water from rainfall and soil nutrients.

  13. Modeling the release of Escherichia coli from soil into overland flow under raindrop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Rasmussen, E. W.; Wang, X.; Chen, M.; Dahlke, H. E.; Walter, M. T.

    2017-08-01

    Pathogen transport through the environment is complicated, involving a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. This study considered the transfer of microorganisms from soil into overland flow under rain-splash conditions. Although microorganisms are colloidal particles, they are commonly quantified as colony-forming units (CFUs) per volume rather than as a mass or number of particles per volume, which poses a modeling challenge. However, for very small particles that essentially remain suspended after being ejected into ponded water and for which diffusion can be neglected, the Gao model, originally derived for solute transfer from soil, describes particle transfer into suspension and is identical to the Hairsine-Rose particle erosion model for this special application. Small-scale rainfall experiments were conducted in which an Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspension was mixed with a simple soil (9:1 sand-to-clay mass ratio). The model fit the experimental E. coli data. Although re-conceptualizing the Gao solute model as a particle suspension model was convenient for accommodating the unfortunate units of CFU ml-1, the Hairsine-Rose model is insensitive to assumptions about E. coli per CFU as long as the assumed initial mass concentration of E. coli is very small compared to that of the soil particle classes. Although they undoubtedly actively interact with their environment, this study shows that transport of microorganisms from soil into overland storm flows can be reasonably modeled using the same principles that have been applied to small mineral particles in previous studies.

  14. Measurements of the initiation of post-wildfire runoff during rainstorms using in situ overland flow detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Overland flow detectors (OFDs) were deployed in 2012 on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon fire near Boulder, Colorado, USA. These detectors were simple, electrical resistor-type instruments that output a voltage (0–2·5 V) and were designed to measure and record the time of runoff initiation, a signal proportional to water depth, and the runoff hydrograph during natural convective rainstorms.Initiation of runoff was found to be spatially complex and began at different times in different locations on the hillslope. Runoff started first at upstream detectors 56% of the time, at the mid-stream detectors 6%, and at the downstream detectors 38% of the time. Initiation of post-wildfire runoff depended on the time-to-ponding, travel time between points, and the time to fill surface depression storage. These times ranged from 0·5–54, 0·4–1·1, and 0·2–14 minutes, respectively, indicating the importance of the ponding process in controlling the initiation of runoff at this site. Time-to-ponding was modeled as a function of the rainfall acceleration (i.e. the rate of change of rainfall intensity) and either the cumulative rainfall at the start of runoff or the soil–water deficit.Measurements made by the OFDs provided physical insight into the spatial and temporal initiation of post-wildfire runoff during unsteady flow in response to time varying natural rainfall. They also provided data that can be telemetered and used to determine critical input parameters for hydrologic rainfall–runoff models.

  15. Assessing the quality of digital elevation models obtained from mini unmanned aerial vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P.; Moy de Vitry, Matthew; Scheidegger, Andreas; Rieckermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Precise and detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. Unfortunately, traditional sources of DEM, such as airplane light detection and ranging (lidar) DEMs and point and contour maps, remain a bottleneck for detailed and reliable overland flow models, because the resulting DEMs are too coarse to provide DEMs of sufficient detail to inform urban overland flows. Interestingly, technological developments of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) suggest that they have matured enough to be a competitive alternative to satellites or airplanes. However, this has not been tested so far. In this study we therefore evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, 14 UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs: (i) flight altitude, (ii) image overlapping, (iii) camera pitch, and (iv) weather conditions. In addition, we compared the best-quality UAV DEM to a conventional lidar-based DEM. To evaluate both the quality of the UAV DEMs and the comparison to lidar-based DEMs, we performed regression analysis on several qualitative and quantitative metrics, such as elevation accuracy, quality of object representation (e.g. buildings, walls and trees) in the DEM, which were specifically tailored to assess overland flow modelling performance, using the flight parameters as explanatory variables. Our results suggested that, first, as expected, flight altitude influenced the DEM quality most, where lower flights produce better DEMs; in a similar fashion, overcast weather conditions are preferable, but weather conditions and other factors influence DEM quality much less. Second, we found that for urban overland flow modelling, the UAV DEMs performed competitively in comparison to a traditional lidar-based DEM. An important advantage of using UAVs to generate DEMs in urban areas is

  16. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  17. In vivo migration of labeled autologous natural killer cells to liver metastases in patients with colon carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satolli Maria A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides being the effectors of native anti-tumor cytotoxicity, NK cells participate in T-lymphocyte responses by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells (DC. Adherent NK (A-NK cells constitute a subset of IL-2-stimulated NK cells which show increased expression of integrins and the ability to adhere to solid surface and to migrate, infiltrate, and destroy cancer. A critical issue in therapy of metastatic disease is the optimization of NK cell migration to tumor tissues and their persistence therein. This study compares localization to liver metastases of autologous A-NK cells administered via the systemic (intravenous, i.v. versus locoregional (intraarterial, i.a. routes. Patients and methods A-NK cells expanded ex-vivo with IL-2 and labeled with 111In-oxine were injected i.a. in the liver of three colon carcinoma patients. After 30 days, each patient had a new preparation of 111In-A-NK cells injected i.v. Migration of these cells to various organs was evaluated by SPET and their differential localization to normal and neoplastic liver was demonstrated after i.v. injection of 99mTc-phytate. Results A-NK cells expressed a donor-dependent CD56+CD16+CD3- (NK or CD56+CD16+CD3+ (NKT phenotype. When injected i.v., these cells localized to the lung before being visible in the spleen and liver. By contrast, localization of i.a. injected A-NK cells was virtually confined to the spleen and liver. Binding of A-NK cells to liver neoplastic tissues was observed only after i.a. injections. Conclusion This unique study design demonstrates that A-NK cells adoptively transferred to the liver via the intraarterial route have preferential access and substantial accumulation to the tumor site.

  18. Two drastically different climate states on an Earth-like land planet with overland water recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidindi, S.; Reick, C. H.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that habitable areas on low-obliquity land planets are confined to the edges of frozen ice caps. Whether such dry planets can maintain long-lived liquid water is unclear. Leconte et al. 2013 argue that on such planets mechanisms like gravity driven ice flows and geothermal flux can maintain liquid water at the edges of thick ice caps and this water may flow back to the lower latitudes through rivers. However, there exists no modelling study which investigates the climate of an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism bringing fresh water back from higher to lower latitudes. In our study, by using a comprehensive climate model ICON, we find that an Earth-like land planet with an overland recycling mechanism can exist in two drastically different climate states for the same set of boundary conditions and parameter values: A Cold and Wet (CW) state with dominant low-latitude precipitation and, a Hot and Dry (HD) state with only high-latitude precipitation. For perpetual equinox conditions, both climate states are stable below a certain threshold value of background soil albedo (α) while above that only the CW state is stable. Starting from the HD state and increasing α above the threshold causes an abrupt shift from the HD state to the CW state resulting in a sudden cooling of about 35°C globally which is of the order of the temperature difference between the present-day and the Snowball Earth state. In contrast to the Snowball Earth instability, we find that the sudden cooling in our study is driven by the cloud albedo feedback rather than the snow-albedo feedback. Also, when α in the CW state is reduced back to zero the land planet does not display a closed hysteresis. Our study also has implications for the habitability of Earth-like land planets. At the inner edge of the habitable zone, the higher cloud cover in the CW state cools the planet and may prevent the onset of a runaway greenhouse state. At the outer

  19. Natureza admirada, natureza devastada: História e Historiografia da colonização de Santa Catarina Nature admired, nature devastated: History and Historiography of the colonization of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Carola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available De um modo geral, a história da "imigraçãopor -colonização" no século XIX, objeto histórico presente na historiografia brasileira e nas histórias regionais, é predominantemente narrada de acordo com as coordenadas ideológicas hegemônicas da sociedade moderna: civilização, progresso, evolução e trabalho. Dentro deste quadro conceitual, a natureza é vista e representada como um mero recurso natural que deve ser "naturalmente" explorado e manipulado pela sociedade humana. Este artigo aborda a história e o conhecimento histórico sobre a experiência da colonização em Santa Catarina, principalmente em relação às principais colônias fundadas na segunda metade do século XIX. Problematiza-se a relação culturapor -natureza instituída no processo colonizador e a concepção de natureza contida no conhecimento histórico da colonização; observam-se fontes documentais (Relatórios da Província, Relatórios das Colônias e historiográficas na perspectiva da História Ambiental; e procura-se demonstrar que o modo de ver e explicar a "evolução histórica" da colonização estimula e legitima a destruição e a domesticação do mundo natural tanto quanto dos povos indígenas, em particular a Mata Atlântica e os índios Xokleng.Generally speaking, the 19th century history of "immigration-colonization", object of the Brazilian historiography and the local historical studies, is mainly narrated from the perspective of the modern society ideological, hegemonic coordinates: civilization, progress, evolution, and work. From this conceptual viewpoint, nature is represented as a mere natural resource that must be exploited and handled by the human society. This paper deals with history and the historical knowledge about the colonization process in Santa Catarina state, mainly in relation to the first colonies settled in the second half of the 19th century. It questions the relationship between culture and nature instituted in the

  20. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Lizárraga, Daneida; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A

    2011-01-01

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  1. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.; Favriel, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches.

  2. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  3. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  4. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  5. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  6. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal : Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, M.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  7. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal: effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Coles, N.A.; Lubczynski, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  8. Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Urban System along the Overland Silk Road Economic Belt Using DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianzhong; Bai, Linyan; wang, Kui; Zhang, Xuefu; Xie, Nengfu; Ran, Qiyun; Guo, Mingqiu; Xu, Lijun

    2017-02-01

    As China promotes the Belt and Road (BAR) initiative, the overland SREB development is widely concerned. The cities (including towns), population centers, of urban system are the cores of the economy along the SREB. Therefore, it is necessary to monitoring the urbanization of the belt so that the new growing points of urban development and the valid coupling mechanism between human and nature will be explored to promote the regional socio-economic sustainable development and effectively implement the BAR initiative. Using the DMSP-OLS stable nighttime lights (NTL) data in 1992, 2003, and 2014, in this paper we studied the urbanized spatial patterns of and the urbanized characteristics and trends of the main city system along the SREB in the view of the whole regionalized economic zone and typical cities and settlements (towns). The results showed that in general the NTL intensities in the SREB’s city system had the obvious geographical differentiation characteristics where there was maximum brightness of NTLs over the western European countries as well as being gradually decreasing from west to east. There were obvious increases of the NTL digital number (DN) values and NTL covering areas in 2003 and 2013 comparatively with that of 1992, which indicates the great urbanization development during this period. As for the four types of urban development process, there was an apparent consistency in a certain local area but a large heterogeneity among different areas. By analyzing the 273 pivot cities and the most pivot 26 cities, we found the number of the relatively small cities being decreasing but that of the large and medium-sized cities increasing. This study would provide the scientific support for the related researches and decision making of urbanization and urban economic development to promote the socio-economic comprehensive development of the overland SREB.

  9. Diffuse hemangioma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.; Caseiro-Alves, F.; Cruz, L.; Moreira, A.; Rebelo, O.

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of diffuse hemangioma of the colon in adolescent patients. One patient had multiple phleboliths at the lower pelvis identified with plain radiographs of the abdomen. Several aspects were seen on double-contrast enema: luminal narrowing, colonic-wall thickening and submucosal colonic masses that changed in appearance with the degree of colonic distension. Angiography was inconclusive in one case. Use of CT and MR provided relevant information regarding the true extent of the disease, but MR was superior in demonstrating unequivocally the vascular nature of the lesions. (orig.)

  10. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  11. Saúde Pública e Colonização da Natureza Public Health and Colonization of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Zöllner Ianni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta algumas questões sobre as quais o campo da Saúde Pública/Coletiva no Brasil precisa se reposicionar. Tomando por referência a concepção de biológico e social que se consolidou no campo a partir da década de 1970, discute-se a concepção de natureza e cultura que subsidiou o debate. Mostra como esse debate foi circunstanciado historicamente, por isso mesmo merecendo uma revisão, tendo em vista o contexto das sociedades modernas contemporâneas. As práticas biotecnológicas são objeto da análise na medida em que, além do seu uso intensivo pela saúde, carregam consigo as características de articular o biológico e o social num mesmo objeto, de transformar e criar seres vivos e de atuar na diversidade biológica. Este cenário coloca, à Saúde Pública/Coletiva, a imperiosa necessidade de rever seus marcos teórico-epistemológicos.This paper presents some issues on which the field of Public/Collective Health in Brazil needs to reposition. Based on the design of biological and social consolidated in the field from the 1970s, it discusses the concept of nature and culture that has supported the debate. It shows how this debate has been historically positioned, so it deserves to be reviewed, given the context of contemporary modern societies. Biotechnology practices are the subject of analysis in that, in addition to their intensive use by health, hold the characteristics of joining biological and social factors in the same object, transforming and creating living beings and working in the biodiversity. This scenario requires from the Public/Collective Health the urgent need to review their theoretical and epistemological marks.

  12. Desprendimento e arraste do solo pelo escoamento superficial Detachment and transport of soil by overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio B. Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o efeito de diferentes vazões de escoamento superficial e declividades nas perdas de solo resultantes. Na realização do experimento utilizou-se um canal, no qual foi colocada uma camada de solo (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo com espessura de 12 cm. Para a análise da capacidade de desprendimento e arraste de partículas de solo pelo escoamento superficial a aplicação de água foi feita de maneira uniforme ao longo de toda a largura do canal. Foram utilizadas as declividades de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10%, e seis vazões distintas para cada uma destas declividades. Em cada teste foi determinada a perda de solo pelo método direto e, com base nos dados de taxas de perdas de solo obtidos a partir das diferentes declividades e vazões de escoamento superficial utilizadas nos testes foram ajustadas equações de regressão. Os resultados obtidos permitiram as seguintes conclusões: a a declividade apresentou um efeito mais expressivo nas taxas de perdas de solo do que a vazão; b observou-se tendência de declínio das taxas de perdas de solo com o tempo; e c a equação linear foi a que melhor se ajustou aos dados de perdas de solo ao longo do tempo para a declividade de 2%, enquanto, o ajuste da equação do tipo potencial se mostrou mais adequado para as declividades de 8 e 10%. Nas declividades de 4 e 6%, entretanto, não se observaram diferenças expressivas entre os ajustes das equações linear e potencial.The paper had the objective to analyze the effect of the overland flow and slope in the soil losses. A channel with a soil layer (Red Yellow Latosol 12 cm deep was used. The water was applied in the channel in an uniform way. The slopes used were 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and for each one of these slopes six different overland flow values were used. The soil loss was measured by the direct method. Using the soil loss rates measured and the values of slope and overland flow a regression equation was adjusted

  13. Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Inundation for Categories 2 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The file geodatabase (fgdb) contains the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Maximum of Maximums (MOM) model for hurricane categories 2 and 4. The EPA Office of Research & Development (ORD) modified the original model from NOAA to fit the model parameters for the Buzzards Bay region. The models show storm surge extent for the Mattapoisett area and therefore the flooding area was reduced to the study area. Areas of flooding that were not connected to the main water body were removed. The files in the geodatabase are:Cat2_SLR0_Int_Feet_dissolve_Mattapoisett: Current Category 2 hurricane with 0 ft sea level riseCat4_SLR0_Int_Feet_dissolve_Mattapoisett: Current Category 4 hurricane with 0 ft sea level riseCat4_SLR4_Int_Feet_dissolve_Mattapoisett: Future Category 4 hurricane with 4 feet sea level riseThe features support the Weather Ready Mattapoisett story map, which can be accessed via the following link:https://epa.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=1ff4f1d28a254cb689334799d94b74e2

  14. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  15. High performance shallow water kernels for parallel overland flow simulations based on FullSWOF2D

    KAUST Repository

    Wittmann, Roland

    2017-01-25

    We describe code optimization and parallelization procedures applied to the sequential overland flow solver FullSWOF2D. Major difficulties when simulating overland flows comprise dealing with high resolution datasets of large scale areas which either cannot be computed on a single node either due to limited amount of memory or due to too many (time step) iterations resulting from the CFL condition. We address these issues in terms of two major contributions. First, we demonstrate a generic step-by-step transformation of the second order finite volume scheme in FullSWOF2D towards MPI parallelization. Second, the computational kernels are optimized by the use of templates and a portable vectorization approach. We discuss the load imbalance of the flux computation due to dry and wet cells and propose a solution using an efficient cell counting approach. Finally, scalability results are shown for different test scenarios along with a flood simulation benchmark using the Shaheen II supercomputer.

  16. Predicting the impact of land management decisions on overland flow generation: Implications for cesium migration in forested Fukushima watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirila-Woodburn, Erica R.; Steefel, Carl I.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of land use and land cover (LULC) change on environmental systems across the land surface's "critical zone" are highly uncertain, often making prediction and risk management decision difficult. In a series of numerical experiments with an integrated hydrologic model, overland flow generation is quantified for both present day and forest thinning scenarios. A typhoon storm event in a watershed near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant is used as an example application in which the interplay between LULC change and overland flow generation is important given that sediment-bound radionuclides may cause secondary contamination via surface water transport. Results illustrate the nonlinearity of the integrated system spanning from the deep groundwater to the atmosphere, and provide quantitative tools when determining the tradeoffs of different risk-mitigation strategies.

  17. The Landlab OverlandFlow component: a Python library for computing shallow-water flow across watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jordan M.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Nudurupati, Sai S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic models and modeling components are used in a wide range of applications. Rainfall-runoff models are used to investigate the evolution of hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture and surface water discharge, throughout one or more rainfall events. Longer-term landscape evolution models also include aspects of hydrology, albeit in a highly simplified manner, in order to approximate how flowing water shapes landscapes. Here we illustrate how the OverlandFlow hydrologic component co...

  18. A Simple and Robust Method for Simultaneous Consideration of Overland and Underground Space in Urban Flood Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Long Son

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed two methods, boundary-type and pond-type, to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling. The boundary-type treats the exit of underground space as an interface for inflow of floodwater by imposing open boundary condition and pond-type considers underground space as an underground pond by configuring pond terrain. The effect of underground space in urban flood inundation was examined by coupling one-dimensional (1D stormwater management model (SWMM and two-dimensional (2D overland flood model. The models were applied to the Hyoja drainage basin, Seoul, Korea where urban flood occurred due to heavy rainfall in 21 September 2010. The conduit roughness coefficient of SWMM was calibrated to minimize the difference between observed and predicted water depth of pipe. In addition, the surface roughness coefficient of 2D model was calibrated by comparing observed and predicted flood extent. Then, urban flood analysis was performed on three different scenarios involving a case not considering underground (Case 1 and cases considering underground, boundary-type (Case 2 and pond-type (Case 3. The simulation results have shown that the boundary-type is simple but robust method with high computational efficiency to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling.

  19. Human NK cells selective targeting of colon cancer-initiating cells: A role for natural cytotoxicity receptors and MHC class i molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Rossana

    2013-01-23

    Tumor cell populations have been recently proposed to be composed of two compartments: tumor-initiating cells characterized by a slow and asymmetrical growth, and the "differentiated" cancer cells with a fast and symmetrical growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play a crucial role in tumor recurrence. The resistance of CICs to drugs and irradiation often allows them to survive traditional therapy. NK cells are potent cytotoxic lymphocytes that can recognize tumor cells. In this study, we have analyzed the NK cell recognition of tumor target cells derived from the two cancer cell compartments of colon adenocarcinoma lesions. Our data demonstrate that freshly purified allogeneic NK cells can recognize and kill colorectal carcinoma- derived CICs whereas the non-CIC counterpart of the tumors (differentiated tumor cells), either autologous or allogeneic, is less susceptible to NK cells. This difference in the NK cell susceptibility correlates with higher expression on CICs of ligands for NKp30 and NKp44 in the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) group of activating NK receptors. In contrast, CICs express lower levels of MHC class I, known to inhibit NK recognition, on their surface than do the "differentiated" tumor cells. These data have been validated by confocal microscopy where NCR ligands and MHC class I molecule membrane distribution have been analyzed. Moreover, NK cell receptor blockade in cytotoxicity assays demonstrates that NCRs play a major role in the recognition of CIC targets. This study strengthens the idea that biology-based therapy harnessing NK cells could be an attractive opportunity in solid tumors. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  1. Mass residuals in implicit finite volume models for overland and groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, A. M. Wasantha; Wang, Naming; Moustafa, M. Z.; Brown, M. C.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryA primary advantage in using the finite volume method for simulating groundwater flow and overland flow is the conservation property or the ability to conserve mass. However, when implicit finite volume methods are used with large time steps, small cell areas, or parameters with extreme value ranges, the conservation of mass equation becomes slightly unbalanced with a residual. Problems with large mass residuals can be predicted using the condition number of the solution matrix, and the convergence criterion used in the sparse matrix solver. The amount of practical guidance available on how to manage the magnitude of the mass residual or the matrix condition number is limited. To address this need, the current paper shows the usefulness of the mesh ratio. The mesh ratio is a dimensionless number that is a function of the mesh resolution and the temporal resolution. It is directly related to the condition number of the matrix, which in turn affects the mass residual and the model run time. During the current study, several numerical experiments are carried out to determine how the mesh ratio and the water level are related to the condition number, how the critical mesh ratio is related to the number of cells, how the run time is related to the mesh ratio, and how the mass residual is related to the mesh ratio. The results are useful in creating guidelines for mesh design during large-scale model applications. These guidelines can be applied to reducing the mass residual and the run time. The usefulness of the mesh ratio is illustrated using a Regional Simulation Model (RSM) (Lal, A.M.W., Van Zee, Randy, Belnap, Mark, 2005. Case study: model to simulate regional flow in South Florida. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 131 (4), 247-258) application in south Florida.

  2. Regional Differences in Overland Rainfall Estimation from PR-Calibrated TMI Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinku, Tufa; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2005-02-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite carries a combination of active [precipitation radar (PR)] and multichannel passive microwave [the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI)] sensors, which advance our ability to estimate rainfall over land. Rain retrieval from the TRMM PR is associated with an unprecedented accuracy and resolution but is limited in terms of sampling because of the narrow PR swath width (215 km). TMI provides wider coverage (760 km), but its observations are associated with a more complex relationship to precipitation in comparison with PR (especially over land). The PR rain estimates are used here for calibrating an overland TMI rain algorithm. The algorithm consists of 1) multichannel-based rain screening and convective/stratiform (C/S) classification schemes, and 2) nonlinear (linear) regressions for the rain-rate retrieval of stratiform (convective) rain regimes. This study examines regional differences in the algorithm performance. Four geographic regions consisting of central Africa (AFC), the Amazon (AMZ), the U.S. southern Plains (USA), and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin (GBM) in south Asia are selected. Data from three summer months of 2000 and 2001 are used for calibration; validation is done using summer 2002 data. The current algorithm is also compared with the latest [version 6 (V6)] TRMM 2A12 product in terms of rain detection, and rain-rate retrieval error statistics on the basis of PR reference rainfall. The performance of the algorithm is different for the different regions. For instance, the reduction in random error (relative to 2A12 V6) is about 24%, 36%, 57%, and 165% for USA, AFC, AMZ, and GBM, respectively. However, significant difference between global (the four regions combined) and regional calibration is observed only for the GBM region.

  3. A TRMM Precipitation Radar-Calibrated Passive Microwave Algorithm for Overland Rainfall Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinku, T.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2004-05-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite carries a combination of active (Precipitation Radar, PR) and multi-channel TRMM microwave imager (TMI) sensors. These sensors advance our ability to estimate rainfall over land. Rain retrieval from PR is associated with an unprecedented accuracy. The primary aspects of PR retrieval are the precipitation classification, which is facilitated by the high vertical resolution (250 meters) reflectivity profile measurements, and an inversion algorithm controlled by a surface reference technique for path integrated attenuation and a reflectivity-to-rainfall relationship with parameters differentiated for convective and stratiform rain regimes. But is limited in terms of sampling due to the narrow PR swath width (215 km). On the other hand, TMI provides wider coverage (760 km), but its observations are associated with a more complex relationship to precipitation compared to PR (especially over land). PR rain estimates are used here for calibrating an overland TMI rain algorithm. The major objective is to investigate the regional variability in terms of the retrieval parameters and its significance to the accuracy of rain estimation. Four geographic regions consisting of Africa (AFC), Amazon (AMZ), continental US (USA), and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin in South Asia are selected. A parameter based rain algorithm is developed that includes (1) multi-channel based rain screening and convective/stratiform (C/S) classification schemes, and (2) non-linear (linear) regressions for rain rate retrieval of stratiform (convective) rain regimes. For rain rate estimation we used the 37 GHz channel for AFC, AMZ and USA regions and the 85 GHz channel for GBM region. The algorithm performance is evaluated against the latest (Version 6) TRMM-2A12 product in terms of rain detection and rain rate retrieval error statistics using PR rainfall as reference. The algorithm performs better than 2A12 V6 with the major

  4. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Abdel Hadi

    Full Text Available The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic soil properties and the implications for overland flow and land management in a peri-urban Mediterranean catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Shakesby, R. A.; Nunes, J. P. N.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Ferreira, A. J. D.

    2015-06-01

    Planning of semi-urban developments is often hindered by a lack of knowledge on how changes in land-use affect catchment hydrological response. The temporal and spatial patterns of overland flow source areas and their connectivity in the landscape, particularly in a seasonal climate, remain comparatively poorly understood. This study investigates seasonal variations in factors influencing runoff response to rainfall in a peri-urban catchment in Portugal characterized by a mosaic of landscape units and a humid Mediterranean climate. Variations in surface soil moisture, hydrophobicity and infiltration capacity were measured in six different landscape units (defined by land-use on either sandstone or limestone) in nine monitoring campaigns at key times over a one-year period. Spatiotemporal patterns in overland flow mechanisms were found. Infiltration-excess overland flow was generated in rainfalls during the dry summer season in woodland on both sandstone and limestone and on agricultural soils on limestone due probably in large part to soil hydrophobicity. In wet periods, saturation overland flow occurred on urban and agricultural soils located in valley bottoms and on shallow soils upslope. Topography, water table rise and soil depth determined the location and extent of saturated areas. Overland flow generated in upslope source areas potentially can infiltrate in other landscape units downslope where infiltration capacity exceeds rainfall intensity. Hydrophilic urban and agricultural-sandstone soils were characterized by increased infiltration capacity during dry periods, while forest soils provided potential sinks for overland flow when hydrophilic in the winter wet season. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of overland flow sources and sinks is an important step in understanding and modeling flow connectivity and catchment hydrologic response. Such information is important for land managers in order to improve urban planning to minimize flood risk.

  6. Application of the MacCormack scheme to overland flow routing for high-spatial resolution distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Liang, Xu; Xu, Yi; Hernández, Felipe; Li, Lianxia

    2018-03-01

    Although process-based distributed hydrological models (PDHMs) are evolving rapidly over the last few decades, their extensive applications are still challenged by the computational expenses. This study attempted, for the first time, to apply the numerically efficient MacCormack algorithm to overland flow routing in a representative high-spatial resolution PDHM, i.e., the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM), in order to improve its computational efficiency. The analytical verification indicates that both the semi and full versions of the MacCormack schemes exhibit robust numerical stability and are more computationally efficient than the conventional explicit linear scheme. The full-version outperforms the semi-version in terms of simulation accuracy when a same time step is adopted. The semi-MacCormack scheme was implemented into DHSVM (version 3.1.2) to solve the kinematic wave equations for overland flow routing. The performance and practicality of the enhanced DHSVM-MacCormack model was assessed by performing two groups of modeling experiments in the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The experiments show that DHSVM-MacCormack can considerably improve the computational efficiency without compromising the simulation accuracy of the original DHSVM model. More specifically, with the same computational environment and model settings, the computational time required by DHSVM-MacCormack can be reduced to several dozen minutes for a simulation period of three months (in contrast with one day and a half by the original DHSVM model) without noticeable sacrifice of the accuracy. The MacCormack scheme proves to be applicable to overland flow routing in DHSVM, which implies that it can be coupled into other PHDMs for watershed routing to either significantly improve their computational efficiency or to make the kinematic wave routing for high resolution modeling computational feasible.

  7. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mean Infiltration-Excess Overland Flow, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean value for infiltration-excess overland flow as estimated by the watershed model TOPMODEL, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. Infiltration-excess overland flow, expressed as a percent of total overland flow, is simulated in TOPMODEL as precipitation that exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil and enters the stream channel. The source data set is Infiltration-Excess Overland Flow Estimated by TOPMODEL for the Conterminous United States (Wolock, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the

  8. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  9. Rainfall estimation over-land using SMOS soil moisture observations: SM2RAIN, LMAA and SMART algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Christian; Brocca, Luca; Pellarin, Thierry; Kerr, Yann; Crow, Wade; Cascon, Carlos; Ciabatta, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in the measurement of precipitation from space have provided estimates at scales that are commensurate with the needs of the hydrological and land-surface model communities. However, as demonstrated in a number of studies (Ebert et al. 2007, Tian et al. 2007, Stampoulis et al. 2012) satellite rainfall estimates are characterized by low accuracy in certain conditions and still suffer from a number of issues (e.g., bias) that may limit their utility in over-land applications (Serrat-Capdevila et al. 2014). In recent years many studies have demonstrated that soil moisture observations from ground and satellite sensors can be used for correcting satellite precipitation estimates (e.g. Crow et al., 2011; Pellarin et al., 2013), or directly estimating rainfall (SM2RAIN, Brocca et al., 2014). In this study, we carried out a detailed scientific analysis in which these three different methods are used for: i) estimating rainfall through satellite soil moisture observations (SM2RAIN, Brocca et al., 2014); ii) correcting rainfall through a Land surface Model Assimilation Algorithm (LMAA) (an improvement of a previous work of Crow et al. 2011 and Pellarin et al. 2013) and through the Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART, Crow et al. 2011). The analysis is carried within the ESA project "SMOS plus Rainfall" and involves 9 sites in Europe, Australia, Africa and USA containing high-quality hydrometeorological and soil moisture observations. Satellite soil moisture data from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are employed for testing their potential in deriving a cumulated rainfall product at different temporal resolutions. The applicability and accuracy of the three algorithms is investigated also as a function of climatic and soil/land use conditions. A particular attention is paid to assess the expected limitations soil moisture based rainfall estimates such as soil saturation, freezing/snow conditions, SMOS RFI, irrigated areas

  10. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  11. Angiodysplasia of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular ectasia of the colon; Colonic arteriovenous malformation; Hemorrhage - angiodysplasia; Bleed - angiodysplasia ... Angiodysplasia of the colon is mostly related to the aging and breakdown of the blood vessels. It is more common in older adults. ...

  12. Quantifying diffuse pathways for overland flow between the roads and streams of the mountain ash forests of central Victoria Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hairsine, Peter B.; Croke, Jacky C.; Takken, Ingrid

    2006-06-01

    Limiting connectivity between road runoff sources and stream networks is crucial for preservation of water quality in forested environments. Where flow is non-eroding, the length of hillslope available to accommodate volumes of discharged water is the key to restricting connectivity. Hairsine et al. ([2002], Hydrological Processes 16: 2311-2327) proposed a probabilistic model of diffuse overland flow that predicted the hillslope lengths required to infiltrate road discharge, based on the concept of volume to breakthrough (Vbt). This paper extends this analysis to a different forest environment with the aim of testing the portability of the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model. The volume of flow required to travel overland to a distance of 5 and 10 m (Vbt5 and Vbt10) from drainage outlets was measured in deep, highly conductive mountain soils in the Upper Tyers catchment, Victoria, Australia. Rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and soil depths contrasted markedly with those in the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) study, and represent an extreme in Australian forests. Statistical analyses revealed the population of Vbt5 to be indistinguishable from that observed by Hairsine et al. ([2002]), indicating the model is valid for a range of forest soils. There was no significant correlation of sediment plume length with site characteristics such as slope, width of flow, or existence of incised pathways. It is suggested there are universal properties of pathways draining tracks and roads, with bioturbation acting to restore available pore spaces filled by antecedent plumes. Drain discharge design criteria may be developed for local conditions using the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model, providing a robust tool for protection of water quality in the siting of new forest roads, and maintenance of exiting roads and tracks.

  13. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part B - The Overland Route, With a Side Trip to Yellowstone Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Willis Thomas; Stone, Ralph Walter; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard; ,

    1915-01-01

    country he looks out upon, not as so many square miles of territory represented on the map in a railroad folder by meaningless spaces, but rather as land - real estate, if you please - varying widely in present appearance because differing largely in its history and characterized by even greater variation in values because possessing diversified natural resources. One region may be such as to afford a livelihood for only a pastoral people; another may present opportunity for intensive agriculture; still another may contain hidden stores of mineral wealth that may attract large industrial development; and taken together these varied resources afford the promise of long-continued prosperity for this or that State. Items of interest in civic development or references to significant epochs in the record of discovery and settlement may be interspersed with explanations of mountain and valley or statements of geologic history. In a broad way, the story of the West is a unit, and every chapter should be told in order to meet fully the needs of the tourist who aims to understand all that he sees. To such a traveler-reader this series of guidebooks is addressed. To this interpretation of our own country the United States Geological Survey brings the accumulated data of decades of pioneering investigation, and the present contribution is only one type of return to the public which has supported this scientific work under the Federal Government. In preparing the description of the country traversed by the Overland Route the geographic and geologic information already published as well as unpublished material in the possession of the Geological Survey has been utilized, but to supplement this material Messrs. Lee, Stone, and Gale made a field examination of the entire route in 1914, Mr. Lee working between Omaha and Ogden, Mr. Stone between Ogden and Yellowstone, and Mr. Gale between Ogden and San Francisco. Information has been furnished by Profs. J. C. Merriam a

  14. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Pérez-Domingo, S.; Espigares, T.; Nicolau, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope) in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover). Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil) to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata). Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index): when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  16. Hydrological heterogeneity in Mediterranean reclaimed slopes: runoff and sediment yield at the patch and slope scales along a gradient of overland flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merino-Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological heterogeneity is recognized as a fundamental ecosystem attribute in drylands controlling the flux of water and energy through landscapes. Therefore, mosaics of runoff and sediment source patches and sinks are frequently identified in these dry environments. There is a remarkable scarcity of studies about hydrological spatial heterogeneity in restored slopes, where ecological succession and overland flow are interacting. We conducted field research to study the hydrological role of patches and slopes along an "overland flow gradient" (gradient of overland flow routing through the slopes caused by different amounts of run-on coming from upslope in three reclaimed mining slopes of Mediterranean-continental climate. We found that runoff generation and routing in non-rilled slopes showed a pattern of source and sink areas of runoff. Such hydrological microenvironments were associated with seven vegetation patches (characterized by plant community types and cover. Two types of sink patches were identified: shrub Genista scorpius patches could be considered as "deep sinks", while patches where the graminoids Brachypodium retusum and Lolium perenne dominate were classified as "surface sinks" or "runoff splays". A variety of source patches were also identified spanning from "extreme sources" (Medicago sativa patches; equivalent to bare soil to "poor sources" (areas scattered by dwarf-shrubs of Thymus vulgaris or herbaceous tussocks of Dactylis glomerata. Finally, we identified the volume of overland flow routing along the slope as a major controlling factor of "hydrological diversity" (heterogeneity of hydrological behaviours quantified as Shannon diversity index: when overland flow increases at the slope scale hydrological diversity diminishes.

  17. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  18. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  19. Chance-constrained overland flow modeling for improving conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations based on scaling representation of sub-daily rainfall variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Yuefei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong; Chen, Qiuwen

    2015-01-01

    Lack of hydrologic process representation at the short time-scale would lead to inadequate simulations in distributed hydrological modeling. Especially for complex mountainous watersheds, surface runoff simulations are significantly affected by the overland flow generation, which is closely related to the rainfall characteristics at a sub-time step. In this paper, the sub-daily variability of rainfall intensity was considered using a probability distribution, and a chance-constrained overland flow modeling approach was proposed to capture the generation of overland flow within conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations. The integrated modeling procedures were further demonstrated through a watershed of China Three Gorges Reservoir area, leading to an improved SLURP-TGR hydrologic model based on SLURP. Combined with rainfall thresholds determined to distinguish various magnitudes of daily rainfall totals, three levels of significance were simultaneously employed to examine the hydrologic-response simulation. Results showed that SLURP-TGR could enhance the model performance, and the deviation of runoff simulations was effectively controlled. However, rainfall thresholds were so crucial for reflecting the scaling effect of rainfall intensity that optimal levels of significance and rainfall threshold were 0.05 and 10 mm, respectively. As for the Xiangxi River watershed, the main runoff contribution came from interflow of the fast store. Although slight differences of overland flow simulations between SLURP and SLURP-TGR were derived, SLURP-TGR was found to help improve the simulation of peak flows, and would improve the overall modeling efficiency through adjusting runoff component simulations. Consequently, the developed modeling approach favors efficient representation of hydrological processes and would be expected to have a potential for wide applications. - Highlights: • We develop an improved hydrologic model considering the scaling effect of rainfall. • A

  20. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  1. Impact and Mitigation of Nutrient Pollution and Overland Water Flow Change on the Florida Everglades, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schade-Poole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A subtropical watershed and wetland covering nearly 47,000 km2 in the southeastern United States, the Florida Everglades is a degraded, human-dominated environment. As a unique and important ecosystem, the Everglades provide a variety of important environmental services for society and nature. Over the past century and a half, anthropogenic actions have severely impacted the Everglades by disrupting the natural water flow and causing water pollution. As a result, the native flora and fauna have been displaced, important habitats have been lost, invasive species have become prevalent, and water contaminant concentrations have increased. Accelerating efforts are being made towards preserving the Everglades ecosystem by restoring water flow and improving water quality. To explore this complex and important aquatic ecosystem, we critically review the relevant environmental history, major terrestrial and aquatic characteristics and dynamics, engineered changes to water flow, major sources and impacts of nutrient pollution, trends in system response to pollution and mitigation actions, and recent regulatory efforts driving restoration.

  2. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lum...

  3. Chance-constrained overland flow modeling for improving conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations based on scaling representation of sub-daily rainfall variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Yuefei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong; Chen, Qiuwen

    2015-08-15

    Lack of hydrologic process representation at the short time-scale would lead to inadequate simulations in distributed hydrological modeling. Especially for complex mountainous watersheds, surface runoff simulations are significantly affected by the overland flow generation, which is closely related to the rainfall characteristics at a sub-time step. In this paper, the sub-daily variability of rainfall intensity was considered using a probability distribution, and a chance-constrained overland flow modeling approach was proposed to capture the generation of overland flow within conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations. The integrated modeling procedures were further demonstrated through a watershed of China Three Gorges Reservoir area, leading to an improved SLURP-TGR hydrologic model based on SLURP. Combined with rainfall thresholds determined to distinguish various magnitudes of daily rainfall totals, three levels of significance were simultaneously employed to examine the hydrologic-response simulation. Results showed that SLURP-TGR could enhance the model performance, and the deviation of runoff simulations was effectively controlled. However, rainfall thresholds were so crucial for reflecting the scaling effect of rainfall intensity that optimal levels of significance and rainfall threshold were 0.05 and 10 mm, respectively. As for the Xiangxi River watershed, the main runoff contribution came from interflow of the fast store. Although slight differences of overland flow simulations between SLURP and SLURP-TGR were derived, SLURP-TGR was found to help improve the simulation of peak flows, and would improve the overall modeling efficiency through adjusting runoff component simulations. Consequently, the developed modeling approach favors efficient representation of hydrological processes and would be expected to have a potential for wide applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Overland flow connectivity in olive orchard plots with cover crops and conventional tillage, and under different rainfall scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; García-Ruiz, Roberto; Guzmán, Gema; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    The study of overland flow connectivity (QC) allows understanding the redistribution dynamics of runoff and soil components as an emergent property of the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes. However, very few studies have dealt with runoff connectivity in olive orchards. In this study we simulated QC in four olive orchard plots, located on the Santa Marta farm (37° 20' 33.6" N, 6° 13' 44" W), in Seville province (Andalusia) in SW Spain. The olive plantation was established in 1985 with trees planted at 8 m x 6 m. Each bounded plot is 8 m wide (between 2 tree lines) and 60 m long (total area of 480 m2), laid out with the longest dimension parallel to the maximum slope and to the tree lines. The slope is uniform, with an average steepness of 11%. Two plots (P2 and P4) were devoted to conventional tillage (CT) consisting of regular chisel plow passes depending on weed growth. Another set of two plots had two types of cover crops (CC) in the inter tree rows (the area outside the vertical olive canopy projection): uniform CC of Lolium multiflorum (P3) and a mixture of L. rigidum and L. multiflorum together with other species (P5). The tree rows were treated with herbicide to keep bare soil. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three rainfall scenarios: i) low rainfall intensity (Sc-LowInt) and using the MD flow accumulation algorithm; ii) moderate rainfall intensity (Sc-ModInt) and using MD8; and iii) high rainfall intensity (Sc-HighInt) and using D8. After analysing the values of rainfall intensity during two hydrological years (Oct'09-Sep'10 and Oct'10-Sep'11) we associated the three scenarios with the followings months: Sc-LowInt during the period Jan-Mar, that summarizes 42% of all annual rainfall events; Sc-ModInt during Oct-Nov and Apr-May (32% of all events); and Sc-HighInt during the period Jun-Sep and in December (26% of all events). Instead of using the C

  5. How is overland flow produced under intermittent rain? An analysis using plot-scale rainfall simulation on dryland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerley, David

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic intermittency of rainfall includes temporary cessations (hiatuses), as well as periods of very low intensity within more intense events. To understand how these characteristics of rainfall affect overland flow production, rainfall simulations involving repeated cycles of on-off intermittency were carried out on dryland soils in arid western New South Wales, Australia. Periods of rain (10 mm/h) and no-rain were applied in alternation with cycle times from 3 min to 25 min, in experiments lasting 1-1.5 h. Results showed that intermittency could delay the onset of runoff by more than 30 min, reduce the runoff ratio, reduce the peak runoff rate, and reduce the apparent event infiltration rate by 30-45%. When hiatuses in rainfall were longer than 15-20 min, runoff that had resulted from prior rain ceased completely before the recommencement of rain. Results demonstrate that if rainfall intermittency is not accounted for, estimates of infiltrability based on runoff plot data can be systematically in error. Despite the use of intermittent rain, the episodic occurrence of runoff could be predicted successfully by fitting multiple affine Horton infiltration equations, whose changing f0 and Kf coefficients, but uniform values of fc, reflected the redistribution of soil moisture and the change in the infiltrability f during hiatuses in rainfall. The value of fc varied little among the fitted equations, so constituting an affine set of relationships. This new approach provides an alternative to the use of steady-state methods that are common in rainfall simulation experiments and which typically yield only an estimate of fc. The new field results confirm that intermittency affects infiltration and runoff depths and timing at plot scale and on intra-event timescales. Additional work on other soil types, and at other spatial and temporal scales, is needed to test the generality of these findings.

  6. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  7. Structure and chemistry of bacterially populated acidic microenvironments found on naturally colonized and weathered circumneutral pH unsaturated waste rock from the Antamina Mine, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrey, J. W.; Mayer, K. U.; Beckie, R. D.; Southam, G.

    2009-12-01

    The microbial community present in geochemically well characterized field cells and experimental waste rock piles at the Antamina Mine, were examined using electron microscopy, culture dependent, and culture independent techniques. Relatively large populations of up to 10^8 bacteria per gram were found, despite the young age of the waste rock (1.5 years). Most samples were at alkaline pH and dominated by bacteria capable of neutral pH thiosulfate oxidation. One sample from a field cell producing drainage at a pH of 6.5 was dominated by acidophilic bacteria capable of Fe^2+ and S^0 oxidation. A weathered massive sulfide from this sample was thoroughly examined using a field emission gun scanning electron microscope equipped with a focused ion beam (FE-SEM-FIB). Bacteria were abundant as monolayer and agglomerate biofilms upon and within a porous schwertmannite precipitate, while no bacteria were found directly attached to clean sulfide surfaces. Pitting of pyrrhotite was observed beneath the microbially inhabited schwertmannite, while no pitting was observed in adjacent clean pyrrhotite surfaces indicating greater oxidation of the pyrrhotite surface beneath the schwertmannite. Some waste rock that has been exposed to natural surface weathering conditions for more than twice the amount of time, possessed larger total populations of bacteria, but did not support significant populations of acidophiles, suggesting a succession from neutrophiles to acidophiles takes place prior to the development of acid mine drainage. The development of the porous iron oxide film may be prerequisite for acidophilic bacteria to flourish, creating acidic microenvironments within a neutral bulk, ambient pH mine waste.

  8. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. Absorption of radionuclides and other solutes in a natural wetland system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, R.A.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G. (Alligator Rivers Region Research Inst., Jabiru, N.T. (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of wetland filtration in removing radionuclides from waste water has been investigated. Water samples were collected during the release of waste water from the Ranger Uranium Mine through a natural wetland filter consisting of an overland flow area and a billabong. Concentrations of [sup 226]Ra, [sup 238]U and other solutes were determined. Reduction in solute concentrations can arise both by absorption and by dilution. Distinction between these two processes has been based on the comparison of concentrations of the solutes of interest with those of ions that are relatively non-reactive. U is absorbed both during overland flow and in the billabong, while only overland flow is important for Ra absorption. Ca and Mg are not absorbed. (author).

  10. Nature of DNA lesions induced in human hepatoma cells, human colonic cells and human embryonic lung fibroblasts by the antiretroviral drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamenova, Darina [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Vlarska 7, 83391 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: darina.slamenova@savba.sk; Horvathova, Eva [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Vlarska 7, 83391 Bratislava (Slovakia); Bartkova, Miriam [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, Vlarska 7, 83391 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-01-29

    This study tried to clarify the question if nuclear genotoxicity played a role in 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) toxicity. We investigated cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of AZT on human hepatoma HepG2 and human colonic CaCo-2 cells as well as on human diploid lung fibroblasts HEL. The amount of induced DNA damage was measured by standard alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The nature of induced DNA lesions was evaluated (1) by modified SCGE, which includes treatment of lysed cells with DNA repair enzymes Endo III and Fpg and enables to recognize oxidized bases of DNA, and (2) by SCGE processed in parallel at pH 13.0 (standard technique) and pH 12.1, which enables to recognize alkali labile DNA lesions and direct DNA strand breaks. Cytotoxicity of AZT was evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion technique. Our findings showed that 3-h treatment of cells with AZT decreased the viability of all cell lines studied. SCGE performed in the presence of DNA repair enzymes proved that AZT induced oxidative lesions to DNA in all cell types. In hepatoma HepG2 cells and embryonic lung fibroblasts HEL the majority of AZT-induced DNA strand breaks were pH-independent, i.e. they were identified at both pH values (12.1 and 13.0). These DNA lesions represented direct DNA breaks. In colonic Caco-2 cells DNA lesions were converted to DNA strand breaks particularly under strong alkaline conditions (pH > 13.0), which is characteristic for alkali-labile sites of DNA. DNA strand break rejoining was investigated by the standard comet assay technique during 48 h of post-AZT-treatment in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. The kinetics of DNA rejoining, considered an indicator of DNA repair, revealed that AZT-induced DNA breaks were repaired in both cell types slowly, though HepG2 cells seemed to be more repair proficient with respect to AZT-induced DNA lesions.

  11. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  12. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  13. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  14. Colon cancer - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  15. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  16. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  17. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...... in the island of St. Croix,” and the Lincoln administration’s continued exploration of colonization arrangements in subsequent years, no further negotiations were carried out at that time and no laborers in American custody were shipped to St. Croix. This paper attempts to answer why....

  18. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental results of the colonization, process and their consequences are analyzed in the local, national and international order, the activities through which the acts on the means and the nature of these. It is examined the meaning of the sustainable development, the phenomenon of the exhaustion of the ecosystems and their responsible ones. It discusses the importance of the Orinoquia in the mark of the environmental problems in the international order, the region has been intensely exploded by means of intensive production systems, what has led to the exhaustion of these areas in the world environment. The colonist's paper is exposed in the environmental deterioration, in front of the function of the tropical humid forest and it confirms a focus that it approaches the environmental problem from a perspective that makes emphasis in the social component of that problem, in opposition to the conservators where the ecosystem is the only valid reason and the social groups that intervene him, they should simply disappear. It is necessary the necessity to focus of integral way, the colonist's nature like element of a social group, the list that completes in the mark of the nation and their development model, the political economic system and the nationality inside which makes their economic decisions and of production. It is recognized that they are not enough solutions of technical order to impact on the use and sustainable handling of the Orinoquia, but rather it should be contemplated the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of the problem simultaneously, as well as the growing and resolved participation of the social group in their group

  19. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Mi Yun; Choi, Byung Hun; Kim, Keum Won; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sung Soo; Choi, Chang Ho [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  20. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Mi Yun; Choi, Byung Hun; Kim, Keum Won; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sung Soo; Choi, Chang Ho

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  1. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  2. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) is a procedure ... Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  4. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  5. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  6. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes......, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+ and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon....

  7. Imaging the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radiographic techniques, particularly the barium enema, remain crucial in the evaluation of the colon despite the development of colonscopy. There is still controversy concerning the optimal method of performing the barium enema examination. This course includes a discussion of the respective roles of double-and single-contrast barium examinations as well as the technical aspects of their performance. The roles of other colon imaging modalities are discussed, with particular emphasis on the increasing value of CT. The various manifestations and differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, including diverticulitis, are presented. The radiologic evaluation and appearances of colorectal carcinoma and adenomatous polyps are discussed, as are some of the pitfalls in their diagnosis. The emphais of the presentation is on practical aspects of imaging the colon, and the varying appearances seen in the more common colon diseases

  8. Colon Cryptogenesis: Asymmetric Budding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chin Wee; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt) were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein) in most colon cancers. PMID:24205248

  9. Colon cryptogenesis: asymmetric budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wee Tan

    Full Text Available The process of crypt formation and the roles of Wnt and cell-cell adhesion signaling in cryptogenesis are not well described; but are important to the understanding of both normal and cancer colon crypt biology. A quantitative 3D-microscopy and image analysis technique is used to study the frequency, morphology and molecular topography associated with crypt formation. Measurements along the colon reveal the details of crypt formation and some key underlying biochemical signals regulating normal colon biology. Our measurements revealed an asymmetrical crypt budding process, contrary to the previously reported symmetrical fission of crypts. 3D immunofluorescence analyses reveals heterogeneity in the subcellular distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin in distinct crypt populations. This heterogeneity was also found in asymmetrical budding crypts. Singular crypt formation (i.e. no multiple new crypts forming from one parent crypt were observed in crypts isolated from the normal colon mucosa, suggestive of a singular constraint mechanism to prevent aberrant crypt production. The technique presented improves our understanding of cryptogenesis and suggests that excess colon crypt formation occurs when Wnt signaling is perturbed (e.g. by truncation of adenomatous polyposis coli, APC protein in most colon cancers.

  10. Colonic Diverticulitis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Kuo Liu; Hsi-Hsien Hsu; She-Meng Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and presents in 50–70% of those aged 80 years or older. The most common complication is colonic diverticulitis. Eighty percent of patients who present with colonic diverticulitis are aged 50 years and older. Diagnosis and treatment of colonic diverticulitis in the elderly is more difficult and complicated owing to more comorbid conditions. Computed tomography is recommended for diagnosis when colonic diverticulitis...

  11. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

  12. Recent trend of colonic diverticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yae Soon; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Chang Yul; Lee, Kwan Seh [Inje Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Colonic Diverticulosis is once thought to be a rare disease in Korea compared with western countries, but the incidence has been increasing with passage of time. Authors reviewed 151 cases of colon study with new double contrast method performed from November, 1986 to March, 1987 at Paik Hospital Inje college. The results were as follow: 1. The colonic diverticulosis was found in 39 cases out of 151 colon study (25.8%). 2. Colonic Diverticulosis were located at right and transvercolon in 54% and left and sigmoid colon in 18%. 3. Increasing occurrence in younger age group predilection; 4th decade was observed.

  13. Recent trend of colonic diverticulosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yae Soon; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Chang Yul; Lee, Kwan Seh

    1988-01-01

    Colonic Diverticulosis is once thought to be a rare disease in Korea compared with western countries, but the incidence has been increasing with passage of time. Authors reviewed 151 cases of colon study with new double contrast method performed from November, 1986 to March, 1987 at Paik Hospital Inje college. The results were as follow: 1. The colonic diverticulosis was found in 39 cases out of 151 colon study (25.8%). 2. Colonic Diverticulosis were located at right and transvercolon in 54% and left and sigmoid colon in 18%. 3. Increasing occurrence in younger age group predilection; 4th decade was observed.

  14. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School; Mizutani, Masaru [and others

    1998-11-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  15. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  16. A comparison using the caesium-137 technique of the relative importance of cultivation and overland flow on soil erosion in a steep semi-tropical sub-catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiranatha, A.S.; Rose, C.W.; Salama, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 6 downslope transects in a small semi-tropical sub-catchment was measured in 1990-91 using the resident caesium-137 deficit technique. The sub-catchment consisted of 2 opposing hillslopes which shed water to an intermittent stream in the valley bottom of the sub-catchment. There were 3 transects on each of the opposing hillslopes, and measurement indicated net soil loss from all 6 transects. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of caesium- 37 deficit did not indicate the accumulation of soil expected due to the slope decrease toward the bottom of the valley. Possible explanations of this finding could be the effect of periodic flooding of the intermittent valley stream, or seepage-accelerated erosion. Pineapple cultivation in the sub-catchment since 1950 included intensive cultivation at 4-year intervals by downslope-moving rotary hoe. The paper develops a theoretical prediction of the spatial pattern of net soil loss expected due to such cultivation, as well as the expected pattern of soil loss due to overland flow on the hillslopes. The spatial patterns of soil loss due to these 2 different soil erosion mechanisms were then compared with the pattern of net soil loss indicated by caesium- 137 depletion to provide an assessment of their likely relative importance in contributing to soil loss. In the upper part of each hillslope, this comparison of spatial trends did not allow the dominant cause of soil erosion to be distinguished. Both the model of erosion due to cultivation and that due to hillside overland flow predicted soil accumulation in the lower valley sides where slope decreased. Neither model represented the net loss of such accumulated soil indicated by caesium- 137 deficit, and this loss possibly occurred during periodically observed flooding of the valley floor, or due to surface burial with caesium-137 depleted subsoil. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  17. Extra colonic Findings on CT Colonography in Symptomatic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahovska, I.; Nigut, F.; Mach, P.; Lazurova, I.; Gombosova, L.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is an analysis of the consequences of the extra colonic findings identified on CT colonography examination of symptomatic patients and the validity of the intravenous application of contrast medium in this examination. The authors enrolled 252 patients, who underwent CT colonogprahy.128 extra colonic findings was identified in 80 patients (31.74%). The average age was 65.62 years (SD = 12.7, min. age was 29, max. age. 85 years). According the clinical significance the extra colonic findings have been divided into three groups – low, moderate and very important extra colonic findings. Low significant findings were 68 (53.12%), moderate 26 (20.31%) and very important extra colonic findings were 34 (26.56%), of which 30 were malignant nature. (author)

  18. The current status on the selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow application systems to treat municipal wastewater in the North Central region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Brockway; T.M. Burton; J.H. Cooley; F.M. D' Itri; R.H. Dowdy; B.G. Ellis; L. Epstein; A.E. Erickson; J.E. Hook; L.W. Jacobs; S.N. Kerr; B.D. Knezek; E.A. Myers; A.J. Palazzo; S. Poloncsik; G.R. Safir; W.E. Sopper; J.C. Sutherland; M.B. Tesar; R.E. Thomas; D.H. Urie

    1981-01-01

    The 1977 Clean Water Amendments to Public Law 92-500 were enacted to strengthen the orignal policy of encouraging the utilization ofinnovative, alternative management techniques far the treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater. These alternative techniques include spray irigation and overland flow land treatment systems which can be used individual cr...

  19. The mycorrhizal status and colonization of 26 tree species growing in urban and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainard, Luke D; Klironomos, John N; Gordon, Andrew M

    2011-02-01

    Urban environments are highly disturbed and fragmented ecosystems that commonly have lower mycorrhizal fungal species richness and diversity compared to rural or natural ecosystems. In this study, we assessed whether the mycorrhizal status and colonization of trees are influenced by the overall environment (rural vs. urban) they are growing in. Soil cores were collected from the rhizosphere of trees growing in urban and rural environments around southern Ontario. Roots were extracted from the soil cores to determine whether the trees were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, or both, and to quantify the percent colonization of each type of mycorrhizal fungi. All 26 tree species were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and seven tree species were dually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Overall, arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization was significantly (p mycorrhizal fungal colonization; more research is needed to determine whether inoculating urban trees with mycorrhizal fungi would increase colonization levels and growth of the trees.

  20. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  1. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  2. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  3. (2Alpha,3beta)-2,3-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, a new natural triterpene from Olea europea, induces caspase dependent apoptosis selectively in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Fernando J; Centelles, Josep J; Lupiáñez, José A; Cascante, Marta

    2006-11-27

    Triterpenoids are known to induce apoptosis and to be anti-tumoural. Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, is present in high concentrations in olive pomace. This study examines the response of HT29 and Caco-2 colon-cancer cell lines to maslinic-acid treatment. At concentrations inhibiting cell growth by 50-80% (IC50HT29=61+/-1 microM, IC80HT29=76+/-1 microM and IC50Caco-2=85+/-5 microM, IC80Caco-2=116+/-5 microM), maslinic acid induced strong G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation, and increased caspase-3 activity. However, maslinic acid did not alter the cell cycle or induce apoptosis in the non-tumoural intestine cell lines IEC-6 and IEC-18. Moreover, maslinic acid induced cell differentiation in colon adenocarcinoma cells. These findings support a role for maslinic acid as a tumour suppressant and as a possible new therapeutic tool for aberrant cell proliferation in the colon. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that, in tumoural cancer cells, maslinic acid exerts a significant anti-proliferation effect by inducing an apoptotic process characterized by caspase-3 activation by a p53-independent mechanism, which occurs via mitochondrial disturbances and cytochrome c release.

  4. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L; Schjørring, Susanne; Krogfelt, Karen A; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Delivery by means of cesarean section has been associated with increased risk of childhood immune-mediated diseases, suggesting a role of early bacterial colonization patterns for immune maturation. We sought to describe the influence of delivery method on gut and airway colonization patterns in the first year of life in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. Seven hundred children from the COPSAC2010 birth cohort participated in this analysis. Fecal samples were collected at age 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, and hypopharyngeal aspirates were collected at age 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months and cultured for bacteria. Detailed information on delivery method, intrapartum antibiotics, and lifestyle factors was obtained by personal interviews. Seventy-eight percent of the children were born by means of natural delivery, 12% by means of emergency cesarean section, and 9% by means of elective cesarean section. Birth by means of cesarean section was significantly associated with colonization of the intestinal tract by Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium species, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus at age 1 week, whereas colonization by Escherichia coli was associated with natural birth. At age 1 month, these differences were less prominent, and at age 1 year, they were not apparent, which was confirmed by means of multivariate data-driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate that microbial derangements, as indicated in our study, can demonstrate a possible link between delivery by means of cesarean section and immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  5. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  6. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  7. Automatic segmentation of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong; Vining, David J.

    1999-05-01

    Virtual colonoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that enables detection of colorectal polyps and cancer. Normally, a patient's bowel is prepared with colonic lavage and gas insufflation prior to computed tomography (CT) scanning. An important step for 3D analysis of the image volume is segmentation of the colon. The high-contrast gas/tissue interface that exists in the colon lumen makes segmentation of the majority of the colon relatively easy; however, two factors inhibit automatic segmentation of the entire colon. First, the colon is not the only gas-filled organ in the data volume: lungs, small bowel, and stomach also meet this criteria. User-defined seed points placed in the colon lumen have previously been required to spatially isolate only the colon. Second, portions of the colon lumen may be obstructed by peristalsis, large masses, and/or residual feces. These complicating factors require increased user interaction during the segmentation process to isolate additional colon segments. To automate the segmentation of the colon, we have developed a method to locate seed points and segment the gas-filled lumen with no user supervision. We have also developed an automated approach to improve lumen segmentation by digitally removing residual contrast-enhanced fluid resulting from a new bowel preparation that liquefies and opacifies any residual feces.

  8. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes......, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...

  9. [The irritable colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansky, G

    1982-02-27

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most common gastrointestinal disorder. The motility disturbance determines the clinical presentation and two types are distinguished, i.e. spastic colon and painless diarrhea. The motor dysfunction is probably related to abnormal myoelectric activity of the colon. In contrast to healthy persons, slow electrical waves with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute predominate. Although irritable bowel syndrome is a disease of unknown etiology, psychological factors and fibre-deficient diet may be involved. The work-up should take into account the fact that irritable bowel syndrome remains a diagnosis by exclusion. The effect of current therapy on the chronic-relapsing course of this disease is only slight.

  10. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam L. Kandel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant endosphere contains a diverse group of microbial communities. There is general consensus that these microbial communities make significant contributions to plant health. Both recently adopted genomic approaches and classical microbiology techniques continue to develop the science of plant-microbe interactions. Endophytes are microbial symbionts residing within the plant for the majority of their life cycle without any detrimental impact to the host plant. The use of these natural symbionts offers an opportunity to maximize crop productivity while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Endophytes promote plant growth through nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, nutrient acquisition, and by conferring tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Colonization by endophytes is crucial for providing these benefits to the host plant. Endophytic colonization refers to the entry, growth and multiplication of endophyte populations within the host plant. Lately, plant microbiome research has gained considerable attention but the mechanism allowing plants to recruit endophytes is largely unknown. This review summarizes currently available knowledge about endophytic colonization by bacteria in various plant species, and specifically discusses the colonization of maize plants by Populus endophytes.

  11. On Justification of Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Stig; Schrøder, Ulrikke; Mortensen, Marianne; Memic, Inda; Asmussen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The project concerns the justification of the Spanish colonization in America during the 16th and 17th century, examined through the Spanish philosopher Francisco de Vitoria’s (1485 – 1546) Political Writings and the British philosopher John Locke’s (1632- 1704) Two Treatises of Government, in a historical as well as a philosophical context. The main problem has been the dispossession of the Indians and how the philosophers defended the occupation of the lands of America. Vitoria’...

  12. CT of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringer, E.; Ferner, R.

    1990-01-01

    33 patients with clinically suspected diverticulitis of the colon were studied prospectively by CT. The predictive value of symptoms, such as thickening of the colonic wall (86.6%), inflammatory changes of the pericolic fatty tissue (87.5%), the presence of diverticula (73.3%) and abscess formation (100%), were examined separately and their significance was evaluated. Our study was performed mainly on clinically less severe cases of diverticulitis. True positive results by CT were reached in 20/21 cases (sensitivity = 95.2%), true negative findings in 9/12 (specificity = 75.0%). The results of CT examinations were compared with those of contrast enemas (n=24) and/or endoscopy (n=6). The number of cases was too low to achieve statistic significance; the relatively high percentage of questionably positive results shows the difficulties inherent in these methods. Our study shows that CT is a good means to demonstrate even less severe forms of colonic diverticulitis with sufficient reliability. (orig.) [de

  13. Neoplasia de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de colon es un tumor que se desarrolla por degeneración maligna de las células del intestino grueso, desde la válvula ileocecal hasta la flexura recto sigmoidea. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, de 75 años, con astenia anorexia y pérdida de peso; al examen físico: mucosas hipocoloreadas, abdomen blando no doloroso a la palpación superficial ni profunda. Se palpa aumento de volumen a nivel de la fosa ilíaca derecha, fija, de consistencia dura, ruidos hidroaereos normales. Se realizaron exámenes hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos para el diagnóstico. Se tuvo la confirmación diagnóstica por anatomía patológica de adenocarcinoma de colon derecho, bien diferenciado. Se aplicó tratamiento primario, consistente en una amplia resección quirúrgica del cáncer del colon y el drenaje linfático regional, posteriormente se aplicó quimioterapia. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  14. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Giant colonic volvulus due to colonic pseudo-obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman, Kerem; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Beyazit, Yavuz; Han, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie’s syndrome, is a clinical syndrome characterised by gross dilation of the caecum and right hemicolon, which sometimes extends to the sigmoid colon and rectum in the absence of an anatomic lesion in the intestinal lumen. It is characterised by impaired propulsion of contents of the gastrointestinal tract, which results in a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. A careful examination of the markedly distended colon can exclude...

  16. Outcome of Colonic Surgery in Elderly Patients with Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, E.; van Schaik, P. M.; Prins, H. A.; Ernst, M. F.; Dautzenberg, P. J. L.; Bosscha, K.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Colonic cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and most often occurs in patients aged 65 years or older. Aim. To evaluate the outcome of colonic surgery in the elderly in our hospital and to compare five-year survival rates between the younger and elderly patients. Methods. 207 consecutive patients underwent surgery for colon cancer. Patients were separated in patients younger than 75 and older than 75 years. Results. Elderly patients presented significantly m...

  17. Prolonged Sulforaphane Treatment Activates Extracellular-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling in Nontumorigenic Colon Cells but not Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  18. Pectin-based colon-specific drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon-specific drug delivery have a great importance in the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local colonic, as well as systemic diseases like Crohn′s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, amoebiasis, asthma, arthritis and inflammation which can be achieved by targeted delivery of drug to colon. Specific systemic absorption in the colon gave interesting possibilities for the delivery of protein and peptides. It contains relatively less proteolytic enzyme activities in the colon compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Recommended treatments included the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs, chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics which must be released in the colon. Pectin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide has in recent years gained increasingly in importance in advance drug delivery. It was employed in pharmaceutical industry, health promotion and treatment. Owing to its gelling properties it has been used potentially as a carrier for drug delivery to the GIT, such as matrix tablets, gel beads, film-coated dose form. This review will discuss the important chemistry and general properties of pectin, its gel formation mechanism properties and its uses in novel drug delivery to the colon.

  19. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  20. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and co...

  1. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.; Lund Univ.; Lund Univ.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1985-01-01

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.)

  2. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.).

  3. Colon flattening by landmark-driven optimal quasiconformal mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Yi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In virtual colonoscopy, colon conformal flattening plays an important role, which unfolds the colon wall surface to a rectangle planar image and preserves local shapes by conformal mapping, so that the cancerous polyps and other abnormalities can be easily and thoroughly recognized and visualized without missing hidden areas. In such maps, the anatomical landmarks (taeniae coli, flexures, and haustral folds) are naturally mapped to convoluted curves on 2D domain, which poses difficulty for comparing shapes from geometric feature details. Understanding the nature of landmark curves to the whole surface structure is meaningful but it remains challenging and open. In this work, we present a novel and effective colon flattening method based on quasiconformal mapping, which straightens the main anatomical landmark curves with least conformality (angle) distortion. It provides a canonical and straightforward view of the long, convoluted and folded tubular colon surface. The computation is based on the holomorphic 1-form method with landmark straightening constraints and quasiconformal optimization, and has linear time complexity due to the linearity of 1-forms in each iteration. Experiments on various colon data demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of our algorithm and its practicability for polyp detection and findings visualization; furthermore, the result reveals the geometric characteristics of anatomical landmarks on colon surfaces.

  4. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULT. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old male with mucosa - associated lymphoid tissue. [MALT] lymphoma of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. He presented with severe abdominal pains and a centrally located huge abdominal mass for which a surgical resection was done. Histologically.

  5. Composition and design of vegetative filter strips instrumental in improving water quality by mass reduction of suspended sediment, nutrients andEscherichia coliin overland flows in eastern escarpment of Mau Forest, Njoro River Watershed, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olilo, C O; Onyando, J O; Moturi, W N; Muia, A W; Roegner, Amber F; Ogari, Z; Ombui, P N; Shivoga, W A

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of vegetative filter strip (VFS) in removal of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) in overland flow to improve receiving water quality standards. Four and half kilograms of cowpat manure was applied to the model pasture 14 m beyond the edge of vegetated filter strip (VFS) comprising 10-m Napier grass draining into 20-m Kikuyu grass (VFS II), 10-m Kikuyu grass draining into 20-m Napier grass (VFS III) and native grass mixture of Couch-Buffel (VFS I-control). Overland flow water samples were collected from the sites at positions 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m along the length of VFSs. E. coli removal by Napier grass VFS was on the order of log unit, which provided an important level of protection and reduced surface-flow concentrations of E. coli to below the 200 (CFU 100 mL -1 ) recommended water quality standards, but not for nutrients and SS. The Napier grass showed highest efficiency (99.6 %), thus outperforming both Kikuyu grass (85.8 %) and Couch-Buffel grasses VFS (67.9 ± 4.2 %) in removing E. coli from overland flow. The low-level efficiency of native Couch-Buffel grasses in reducing E. coli in overland flow was because of preferential flow. Composition and design of VFS was instrumental and could be applied with a high potential of contracting the uncertainty in improving water quality standards through mass reduction of SS, nutrients and E. coli load in watersheds.

  6. Early colonization on Artificial Seagrass Units and on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pete, Dorothée; Lepoint, Gilles; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Gobert, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Many epiphytes grow on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves but early stages of that colonization are not well known. To study this early colonization without destroying the plant, Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) were utilised. The first nine days of colonization by macroscopic eukaryotic organisms on natural P. oceanica leaves and on ASUs were studied. The capability of those ASUs to mimic P. oceanica in the long term was also evaluated. Indeed, early colonists of a substrate can influe...

  7. Initial assessment of the infiltration and overland flow for different rainfall events in land constituted of sandstones of the Botucatu Formation (Guarani Aquifer), State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuquette, Lázaro Valentin; Palma, Janaina Barrios; Pejon, Osni José

    2006-06-01

    This study was carried out in the Córrego do Vaçununga basin constituted of eolic sandstones of Botucatu Formation and residual unconsolidated materials (>90%), considered the most important unconfined aquifer in Brazil, in the city of Luiz Antonio, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Laboratory and in situ tests were performed to characterize the unconsolidated materials in terms of basic physical properties, potential infiltration rate, suction and hydraulic conductivity. The results for infiltration and overland flow depths were obtained according to Morel-Seytoux and Khanji (Water Resour Res 10(4):795-800, 1976) and Chu (Water Resour Res 14(3):461-466, 1978) adaptation of the Green and Ampt [J Agr Sci 4(Part 1):1-24, 1911] model for steady and transient rainfalls, respectively. Rainfall data were collected from January of 2000 to December of 2002, and 12 scenarios were defined considering the intensity and durations. Rather than high homogeneity in terms of the texture of unconsolidated materials, the infiltration and overland flow ratio depends on the type of land use and associated management practices. The results showed that rainfall with high intensity and short duration do not produce high overland flow ratio as we have observed for transient scenarios with long duration and low intensities.

  8. Pathogenesis of giant colonic diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhletaler, C.A.; Berger, J.L.; Robinette, C.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings of 3 patients with giant colonic diverticula are presented. Although several theories have been proposed for the formation of these diverticula, they have not been fully documented. One of our cases illustrates the evolution of this disorder following typical colonic diverticulitis. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of this unusual entity are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2. Earliest human colonization of south Asia. The early human colonization of south Asia is represented largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The oldest known tools ..... component among finished tools is conspicuous in the hinterland riverine ...... sativum), green gram (Vigna radiata), gram/chicken pea.

  10. Colonic Diverticulitis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kuo Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the colon is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and presents in 50–70% of those aged 80 years or older. The most common complication is colonic diverticulitis. Eighty percent of patients who present with colonic diverticulitis are aged 50 years and older. Diagnosis and treatment of colonic diverticulitis in the elderly is more difficult and complicated owing to more comorbid conditions. Computed tomography is recommended for diagnosis when colonic diverticulitis is suspected. Most patients admitted with acute colonic diverticulitis respond to conservative treatment, but 15–30% of patients require surgery. Because surgery for acute colonic diverticulitis carries significant rates of morbidity and mortality, conservative treatment is recommended in the elderly. Conservative treatment of colonic diverticulitis with antibiotics, bowel rest, possibly including parenteral alimentation, is usually applied for 1–2 weeks. In the absence of a response to conservative treatment, frequent recurrence or complications (abscesses, fistulas, bowel obstructions, and free perforations, surgery is indicated.

  11. Colonic duplication in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, P.; Dario Casas, J.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A case of colonic duplication that was diagnosed radiologically in an adult is reported. A long duplicated segment below the normal transverse colon, with a wide anastomosis at the hepatic flexure level, was observed on barium enema. The rarity of this anomaly unassociated with other malformations is emphasized. (orig.)

  12. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your microflora. “Your microflora plays a crucial role in protecting your body from infections,” Bresalier says. “It may even protect against colon cancer.” “The colon is quite remarkable because it can care for itself and keep ...

  13. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed severe upper abdominal pain after the ... non-surgical management of pancreatitis and associated complications, colonic perforation should be considered in patients who deteriorate ... To our knowledge this is the first case of a secure pre-operative diagnosis of colonic perforation due to to pancreatitis.

  14. Gas explosion during colonic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilt, J H; Borel Rinkes, I H; Brouwer, K J

    1996-12-01

    Explosions of the colon as a result of the use of diathermy in the presence of gas mixtures of oxygen, hydrogen and/or methane have been previously described in the literature. This danger is present during colonoscopic polypectomy as well as during colonic surgery. The following case is presented to alert to the potential hazards of bowel gas during electrosurgery.

  15. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors...... into cellular DNA and protein. A progressive decrease in the number of goblet cells, decrease in the depth of the crypts, and a change from a columnar to a cuboidal epithelium were observed. After 20 days in culture the colonic mucosa consisted of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells and a few glands....... The ability to maintain colonic mucosa in culture was subject to both intra- and interindividual variation. Cultured human colonic mucosa also activated a chemical procarcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, into metabolites which bound to cellular DNA. A 100-fold interindividual variation in this binding was observed....

  16. Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Adhip P N; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Patel, Bhaumik B; Patel, Vaishali; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Elliott, Althea A; Levi, Edi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal cancer, are associated with activation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, inhibition of these signaling pathways with noncytotoxic natural products represents a logical preventive and/or therapeutic approach for colon cancer. Curcumin and resveratrol, both of which inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis, were selected to examine whether combining them would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. Indeed, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

  17. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with a chronic inflammatory response in airways and lung parenchyma that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking considered as an important risk factor plays a role in pathogenesis of disease. Pneumocystis jirovecii is an atypical opportunistic fungus that causes pneumonia in immunosuppressed host, although the low levels of its DNA in patients without signs and symptoms of pneumonia, which likely represents colonization. The increased prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients has led to an interest in understanding its role in the disease. P. jirovecii colonization in these patients could represent a problem for public health since colonized patients could act as a major reservoir and source of infection for susceptible subjects. Using sensitive molecular techniques, low levels of P. jirovecii DNA have been detected in the respiratory tract of certain individuals. It is necessary to elucidate the role of P. jirovecii colonization in the natural history of COPD patients in order to improve the clinical management of this disease. In the current review paper, we discuss P. jirovecii colonization in COPD patients.

  18. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  19. Species Turnover through Time: Colonization and Extinction Dynamics across Metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Island biogeography and metacommunity theory often use equilibrium assumptions to predict local diversity, yet nonequilibrium dynamics are common in nature. In nonequilibrium communities, local diversity fluctuates through time as the relative importance of colonization and extinction change. Here, we test the prevalence and causes of nonequilibrium dynamics in metacommunities of mites associated with rubber trees distributed over large spatial (>1,000 km) and temporal (>30-60 generations) scales in Brazil. We measured colonization and extinction rates to test species turnover and nonequilibrium dynamics over a growing season. Mite metacommunities exhibited nonequilibrium dynamics for most months of the year, and these dynamics tracked climatic conditions. Monthly shifts in temperature of more than 1°C resulted in nonequilibrium dynamics, as did mean temperatures outside of two critical ranges. Nonequilibrium dynamics were caused by a change in colonization with temperature change and changes in both colonization and extinction with absolute temperature. Species turnover showed different trends; high relative humidity increased both colonization and extinction rates, increasing turnover but not nonequilibrium dynamics. Our study illustrates that testing nonequilibrium dynamics can provide new insights into the drivers of colonization, extinction, and diversity fluctuations in metacommunities.

  20. Outcome of colonic surgery in elderly patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, E; van Schaik, P M; Prins, H A; Ernst, M F; Dautzenberg, P J L; Bosscha, K

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Colonic cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and most often occurs in patients aged 65 years or older. Aim. To evaluate the outcome of colonic surgery in the elderly in our hospital and to compare five-year survival rates between the younger and elderly patients. Methods. 207 consecutive patients underwent surgery for colon cancer. Patients were separated in patients younger than 75 and older than 75 years. Results. Elderly patients presented significantly more (P younger group was 62% compared with 36% in the elderly (P younger patients compared with 32% in the elderly (P < .05). Conclusion. Curative resection of colonic carcinoma in the elderly is well tolerated and age alone should not be an indication for less aggressive therapy. However, the type and number of co-morbidities influence post-operative mortality and morbidity.

  1. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Yul [Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom.

  2. Fungal infection of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praneenararat S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its conclusions may be accessible for clinical application.Keywords: fungus, colitis, large bowel, large intestine

  3. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Yul

    1972-01-01

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom

  4. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  5. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-04-10

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo.

  6. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... obstruction secondary to an endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon, without evidence of disease elsewhere in the peritoneal cavity. Although large-bowel obstruction is usually caused by a malignant tumour, it can sometimes result from rare causes such as endometriosis. Symptoms of a cyclical nature ...

  7. Phytophthora ramorum tissue colonization studied with fluorescense microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Riedel; S. Wagner; M. Gotz; L. Belbahri; F. Lefort; S. Werres

    2009-01-01

    The proceeding worldwide spread and the expanding host spectrum of P. ramorum has become a serious threat to natural plant communities. To encounter this threat detailed knowledge about infection pathways and tissue colonization is essential. To analyze these issues, histological studies of infected tissue with epifluorescence microscopy have been...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  9. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  10. Multidetector CT of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.

    2003-01-01

    Multidetector technology, enabling faster imaging, higher spatial resolution and reduction in radiation dose, increases the role of CT in colonic diagnostic. The higher spatial resolution in the z-direction also changes the way to analyze the images. Instead of reading axial sections, now the colon can be systematically assessed in 3D by scrolling through multiplanar reconstructions or in CT colonography by virtual endoscopy. With ongoing improvements in computer-aided diagnosis CT colonography becomes an alternative to fiberoptic colonocopy for screening (http://www.multiorganscreening.org). In this article we propose a CT examination protocol for the colon, describe the typical imaging findings of different colonic diseases, and summarize the current status of CT colonography. (orig.)

  11. [Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, D; Mayo, A; Paran, H; Silverberg, R; Freund, U

    2001-08-01

    Colonic Pseudo-obstruction is a poorly understood syndrome. It was first described by Ogilvie in 1948 and is characterized by signs of large bowel obstruction with a non-mechanical etiology. The suggested cause of this pathophysiology is an imbalance in the autonomic nerve supply to the colon. The syndrome affects mainly old, bedridden patients, usually hospitalised for non-colonic causes. The actual incidence of this syndrome is unknown, mainly due to the fact that spontaneous recovery may occur. When massive abdominal distention is apparent, diagnosis and treatment are usually problematic and other causes of obstruction must be ruled out. It is usually managed by water soluble contrast administered orally or rectally, or by colonic decompression. In extreme cases surgical treatment is required with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic management with parasympathomimetic drugs has been suggested recently. We describe the successful treatment of a patient with neostigmine and review the current literature.

  12. Uptake of 3-[{sup 125}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine into colon cancer DLD-1 cells: characterization and inhibitory effect of natural amino acids and amino acid-like drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan)], E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.jp; Ogura, Masato [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Okudaira, Hiroyuki [School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakajima, Syuichi; Kotani, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakazawa, Shinya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto [Center for Medical Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Iwamura, Yukio [Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: We examined 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine ([{sup 123}I]IMT) uptake and inhibition by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs in the human DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, to discuss correlation between the inhibition effect and structure. Methods: Expression of relevant neutral amino acid transporters was examined by real-time PCR with DLD-1 cells. The time course of [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake, contributions of transport systems, concentration dependence and inhibition effects by amino acids and amino acid-like drugs (1 mM) on [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake were examined. Results: Expression of system L (4F2hc, LAT1 and LAT2), system A (ATA1, ATA2) and system ASC (ASCT1) was strongly detected; system L (LAT3, LAT4) and MCT8 were weakly detected; and B{sup 0}AT was not detected. [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involved Na{sup +}-independent system L primarily and Na{sup +}-dependent system(s). Uptake of [{sup 125}I]IMT in Na{sup +}-free buffer followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K{sub m} of 78 {mu}M and V{sub max} of 333 pmol/10{sup 6} cells per minute. Neutral D- and L-amino acids with branched or aromatic large side chains inhibited [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake. Tyrosine analogues, tryptophan analogues, L-phenylalanine and p-halogeno-L-phenylalanines, and gamma amino acids [including 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), DL-threo-{beta}-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine (DOPS), 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-L-phenylalanine and 1-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid] strongly inhibited [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake, but L-tyrosine methyl ester and R(+)/S(-)-baclofen weakly inhibited uptake. The substrates of system ASC and A did not inhibit [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake except L-serine and D/L-cysteine. Conclusions: [{sup 125}I]IMT uptake in DLD-1 cells involves mostly LAT1 and its substrates' (including amino acid-like drugs derived from tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine) affinity to transport via LAT1. Whether transport of gamma amino acid analogues is

  13. Colonic diverticulosis is not a risk factor for colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Dong, Lemei; Zippi, Maddalena; Stock, Simon; Geng, Wujun; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2018-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China. Age, gender, colonic adenomas, advanced adenomas, and distribution of diverticulosis were recorded during the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations between the prevalence of diverticulosis and age, sex, and presence of colonic adenomas and advanced adenomas. A total of 17,456 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and adenoma was 2.4% and 13.2%, respectively. With regard to distribution of diverticula, most (365/424, 86.1%) were right-sided. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that age and male gender were independent risk factors for adenoma and advanced adenoma. There was no relationship between diverticulosis or location of diverticulosis and presence of adenoma and advanced adenoma adjusting by age and gender. In a stratified analysis according to age and gender, similar results were also noted. There was no statistical relationship between diverticulosis and the risk of adenoma and advanced adenoma. Our results may not be generalized to the Western population due to the fact that left-sided diverticular cases were very small in our study.

  14. A plant taxonomic survey of the Uranium City region, Lake Athabasca north shore, emphasizing the naturally colonizing plants on uranium mine and mill wastes and other human-disturbed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, V.L.

    1982-07-01

    A goal of this study was to acquire more complete baseline data on the existing flora of the Uranium City region, both in natural and human-disturbed sites. Emphasis was given to determining which plant species were naturally revegetating various abandoned uranium mine and mill waste disposal areas, other human-disturbed sites, and ecologically analogous sites. Another goal was to document the occurrence and distribution in the study region of rare and possibly endangered species. A further objective was to suggest regionally-occurring species with potential value for revegetating uranium mine and mill waste sites. Field investigations were carried out in the Uranium City region during August, 1981. During this time 1412 plant collections were made; a total of 366 plant species - trees, shrubs, forbs, graminoids, lichens, and bryophytes were recorded. The report includes an annotated checklist of plant species of the Uranium City region and a reference index of plant taxa indicating species that have high revegetation potential

  15. Ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots correlates with dark septate endophytes but not with ericoid mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders; Wallander, Håkon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots and ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) colonization versus dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonization was examined in a dwarf shrub-dominated subarctic mire in Northern Sweden. Ergosterol content in hair roots did not correlate...... with ErM colonization in corresponding root samples. However, a significant positive relationship was found between hair root DSE hyphal colonization and ergosterol content. This is the first study to demonstrate that ergosterol cannot be used as a colonization indicator for ErM in hair roots growing...... under natural conditions. It also suggests the possibility of using ergosterol as an estimate of DSE hyphal colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs. This study has implications for the interpretation of results in field studies where ergosterol was used as a sole proxy for ErM colonization....

  16. Cinnamate of inulin as a vehicle for delivery of colonic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Molina, Dorotea; Chazarra, Soledad; How, Chee Wun; Pruidze, Nikolov; Navarro-Perán, Enma; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2015-02-01

    Colon diseases are difficult to treat because oral administrated drugs are absorbed at the stomach and intestine levels and they do not reach colon; in addition, intravenous administrated drugs are eliminated from the body before reaching colon. Inulin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide found in many plants. It consists of β 2-1 linked D-fructose molecules having a glucosyl unit at the reducing end. Various inulin and dextran hydrogels have been developed that serve as potential carrier for introduction of drugs into the colon. Because inulin is not absorbed in the stomach or in the small intestine, and inulin is degraded by colonic bacteria, drugs encapsulated in inulin-coated vesicles could be specifically liberated in the colon. Therefore, the use of inulin-coated vesicles could represent an advance for the treatment of colon diseases. Here, we study the use of a cinnamoylated derivative of chicory inulin as a vehicle for the controlled delivery of colonic drugs. The encapsulation of methotrexate in inulin vesicles and its release and activity was studied in colon cancer cells in cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Colonic volvulus. Etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I T; Fazio, V W

    1989-01-01

    Colonic volvulus accounts for 1-7% of cases of large bowel obstruction in the United States and Western Europe. It is, however, a much commoner condition in parts of Africa, South Asia and South America. Volvulus is thought to be an idiopathic condition, probably with an anatomical basis, particularly in cecal volvulus. Some cases are, however, secondary to a known condition such as Chagas' disease. The sigmoid colon is involved in 65-80% of cases and the right colon in 15-30%. Transverse colon and splenic flexure volvulus are rare. Emergency surgery has in the past been associated with a high mortality. Nonoperative, tube decompression of sigmoid volvulus has been the single most important advance in the management of the condition--this has allowed surgery to be deferred to an elective schedule and performed on a fitter patient with a prepared bowel. Emergency surgery is still required for a minority of patients--those in whom tube decompression is unsuccessful; in those with signs of gangrenous bowel and patients with volvulus proximal to the sigmoid. When the bowel is not viable, resection is mandatory. In patients with a viable colon, there are several options. Sigmoid resection and colostomy for sigmoid volvulus and detorsion, cecopexy and tube cecostomy as a combined procedure for cecal volvulus are the usually recommended procedures.

  18. Colonic food: pre- and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengmark, S

    2000-01-01

    The colonic mucosa is unable to nourish itself from the blood. Instead, its nutritive demand must be met from the lumen, where different nutrients, short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, polyamines, growth factors, vitamins, and antioxidants are produced by a nonpathogenic (commensal, so-called "protective" probiotic) flora. The substrates for the production of nutrients are usually referred to as prebiotics, which consist mainly of ingested fibers and complex proteins (colonic food), but may also include necrotic mucosal cells, mucus, gastrointestinal (GI) secretions, and bacteria (as well as yeasts broken down by the bacteria). A characteristic common to all foods destined for the colon--colonic foods-is that no enzymes in the small intestine are capable of breaking them down. It is recommended that a minimum of 10% of ingested calories and about 20% of the food volume should be colonic food. The probiotic flora is today often found deficient, especially in industrialized nations. Studies have shown that Lactobacillus plantarum can preserve key nutrients, vitamins, and antioxidants; eliminate toxic components from food; protect food from decay; and eradicate pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, and enterococci from fermented food. In addition, it has demonstrated effectiveness over other bacteria in the metabolism of semiresistant oligofructans. L. plantarum-fermented oat given to healthy volunteers significantly reduces the gut content of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs).

  19. Fluorescent particle tracers in surface hydrology: a proof of concept in a semi-natural hillslope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tauro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proof of concept experiment is conducted to assess the feasibility of tracing overland flow on an experimental hillslope plot via a novel fluorescent particle tracer. Experiments are performed by using beads of diameters ranging from 75 to 1180 μm. Particles are sensed through an experimental apparatus comprising a light source and a video acquisition unit. Runoff on the experimental plot is artificially simulated by using a custom-built rainfall system. Particle transits are detected through supervised methodologies requiring the presence of operators and unsupervised procedures based on image analysis techniques. Average flow velocity estimations are executed based on travel time measurements of the particles as they are dragged by the overland flow on the hillslope. Velocities are compared to flow measurements obtained using rhodamine dye. Experimental findings demonstrate the potential of the methodology for understanding overland flow dynamics in complex natural settings. In addition, insights on the optimization of particle size are presented based on the visibility of the beads and their accuracy in flow tracing.

  20. Sentinel node in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, B.; Crosta, C.; Chiappa, A.; Bianchi, P. P.; Sonzogni, A.; Misitano, P.; Corbellini, C.; Veronesi, U.; Andreoni, B.; Chiappa, A.; Misitano, P.; Corbellini, C.; Senore, C.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment after 'complete' endoscopic polypectomy of a malignant polyp varies. The patient may undergo colon resection and lymphadenectomy with no evidence of disease at the final diagnosis (overtreatment?) or be offered the possibility of endoscopic surveillance only with a diagnosis of disease persistence after some time, which entails an apparent therapeutic 'delay' (undertreatment?). The choice between surgical radicalization and endoscopic follow-up after complete polypectomy of a malignant polyp is not based on scientifically-validated clinico-pathological proofs. The aim of this paper is to present the outlines of two studies: one on the choice between intensive surveillance or surgery after complete polypectomy of a malignant colorectal polyp (SEC=GISCoR) and one on the predictive value of sentinel node in staging early colorectal cancer. Should the studies prove the good predictive value of sentinel nodes in colon cancer and a satisfactory reproducibility of the technique, new management perspectives would open for patients with colon cancer. (authors)

  1. Early colonization on artificial seagrass units and on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pête, D.C.; Lepoint, G.; Bouquegneau, J.-M.; Gobert, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many epiphytes grow on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves but early stages of that colonization are not well known. To study this early colonization without destroying the plant, Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) were utilised. The first nine days of colonization by macroscopic eukaryotic organisms on natural P. oceanica leaves and on ASUs were studied. The capability of those ASUs to mimic P. oceanica in the long term was also evaluated. Indeed, early colonists of a substrate can influence...

  2. The Economics of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangio, Guy R

    2018-04-01

    The economic burden of cancer on the national health expenditure is billions of dollars. The economic cost is measured on direct and indirect medical costs, which vary depending on stage at diagnosis, patient age, type of medical services, and site of service. Costs vary by region, physician behavior, and patient preferences. When analyzing the economic burden of survivors of colon cancer, we cannot forget the societal burden. Post-acute care and readmissions are major economic burdens. People with colon cancer have to be followed for their lifetime. Economic models are being studied to give cost-effective solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  4. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  5. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The stomach is the most common site formucosa - associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphoma (MALToma). MALToma of the colon is a rare occurrence. It is on this background that we report this case. Methods The case records a patient with a MALT lymphoma and a review of the literature on the subject ...

  6. Segmentation and segment connection of obstructed colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Mario; Truyen, Roel; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-05-01

    Segmentation of colon CT images is the main factor that inhibits automation of virtual colonoscopy. There are two main reasons that make efficient colon segmentation difficult. First, besides the colon, the small bowel, lungs, and stomach are also gas-filled organs in the abdomen. Second, peristalsis or residual feces often obstruct the colon, so that it consists of multiple gas-filled segments. In virtual colonoscopy, it is very useful to automatically connect the centerlines of these segments into a single colon centerline. Unfortunately, in some cases this is a difficult task. In this study a novel method for automated colon segmentation and connection of colon segments' centerlines is proposed. The method successfully combines features of segments, such as centerline and thickness, with information on main colon segments. The results on twenty colon cases show that the method performs well in cases of small obstructions of the colon. Larger obstructions are mostly also resolved properly, especially if they do not appear in the sigmoid part of the colon. Obstructions in the sigmoid part of the colon sometimes cause improper classification of the small bowel segments. If a segment is too small, it is classified as the small bowel segment. However, such misclassifications have little impact on colon analysis.

  7. Recording In Vivo Human Colonic Motility: What Have We Learnt Over the Past 100 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinning, Phil G

    To understand the abnormalities that underpin functional gut disorders we must first gain insight into the normal patterns of gut motility. While detailed information continually builds on the motor patterns (and mechanisms that control them) of the human esophagus and anorectum, our knowledge of normal and abnormal motility in the more inaccessible regions of the gut remains poor. This particularly true of the human colon. Investigation of in vivo colonic motor patterns is achieved through measures of transit (radiology, scintigraphy and, more recently, "smart pills") or by direct real-time recording of colonic contractility (intraluminal manometry). This short review will provide an overview of findings from the past and present and attempt to piece together the complex nature of colonic motor patterns. In doing so it will build a profile of human colonic motility and determine the likely mechanisms that control this motility.

  8. Serologic responses to somatic O and colonization-factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, T R; Evans, D J; Evans, D G; DuPont, H L

    1979-07-01

    To improve the retrospective diagnoses of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as a cause of travelers' diarrhea, as well as to determine the presence of colonization-factor antigens in these infections, a study of serologic responses to antigens of ETEC was done. Paired sera from 60 United States students in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, were analyzed for rises in titer of antibody to heat-labile toxin, eight somatic antigen O serogroups associated with ETEC, and two colonization-factor antigens, CFA/I and CFA/II. Only 9% had a response to O antigens, while 20% had responses to the colonization-factor antigens. Response to the colonization-factor antigens correlated significantly with response to the heat-labile toxin and with culture evidence of ETEC infection. Serologic studies confirmed that colonization-factor antigen has a role in naturally acquired cases of travelers' diarrhea and that it can be used as an additional determinant of infection with ETEC.

  9. Colonic dysfunction during cholera infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Butler, T.; Kabir, I.; Ali, A.; Banwell, J.

    1986-01-01

    To study the function of the colon in cholera, 12 patients with acute cholera diarrhea were subjected to measurements of ileocecal flow rates, fecal flow rates, and ionic compositions of stool and ileocecal fluid. Subtraction of fecal flow rates from ileocecal flow rates was taken as a measure of

  10. The colon in carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, K; Clausen, M R; Hove, H

    1992-01-01

    Short-chain (C2-C6) fatty acids (SCFA) are the major anions in colonic contents and the result of anaerobic fermentation of mainly saccharides. The effects and regulation of saccharide fermentation were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro faecal incubation was used to study the effects of lact...

  11. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beese, M.; Heller, M.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological correlate to the pseudo-obstruction of the colon is not specific, but it does supply a pointer to the disease of it shows dilation of the caecum, colon ascendens and colon transversum with air-pockets and reflected imaging as well as a usually not dilated colon descendens with remarkably little air. To make the diagnosis quite sure we must exclude intestinal obstruction by using X-ray contrast media or by coloscopy. (orig./GDG) [de

  12. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  13. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  14. A child with colo-colonic intussusception due to a large colonic polyp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colo-colonic intussusception (CI) due to a colonic polyp is a rarely reported cause of intestinal obstruction in school-aged children. Hydrostatic ... We report a case of CI and review the literature, focusing on the diagnosis and treatment. Key words: Children, colo-colonic intussusception, colonic polyp, intestinal obstruction ...

  15. Colonization of peripheral intravascular catheters with biofilm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biofilms often colonize catheters and contribute to catheter-related septicemia. However, predictors of catheter colonization by biofilms remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical factors that may be associated with biofilm colonization of catheters. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 ...

  16. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  17. The Association of Anisakiasis in the Ascending Colon with Sigmoid Colon Cancer: CT Colonography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Min A; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2008-01-01

    The association of anisakiasis of the colon with colon cancer is rare and difficult to diagnose. Only one case of this type has been reported to date. In this study, we report a case of synchronous colon cancer and colonic anisakiasis. A 50- year-old woman was admitted for abdominal pain, and a volume-rendered surface- shaded image of CT colonography (CTC) revealed a concentric narrowing in the sigmoid colon and a segmental fold thickening in the ascending colon. A total colectomy was performed and the diagnosis of synchronous sigmoid colon cancer and anisakiasis of the ascending colon was confirmed. This case is the first reported visualization of synchronous colon cancer and colonic anisakiasis on a CTC

  18. Colonization of America by Drosophila subobscura: association between Odh gene haplotypes, lethal genes and chromosomal arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Francesc; Abad, Laura; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Latorre, Amparo; Serra, Luís

    2004-08-01

    The colonization of America by Drosophila subobscura has been a unique exper iment in nature that has allowed us to explore the effects of evolution on a continental scale. To analyze this evolutionary event, nucleotide sequences of the Odh (Octanol dehydrogenase) gene were obtained for 43 lethal chromosomal lines from colonizing populations of North America and 5 from South America, in addition to 5 chromosomal lines from Europe with different viabilities and 2 from laboratory marker stocks. Since 10 different Odh haplotypes were found in America, the minimum number of colonizers would be 5 (or 3 mated females). Only one Odh haplotype was found in American O(5) inversions confirming that only one copy of this inversion was included among the sample of colonizers. The same Odh haplotypes were detected in association with the same chromosomal arrangements and with identical lethal genes in both North and South America indicating that exactly the same chromosome types reached both hemispheres. These observations indicate that the two continental colonizations are not independent. They are derived from the same colonization event. The population from which the colonization started should contain the O(5) inversion, a non-negligible frequency of the O(3+4+7) arrangement and all other arrangements found in America. So far the only populations that fulfill all these requirements are those from Greece, indicating that these populations can be considered good candidates as a starting point for an in depth analysis of the origin of the American colonization by D. subobscura.

  19. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Lee, Yen-Lin; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Lee, Jenq-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. The study is limited by its retrospective nature. This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  20. Diverticulosis del colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Salazar Sánchez

    1949-07-01

    Full Text Available Historia Clínica. L. M. C. natural de Suaita, de 36 años de edad, comerciante de profesión, consulta por dolores abdominales y fenómenos dispépticos; narra entre sus antecedentes el haber sufrido durante 20 años de una litiasis biliar, cuyas manifestaciones cedieron al serle practicada la colecistectomía hace 6 años: fue apendicitomizaclo hace 10 años: los demás antecedentes carecen de importancia. Desde hace tres años presenta marcada anorexia, cólicos iguales él los que se presentaban antes de ser operado, vómitos, estados ictéricos pasajeros, agrieras y marcada costipación. Se trata de un enfermo brevilíneo, obeso, cuyo examen clínico revela la presencia de un marcado meteorismo abdominal, sin que haya puntos dolorosos, tumefacciones, vísceras palpables ni ninguna otra anomalía. Dados sus antecedentes quirúrgicos, se hace el diagnóstico de colangitis crónica, instituyéndose en consecuencia un régimen dietético adecuado y la terapéutica médica correspondiente (colagogos, desinfectantes biliares, metionina, colina, etc al mismo tiempo que se ordena un examen coprológico y uno radiológico de vías divestivas y biliares.

  1. Effects of vitamin E from supplements and diet on colonic α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in persons at increased colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Brenner, Dean E; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.

  2. Intramural diverticulitis of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahremani, G.G.; Gore, R.M.; White, E.M.; Christ, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The early stage of diverticulosis is manifested by 2-3-mm mucosal outpouchings that are entirely within the muscular layers and do not project beyond the colonic wall. Nevertheless, these intramurally located diverticula may be the site of inflammation, producing submucosal pseudotumors that could pose a formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The authors present 14 cases of intramural diverticulitis seen at the Evanston Hospital-McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, during a recent 6-year period. The series included nine men and five women who ranged in age from 34 to 60 years. Eight patients were treated with antibiotics following demonstration of the lesion by barium enema, colonoscopy, or CT of the abdomen. Six other patients underwent segmental colectomy, and the preoperative radiographic findings could be correlated with the histopathologic features of the resected specimen. On the basis of these observations, they describe the pathogenesis of colonic intramural diverticulitis and the criteria for its radiologic diagnosis

  3. The fate of seeds in the soil: a review of the influence of overland flow on seed removal and its consequences for the vegetation of arid and semiarid patchy ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, E.

    2015-01-01

    Since seeds are the principle means by which plants move across the landscape, the final fate of seeds plays a fundamental role in the assemblage, functioning and dynamics of plant communities. Once seeds land on the soil surface after being dispersed from the parent plant, they can be moved horizontally by surface runoff. In arid and semiarid patchy ecosystems, where seeds are scattered into a very heterogeneous environment and intense rainfalls occur, the transport of seeds by runoff to new sites may be an opportunity for seeds to reach more favourable sites for seed germination and seedling survival. Although seed transport by runoff may be of vital importance for the recruitment of plants in these ecosystems, it has received little attention in the scientific literature, especially among soil scientists. The main goals of this review paper are (1) to offer an updated conceptual model of seed fate with a focus on seed destiny in and on the soil; (2) to review studies on seed fate in overland flow and the ecological implications seed transport by runoff has for the origin, spatial patterning and maintenance of patches in arid and semiarid patchy ecosystems; and finally (3) to point out directions for future research. This review shows that seed fate in overland flow may result either in the export of seeds from the system (seed loss) or in the spatial redistribution of seeds within the system through short-distance seed movements (seed displacement). Seed transport by runoff depends on rainfall, slope and soil characteristics. Susceptibility of seed removal varies highly between species and is mainly related to seed traits, including seed size, seed shape, presence of appendages, and ability of a seed to secrete mucilage. Although initially considered as a risk of seed loss, seed removal by runoff has recently been described as an ecological driver that shapes plant composition from the first phases of the plant life by favouring species with seeds able to resist

  4. Laboratory colonization of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpis, Milan; Gerberg, Eugene J.

    1973-01-01

    Toxorhynchites brevipalpis, a predator on larvae of Aedes aegypti and other mosquitos, was successfully colonized in the laboratory. At 25°C, embryonic development was completed within 50 hours of oviposition, while larval and pupal development together took a further 27-41 days. The adult mosquitos mated in cages as small as 15×15×15 cm, and the embryonated eggs were obtained 6-31 days after the adults emerged. PMID:4149530

  5. Laboratory colonization of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpis, M; Gerberg, E J

    1973-05-01

    Toxorhynchites brevipalpis, a predator on larvae of Aedes aegypti and other mosquitos, was successfully colonized in the laboratory. At 25 degrees C, embryonic development was completed within 50 hours of oviposition, while larval and pupal development together took a further 27-41 days. The adult mosquitos mated in cages as small as 15x15x15 cm, and the embryonated eggs were obtained 6-31 days after the adults emerged.

  6. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  7. Colon carcinoma in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, G; Lantsberg, L; Arish, A; Levi, I; Hoda, J

    1997-07-01

    Carcinoma of the colon in the adolescent, although an uncommon disease, is usually virulent and has a poorer prognosis than in older patients. We report three cases of colon cancer in youngsters less than 19 years old. Two of them, who were diagnosed and treated early, are presently considered cured; the third died 3 months after surgery. All underwent surgery and adjuvant therapy. In an extensive review of the literature, we found a consensus as to the rarity, virulence and poor prognosis of colon cancer in the younger population. The commonest histological pattern is an aggressive, mucin-producing adenocarcinoma. Predisposing conditions include familial polyposis coli and ulcerative colitis. We also found that a low socioeconomic status could be a predisposing factor. Survival obviously depends on the extent of the disease at diagnosis, and the shorter the delay in diagnosis, the better the prognosis. The therapeutic approach must be aggresive in both surgery and adjuvant therapy; the goal must be early diagnosis, the reward being a possibility of cure, as seen in two of our three cases.

  8. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  9. The use of flagella and motility for plant colonization and fitness by different strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and contaminated produce is an avenue for infection. Previous studies have documented the ability of this organism to attach to and colonize plant tissue. Motility mutants were generated in three wild type strains of L. monocytogenes by deleting either flaA, the gene encoding flagellin, or motAB, genes encoding part of the flagellar motor, and tested for both the ability to colonize sprouts and for the fitness of that colonization. The motAB mutants were not affected in the colonization of alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts; however, some of the flaA mutants showed reduced colonization ability. The best colonizing wild type strain was reduced in colonization on all three sprout types as a result of a flaA deletion. A mutant in another background was only affected on alfalfa. The third, a poor alfalfa colonizer was not affected in colonization ability by any of the deletions. Fitness of colonization was measured in experiments of competition between mixtures of mutant and parent strains on sprouts. Here the flaA and motAB mutants of the three strain backgrounds were impaired in fitness of colonization of alfalfa and radish sprouts, and one strain background showed reduced fitness of both mutant types on broccoli sprouts. Together these data indicate a role for flagella for some strains to physically colonize some plants, while the fitness of that colonization is positively affected by motility in almost all cases.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Eschen, René; Gange, Alan C.; Finch, Paul; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF colonization levels of individual ragwort ( Senecio jacobaea) plants growing in grassland plots that were originally sown with 15 or 4 plant species, or were unsown. We measured the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and assessed the presence of aboveground insect herbivores on the sampled plants. Total AMF colonization and colonization by arbuscules was lower in plots sown with 15 species than in plots sown with 4 species and unsown plots. AMF colonization was positively related to the cover of oxeye daisy ( Leucanthemum vulgare) and a positive relationship between colonization by arbuscules and the occurrence of a specialist seed-feeding fly ( Pegohylemyia seneciella) was found. The occurrence of stem-boring, leaf-mining and sap-sucking insects was not affected by AMF colonization. Total PA concentrations were negatively related to colonization levels by vesicles, but did not differ among the sowing treatments. No single factor explained the observed differences in AMF colonization among the sowing treatments or insect herbivore occurrence on S. jacobaea. However, correlations across the treatments suggest that some of the variation was due to the abundance of one plant species, which is known to stimulate AMF colonization of neighbouring plants, while AMF colonization was related to the occurrence of a specialist insect herbivore. Our results thus illustrate that in natural systems, the ecosystem impact of AMF through their influence on the occurrence of specialist insects can be recognised, but they also highlight the confounding effect of neighbouring plant species identity. Hence, our results emphasise the importance of field

  11. Problems in the Surgical Management of Crohn's Disease of the Colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in the natural history of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease which influence the choice and type of surgical treatment are discussed. The progressive nature of Crohn's disease is stressed. Drugs employed in the medical management of the disease are described with particular attention being drawn to ...

  12. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Chemopreventive effects of nobiletin and its colonic metabolites on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Wang, Minqi; Zheng, Jinkai; Gao, Zili; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Guodong; Xiao, Hang

    2015-12-01

    Nobiletin (NBT) is a major citrus flavonoid with various health benefits. Herein, we investigated the colon cancer chemopreventive effects of NBT and its colonic metabolites in a colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis mouse model as well as in human colon cancer cell models. In azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium treated mice, oral administration of NBT effectively decreased both incidence and multiplicity of colonic tumors. NBT showed significant antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse colon. HPLC analysis revealed that oral administration of NBT resulted in high levels of metabolites, i.e. 3'-demethylnobiletin (M1), 4'-demethylnobiletin (M2), and 3',4'-didemethylnobiletin (M3) in the colonic mucosa. In contrast, the colonic level of NBT was about 20-fold lower than the total colonic level of three metabolites. Cell culture studies demonstrated that the colonic metabolites of NBT significantly inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells, caused cell-cycle arrest, induced apoptosis, and profoundly modulated signaling proteins related with cell proliferation and cell death. All of these effects were much stronger than those produced by NBT alone. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of NBT significantly inhibited colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice, and this chemopreventive effect was strongly associated with its colonic metabolites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent changes of colonic diverticulosis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Kwan Seh; Choi, Sun Seob; Song, In Sup

    1984-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis in Korea was considered as a rare disease, but recently increasing tendency of colonic diverticulosis were reported, and right side preponderance was also noted compared with left side preponderance of western country. Authors reviewed 818 cases of colon study performed from Jan. 1st 1982 to May 31th, 1984 at the Department of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital. The results were as follows. 1. Diverticuli of colon were observed in 45 cases (5.5%) out of 818 colon study. 2. Male is more frequently affected (32 out of 441, 7.2%) than female (13 out of 377, 3.5%). 3. 5th decade is the predilection age group but occurrence in younger age group is increasing. 4. Diverticulosis may occur single or multiple with variable size in entire colon except rectum but right side preponderance is remarkable. 5. Complication were observed in 6 cases (13.3%).

  15. Recent changes of colonic diverticulosis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Kwan Seh; Choi, Sun Seob; Song, In Sup [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Colonic diverticulosis in Korea was considered as a rare disease, but recently increasing tendency of colonic diverticulosis were reported, and right side preponderance was also noted compared with left side preponderance of western country. Authors reviewed 818 cases of colon study performed from Jan. 1st 1982 to May 31th, 1984 at the Department of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital. The results were as follows. 1. Diverticuli of colon were observed in 45 cases (5.5%) out of 818 colon study. 2. Male is more frequently affected (32 out of 441, 7.2%) than female (13 out of 377, 3.5%). 3. 5th decade is the predilection age group but occurrence in younger age group is increasing. 4. Diverticulosis may occur single or multiple with variable size in entire colon except rectum but right side preponderance is remarkable. 5. Complication were observed in 6 cases (13.3%)

  16. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  17. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  18. Peculiarities of radiodiagnosis of minor colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushnikova, V.N.; Arablinskij, V.M.; Strekalovskij, V.P.; Markova, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of a multimodality study of 40 patients with minor (under 3 cm) colonic cancer the authors described in detail a method of its detection and classified its X-ray symptoms with relation to the tumor type and the degree of colon wall invasion. They showed the difficulty of radiodiagnosis of minor colonic cancer and its possibility in combination with endoscopic and morphological studies. For a better detection of the X-ray signs of minor colonic cancer one should successively use a number of methods including a polypositional study, pharmacological tests, spot roentgenography of the suspect parts of the colon using tight and semitight filling with barium meal and double contrast examination. The X-ray appearance of colonic cancer does not depend on its size: the smaller tumor size the less noticeable X-ray signs not only of malignancy but also of the tumor itself

  19. [Determination of bile acids in stools of patients with colonic neoplasms and adenomatous polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua Estévez, M; Roque Lozano, J; Cerdán Cordoví, A; Rodríguez Miranda, A

    1994-01-01

    Since several years ago, the biliar acids have been incriminated in the etiopathogeny of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps, above all the secondary ones, involved by its aggressive action over the colonic epithelium in these mechanisms. The dietetical habits of developed countries have the high responsibility for this situation, their food pattern being a high animal fat diet, high in refined carbohydrates, animal proteins and low in dietetic fiber (diet type "occidental") unlike to developing countries that have a high natural fiber diet, having a much lower incidence in colon cancer and adenomatous polyps. Dietetic fiber has been studied considering it with a protector effect over the aggressive action of biliar acids on the colon mucous. We have studied 60 patients, 20 of them with colon cancer, 20 with adenomatous and 20 case controls without colonic pathology. All of them had total high biliar acids in stools, a dietetical screening was carried out to determine the intake of animal fat and dietetic fibre during a week. There was a significant correlation in cases of cancer, polyps and biliar acids high in stools. There was also a significant correlation between the undue dietetic habits in colon cancer patients and high bilar acids. In those cases of adenomatous polyps, there was not a significant relation to dietetic habits.

  20. Volvulus of the sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, V; Madiba, T E; Atamanalp, S S; De, U

    2010-07-01

    The current status of sigmoid volvulus (SV) was reviewed to assess trends in management and to assess the literature. The literature on SV was retrieved using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Pakmedinet, African Journals online (AJOL), Indmed and Google scholar. These databases were searched for text words including 'sigmoid', 'colon' and 'volvulus'. Relevant nonindexed surgical journals published from endemic countries were also manually searched. We focused on original articles published within the last 10 years; but classical references prior to this period were also included. Seminal papers published in non-English languages were also included. Sigmoid volvulus is a leading cause of acute colonic obstruction in South America, Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. It is rare in developed countries such as USA, UK, Japan and Australia. Characteristic geographic variations in the incidence, clinical features, prognosis and comorbidity of SV justify recognition of endemic and sporadic subtypes. Controversy on aetiologic agents can be minimized by classifying them into 'predisposing' and 'precipitating' factors. Modern imaging systems, although more effective than plain radiographs, are yet to gain popularity. Emergency endoscopic reduction is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated patients. But it is only a temporizing procedure, and it should be followed in most cases by elective definitive surgery. Resection of the redundant sigmoid colon is the gold standard operation. The role of newer nonresective alternatives is yet to be ascertained. Although emergency resection with primary anastomosis (ERPA) has been controversial in the past, it is now increasingly accepted as a safe option with superior results. Management in elderly debilitated patients is extremely difficult. Paediatric SV significantly differs from that in adults. SV is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, diabetes mellitus and Chagas disease. The overall mortality in recent studies is < 5

  1. Electrosprayed inulin microparticles for microbiota triggered targeting of colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arvind K; Sood, Vishesh; Bora, Meghali; Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2014-11-04

    Inulin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, was acetylated to make it processable by electrospraying, a facile and single step method for microparticle fabrication. Electrospraying process parameters were optimized for fabrication of spherical and monodisperse indomethacin (IDM) loaded inulin acetate (INA) microparticles. The apparent entrapment efficiency of IDM was determined to be 100%, whereas working encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 35.39 ± 1.63%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed molecular dispersion of IDM in an amorphous state within the INA matrix. Finally, the results from in vitro release study performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids demonstrated that IDM was released only in simulated colonic fluid that contained inulinase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acetylation of inulin does not alter its susceptibility to inulinase and that microparticles fabricated from INA can be developed as a colon targeting drug delivery system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  3. Colonic diseases: The value of US examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerweger, Alois

    2007-01-01

    The colon is affected by a number of diseases, mainly inflammatory, ischemic, and neoplastic conditions. Depending upon clinical indications endoscopy, US, CT, or other radiological methods are used for evaluation. The fact that US is frequently used as the initial imaging method in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms allows for greater influence in further diagnostic evaluation and with treatment, provided the investigator is familiar with the features of different intestinal diseases. This article will describe the anatomical characteristics of the colon, the US technique for examination of the colon, and the typical US features of the more common diagnoses of the colon

  4. Colon capsule endoscopy: toward the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; Tanaka, Kumiko; Teramae, Satoshi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-02-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy is a wireless and minimally invasive technique for visualization of the whole colon. With recent improvements of technical features in second-generation systems, a more important role for colon capsule endoscopy is rapidly emerging. Although several limitations and drawbacks are yet to be resolved, its usefulness as a tool for colorectal cancer screening and monitoring disease activity in inflammatory bowel diseases has become more apparent with increased use. Further investigations, including multicenter trials, are required to evaluate the substantial role of the colon capsule in managing colorectal diseases.

  5. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  6. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  7. Neuromechanical factors involved in the formation and propulsion of fecal pellets in the guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Wiklendt, L; Simpson, P; Spencer, N J; Brookes, S J; Dinning, P G

    2015-10-01

    The neuromechanical processes involved in the formation and propulsion of fecal pellets remain incompletely understood. We analyzed motor patterns in isolated segments of the guinea-pig proximal and distal colon, using video imaging, during oral infusion of liquid, viscous material, or solid pellets. Colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) in the proximal colon divided liquid or natural semisolid contents into elongated shallow boluses. At the colonic flexure these boluses were formed into shorter, pellet-shaped boluses. In the non-distended distal colon, spontaneous CMMCs produced small dilations. Both high- and low-viscosity infusions evoked a distinct motor pattern that produced pellet-shaped boluses. These were propelled at speeds proportional to their surface area. Solid pellets were propelled at a speed that increased with diameter, to a maximum that matched the diameter of natural pellets. Pellet speed was reduced by increasing resistive load. Tetrodotoxin blocked all propulsion. Hexamethonium blocked normal motor patterns, leaving irregular propagating contractions, indicating the existence of neural pathways that did not require nicotinic transmission. Colonic migrating motor complexes are responsible for the slow propulsion of the soft fecal content in the proximal colon, while the formation of pellets at the colonic flexure involves a content-dependent mechanism in combination with content-independent spontaneous CMMCs. Bolus size and consistency affects propulsion speed suggesting that propulsion is not a simple reflex but rather a more complex process involving an adaptable neuromechanical loop. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Familial and idiopathic colonic varices: an unusual cause of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, J P; Ridings, P; McGinn, F P; Arthur, M J

    1992-09-01

    A patient is described presenting with an acute lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage as a result of extensive colonic varices. Further investigation revealed that there were no oesophageal varices or splenomegaly. Liver biopsy showed grade II fatty change only, with no other specific or significant pathological features. Transhepatic portography showed a raised portal pressure (20 mm/Hg) but the portal system was patent throughout. There was an abnormal leash of vessels in the caecum thought to represent a variceal plexus. This patient was diagnosed as having idiopathic colonic varices. This case is discussed together with nine other reports of idiopathic colonic varices from the published literature. Four of these reports describe idiopathic colonic varices in more than one member of the same family. Possible modes of inheritance, aetiology of variceal change, natural history, and prognosis are discussed.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal subjects and patients with colonic carcinoma 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Martin S.; Turner, Michael D.

    1972-01-01

    Sera from 14 normal subjects and 43 patients with colonic carcinoma were evaluated for the presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Inhibiting material which behaved in the assay in a similar manner to CEA was found in normal serum at concentrations below 2·8 ng/ml. Its nature has not so far been established. Thirty-eight of the 43 patients with colonic carcinoma showed levels of serum CEA in excess of 2·8 ng/ml. The concentration of CEA in serum was correlated with the extent of the disease as classified by a staging procedure similar to that of Dukes (1932). Examination of a small number of specimens of colonic carcinoma and normal colonic mucosa suggested that the concentration of CEA in different adenocarcinomata may vary, and that traces of cross-reacting material may be found in some normal mucosae. PMID:4338549

  10. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert H M; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  11. Peristalsis and propulsion of colonic content can occur after blockade of major neuroneuronal and neuromuscular transmitters in isolated guinea pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, T C; Brookes, S J; Dinning, P G; Wattchow, D A; Spencer, N J

    2013-12-01

    We recently identified hexamethonium-resistant peristalsis in the guinea pig colon. We showed that, following acute blockade of nicotinic receptors, peristalsis recovers, leading to normal propagation velocities of fecal pellets along the colon. This raises the fundamental question: what mechanisms underlie hexamethonium-resistant peristalsis? We investigated whether blockade of the major receptors that underlie excitatory neuromuscular transmission is required for hexamethonium-resistant peristalsis. Video imaging of colonic wall movements was used to make spatiotemporal maps and determine the velocity of peristalsis. Propagation of artificial fecal pellets in the guinea pig distal colon was studied in hexamethonium, atropine, ω-conotoxin (GVIA), ibodutant (MEN-15596), and TTX. Hexamethonium and ibodutant alone did not retard peristalsis. In contrast, ω-conotoxin abolished peristalsis in some preparations and reduced the velocity of propagation in all remaining specimens. Peristalsis could still occur in some animals in the presence of hexamethonium + atropine + ibodutant + ω-conotoxin. Peristalsis never occurred in the presence of TTX. The major finding of the current study is the unexpected observation that peristalsis can occur after blockade of the major excitatory neuroneuronal and neuromuscular transmitters. Also, the colon retained an intrinsic polarity in the presence of these antagonists and was only able to expel pellets in an aboral direction. The nature of the mechanism(s)/neurotransmitter(s) that generate(s) peristalsis and facilitate(s) natural fecal pellet propulsion, after blockade of major excitatory neurotransmitters, at the neuroneuronal and neuromuscular junction remains to be identified.

  12. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative molecular analyses of left-sided colon, right-sided colon, and rectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed E; Weinberg, Benjamin A; Xiu, Joanne; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Hwang, Jimmy J; Gatalica, Zoran; Philip, Philip A; Shields, Anthony F; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Marshall, John L

    2017-10-17

    Tumor sidedness has emerged as an important prognostic and predictive factor in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that patients with advanced right-sided colon cancers have a worse prognosis than those with left-sided colon or rectal cancers, and these patient subgroups respond differently to biological therapies. Historically, management of patients with metastatic colon and rectal cancers has been similar, and colon and rectal cancer patients have been grouped together in large clinical trials. Clearly, the differences in molecular biology among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal cancers should be further studied in order to account for disparities in clinical outcomes. We profiled 10,570 colorectal tumors (of which 2,413 were identified as arising from the left colon, right colon, or rectum) using next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in-situ hybridization, and fragment analysis (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ). Right-sided colon cancers had higher rates of microsatellite instability, more frequent aberrant activation of the EGFR pathway including higher BRAF and PIK3CA mutation rates, and increased mutational burden compared to left-sided colon and rectal cancers. Rectal cancers had higher rates of TOPO1 expression and Her2/neu amplification compared to both left- and right-sided colon cancers. Molecular variations among right-sided colon, left-sided colon, and rectal tumors may contribute to differences in clinical behavior. The site of tumor origin (left colon, right colon, or rectum) should certainly be considered when selecting treatment regimens and stratifying patients for future clinical trials.

  14. Primary lymphoma of the colon Linfoma primario de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pascual

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: primary colorectal lymphoma is a very rare disease, representing less than 0.5 % of all primary colorectal neoplasms. The gastrointestinal tract is the most frequently involved site of all extranodal lymphomas, the most common type of that is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of unspecific symptoms. Therapeutic approaches have classically included radical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Materials and methods: we present our experience in the management of primary colorectal lymphomas over a 17-year period (1994-20011. Results: in this period 7 cases of primary colorectal lymphoma were diagnosed in our institution. Abdominal pain and change in bowel habit were the most frequent symptoms. Five patients underwent emergency surgery because of bleeding or bowel obstruction. All primary intestinal lymphomas studied were of the B-cell phenotype. Patients were followed up for a median of 59 months (range 1-180. Three of them are alive with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: combination treatment with chemotherapy and surgery can obtain good remission rate. Surgery can resolve complications such bleeding or intestinal perforation that are implicated in lymphoma mortality.Introducción: el linfoma primario de colon y recto es una patología poco prevalente, representa tan solo el 0,5 % de todas las neoplasias primarias de colon y recto. El tracto gastrointestinal es el lugar donde asientan la gran mayoría de los linfomas extranodales, siendo el más frecuente el tipo linfoma no-Hodking. El diagnóstico precoz es siempre difícil debido a que la sintomatología es muy poco específica. Los algoritmos terapéuticos han incluido clásicamente la resección radical, el tratamiento con quimioterapia y con radioterapia. Materiales y métodos: presentamos nuestra experiencia en el manejo de los linfomas primarios de colon en un periodo de 17 años (1994-2011. Resultados: en dicho periodo en nuestro

  15. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis | Olokoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This is to describe a case of colonic diverticulosis causing massive rectal bleeding in an elderly Nigerian man. Case report: We highlight a case of a 79 year old man who presented with massive rectal bleeding due to colonic diverticulosis from our centre. Colonoscopy identified multiple diverticula in the ...

  16. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  17. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J.; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X.; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J.; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B.; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W.; Obeid, Lina M.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.—García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. PMID:27609772

  18. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.S.; Satchidanand, S.; Wesp, E.H.; State Univ. of New York, Buffalo

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Teitelbaum, Daniel H. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  1. Mycelial colonization by bradyrhizobia and azorhizobia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study examines mycelial colonization of common soil fungi by bradyrhizobia and an azorhizobial strain, resulting in the forming of biofilms. The effects of the fungal exudates on a bradyrhizobial strain have also been investigated. Bradyrhizobia gradually colonized the mycelia for about 18 days, after which the biofilm ...

  2. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  3. Colon Cleansing: Is It Helpful or Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because your digestive system and bowel already eliminate waste material and bacteria from your body. During a colon cleanse, large amounts of water — sometimes up to 16 gallons (about 60 liters) — and possibly other substances, such as herbs or coffee, are flushed through the colon. This is done ...

  4. Neonatal Rectal Colonization with Malassezia furfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil J Gross

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans are fungal pathogens which have been recognized with increasing frequency as agents of mortality and serious morbidity in neonatal intensive care unit patients. A longitudinal study of oral, rectal and umbilical colonization by these organisms of newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit within 24 h of birth was undertaken. Of 71 infants followed for a minimum of 10 days, 24 were colonized with M furfur and 12 with C albicans during the first 10 days of life. The lower gastrointestinal tract was found to be the most common colonization site for both organisms. Statistically significant (P<0.05 inverse associations were demonstrated between gestational age and risk of colonization with either organism at any site, and between birthweight or gestational age and risk of rectal colonization with either organism. Antibiotics were associated with a relative risk colonization of 4.06 (P=0.06 with either organism at any site. It is concluded that M furfur and C albicans are common colonizing organisms in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and are most frequently harboured in the lower gastrointestinal tract. M furfur, recently implicated as a systemic pathogen in this population, has not been previously recognized as a gastrointestinal commensal organism. The relationship between colonization and invasive fungal disease, and potential roles for preventive strategies, remain to be elucidated.

  5. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and illicit drug use (AOR 10.18, 95%CI 1.36-76.52) were found to be independently associated with MRSA colonization. Conclusion: a study identified a high prevalence of MRSA colonization among patients admitted in the ICU. MRSA isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. History of illegal drug use ...

  6. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  7. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  8. Metabolite production during in vitro colonic fermentation of dietary fiber: analysis and comparison of two European diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Maria; Venema, Koen; Maathuis, Annet J H; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio D

    2011-08-24

    Metabolite production and antioxidant released during colonic fermentation of naturally occurring dietary fiber (DF) from two European diets (Mediterranean and Scandinavian) were determined. With this aim, DF and associated components were isolated from both whole diets, as well as from cereals and fruits and vegetables comprising the diets. DF was used as substrate for colonic fermentation in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon, samples were collected, and fermentation metabolites were analyzed. Statistical differences between samples were observed in the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia and in the ratio acetate/propionate/butyrate. Whole grain cereal DF generated a larger amount of propionate than refined flour cereal DF. Fruit and vegetable DF generated higher amounts of butyrate than cereal DF. Most antioxidant compounds were released from DF during in vitro colonic fermentation. It is concluded that different sources of DF may play a specific role in health maintenance mediated by metabolites produced during colonic fermentation.

  9. Relationship between feeding habits and mutans streptococci colonization in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Marta; González, Angel; Barbería, Elena; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2003-09-01

    (1) To determine the prevalence of mutans streptococci (MS) in a group of Spanish children aged 15-20 months, and (2) to analyze the relationship between early colonization and feeding habits. In a group of 56 children, various feeding habits with a possible influence on early MS colonization were registered using a questionnaire; saliva samples were taken with a tongue blade in order to detect MS presence. As many as 73% of the children used a nursing bottle at this age, often with sugar content (cereal was added in 83% of children, who were still bottle-fed). The percentage of MS colonization was relatively high (46%), although no child presented caries at the time. A statistically significant relationship (P colonization and sweetening of the bottle contents. A relation was also found, though not significant, between MS colonization and the absence of breastfeeding or, on the other hand, the excessive prolongation of natural or artificial feeding.

  10. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  11. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yuko; Kinjo, Nagisa; Arakaki, Susumu; Arakaki, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without. PMID:18416471

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen in multifocal colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladanov, I.P.; Kuznetsova, L.F.; Anan'ev, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is concerned with analysis of CEA indices in 43 patients with multifocal colon cancer (22 with synchronous and 21 with metachronous colon cancer). The level of CEA was elevated in the group of patients with metachronous cancer in 85.7 % in the group of patients with synchronous cancer in 90.9 %, and in the entire group of colon cancer patients in 88.4 %. No correlation between the level of CEA and the presence of the second (third of more) tumor simultaneously was not revealed. CEA can be used as a test for diagnosis of recurrences and metachronous colon cancer during a follow-up of patients subjected to radical treatment for a primary colon tumor

  14. Skin Fungi from Colonization to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Sybren; Monod, Michel; Dawson, Tom; Boekhout, Teun; Mayser, Peter; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system. In a response-damage framework, all fungi are potentially able to cause disease, as a balance between their natural predilection and the immune status of the host. For this reason, we will not attribute a fixed ecological term to each species, but rather describe them as growing in a commensal state (A) or in a pathogenic state (B).

  15. The correlation between diverticulosis and redundant colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Tahleesa; Gunnarsson, Ronny; de Costa, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Diverticulosis and redundant colon are colonic conditions for which underlying pathophysiology, management and prevention are poorly understood. Historical papers suggest an inverse relationship between these two conditions. However, no further attempt has been made to validate this relationship. This study set out to assess the correlation between diverticulosis and colonic redundancy. Redundant colon, diverticulosis and patient demographics were recorded during colonoscopy. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed with redundant colon as the dependent variable and age, gender and diverticulosis as independent variables. Nagelkerke R 2 and a receiver operator curve were calculated to assess goodness of fit and internally validate the multivariate model. Redundant colon and diverticulosis were diagnosed in 31 and 113 patients, respectively. The probability of redundant colon was increased by female gender odds ratio (OR) 8.4 (95% CI 2.7-26, p = 0.00020) and increasing age OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6, p = 0.017). Paradoxically, diverticulosis strongly reduced the probability of redundant colon with OR of 0.12 (95% CI 0.42-0.32, p = 0.000039). The Nagelkerke R 2 for the multivariate model was 0.29 and the area under the curve at ROC analysis was 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.90 p-value 3.1 × 10 -8 ). This study found an inverse correlation between redundant colon and diverticulosis, supporting the historical suggestion that the two conditions rarely occur concurrently. The underlying principle for this relationship remains to be found. However, it may contribute to the understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of these colonic conditions.

  16. Colon Biopsy Findings of Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştepe, Firdevs Zeynep; Özgün, Gonca; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Tepeoğlu, Merih; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate colonic pathologies in renal transplant recipients. Patients with colon biopsies were selected from 1816 renal transplant recipients from January 1990 to December 2012 at Baskent University Hospital (Ankara, Turkey). Demographic and clinical findings with colon biopsies were examined. There were 84 patients who had colon biopsies after renal transplant. There were 57 male and 27 female patients (median age at renal transplant was 33 y). Chronic diarrhea was the most common clinical finding at the time of colon biopsy. The median interval from renal transplant to first colon biopsy was 48.1 ± 47.5 months. On microscopic evaluation, there were no pathologic changes in 17 patients. The remaining 67 patients had colitis (38 patients), polyps (17 patients), cytomegalovirus colitis (8 patients), and amyloidosis (4 patients). The mean interval between transplant and the diagnosis of colitis was 49.08 ± 42.6 months, amyloidosis was 47.5 ± 79.28 months, cytomegalovirus colitis was 5 ± 3.5 months, and polyps was 77.65 ± 58.8 months. There was a statistically significant difference between biopsy diagnosis and the time interval between transplant and colon biopsy (P colonic biopsies, 40 patients never had acute rejection episodes and 44 patients had at least 1 acute rejection episode. Seven of 8 patients with cytomegalovirus colitis, 19 of 38 with colitis, 3 of 4 with amyloidosis, and 5 of 17 with polyps had acute rejection episodes. In our report on colonic manifestations in renal transplant recipients, the most common colonic lesion was noninfectious colitis. Cytomegalovirus colitis is an important infection that affects immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus must be kept in mind, and thorough sectioning and immunohistochemical sta ining should be used if necessary in the presence of any clinical or histologic suspicion for infective colitis.

  17. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  18. Correlation between colonic secretion and colonic motility in rats: Role of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsien-Hao; Ting, Ching-Heng; Syu, Yu-Fong; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2016-12-14

    To explore the relationship between colonic secretory function and colonic motility. Using a rat model chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) and cecal catheters, we validated the correlation between colonic secretion and colonic motor functions, as well as the role of ICV injection volume. Compared to saline controls (5 μL/rat), ICV acyl ghrelin at 1 nmol/5 μL enhanced the total fecal weight, accelerated the colonic transit time, and increased the fecal pellet output during the first hour post-injection, while ICV des-acyl ghrelin at 1 nmol/5 μL only accelerated the colonic transit time. These stimulatory effects on colonic motility and/or secretion from acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin disappeared when the ICV injection volume increased to 10 μL compared with saline controls (10 μL/rat). Additionally, the ICV injection of 10 μL of saline significantly shortened the colonic transit time compared with the ICV injection of 5 μL of saline. The total fecal weight during the first hour post-injection correlated with the colonic transit time and fecal pellet output after the ICV injection of acyl ghrelin (1 nmol/5 μL), whereas the total fecal weight during the first hour post-injection correlated with the fecal pellet output but not the colonic transit time after the ICV injection of des-acyl ghrelin (1 nmol/5 μL). Colonic secretion does not always correlate with colonic motility in response to different colonic stimulations. Acyl ghrelin stimulates colonic secretion.

  19. Emigrating Beyond Earth Human Adaptation and Space Colonization

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Cameron M

    2012-01-01

    For four million years humankind has been actively expanding geographically and in doing so has adapted to a wide variety of hostile environments. Now we are looking towards the ultimate adaptation - the colonization of space. Emigrating Beyond Earth illustrates that this is not a technocratic endeavor, but a natural continuation of human evolution; a journey not just for the engineer and rocket scientist, but for everyman. Based on the most current understanding of our universe, human adaptation and evolution, the authors explain why space colonization must be planned as an adaptation to, rather than the conquest of, space. Emigrating Beyond Earth argues that space colonization is an insurance policy for our species, and that it isn't about rockets and robots, it's about humans doing what we've been doing for four million years: finding new places and new ways to live. Applying a unique anthropological approach, the authors outline a framework for continued human space exploration and offer a glimpse of a po...

  20. Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in Response to Bacterial Epidermal Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brandwein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial commensal colonization of human skin is vital for the training and maintenance of the skin’s innate and adaptive immune functions. In addition to its physical barrier against pathogen colonization, the skin expresses a variety of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs which are expressed constitutively and induced in response to pathogenic microbial stimuli. These AMPs are differentially effective against a suite of microbial skin colonizers, including both bacterial and fungal residents of the skin. We review the breadth of microorganism-induced cutaneous AMP expression studies and their complementary findings on the efficacy of skin AMPs against different bacterial and fungal species. We suggest further directions for skin AMP research based on emerging skin microbiome knowledge in an effort to advance our understanding of the nuanced host–microbe balance on human skin. Such advances should enable the scientific community to bridge the gap between descriptive disease-state AMP studies and experimental single-species in vitro studies, thereby enabling research endeavors that more closely mimic the natural skin environs.

  1. Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Yong; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1982-01-01

    Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon, known also as obstructive colitis, is a disorder characterized by anulceration and inflammation of the colon proximal to an obstructive lesion, especially carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, and in rare instance, leads to acute gangrene of the colon. The authors analyzed radiologic findings in four cases of necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon. Barium enema disclosed mucosal edema, nodular filling defects, irregularity of the colonic contour and typical thumbprinting appearance of involved colon proximal to an obstructing carcinoma of the colon. The mechanism of necrotizing colitis was briefly reviewed

  2. Molecular Tracking, through Processing, of Campylobacter Strains Colonizing Broiler Flocks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Karen T.; Morris, Victoria K.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the poultry flocks produced in the United Kingdom are colonized with Campylobacter, and the intensive nature of poultry processing usually results in contaminated carcasses. In this study, a previously reported molecular oligonucleotide probe method was used to track a specific flock-colonizing strain(s) on broiler carcasses during processing in two United Kingdom commercial poultry processing plants. Five Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at four points along the processing line, postbleed, postpluck, prechill, and postchill, and two Campylobacter-negative flocks processed immediately after positive flocks were sampled prechill. flaA was sequenced from Campylobacter strains isolated from these flocks, and strain-specific probes were synthesized. Skin and cecal samples were plated onto selective agar to give individual colonies, which were transferred onto membranes. These were then hybridized with the strain- and genus-specific probes. For all the 5 positive flocks, there was a significant reduction in campylobacters postbleed compared to postpluck but no subsequent fall on sampling pre- and postchill, and the strain(s) predominating on the carcasses throughout processing came from the flock being processed. This indicates that strains from the abattoir environment were not a significant cause of carcass contamination in flocks with well-established campylobacter colonization. However, negative flocks that were preceded by positive flocks were contaminated by strains that did not generally originate from the predominating strains recovered from the ceca of the previous positive flocks. This suggests that the abattoir environment has a significant role in the contamination of carcasses from negative but not fully colonized flocks. PMID:21705532

  3. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  4. Epigenetic events and protection from colon cancer in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Philpott, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of colon cancer is high in many developed nations, especially New Zealand. Molecular understanding of the nature of colon cancer shows a disease whose well-characterized morphological progression is paralleled at the cellular level by increased numbers of gene or chromosome mutations, loss of heterozygosity, changed methylation patterns, and genomic instability. In the present study, we consider whether an imbalance of factors that affect DNA methylation patterns might explain at least part of the high colon cancer incidence in New Zealand. Folate is the major micronutrient whose intake impacts methylation, particularly through interaction with choline and methionine. Folate is generally somewhat deficient in the New Zealand diet, with the voluntary addition of folate to white flour not producing desired levels. Selenium affects methylation status in several ways and is recognized as being low in New Zealand soils and, therefore, diet. Zinc is also low in the diets of some New Zealand population groups, which can lead to hypomethylation. Several of the components of fruits and vegetables affect methylation patterns, and the average New Zealand intake, at two to three servings per day, is considerably below recommended amounts. Low dietary fiber, high tobacco use, and increasing rates of obesity are also likely New Zealand risk factors that may impact on methylation status. Dietary supplementation is not as common in New Zealand as in countries such as the United States, but may provide a way to raise the levels of nutrients and phytochemicals affecting methylation status, thereby enhancing colon cancer protection. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN: from the rhizosphere to inflorescence tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; Kaplan, Hervé; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Clément, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The colonization pattern of Vitis vinifera L. by Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was determined using grapevine fruiting cuttings with emphasis on putative inflorescence colonization under nonsterile conditions. Two-week-old rooted plants harbouring flower bud initials, grown in nonsterile soil, were inoculated with PsJN:gfp2x. Plant colonization was subsequently monitored at various times after inoculation with plate counts and epifluorescence and/or confocal microscopy. Strain PsJN was chronologically detected on the root surfaces, in the endorhiza, inside grape inflorescence stalks, not inside preflower buds and flowers but rather as an endophyte inside young berries. Data demonstrated low endophytic populations of strain PsJN in inflorescence organs, i.e. grape stalks and immature berries with inconsistency among plants for bacterial colonization of inflorescences. Nevertheless, endophytic colonization of inflorescences by strain PsJN was substantial for some plants. Microscopic analysis revealed PsJN as a thriving endophyte in inflorescence organs after the colonization process. Strain PsJN was visualized colonizing the root surface, entering the endorhiza and spreading to grape inflorescence stalks, pedicels and then to immature berries through xylem vessels. In parallel to these observations, a natural microbial communities was also detected on and inside plants, demonstrating the colonization of grapevine by strain PsJN in the presence of other microorganisms.

  6. Elevation gradient of successful plant traits for colonizing alpine summits under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteodo, Magalì; Wipf, Sonja; Stöckli, Veronika; Rixen, Christian; Vittoz, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Upward migration of plant species due to climate change has become evident in several European mountain ranges. It is still, however, unclear whether certain plant traits increase the probability that a species will colonize mountain summits or vanish, and whether these traits differ with elevation. Here, we used data from a repeat survey of the occurrence of plant species on 120 summits, ranging from 2449 to 3418 m asl, in south-eastern Switzerland to identify plant traits that increase the probability of colonization or extinction in the 20th century. Species numbers increased across all plant traits considered. With some traits, however, numbers increased proportionally more. The most successful colonizers seemed to prefer warmer temperatures and well-developed soils. They produced achene fruits and/or seeds with pappus appendages. Conversely, cushion plants and species with capsule fruits were less efficient as colonizers. Observed changes in traits along the elevation gradient mainly corresponded to the natural distribution of traits. Extinctions did not seem to be clearly related to any trait. Our study showed that plant traits varied along both temporal and elevational gradients. While seeds with pappus seemed to be advantageous for colonization, most of the trait changes also mirrored previous gradients of traits along elevation and hence illustrated the general upward migration of plant species. An understanding of the trait characteristics of colonizing species is crucial for predicting future changes in mountain vegetation under climate change. (letter)

  7. The role of competition - colonization tradeoffs and spatial heterogeneity in promoting trematode coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Erin A; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; Ashford, Jacob E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Competition - colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition- colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition - colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition - colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition - colonization tradeoff occurs. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. The role of competition--colonization tradeoffs and spatial heterogeneity in promoting trematode coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Erin A; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; Ashford, Jacob E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Competition - colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition - colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition - colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition - colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition - colonization tradeoff occurs.

  9. The role of competition – colonization tradeoffs and spatial heterogeneity in promoting trematode coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Erin A.; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Ashford, Jacob E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Competition – colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition – colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition – colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition – colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition – colonization tradeoff occurs.

  10. An Isolated Neurofibromal Polyp of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hindy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary neurofibromal colonic polyps are a rare entity, particularly outside the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1. The clinical significance of such lesions has not yet been established. Though typically benign tumors, neurofibromas have been reported to undergo malignant transformation, with an increased risk of malignancy when associated with neurofibromatosis. In this case report, we present the rare case of a man found to have an isolated colonic neurofibroma without any personal/family history or clinical features of neurofibromatosis. A 59-year-old man with a history of dyslipidemia and degenerative joint disease presented for a routine screening colonoscopy. The colonoscopy revealed no abnormalities except a 3 mm transverse colon polyp and another 4 mm polyp in the descending colon. Biopsy results showed the descending colonic polyp to be a tubular adenoma; however, multiple levels of the 3 mm transverse colon polyp revealed interlacing bundles of spindle cells extending into the lamina propria with comma-shaped nuclei consistent with findings seen in neurofibroma. Isolated colonic neurofibromas are rare and understudied. While they are usually benign, they may undergo malignant transformation, especially when associated with neurofibromatosis. Thus, patients presenting with isolated neurofibromas should be followed for development of neurofibromatosis and malignancies.

  11. CT in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumi, Yoshifumi; Mitani, Takashi; Kuriyama, Keiko

    1987-01-01

    Pericolic abscess is the most frequent complication of colonic diverticulitis which requires an accurate diagnosis on its location, extent, and complications. Double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) was able to reveal indirect signs such as displacement of the colon and contrast material in the abscess cavity. Conventional Computed tomography (CT) of the colon could not demonstrate a pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall clearly. We tried to demonstrate direct signs of pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall by administering 200 ml of olive oil per anum. Additionally, to demonstrate the fistulous tract between sigmoid colon and urinary bladder, 200 ml of 0.8 % barium solution was administered first per anum, and then evacuated prior to administering olive oil. The DCBE and CT examination in 4 patients with a clinical diagnosis (2 cases) or surgically confirmed diagnosis (2 cases) of colonic diverticulitis were studied to determine the sensitivity of the two technics. Our results showed that CT was significantly superior to the DCBE in visualising the location and extent of pericolic inflammatory process, especially colovesical fistula, the most severe complication of pericolic abscess. (author)

  12. CT in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Yoshifumi; Mitani, Takashi; Kuriyama, Keiko

    1987-11-01

    Pericolic abscess is the most frequent complication of colonic diverticulitis which requires an accurate diagnosis on its location, extent, and complications. Double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) was able to reveal indirect signs such as displacement of the colon and contrast material in the abscess cavity. Conventional Computed tomography (CT) of the colon could not demonstrate a pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall clearly. We tried to demonstrate direct signs of pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall by administering 200 ml of olive oil per anum. Additionally, to demonstrate the fistulous tract between sigmoid colon and urinary bladder, 200 ml of 0.8% barium solution was administered first per anum, and then evacuated prior to administering olive oil. The DCBE and CT examination in 4 patients with a clinical diagnosis (2 cases) or surgically confirmed diagnosis (2 cases) of colonic diverticulitis were studied to determine the sensitivity of the two technics. Our results showed that CT was significantly superior to the DCBE in visualising the location and extent of pericolic inflammatory process, especially colovesical fistula, the most severe complication of pericolic abscess.

  13. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpet, Denis E.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Rémésy, C.; Stamp, D.; Medline, A.; Thompson, L.U.; Bruce, W. R.; Archer, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon carcinogenesis). We found that the thermolysis of casein reduces its digestibility and increases colonic protein fermentation, as assessed by fecal ammonium and urinary phenol, cresol, and indol-3-ol. Thermolysis of two other proteins, soy and egg white protein, also increases colonic protein fermentation with increased fecal ammonia and urinary phenols, and thermolysis of all three proteins increases the levels of ammonia and butyric, valeric, and i-valeric acids in the cecal contents. We found, however, that the increased protein fermentation observed with thermolysis is not associated with promotion of colon carcinogenesis. With casein, the kinetics of protein fermentation with increasing thermolysis time are clearly different from the kinetics of promotion of ACF growth. The formation of the fermentation products was highest when the protein was thermolyzed for one hour, whereas promotion was highest for protein that had been thermolyzed for two or more hours. With soy and egg white, thermolysis increased colonic protein fermentation but did not promote colon carcinogenesis. Thus, although thermolysis of dietary casein increases colonic protein fermentation, products of this fermentation do not appear to be responsible for the promotion of colon carcinogenesis. Indeed, the results suggest that protein fermentation products do not play an important role in colon cancer promotion. PMID:7603887

  15. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in twelve cases (92%), segmental colonic wall thickening in eleven (85%), other not-inflamed diverticula in five (38%), mesenteric lymph node enlargement in three (23%), free pericecal fluid collection in three (23%), and perirenal fascial thickening in two (15%). The complications such as remote abscess cavity, colonic obstruction, fistula or perforation were not found. On barium colon study, diverticulitis was in all cases confirmed by the presence of barium in the deformed diversiculum. Among CT findings for acute right colonic diverticulitis, the most important and pathognomonic is inflamed diverticula; the forms of these vary, and include gangrenous diverticulitis. The CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis in Koreans might not, however, reveal the complications which sigmoid diverticulitis frequently involves; in patients with right lower quadrant pain imaging studies are performed promptly, and for the mesentery, the anatomical base between right and

  16. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  17. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in twelve cases (92%), segmental colonic wall thickening in eleven (85%), other not-inflamed diverticula in five (38%), mesenteric lymph node enlargement in three (23%), free pericecal fluid collection in three (23%), and perirenal fascial thickening in two (15%). The complications such as remote abscess cavity, colonic obstruction, fistula or perforation were not found. On barium colon study, diverticulitis was in all cases confirmed by the presence of barium in the deformed diversiculum. Among CT findings for acute right colonic diverticulitis, the most important and pathognomonic is inflamed diverticula; the forms of these vary, and include gangrenous diverticulitis. The CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis in Koreans might not, however, reveal the complications which sigmoid diverticulitis frequently involves; in patients with right lower quadrant pain imaging studies are performed promptly, and for the mesentery, the anatomical base between right and

  18. Predation resistance does not trade off with competitive ability in early-colonizing mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The tradeoff between colonization and competitive ability has been proposed as a mechanism for ecological succession, and this tradeoff has been demonstrated in multiple successional communities. The tradeoff between competitive ability and predation resistance is also a widely-described phenomenon; however, this tradeoff is not usually postulated as a cause of ecological succession. Early successional species that arrive before predator colonization could be either (1) Less vulnerable to predation than their successors, by virtue of being poor competitors (direct competition-predation tradeoff); (2) Equally or more vulnerable to predation, because they normally colonize ahead of predators in succession and therefore are not evolutionarily adapted to avoid predators that they rarely encounter (no competition-predation tradeoff). To test these alternative hypotheses, we established water-filled containers in an oak-hickory forest. We allowed half of the containers to be naturally colonized by early-successional Culex mosquitoes, mid-successional Aedes mosquitoes, and the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. In the other half of the containers we prevented Aedes colonization via systematic removal of Aedes eggs, but allowed Culex and T. rutilus to colonize. The numbers of mature Culex larvae and pupae, and later the total number of Culex, were significantly greater in containers where Aedes had been removed, which suggests that Culex are competitively suppressed by Aedes. Toxorhynchites rutilus abundance and colonization rate were unaffected by the removal of Aedes, and densities of both Culex and Aedes decreased significantly with T. rutilus abundance in both treatments. In-lab bioassays showed that Culex were significantly more vulnerable to predation by T. rutilus than were Aedes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Culex and Aedes demonstrate a direct colonization/competition tradeoff, and are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a direct

  19. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  20. Anaerobic bacteria, the colon and colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, W E

    1980-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria constitute more than 90% of the bacteria in the colon. An anaerobic environment is needed to maintain their growth and the production of short-chain fatty acids by these bacteria from carbohydrates. Short-chain fatty acids are rapidly absorbed and essential for metabolic as well as functional welfare of the colonic mucosa. The importance of these acids in water absorption and in the patogenesis of colitis is discussed in relation to the concept of "energy deficiency diseases" of the colonic mucosa.

  1. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    -style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Retinoid-Chalcones as Inhibitors of Colon Cancer Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the observed anticancer activity of chalcones and retinoids, a novel class of retinoid-chalcone hybrids were designed and synthesized. As part of our ongoing studies to discover natural product based anticancer compounds, the retinoid-chalcone hybrids were tested against the colon cancer ce...

  3. Mesenchymal Cells in Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Pallangyo, Charles K; Greten, Florian R; Kollias, George

    2017-04-01

    Mesenchymal cells in the intestine comprise a variety of cell types of diverse origins, functions, and molecular markers. They provide mechanical and structural support and have important functions during intestinal organogenesis, morphogenesis, and homeostasis. Recent studies of the human transcriptome have revealed their importance in the development of colorectal cancer, and studies from animal models have provided evidence for their roles in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated cancer and sporadic colorectal cancer. Mesenchymal cells in tumors, called cancer-associated fibroblasts, arise via activation of resident mesenchymal cell populations and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. Cancer-associated fibroblasts have a variety of activities that promote colon tumor development and progression; these include regulation of intestinal inflammation, epithelial proliferation, stem cell maintenance, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and metastasis. We review the intestinal mesenchymal cell-specific pathways that regulate these processes, with a focus on their roles in mediating interactions between inflammation and carcinogenesis. We also discuss how increasing our understanding of intestinal mesenchymal cell biology and function could lead to new strategies to identify and treat colitis-associated cancers. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  5. [Colonic polyps in children. Experience with polypectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güitrón, A; Adalid, R; Nares, J; Mena, G; Gutiérrez, J A

    1999-01-01

    Colonic polyp, the most common gastrointestinal tumor in children, is considered a cause of rectal bleeding in the pediatric population. Colonoscopy is the "gold standard" procedure in diagnosis and therapeutic. To know the incidence and symptomatology of colonic polyps in children to remark on the usefulness of the endoscopic examination. PATIENTS-METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1985 and 1996, over 1,000 colonoscopies were performed on 50 children between 8 months and 14 years old. The patients had colonic polyps and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In 40 cases polyps were solitary, 82% were located in rectum sigmoid, and 80% of polyps were found to be juvenile (retention). There were no complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The endoscopic method was shown to be very useful for diagnosis as well as treatment of the colonic polyps in children.

  6. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  7. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  9. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  10. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  11. Pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection for cancer: A nationwide retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, E. Madelief; de Rooij, Thijs; van Eijck, Casper H.; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; van Dam, Ronald M.; van Dieren, Susan; Erdmann, Joris I.; Gerhards, Michael F.; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Scheepers, Joris J.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopically radical (R0) resection of pancreatic, periampullary, or colon cancer may occasionally require a pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection (PD-colon), but the benefits of this procedure have been disputed, and multicenter studies on morbidity and oncologic outcomes after PD-colon are

  12. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the colon...

  13. [Role of oral cavity colonization resistance in dental caries development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Chereda, V V; Loban', G A

    2013-01-01

    Colonization resistance is one of local immunity mechanisms determined by a combination of factors that inhibit the adhesion and growth of mucous membrane bacteria. We examined patients with different levels of caries intensity assessing oral mucosa colonization resistance by our own method. Caries development resulted in changes of colonization resistance with the increased rate of inhibition of the oral mucosa colonization resistance barrier.

  14. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  15. Colon Cancer After Acute Diverticulitis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Kwang Hoon; Han, Koon Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Je Hoon; Choi, Kyu Un; Han, Myung Sik; Ahn, Jae Hong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulitis is the most common clinical complication of diverticular disease, affecting 10-25% of the patients with diverticula. The prevalences of diverticulitis and colon cancer tend to increase with age and are higher in industrialized countries. Consequently, diverticulitis and colon cancer have been reported to have similar epidemiological characteristics. However, the relationship between these diseases remains controversial, as is the performance of routine colonoscopy after an epis...

  16. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  17. The colon shuffle: A modified urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, R P; Mertens, L S; Meinhardt, W; Verwaal, V J; Dik, P; Horenblas, S

    2015-09-01

    To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This procedure is known in our institute as the 'colon shuffle'. All patients who underwent a colon shuffle in the period of 2003 and 2013 in our institute (Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital) were identified. Comorbidity was scored using the Charlson comorbidity index. Local or systemic treatment prior to surgery was reported (e.g. external beam radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy). Surgical complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Twenty-one patients (14 male; 7 female) underwent a colon shuffle procedure in our institute, with a mean age of 61.5 years. The majority (90.4%) of these patients had been subjected to radiotherapy on the pelvic region in the past. Although short-term complications (colon shuffle offers an elegant solution for patients who require a urinary diversion simultaneously with a colostomy or for patients who already have a colostomy from previous surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Drug related colonic perforation: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-García, Edgar; Valencia-García, Luis César; Sordo-Mejía, Ricardo; Kajomovitz-Bialostozky, Daniel; Chousleb-Kalach, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon is a disorder characterised by an increase in intra-luminal pressure that leads to ischaemia and necrosis of the intestinal wall. The mechanism that produces the lesion is unknown, although it has been associated with: trauma, anaesthesia, or drugs that alter the autonomic nervous system. The pathophysiology of medication induced colon toxicity can progress to a perforated colon and potentially death. Present a case of a colonic pseudo-obstruction in a patient with polypharmacy as the only risk factor and to review the medical literature related to the treatment of this pathology. The case is presented of a 67 year old woman with colonic pseudo-obstruction who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and distension. The pain progressed and reached an intensity of 8/10, and was accompanied by fever and tachycardia. There was evidence of free intraperitoneal air in the radiological studies. The only risk factor was the use of multiple drugs. The colonic pseudo-obstruction progressed to intestinal perforation, requiring surgical treatment, which resolved the problem successfully. It is important to consider drug interaction in patients with multiple diseases, as it may develop complications that can be avoided if detected on time. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchronous colon and gastric advanced carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A.; Demoro, M.; Corona, M.; Di Bari, M.; Ricciardulli, T.; Galati, G. [La Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Surgery Pietro Valdoni; Ciardi, A. [La Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Experimental Medicine and Pathology

    2005-03-15

    An unusual case of advanced synchronous colon and gastric carcinoma is described. A 36 year old female was admitted to our Department with a stenosing right colon cancer diagnosed at endoscopy which was performed for lower crampy abdominal pain and gross blood in the stool. Multiple colon polyps, distal to the tumor, were also detected. On preoperative abdominal computed tomography, a stenosing right colon cancer, without evidence of abdominal diffusion, was confirmed. At laparotomy, in addition to colon cancer, an antral gastric cancer was incidentally found. En bloc hemi gastrectomy and subtotal colectomy were performed. Digestive continuity was restored by gastrojejunal and ileosigmoid anastomoses. At histology, a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring-cell component (pT2, pN0; stage IB) and a moderately differentiated colon adenocarcinoma with a tubulovillous component (pT3, pN1; stage III, Stage Dukes C) were revealed. Both tumors showed a low expression of p53 and c-erb2 oncoproteins. No genetic defect was identified in the APC and MMR genes. The patient is alive, without recurrence, two years after the operation.

  20. Synchronous colon and gastric advanced carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Demoro, M.; Corona, M.; Di Bari, M.; Ricciardulli, T.; Galati, G.; Ciardi, A.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of advanced synchronous colon and gastric carcinoma is described. A 36 year old female was admitted to our Department with a stenosing right colon cancer diagnosed at endoscopy which was performed for lower crampy abdominal pain and gross blood in the stool. Multiple colon polyps, distal to the tumor, were also detected. On preoperative abdominal computed tomography, a stenosing right colon cancer, without evidence of abdominal diffusion, was confirmed. At laparotomy, in addition to colon cancer, an antral gastric cancer was incidentally found. En bloc hemi gastrectomy and subtotal colectomy were performed. Digestive continuity was restored by gastrojejunal and ileosigmoid anastomoses. At histology, a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring-cell component (pT2, pN0; stage IB) and a moderately differentiated colon adenocarcinoma with a tubulovillous component (pT3, pN1; stage III, Stage Dukes C) were revealed. Both tumors showed a low expression of p53 and c-erb2 oncoproteins. No genetic defect was identified in the APC and MMR genes. The patient is alive, without recurrence, two years after the operation

  1. Curative resection of transverse colon cancer via minilaparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Tohru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Minilaparotomy has been reported to be a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopically assisted surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of minilaparotomy for the resection of transverse colon cancer, which has generally been considered difficult to resect laparoscopically. Patients for whom curative resection was attempted for transverse colon cancer (n = 21) or sigmoid colon cancer (n = 81) via minilaparotomy (skin incision, transverse colon cancer as well as those with sigmoid colon cancer.

  2. Post surgical radiotherapy in colon neoplasm: preliminary results of the study in phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Garcia, S.; Tasende, B.

    1993-01-01

    Radiotherapy was not used profusely in the the cancer of the colon treatment be it in the therapy form or administration. In the actual moment for a better understandings in its history natural and the knowledge of the factors presage recurrence, the radiotherapy have precise indications about the surgery. It analyze the population of the patients with cancer of the colon to determine the value of the radiant proceeding in the regional control and it tolerance. Finally, is emphasized in the necessity of the integration of the other procedures, being a therapeutic method that diminishes the-regional results with a permissible toxicity (AU) [es

  3. Pathogenesis of morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Analysis of the nature and time course of early complications after laparoscopic colonic surgery is required to allow rational strategies for their prevention and management. METHOD: One hundred and four consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic colonic cancer surgery...... were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the time course of morbidity and reasons for prolonged stay (> 3 days). RESULTS: Seventeen (16.3%) patients had one or more complications. Surgical complications...

  4. Draft environmental impact statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Volume 2, Appendix E, Evaluation of human health effects of overland transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Appendix provides an overview of the approach used to assess the human health risks that may result from the overland transportation of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The Appendix includes discussion of the scope of the assessment, analytical methods used for the risk assessment (i.e., computer models), important assessment assumptions, determination of potential transportation routes, and presents the results of the assessment. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific arm of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis an how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. he approach used in this Appendix is modeled after that used in the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS) (DOE, 1994b). The SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS did not perform as detailed an analysis on the specific actions taken for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel because of the breadth necessary to analyze the entire spent fuel management program. However, the fundamental assumptions used in this analysis are consistent with those used in the SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS (DOE, 1994b), and the same computer codes and generic release and accident data are used. The risk assessment results are presented in this Appendix in terms of ''Per-shipment'' risk factors, as well as for the total risks associated with each alternative. Per-shipment risk factors provide an estimate of the risk from a single spent nuclear fuel shipment between a specific origin and destination. They are calculated for all possible origin and destination pairs for each spent nuclear fuel type. The total risks for a given alternative are found by multiplying the expected number of shipments by the appropriate per-shipment risk factors. This approach provides maximum flexibility for determining the risks for a large number of potential

  5. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Biernacka-Wawrzonek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim : To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods: We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm and distal (8–10 cm zone. Results : Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions : The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain.

  6. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph B J; Lajczak, Natalia K; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Giddam, Ashwini K; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Franco, Placido; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Jefferies, Caroline A; Keely, Simon; Roda, Aldo; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Ward JB, Lajczak NK, Kelly OB, O'Dwyer AM, Giddam AK, Ní Gabhann J, Franco P, Tambuwala MM, Jefferies CA, Keely S, Roda A, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 312: G550-G558, 2017. First published March 30, 2017; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016.-Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a group of common and debilitating chronic intestinal disorders for which currently available therapies are often unsatisfactory. The naturally occurring secondary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has well-established anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions and may therefore be effective in treating IBD. We aimed to investigate regulation of colonic inflammatory responses by UDCA and to determine the potential impact of bacterial metabolism on its therapeutic actions. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of UDCA, a nonmetabolizable analog, 6α-methyl-UDCA (6-MUDCA), and its primary colonic metabolite lithocholic acid (LCA) was assessed in the murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mucosal injury. The effects of bile acids on cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-1β, and IFN-γ) release from cultured colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue in vivo were investigated. Luminal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. UDCA attenuated release of proinflammatory cytokines from colonic epithelial cells in vitro and was protective against the development of colonic inflammation in vivo. In contrast, although 6-MUDCA mimicked the effects of UDCA on epithelial cytokine release in vitro, it was ineffective in preventing inflammation in the DSS model. In UDCA-treated mice, LCA became the most common colonic bile acid. Finally, LCA treatment more potently inhibited epithelial cytokine release and protected against DSS-induced mucosal inflammation than did UDCA. These studies identify a new role for the primary metabolite of UDCA, LCA, in preventing colonic

  7. The Usefulness of Intraoperative Colonic Irrigation and Primary Anastomosis in Patients Requiring a Left Colon Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngki; Nam, Soomin; Kang, Jung Gu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the short-term outcome of intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis and to suggest the usefulness of the procedure when a preoperative mechanical bowel preparation is inappropriate. This retrospective study included 38 consecutive patients (19 male patients) who underwent intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis for left colon disease between January 2010 and December 2016. The medical records of the patients were reviewed to evaluate the patients' characteristics, operative data, and postoperative short-term outcomes. Twenty-nine patients had colorectal cancer, 7 patients had perforated diverticulitis, and the remaining 2 patients included 1 with sigmoid volvulus and 1 with a perforated colon due to focal colonic ischemia. A diverting loop ileostomy was created in 4 patients who underwent a low anterior resection. Complications occurred in 15 patients (39.5%), and the majority was superficial surgical site infections (18.4%). Anastomotic leakage occurred in one patient (2.6%) who underwent an anterior resection due sigmoid colon cancer with obstruction. No significant difference in overall postoperative complications and superficial surgical site infections between patients with obstruction and those with peritonitis were noted. No mortality occurred during the first 30 postoperative days. The median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 8-39 days). Intraoperative colonic irrigation and primary anastomosis seem safe and feasible in selected patients. This procedure may reduce the burden of colostomy in patients requiring a left colon resection with an inappropriate preoperative mechanical bowel preparation.

  8. New insights into neurogenic cyclic motor activity in the isolated guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Wiklendt, L; Keightley, L; Brookes, S J H; Dinning, P G; Spencer, N J

    2017-10-01

    The contents of the guinea pig distal colon consist of multiple pellets that move anally in a coordinated manner. This row of pellets results in continued distention of the colon. In this study, we have investigated quantitatively the features of the neurally dependent colonic motor patterns that are evoked by constant distension of the full length of guinea-pig colon. Constant distension was applied to the excised guinea-pig by high-resolution manometry catheters or by a series of hooks. Constant distension elicited regular Cyclic Motor Complexes (CMCs) that originated at multiple different sites along the colon and propagated in an oral or anal direction extending distances of 18.3±10.3 cm. CMCs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μ mol L -1 ), hexamethonium (100 μ mol L -1 ) or hyoscine (1 μ mol L -1 ). Application of TTX in a localized compartment or cutting the gut circumferentially disrupted the spatial continuity of CMCs. Localized smooth muscle contraction was not required for CMC propagation. Shortening the length of the preparations or disruption of circumferential pathways reduced the integrity and continuity of CMCs. CMCs are a distinctive neurally dependent cyclic motor pattern, that emerge with distension over long lengths of the distal colon. They do not require changes in muscle tension or contractility to entrain the neural activity underlying CMC propagation. CMCs are likely to play an important role interacting with the neuromechanical processes that time the propulsion of multiple natural pellets and may be particularly relevant in conditions of impaction or obstruction, where long segments of colon are simultaneously distended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Seasonality and mycorrhizal colonization in three species of epiphytic orchids in southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchids establish symbiosis with Rhizoctonia mycorrhizal fungi, forming the characteristic pelotons within the cells of the root cortex. Under natural conditions, terrestrial and epiphytic orchids have different levels of dependence upon the fungal symbiont, although various authors have mentioned that once orchid plants reach maturity the interaction becomes weaker and intermittent. Recent evidence shows that in some epiphytic orchid species mycorrhization is constant and systematic. In three species of wild orchids from southeast Mexico, we show that mycorrhization is systematically present in roots of different ages, in the wet and dry seasons. We demonstrate that the volume of the root that is colonized depends upon the quantity of rainfall and the diameter of the root, and that rainfall also determines the presence of fresh, undigested pelotons. In very thin roots, mycorrhizal colonization occupies a considerable proportion of the cortex, whereas in thicker roots the proportion of the volume of the root cortex colonized is lower.

  10. Hemangioma colorretal Colon rectal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Pinheiro Barreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma colorretal (HCR é uma lesão vascular benigna rara, com manifestação clínica geralmente entre 5 e 25 anos de idade. Faz parte do diagnóstico diferencial das causas de hemorragia digestiva baixa, sendo confundido, na maioria das vezes, com entidades mais comuns, como hemorróidas e doenças inflamatórias intestinais. O retardo do diagnóstico ocorre freqüentemente devido ao desconhecimento da doença, com taxas de mortalidade alcançando 40 a 50% na presença de sangramento importante. O caso relatado é de uma paciente de 17 anos de idade, admitida no Serviço de Colo-proctologia do Hospital Universitário - HUUFMA, em setembro de 2005, com anemia e sangramento retal, desde a infância, de forma intermitente e não dolorosa. Apresentado sua história clínica e propedêutica diagnóstica, realizada por meio de exames laboratoriais, endoscopia digestiva alta, colonoscopia e arteriografia de mesentéricas e ilíacas internas. O tratamento cirúrgico realizado foi retossigmoidectomia convencional com anastomose colorretal baixa, com boa evolução pós-operatória, tendo o exame histopatológico da peça cirúrgica ressecada, confirmado o diagnostico.The colon and rectum hemangioma is a rare benign vascular lesion, with clinical features usually between 5 and 25 years of age. It is included in the differential diagnose of the lower digestive bleeding causes, and has been frequently misdiagnosed with other more common entities, like hemorrhoids and bowel inflammatory disease. The late diagnose occurs usually because of the rarity of the disease, with mortality rates reaching 40 to 50% in presence of severe bleeding. We report a case of a 17 years old girl who was admitted at the Coloproctology Service of the Academic Hospital - HUUFMA, in September 2005, with anemia and intermittent rectal bleeding since childhood. Laboratorial findings included laboratorial exams, GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and arteriography of mesenteric and

  11. Libyan Thymus capitatus essential oil: antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and colon pathogen adhesion-inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džamić, A M; Nikolić, B J; Giweli, A A; Mitić-Ćulafić, D S; Soković, M D; Ristić, M S; Knežević-Vukčević, J B; Marin, P D

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the Libyan wild-growing Thymus capitatus essential oil (EO) was evaluated for its biological properties. Carvacrol (68.19%) and thymol (12.29%) were found to be the main compounds of the oil. Antioxidant properties, determined by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, revealed that IC50 values were 119, 403 and 105 μg ml(-1) for oil, thymol and carvacrol respectively. Microdilution method showed strong antibacterial and especially antifungal potential. Tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay indicated moderate cytotoxicity towards human cell lines MRC-5, HCT 116 and HT-29 (IC50 = 30-150 μg ml(-1)). In adhesion-inhibition assay oil and main compounds reduced adhesion of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes on colon cells HT-29 (51 and 39% of inhibition against L. monocytogenes and E. coli respectively). Essential oil of Th. capitatus showed moderate cytotoxic activity, together with excellent antimicrobial effect, in particular against fungi, and significant potential to reduce pathogen colonization in colon. This is the first report that EO of Th. capitatus could protect against colonization of pathogens to colon epithelium. Thymus capitatus from Libya should be recognized as possible new source of natural antioxidants, antimicrobials as well as possible source of new chemotherapeutics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Colonization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Two Different Root Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M. Z.; Naz, A. U.; Nawaz, A.; Nawaz, A.; Mukhtar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones producing bacteria enhance the plants growth by positively affecting growth of the root. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) must colonize the plant roots to contribute to the plant's endogenous pool of phytohormones. Colonization of these plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosplane and soil of different crops was evaluated on different root types to establish if the mechanism of host specificity exist. The bacteria were isolated from maize, wheat, rice, canola and cotton and phytohormone production was detected and quantified by HPLC. Bacteria were inoculated on surface sterilized seeds of different crops and seeds were germinated. After 7 days the bacteria were re-isolated from the roots and the effect of these bacteria was observed by measuring increase in root length. Bacteria isolated from one plant family (monocots) having fibrous root performed well on similar root system and failed to give significant results on other roots (tap root) of dicots. Some aggressive strains were able to colonize both root systems. The plant growth promoting activities of the bacteria were optimum on the same plant from whom roots they were isolated. The results suggest that bacteria adapt to the root they naturally inhabit and colonize the same plant root systems preferably. Although the observe trend indicate host specificity but some bacteria were aggressive colonizers which grew on all the plants used in experiment. (author)

  13. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  14. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  15. Host specific differences alter the requirement for certain Salmonella genes during swine colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearson, Bradley L; Bearson, Shawn M D

    2011-06-02

    The pathogenic potential of Salmonella is determined during the complex interaction between pathogen and host, requiring optimal regulation of multiple bacterial genetic systems within variable in vivo environments. The mouse model of systemic disease has been an extremely productive model to investigate the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Although the mouse model is a widely used paradigm for studying the pathogenesis of systemic disease caused by Salmonella, investigations concerning food safety interventions should employ natural hosts to examine gastrointestinal colonization by Salmonella. Recent research has demonstrated specific differences in the attenuation of certain S. Typhimurium mutants in mice compared to swine. This variation in pathogenesis between the mouse model and pigs for the S. Typhimurium mutants is presumably dependent upon either the requirements for specific gene products during systemic disease (mouse) versus gastrointestinal colonization (pig) or host specific differences. In addition, host specific diversity in Salmonella colonization of swine has also been described in comparison to other food-producing animals, including cattle and chickens. Differences in Salmonella colonization and pathogenesis across diverse animal species highlight the importance of species-specific studies of gastrointestinal colonization for the development of Salmonella interventions to enhance pork safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  17. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  18. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  19. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  20. Imaging analysis of colonic villous tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Yung Tae; Yang, Ik

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the CT and US features of the colonic villous tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of 11 cases with histologically proved colonic villous tumor. CT parameters evaluated were morphological appearances and enhancing pattern (size, shape, margin, presence or absence of fronds, bowel wall thickening). CT features of six cases with malignant change were compared with five tumors without malignant change. US features available in 10 patients were also analyzed. On CT, the tumors showed irregular margin(n=9), presence of fronds(n=6), lobulated shape(n=11), with pericolonic invasion(n=1). Six cases with malignant change were larger(mean, 6.8 cm in diameter) than those without malignant change(mean, 3.3cm). US features in 10 cases were intraluminal mass(n=5), colonic wall thickening(n=5), with variable echogenicity. Colonic villous tumor appeared as a nonspecific mass on CT and US with a difficulty in distinguishing from colon carcinoma

  1. Neonatal rectal colonization with Malassezia furfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Gil J; MacDonald, Noni E; Mackenzie, Andrew MR

    1992-01-01

    Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans are fungal pathogens which have been recognized with increasing frequency as agents of mortality and serious morbidity in neonatal intensive care unit patients. A longitudinal study of oral, rectal and umbilical colonization by these organisms of newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit within 24 h of birth was undertaken. Of 71 infants followed for a minimum of 10 days, 24 were colonized with M furfur and 12 with C albicans during the first 10 days of life. The lower gastrointestinal tract was found to be the most common colonization site for both organisms. Statistically significant (Pfurfur and C albicans are common colonizing organisms in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and are most frequently harboured in the lower gastrointestinal tract. M furfur, recently implicated as a systemic pathogen in this population, has not been previously recognized as a gastrointestinal commensal organism. The relationship between colonization and invasive fungal disease, and potential roles for preventive strategies, remain to be elucidated. PMID:22451755

  2. Is diverticular disease associated with colonic malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease have common characteristics; there are increases in the incidences in both disease entities and these diseases are more common in the westernized world. There is also an increase in the age-specific incidence with advancing age. Similar dietary features have been implicated for both diseases and already during the 1960s it was postulated by Burkitt that there is an association. Observational studies initially were able to demonstrate that patients with a history of diverticular disease of the colon had an increased risk of colon cancer, especially in the left side. However, the results from these studies have not been consistent, and problems like selection bias and confounding by indication have been major drawbacks in order to interpret the results and infer causality. Recent studies, which have had a better assessment of diverticular disease by new diagnostic methods, do not support such an association to the same extent as previously. Moreover, surveillance bias has become an increasing problem as patients with diverticular disease of the colon are subjected to a higher diagnostic intensity than other individuals in a population-based setting. A critical evaluation of the studies published so far therefore clearly indicates that the proposed association between diverticular disease and colonic malignancy is not evidence based, which should have an impact on clinical practice as well as on how to deal with these patient groups within the realms of a screening program. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  4. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  5. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  6. Sieving through gut models of colonization resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullineaux-Sanders, Caroline; Suez, Jotham; Elinav, Eran; Frankel, Gad

    2018-02-01

    The development of innovative high-throughput genomics and metabolomics technologies has considerably expanded our understanding of the commensal microorganisms residing within the human body, collectively termed the microbiota. In recent years, the microbiota has been reported to have important roles in multiple aspects of human health, pathology and host-pathogen interactions. One function of commensals that has attracted particular interest is their role in protection against pathogens and pathobionts, a concept known as colonization resistance. However, pathogens are also able to sense and exploit the microbiota during infection. Therefore, obtaining a holistic understanding of colonization resistance mechanisms is essential for the development of microbiome-based and microbiome-targeting therapies for humans and animals. Achieving this is dependent on utilizing physiologically relevant animal models. In this Perspective, we discuss the colonization resistance functions of the gut microbiota and sieve through the advantages and limitations of murine models commonly used to study such mechanisms within the context of enteric bacterial infection.

  7. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    : This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal physiology and anatomy...... interventions are needed to create clinical leakage in these animals. The knowledge from this study formed the basis for selecting the animal species most suited for the models in the next studies. STUDY 2: In this experimental study, technically insufficient colonic anastomoses were performed in 110 C57BL/6...... instead of clinical leakage. However, anastomotic breaking strength was reduced in the ischemic anastomoses. STUDY 4: In this systematic review MEDLINE, Embase and Cinahl were searched up to September 2011 to identify studies evaluating external coating of colonic anastomoses. Most studies were...

  8. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse Reichstein

    2001-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...... integrated administrative reductions in the CPS transformation, making it operate in one pass. The technique applies to other lambda-encodings (e.g., variants of CPS), but we do not see it used in practice--instead, Plotkin's colon translation appears to be favored. Therefore, in an attempt to link both...... techniques, we recast Plotkin's proof of Indifference and Simulation to the higher-order specification of the one-pass CPS transformation. To this end, we extend his colon translation from first order to higher order...

  9. Bacteria interfere with A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teughels, W; Kinder Haake, S; Sliepen, I; Pauwels, M; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, J-J; Quirynen, M

    2007-07-01

    It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined for their ability to interfere, exclude, or displace A. actinomycetemcomitans from epithelial cells in vitro. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius showed prominent inhibitory effects on either A. actinomycetemcomitans recovery or colonization. These results confirmed the hypothesis that bacterial interactions interfere with A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells in vitro, and demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of S. mitis, S. salivarius, and S. sanguinis.

  10. Prehistoric human colonization of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V N

    2001-11-01

    Human colonization in India encompasses a span of at least half-a-million years and is divided into two broad periods, namely the prehistoric (before the emergence of writing) and the historic (after writing). The prehistoric period is divided into stone, bronze and iron ages. The stone age is further divided into palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic periods. As the name suggests, the technology in these periods was primarily based on stone. Economically, the palaeolithic and mesolithic periods represented a nomadic, hunting-gathering way of life, while the neolithic period represented a settled, food-producing way of life. Subsequently copper was introduced as a new material and this period was designated as the chalcolithic period. The invention of agriculture, which took place about 8000 years ago, brought about dramatic changes in the economy, technology and demography of human societies. Human habitat in the hunting-gathering stage was essentially on hilly, rocky and forested regions, which had ample wild plant and animal food resources. The introduction of agriculture saw it shifting to the alluvial plains which had fertile soil and perennial availability of water. Hills and forests, which had so far been areas of attraction, now turned into areas of isolation. Agriculture led to the emergence of villages and towns and brought with it the division of society into occupational groups. The first urbanization took place during the bronze age in the arid and semi-arid region of northwest India in the valleys of the Indus and the Saraswati rivers, the latter represented by the now dry Ghaggar-Hakra bed. This urbanization is known as the Indus or Harappan civilization which flourished during 3500-1500 B.C. The rest of India during this period was inhabited by neolithic and chalcolithic farmers and mesolithic hunter-gatherers. With the introduction of iron technology about 3000 years ago, the focus of development shifted eastward into the Indo-Gangetic divide and

  11. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  12. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  13. The double contrast examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welin, S.; Welin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The double contrast method has been modified in order to get a more detailed picture of the mucous membrane of the colon. The method has been employed at Malmoe hospital since 1953. The method and its diagnostic application in cases of adenoids, villiferous tumours, diverticula, Crohn's disease, ulcerating colitis, and deformation of the rectum/sigma junction due to external endometriosis and peritoneal carcinosis are described. The diagnostic values of the double contrast method and colposcopy/biopsy of the colon are compared. The two methods are found to be complementary. (MG) [de

  14. [Acute pseudoobstruction of the colon (Ogilvie syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausen, M; Fiedler, L; Hauenstein, K H; Farthmann, E H

    1985-02-01

    Pseudo-obstruction of the colon was observed in six patients. The cardinal feature is acute distension of the large bowel without distal obstruction. Apart from few idiopathic cases, the syndrome usually is associated with postoperative, posttraumatic or metabolic disorders of extraintestinal origin. Without treatment, increasing distension leads to cecal perforation with a high mortality. Treatment is conservative initially. If decompression by colonoscopy fails, cecostomy or right hemicolectomy are mandatory. The pathophysiologic mechanism of acute colonic pseudoobstruction is unknown. Whether Ogilvie's syndrome is a genuine clinical entity or a complication of associated diseases is still on question.

  15. Mice as stowaways? Colonization history of Danish striped field mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Jacobsen, Magnus; Vedel-Smith, Christina; Jensen, Thomas Secher

    2017-07-01

    Species from the steppe region of Eastern Europe likely colonized northwestern Europe in connection with agriculture after 6500 BP. The striped field mouse ( Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1783), is a steppe-derived species often found in human crops. It is common on the southern Danish islands of Lolland and Falster, which have been isolated from mainland Europe since approximately 10 300-8000 BP. Thus, this species could have been brought in with humans in connection with agriculture, or it could be an earlier natural invader. We sequenced 86 full mitochondrial genomes from the northwestern range of the striped field mouse, analysed phylogenetic relationships and estimated divergence time. The results supported human-induced colonization of Denmark in the Subatlantic or Subboreal period. A newly discovered population from Central Jutland in Denmark diverged from Falster approximately 100-670 years ago, again favouring human introduction. One individual from Sweden turned out to be a recent introduction from Central Jutland. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Association of Pneumococcal Protein Antigen Serology With Age and Antigenic Profile of Colonizing Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Grant, Lindsay R; Georgieva, Maria; Hammitt, Laura L; Reid, Raymond; Bentley, Stephen D; Goldblatt, David; Santosham, Mathuran; Weatherholtz, Robert; Burbidge, Paula; Goklish, Novalene; Thompson, Claudette M; Hanage, William P; O'Brien, Kate L; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Several Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins play a role in pathogenesis and are being investigated as vaccine targets. It is largely unknown whether naturally acquired antibodies reduce the risk of colonization with strains expressing a particular antigenic variant. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers to 28 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured among 242 individuals aged - 30 days after serum collection, and the antigen variant in each pneumococcal isolate was determined using genomic data. We assessed the association between preexisting variant-specific antibody titers and subsequent carriage of pneumococcus expressing a particular antigen variant. Antibody titers often increased across pediatric groups before decreasing among adults. Individuals with low titers against group 3 pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) variants were more likely to be colonized with pneumococci expressing those variants. For other antigens, variant-specific IgG titers do not predict colonization. We observed an inverse association between variant-specific antibody concentration and homologous pneumococcal colonization for only 1 protein. Further assessment of antibody repertoires may elucidate the nature of antipneumococcal antibody-mediated mucosal immunity while informing vaccine development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Lyng, K M; Bugge, K

    1999-01-01

    Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery.......Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery....

  18. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  19. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon with scaphoid megalourethra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report a rare association of megalourethra with pouch colon with prune belly syndrome. We also provide a newer embryological and prognostic perspective to this association. Keywords: megalourethra, prune belly syndrome pouch colon, scaphoid ...

  20. The retrorenal colon in the supine and prone patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Sherman, J.L.; Luethke, J.M.; Ghaed, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ninety patients underwent CT in both supine and prone positions so that the orientation of the retroperitoneal colon about the kidneys could be determined. Particular attention was given to bowel found posterior to the kidneys, the so-called retrorenal colon. The frequency of retrorenal colon increased from 1.9% on supine studies to 10.7% on prone studies. Since most invasive renal procedures performed with the patient prone would miss retrorenal colon located behind the lateral one third of the kidney, the data were reevaluated, excluding these patients. The resulting frequency of significant retrorenal colon found on prone studies was 4.7%. Significant retrorenal colon was found exclusively at the level of the lower renal poles, and the involved colon in these patients was extensively distended with gas. Particular attention should be given, under fluoroscopic guidance, to detecting this unusual posteriorly positioned, air-filled colon before one undertakes any invasive renal procedure

  1. Local stratification of colon and rectum carcinomas by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaguana, Fanny

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of computerized tomography water enema versus conventional computerized tomography as methods to diagnose the colon and rectum carcinomas. One hundred patients with colon cancer were treated. (The author)

  2. Patterns of colonic transit in chronic idiopathic constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsky, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Rectosigmoid motility, anal manometry, and radiopaque marker studies have suggested the presence of several patterns of altered colonic transit in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Colonic transit scintigraphy was used to evaluate 23 constipated patients. After oral passage of a tube to the cecum, 50 microCi of 111 In-diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid ( 111 In-DTPA) were instilled, and abdominal images were obtained for 48 h with a gamma camera. The 95% confidence limit for the geometric center in normals at 24 h was used as a criterion to differentiate patients with colonic inertia from those with functional rectosigmoid obstruction. In patients with functional rectosigmoid obstruction, colonic transit was essentially normal. In colonic inertia, transit was delayed in the cecum and ascending colon, hepatic flexure, and transverse colon. These two distinct patterns of colonic transit may have different pathogenetic and therapeutic implications

  3. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  4. A Higher-Order Colon Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    2000-01-01

    A lambda-encoding such as the CPS transformation gives rise to administrative redexes. In his seminal article ``Call-by-name, call-by-value and the lambda-calculus'', 25 years ago, Plotkin tackled administrative reductions using a so-called ``colon translation.'' 10 years ago, Danvy and Filinski...

  5. Factors associated with colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Espinosa-De Los Monteros, L.E., Aguilar-Ituarte, F., Jimenez-Juarez, R.N., Rodriguez-Suarez, R.S.. & Gomez-Barreto, D. (2010) Streptococcus pneumonia serotype replacement in nasopharyngeal colonization in children vaccinated with PCV7 in Mexico. Salud Publica de. Mexico 52, 4-13. Faden, H., Duffy, L., Wasielewski, ...

  6. Endoskopisk mucosaresektion i colon og rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, M.L.; Meisner, S.

    2008-01-01

    EMR (endoscopic mucosal resection) is an endoscopic procedure where benign adenomas and superficial carcinomas can be removed from the gastrointestinal tract. The method is an alternative to laparoscopic and open surgery. This paper focuses on lesions of the colon and rectum, presenting the method...

  7. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  8. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L

    2016-01-01

    -driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. CONCLUSION: Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate...

  9. Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Dilşad; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apoptosis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment.

  10. Bacteria interfere with A-actinomycetemcomitans colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Haake, S. Kinder; Sliepen, Isabelle; Pauwels, Martine; Van Eldere, Johan; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Quirynen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined for their ability to interfere, exclude, or displace A. actinomycetemcomitans from epithelial cells...

  11. Coffee, colon function and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-09-01

    For several years the physiological effects of coffee have been focused on its caffeine content, disregarding the hundreds of bioactive coffee components, such as polyphenols, melanoidins, carbohydrates, diterpenes, etc. These compounds may exert their protection against colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer worldwide. However, the amount and type of compounds ingested with the beverage may be highly different depending on the variety of coffee used, the roasting degree, the type of brewing method as well as the serving size. In this frame, this paper reviews the mechanisms by which coffee may influence the risk of CRC development focusing on espresso and filtered coffee, as well as on the components that totally or partially reach the colon i.e. polyphenols and dietary fiber, including melanoidins. In particular the effects of coffee on some colon conditions whose deregulation may lead to cancer, namely microbiota composition and lumen reducing environment, were considered. Taken together the discussed studies indicated that, due to their in vivo metabolism and composition, both coffee chlorogenic acids and dietary fiber, including melanoidins, may reduce CRC risk, increasing colon motility and antioxidant status. Further studies should finally assess whether the coffee benefits for colon are driven through a prebiotic effect.

  12. Phosphorus Requirement for Colonization by Arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) concentrations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and growth of two perennial crops (Catha edulis and Ensete ventricosum) and four multipurpose agroforestry trees (Cordia africana, Croton macrostachyus, Erythrina brucei and ...

  13. Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion...

  14. TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...

  15. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    barium enema studies have indicated increasing world prevalence ... Other diagnostic modalities include barium enema, computerised ... This is in contrast to the findings in our patient when colonoscopy was carried out, in which the diverticula were more at the descending colon-left sided, and were found to be bleeding.

  16. Granularcelletumor i colon--Abrikossoffs tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Ibsen, Per; Gyrtrup, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman had a right hemicoletomy due to a large sessile polyp in the ascending colon, inappropriate for polypectomy. Histopathologic examination of the specimen showed a tubulovillous adenoma with moderate dysplasia and an adjacent 1 x 1 cm submucosal tumor classified as a benign GCT...

  17. Metabolic Syndrome X and Colon Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoulek, M.; Svobodová, S.; Svačina, Š.; Plavcová, Marie; Zvárová, Jana; Visokai, V.; Lipská, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, suppl. 1 (2003), s. 86 ISSN 0307-0565. [European Congress on Obesity /12./. 29.05.2003-01.06.2003, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MZd NB6635; GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : metabolic syndrome X * colon cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  18. Conservative management of colonic injury during percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Elghoneimy

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... antegrade or retrograde pyelography. All patients were managed conservatively with a favorable outcome. Conclusion: An approach combining a high degree of suspicion for early diagnosis and a diligent conser- vative management results in a favorable outcome in patients with colonic injury during PNL.

  19. Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Objectives: This is to describe a case of colonic diverticulosis causing massive rectal bleeding in an elderly Nigerian man. ... also oozing blood. He was worked up, and had surgery for hemicolectomy due to massive blood loss following failure of initial conservative management. .... bleeding patterns observed in fifty cases.

  20. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization was 9% and it was only isolated from clinical students and HCWs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 90.5% of the 63 strains isolated from all volunteers were ampicillin resistant. Three multi-resistant strains to three antibiotics or more were identified; two from ...

  1. [Postoperative intraperitoneal complications in colon cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhina, E A; Topuzov, É G; Topuzov, É É

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied the clinical characteristics and terms of the development of postoperative intraperitoneal complications in patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. It was stated, that the diversity of clinical data depended on complication characteristics. Results of investigation allowed defining of the most dangerous terms of intraperitoneal complications and risk factors.

  2. Therapeutic considerations in Dukes C colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Willem Aldert

    2001-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the main health issues in the western world. In the Netherlands more than 7000 patients are diagnosed yearly with this disease and half of them will die from it. Prognosis largely depends on tumor stage, which is estimated by radiological, clinical and histological

  3. Colonization of exopolysaccharide-producing Paenibacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... inhibitory effect against A. niger. Growth, protein and biopolymers production of bacteria were ... bacterium colonized plant roots and were able to migrate downward with the root as it elongated. Scanning electron ...... siderophores producing Pseudomonas fluorescence on crown rot. Haggag 1577 disease ...

  4. Types of planned agrarian colonization in Brazilian forests: Historical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Kohlhepp

    2015-01-01

    About 200 years ago state or privately controlled agrarian colonization in South Brazil began with immigrants from Central and Southern Europe. As the Brazilian campos had been occupied by extensive cattle ranching of large landholders, forests were systematically cleared by peasants, the new rural social middle class. Three examples of the most different types of agrarian colonization are presented, colonization of European small farmers in South Brazil in the 19th century; colonization of a...

  5. Diverticular disease of the right colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutross-Tadross Odette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent hereditary differences. The aim of the study is to report all cases of right sided diverticular disease underwent surgical resection or identified during pathological examination of right hemicoloectomy specimens Methods A retrospective review of all surgical specimens with right sided colonic diverticular disease selected from a larger database of all colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis surgical specimen reported between January 1993 and December 2010 at the Pathology Department McMaster University Medical Centre Canada. The clinical and pathological features of these cases were reviewed Results The review identified 15 cases of right colon diverticulosis. The clinical diagnoses of these cases were appendicitis, diverticulitis or adenocarcinoma. Eight cases of single congenital perforated diverticuli were identified and seven cases were incidental multiple acquired diverticuli found in specimen resected for right side colonic carcinomas/large adenomas. Laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted haemicolectomies were done for all cases. Pathological examination showed caecal wall thickening with inflammation associated with perforated diverticuli. Histology confirmed true solitary diverticuli that exhibited in two cases thick walled vessels in the submucosa and muscular layer indicating vascular malformation/angiodysplasia. Acquired diverticuli tend to be multiple and are mostly seen in specimens resected for neoplastic right colon diseases. Conclusion Single true diverticular

  6. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  7. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  8. Remarks on the Colonized Libido: Trying to Think beyond Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilan Bensusan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In these remarks I attempt to think through some of the consequences of the way we conceive and live our desires. I try to contrast those desires with both our idea of freedom and the way we usually understand nature. This takes me quickly to issues such as pornography, male identity and then to how we gain and preserve our self-esteem. This, in turn, takes me to issues that are somehow linked to the institutional and emotional structures of patriarchy under a regime of heterosexuality as a norm. I try to consider these issues from the point of view of someone who was trained within the practices and thoughts of masculinity and is bothered by the consequences of such training. I endeavour to find a way to rethink the colonization of our desires so that we can find paths to an exercise of our capacities of desire that could be somehow freer.

  9. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  10. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Brummer, R. -J. M.; Vonk, R. J.

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the

  11. Clinical presentation of patients and distribution of colonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonic diverticula disease is an acquired disease which affects adults and is frequently referred to as a western world disease. In Nigeria, studies on colonic diverticulosis are sparse and few of them are case reports. The aim was to describe the clinical presentation and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in patients who ...

  12. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M.G.; Welling, G.W.; Brummer, R.J.M.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Colon-Specific Microspheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate colon specific drug delivery system of diclofenac sodium for highly localized delivery to the colon. Methods: The colon specific drug delivery system was prepared as matrix-type microspheres using Ethyl Cellulose (EC), Cellulose Acetate Phthalate (CAP), and Eudragit L 100-55 by the ...

  14. Growth hormone is permissive for neoplastic colon growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Zhou, Cuiqi; Recouvreux, Maria Victoria; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Araki, Takako; Barrett, Robert; Workman, Michael; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Ljubimov, Vladimir A.; Uhart, Magdalena; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) excess in acromegaly is associated with increased precancerous colon polyps and soft tissue adenomas, whereas short-stature humans harboring an inactivating GH receptor mutation do not develop cancer. We show that locally expressed colon GH is abundant in conditions predisposing to colon cancer and in colon adenocarcinoma-associated stromal fibroblasts. Administration of a GH receptor (GHR) blocker in acromegaly patients induced colon p53 and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), reversing progrowth GH signals. p53 was also induced in skin fibroblasts derived from short-statured humans with mutant GHR. GH-deficient prophet of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1 (Prop1)−/− mice exhibited induced colon p53 levels, and cross-breeding them with Apcmin+/− mice that normally develop intestinal and colon tumors resulted in GH-deficient double mutants with markedly decreased tumor number and size. We also demonstrate that GH suppresses p53 and reduces apoptosis in human colon cell lines as well as in induced human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids, and confirm in vivo that GH suppresses colon mucosal p53/p21. GH excess leads to decreased colon cell phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), increased cell survival with down-regulated APC, nuclear β-catenin accumulation, and increased epithelial–mesenchymal transition factors and colon cell motility. We propose that GH is a molecular component of the “field change” milieu permissive for neoplastic colon growth. PMID:27226307

  15. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon, rectum and anus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report an unusual case of SEP of the colon in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. The patient was managed with colonic resection and made an uneventful recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon and rectum in association with HIV ...

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : a possible role for heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however,

  17. Right sided colon cancer at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies suggest that right sided colon cancer may have a different clinicopathological behaviour and prognosis from carcinoma in the rest of the colon and especially the rectum. Reports in the Nigerian literature had usually considered colon and rectal cancer together, thereby masking these differences. This study is ...

  18. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  19. Formulation, development and evaluation of colon-specific ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major intention to formulate and develop colon targeted tablets is to improve the therapeutic efficacy by increasing therapeutic drug concentrations in colon. The present study was aimed to develop guar gum compression coated tablets ketorolac tromethamine to achieve the colon-specific drug release. In this study ...

  20. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide replenishment rescues colon degeneration in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Shen, Weiyan; Wang, Ying; Jaiswal, Amit; Ju, Zhenyu; Sheng, Qinsong

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility of gastrointestinal dysmotility increases with age-associated colonic degeneration. A paucity of remedies reversing colonic degeneration per se hinders the fundamental relief of symptoms. Here we discovered the correlation between colon degeneration and altered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) level in aged mice. Compared to 3-month-old young controls, 2-year-old mice showed a spectrum of degenerative colonic phenotypes and exhibited a significant elongated transit time and slowed stool frequency in the context of Lomotil-induced slow-transit constipation. Despite upregulated colonic tryptophan hydroxylases expression, serotonin release and expression of colon-predominant type IV serotonin receptor, reduced viability of interstitial cells of Cajal while enhanced aquaporins (Aqp1, 3 and 11) led to a less colonic motility and increased luminal dehydration in aged mice. Notably, this colonic degeneration was accompanied with reduced key NAD + -generating enzyme expression and lowered NAD + /NADH ratio in aged colon. Three-month continuous administration of beta nicotinamide mononucleotide, a NAD + precursor, elevated colonic NAD + level and improved defecation in aged mice. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD + biosynthesis, induced a reduction in colonic NAD content and impaired gastrointestinal function in young mice. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial effect of NAD + in maintaining colonic homoeostasis and reactivating NAD + biosynthesis may represent a promising strategy to counteract age-related gastrointestinal degeneration.

  1. The study of serum folate in patients with colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Sumei; Li Long

    2002-01-01

    Serum folate concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in 36 patients with colon cancer. Folate concentration in the patients was lower than that in controls (P<0.05). Serum folate concentration was closely related to colon cancer. Regulating food and drink structure to improve lower folate condition could play a active part in preventing colon cancer

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in response to restoration practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Catherine; York, Robert A; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with soil microbiota determine the success of restoring plants to their native habitats. The goal of our study was to understand the effects of restoration practices on interactions of giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota). Natural regeneration of Sequoiadendron is threatened by the absence of severe fires that create forest canopy gaps. Generating artificial canopy gaps offers an alternative tool for giant sequoia restoration. We investigated the effect of regeneration practices, including (i) sapling location within gaps, (ii) gap size and (iii) soil substrate, on AM fungal colonization of giant sequoia sapling roots in a native giant sequoia grove of the Sierra Nevada, California. We found that the extent of AM fungal root colonization was positively correlated with sapling height and light availability, which were related to the location of the sapling within the gap and the gap size. While colonization frequency by arbuscules in saplings on ash substrate was higher relative to saplings in mineral soil, the total AM fungal root colonization was similar between the substrates. A negative correlation between root colonization by Glomeromycota and non-AM fungal species indicated antagonistic interactions between different classes of root-associated fungi. Using DNA genotyping, we identified six AM fungal taxa representing genera Glomus and Ambispora present in Sequoiadendron roots. Overall, we found that AM fungal colonization of giant sequoia roots was associated with availability of plant-assimilated carbon to the fungus rather than with the AM fungal supply of mineral nutrients to the roots. We conclude that restoration practices affecting light availability and carbon assimilation alter feedbacks between sapling growth and activity of AM fungi in the roots.

  3. β-Catenin promotes colitis and colon cancer through imprinting of proinflammatory properties in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthivasan, Shilpa; Aghajani, Katayoun; Dose, Marei; Molinero, Luciana; Khan, Mohammad W; Venkateswaran, Vysak; Weber, Christopher; Emmanuel, Akinola Olumide; Sun, Tianjao; Bentrem, David J; Mulcahy, Mary; Keshavarzian, Ali; Ramos, Elena M; Blatner, Nichole; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Gounari, Fotini

    2014-02-26

    The density and type of lymphocytes that infiltrate colon tumors are predictive of the clinical outcome of colon cancer. High densities of T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells and inflammation predict poor outcome, whereas infiltration by T regulatory cells (Tregs) that naturally suppress inflammation is associated with longer patient survival. However, the role of Tregs in cancer remains controversial. We recently reported that Tregs in colon cancer patients can become proinflammatory and tumor-promoting. These properties were directly linked with their expression of RORγt (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-γt), the signature transcription factor of T(H)17 cells. We report that Wnt/β-catenin signaling in T cells promotes expression of RORγt. Expression of β-catenin was elevated in T cells, including Tregs, of patients with colon cancer. Genetically engineered activation of β-catenin in mouse T cells resulted in enhanced chromatin accessibility in the proximity of T cell factor-1 (Tcf-1) binding sites genome-wide, induced expression of T(H)17 signature genes including RORγt, and promoted T(H)17-mediated inflammation. Strikingly, the mice had inflammation of small intestine and colon and developed lesions indistinguishable from colitis-induced cancer. Activation of β-catenin only in Tregs was sufficient to produce inflammation and initiate cancer. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in effector T cells and/or Tregs is causatively linked with the imprinting of proinflammatory properties and the promotion of colon cancer.

  4. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic colon resection versus open colon resection for adenocarcinoma. A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E; Rosenthal, D; Norem, R F

    1995-07-01

    Laparoscopic colon resection (LCR) has been performed in the United States sine 1990. This procedure has been accepted by many as a reasonable alternative for nonmalignant, colonic, surgical disease, but the laparoscopic approach remains controversial for curative treatment of carcinoma. In this paper, the results of a nonrandomized series of two large experiences of laparoscopic colon resections were performed and followed for 3 1/2 years in a prospective fashion against an equal number of patients who underwent open resection. The setting was several large metropolitan hospitals in San Antonio, Texas. Over 194 patients were involved in this study. Each patient once diagnosed with resectable colonic cancer was allowed to choose their own procedure, laparoscopic or open colon resection, either of which was performed by the authors. Factors considered include age, sex, body habitus, stage of cancer, margins of resection, numbers of lymph nodes retrieved, hospitalization time, and follow-up period. Observations at this time indicate the following: (1) LCR allows for resection comparable to the classical approach, (2) equal numbers of mesenteric lymph nodes can be retrieved, (3) adequacy of margins of resection can be accurately determined by colonoscopy during LCR, and (4) brief follow-up periods show comparable survival and disease-free intervals. It is the conclusion of the authors that with proper training LCR will come to be recognized as a safe, effective surgical option for treatment of selected patients with colon cancer.

  5. Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ri Na; Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Gun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2017-10-01

    Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

  6. Influence of the surgical manipulation of the colon in colonic induced carcinogenesis in rats Influencia de la manipulación quirúrgica del colon en la carcinogénesis cólica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of different experimental manipulations in a model of colonic experimental carcinogenesis with pharmacological induction in the rat. Experimental design: a total of 90 Sprague-Dawley male rats, divided into three groups, were used: non-surgical (n = 30; surgical with colonic trauma (n = 20, and surgical with colo-colonic anastomosis (n = 40. Carcinogenic induction was carried out with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Colonic adenocarcinomas were identified and the number of tumors, as well as tumoral surface and percentage of tumoral surface was established. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: the number of tumors was greater in the surgical group than in the control group, and tumors preferentially develop-ed around the manipulated colon. Surface and tumoral percentage were greater in the surgical group than in the control group, being also greater in the anastomosis group than in the group with colonic trauma. Within anastomosis groups, a greater tumor surface and percentage was found in the group with titanium than in the group with reabsorbable material. Conclusions: the experimental manipulation of the colon in rats enhances drug-induced colon carcingenesis. The creation of an anastomosis further increases the carcinogenic process compared with simulated anastomosis. This process is also enhanced by the quantity of suture material included in the anastomosis, and by the non-reabsorbable nature of the materials used in the anastomotic line.Objetivo: valorar la influencia de las distintas manipulaciones experimentales en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica experimental con inducción farmacológica en la rata. Diseño experimental: se emplearon 90 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, divididas en tres grupos: no quirúrgico (n=30; quirúrgico con traumatismo cólico (n=20, y quirúrgico con anastomosis colocólica (n=40. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con

  7. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  8. Increased reactive oxygen species levels cause ER stress and cytotoxicity in andrographolide treated colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Aditi; Banerjee, Vivekjyoti; Czinn, Steven; Blanchard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress...

  9. Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Boucher, K M; Caan, B J; Potter, J D; Ma, K N

    1998-07-01

    Colon cancer has been associated with several nutrients and foods. The authors used data from a population-based study conducted in Northern California, Utah, and Minnesota to examine associations between dietary eating patterns and risk of developing colon cancer. Through factor analysis, detailed dietary intake data obtained from 1,993 cases (diagnosed in 1991-1994) and 2,410 controls were grouped into factors that were evaluated for relations with lifestyle characteristics and colon cancer risk. Several dietary patterns emerged. The dietary patterns with the most variation were labeled "Western," "prudent," "high fat/sugar dairy," "substituters," and "drinkers." The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with a higher body mass index and a greater intake of total energy and dietary cholesterol. The "prudent" pattern was associated with higher levels of vigorous leisure time physical activity, smaller body size, and higher intakes of dietary fiber and folate. Persons who had high scores on the "drinker" pattern were also more likely to smoke cigarettes. The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in both men and women. The association was strongest among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (for men, odds ratio (OR)=1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-3.15; for women, OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.21-3.36) and among men with distal tumors (OR=2.25, 95% CI 1.47-3.46). The "prudent" diet was protective, with the strongest associations being observed among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (men: OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92; women: OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.87); associations with this dietary pattern were also strong among persons with proximal tumors (men: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.80; women: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.92). Although "substituters" (people who substituted low fat dairy products for high fat dairy products, margarine for butter, poultry for red meat, and whole grains for refined grains) were at reduced risk of colon cancer

  10. Low frequency of polyps in colonic regions with diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Irving; Rangnekar, Amol S; Tokayer, Aaron Z

    2017-11-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding any association between diverticulosis and adenomatous polyps. We evaluated the prevalence of polyps and cancer in colonic regions containing diverticula. Six hundred consecutive colonoscopy reports from a single endoscopist were reviewed to determine prevalence and location of diverticulosis and polyps. Additionally, pathology reports of 88 colon cancer resection specimens were reviewed for the presence of diverticulosis, and compared with expected prevalence of diverticulosis in that colonic region based on the collected colonoscopy data. Overall, rates of detected polyps were comparable between patients with and without diverticulosis. However, analyzing the data by colonic segment containing diverticulosis, the prevalence of adenomatous polyps was reduced in regions of diverticulosis compared to the same colonic segment unaffected by diverticulosis (7 vs. 17% for rectosigmoid (p = 0.005); 5 vs. 18% for descending (p diverticulosis was significantly reduced in the rectosigmoid and ascending colon, compared with expected rates of diverticulosis in those regions. (13 vs. 42% in rectosigmoid (p = 0.0006); 3 vs. 17% in ascending colon (p = 0.043)). Despite similar overall frequency of polyps in patients with and without diverticulosis, polyps were significantly less likely in the colonic segment affected by diverticulosis. Additionally, the frequency of diverticulosis in areas of cancer in the rectosigmoid and ascending colon was significantly lower than expected compared with the expected frequency of diverticulosis for those colonic regions. These observations suggest a true negative association between colonic neoplasia and diverticulosis.

  11. Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduce the effects of ischemia on colonic anastomosis in laparoscopic colon resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Seyfi; Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan; Sozen, Selim; Bali, Ilhan; Yesildag, Ebru; Celik, Atilla; Guzel, Savas; Sahin, Onder; Ay, Hakan; Topcu, Birol

    2016-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal pressure causes a decrease in the splanchnic blood flow and the intramucosal pH of the bowel, as well as increasing the risk of ischemia in the colon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the ischemia caused by laparoscopy in colonic anastomosis in an experimental model of laparoscopic colonic surgery. We divided 30 male Wistar albino rats into three groups: Group A was the control (open colon anastomosis); Group B received LCA (laparoscopic colon anastomosis); while Group C received both LCA and HBOT. Each group contained ten animals. We placed Group C (LCA and HBOT) in an experimental hyperbaric chamber into which we administered pure oxygen at 2.1 atmospheres absolute 100% oxygen for 60 min for ten consecutive days. The anastomotic bursting pressure value was found to be higher in the open surgery group (226 ± 8.8) (Group A). The result for Group C (213 ± 27), which received HBOT, was better than that for Group B (197 ± 27). However, there was no statistically significant difference between Group B and Group C. Group A showed better healing than the other groups, while significant differences in the fibroblast proliferation scores were found between Groups A and B. In terms of tissue hydroxyproline levels, a significant difference was found between Groups A and B and between Groups A and C, but not between Groups B and C. HBOT increases the oxygen level in the injured tissue. Although HBOT might offer several advantages, it had only a limited effect on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats with increased intra-abdominal pressure in our study. Anastomosis, Colon, Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment, Oxidative Stress.

  12. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    not necessary mean planning for a one common nature. As exemplified by the River Aire Re-naturalization Project (2002-2015), landscape architecture might provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. In the presentation...

  13. Sulindac for polyposis of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, W R; Loughry, R W

    1983-09-01

    Four members of a Gardner's syndrome family had rectal and colon polyposis treated with nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Three of these patients had had subtotal colectomy and ileoproctostomy and the residual polyps arose in the rectal mucosa. The polyps almost completely disappeared when sulindac was administered. Indomethacin therapy over the course of a preceding year was ineffective in one of these patients. One patient (case 4) had diffuse polyposis in an intact colon. After sulindac therapy for a year, only three small mucosal polyps could be identified by air contrast barium enema and colonoscopic examination. These observations confirm those of Pollard and Luckert [1,2] on rats with chemically induced polyposis of the intestinal tract.

  14. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  15. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...... microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS....... DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained...

  16. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

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    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  17. Potassium secretion in mammalian distal colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2009-01-01

    . This research project is the summary of 3 original papers addressing the functional role of different regulating factors on ion transport in mouse distal colon. The first paper addresses the effect of luminal nucleotides on electrogenic Na+ absorption. The distal colon, like the distal nephron is an aldosterone......2 subunits in mice treated on an aldosterone increasing diet (high K+). Immunolabelling showed BK channel localisation in the luminal membrane which also was up-regulated in animals treated on a high K+ diet. Taken together these results firmly prove that aldosterone-stimulated K+ secretion......-/- mouse, we could functionally isolate the cAMP-activated K+ conductance as the BK channel. In addition we found the cAMP-activated K+ conductance to be further up-regulated by aldosterone. Taken together, these results show cAMP-activated K+ secretion occurs via a regulated specific splice variant...

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-01-01

    Punctal plugs are used in patients with dry eye syndrome to preserve the tears. In this report, I present two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs. Observational series of two cases. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board. Two men aged 29 and 31 years developed black spots inside the hole of punctal plug, which looked like eyeliner deposits. The deposits inside the hole of the plug in each patient were removed and cultured. Cultures of the two punctal plugs black deposits grew A fumigatus. Bacterial cultures were negative. Colonization of the punctal plug hole with A fumigatus was observed in two cases. It is recommended that punctal plugs be removed in patients undergoing refractive or intraocular procedures or in patients who are receiving topical corticosteroids. Current punctal plugs should be redesigned to avoid the presence of an inserter hole.

  19. Colon cancer stem cells: Controversies and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Tesori, Valentina; Lattanzi, Wanda; Gasbarrini, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Tumors have long been viewed as a population in which all cells have the equal propensity to form new tumors, the so called conventional stochastic model. The cutting-edge theory on tumor origin and progression, tends to consider cancer as a stem cell disease. Stem cells are actively involved in the onset and maintenance of colon cancer. This review is intended to examine the state of the art on colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), with regard to the recent achievements of basic research and to the corresponding translational consequences. Specific prominence is given to the hypothesized origin of CSCs and to the methods for their identification. The growing understanding of CSC biology is driving the optimization of novel anti-cancer targeted drugs. PMID:23716979

  20. Colon ischemia: recent insights and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstadt, Paul; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    Ischemic colitis is the most common manifestation of ischemic injury to the gastrointestinal tract, and the variety of defined causes is increasing. Local hypoperfusion and reperfusion injury are both thought to contribute to the disease process, which manifests with a wide spectrum of injury including reversible colopathy (subepithelial hemorrhage and edema), transient colitis, chronic colitis, stricture, gangrene, and fulminant universal colitis. The distribution is typically segmental. Older studies showed that any portion of the colon can be involved; recently, it was established that the site of involvement and prognosis can be correlated. In particular, isolated involvement of the right side of the colon was shown to have a different presentation and worse outcome than ischemic colitis involving other segments. Diagnosis is usually made clinically and supported by radiologic imaging and colonoscopic evaluation. Most patients respond to conservative supportive therapy, although some with severe disease require surgical intervention.

  1. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    microchimerism predicts risk for developing breast cancer is unknown. FMc was evaluated in buffy coat cells from presumed healthy women who later developed breast cancer or colon cancer, a cancer in which prior pregnancy appears protective but has different associations with endocrine risk factors. METHODS......1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal....... DNA from repository buffy coat specimens was tested for male FMc with quantitative PCR targeting the DYS14gene on the Y chromosome. For this analysis, 89 women who developed breast cancer and 67 women who developed colon cancer were evaluable for FMc. Results were compared to 272 women who remained...

  2. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-05

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but essential to cure the malignant foci completely. Herein, we review the recent evidence for intestinal stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, methods to detect the tumor-initiating cells, and clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers. We also describe the emerging problems of cancer stem cell theory, including bidirectional conversion and intertumoral heterogeneity of stem cell phenotype.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous Colitis masquerading as carcinoma of colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XGI is an uncommon pathological diagnosis involving various organ systems, the most common being the gall bladder and kidney. It can masquerade as a malignant mass thus, requiring a clinical suspicion for accurate and timely diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with acute onset of obstipation and vomiting suggesting acute obstruction. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen revealed a solid irregular mass in the ascending colon with large necrotic areas and surrounding enlarged nodes suggestive of malignancy arising from right colon. Right hemi-colectomy was performed. Histopathology of the surgical specimen showed florid inflammatory infiltrate with collection of histiocytes, lymphocytes and polymorphs. Further immunohistochemistry was conducted, and CD68 and CD45 were found to be positive and pan-cytokeratin was negative. A clinico-pathological diagnosis was thus established to be xanthogranulomatous colitis.

  4. Effect of surface modification of siliconeon Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Cao, Ting; Wang, Anfeng; Liang, Xuemei; Salley, Steven O; McAllister, James P; Ng, K Y Simon

    2007-03-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus are generally made of silicone rubber. The growth of bacterial colonies on the silicone surface leads to frequent CSF shunt complications. A systematic study of the effect of the surface modification of silicone on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion and colonization was performed for different incubation times by means of colony counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Silicone was modified with different biopolymers and silanes, including heparin, hyaluronan, octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), and fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) to provide a stable and biocompatible surface with different surface functional groups and degrees of hydrophobicity. The modified silicone surfaces were studied by using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After 4 and 8 h of incubation, the FAS- and OTS-coated silicone and the hyaluronan coated OTS/silicone surfaces showed significantly reduced bacterial adhesion and colonization compared to blank silicone by both quantification methods. However, the heparin coated OTS/silicone showed significantly increased bacterial adhesion. These results indicate that the nature of the surface functional group and surface roughness determine the extent of bacterial adhesion and colonization. However, the degree of hydrophobicity of the surface did not appear to play a determining role in bacterial adhesion and colonization.

  5. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  6. Metastasis of Colon Cancer to the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swei H. Tsung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms are extremely rare, and even more so is metastasis of colon cancer to the breast. Despite its rarity, metastatic disease to the breast is an important diagnostic issue because its treatment differs greatly from that of primary cancer. Proper diagnosis of this rare event requires an accurate clinical history, proper immunohistochemical workup, and a high level of suspicion.

  7. Laparoscopic right colon resection with intracorporeal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Karen; Fakhoury, Mathew; Barnajian, Moshe; Tarta, Cristi; Bergamaschi, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate short-term clinical outcomes of laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon. This was a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon for tumors or Crohn's disease by a single surgeon from July 2002 through June 2012. Data were retrieved from an Institutional Review Board-approved database. Study end point was postoperative adverse events, including mortality, complications, reoperations, and readmissions at 30 days. Antiperistaltic side-to-side anastomoses were fashioned laparoscopically with a 60-mm-long stapler cartridge and enterocolotomy was hand-sewn intracorporeally in two layers. Values were expressed as medians (ranges) for continuous variables. There were 243 patients (143 females) aged 61 (range = 19-96) years, with body mass index of 29 (18-43) kg/m(2) and ASA 1:2:3:4 of 52:110:77:4; 30 % had previous abdominal surgery and 38 % had a preexisting comorbidity. There were 84 ileocolic resections with ileo ascending anastomosis and 159 right colectomies with ileotransverse anastomosis. Operating time was 135 (60-220) min. Estimated blood loss was 50 (10-600) ml. Specimen extraction site incision length was 4.1 (3-4.4) cm. Conversion rate was 3 % and there was no mortality at 30 days, 15 complications (6.2 %), and 8 reoperations (3.3 %). Readmission rate was 8.7 %. Length of stay was 4 (2-32) days. Pathology confirmed Crohn's disease in 84 patients, adenocarcinoma in 152, and other tumors in 7 patients. Laparoscopic intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis following resection of the right colon resulted in a favorable outcome in selected patients with Crohn's disease or tumors of the right colon.

  8. Colonic polyps in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Durno, Carol A

    2007-01-01

    Colonic polyps most commonly present with rectal bleeding in children. The isolated juvenile polyp is the most frequent kind of polyp identified in children. ‘Juvenile’ refers to the histological type of polyp and not the age of onset of the polyp. Adolescents and adults with multiple juvenile polyps are at a significant risk of intestinal cancer. The challenge for adult and pediatric gastroenterologists is determining the precise risk of colorectal cancer in patients with juvenile polyposis ...

  9. Colonic polyps: experience of 236 Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, U; Thapa, B R; Vaiphei, K; Singh, K

    1998-04-01

    We studied the clinical spectrum, histology, and malignant potential of colonic polyps in Indian children (children with colonic polyps were studied from January 1991 to October 1996. They were evaluated clinically and colonoscopic polypectomy was done. Children with five or more juvenile polyps were labeled as having juvenile polyposis and serial colonoscopic polypectomies were done every 3 wk. Colectomy was performed when there were intractable symptoms or clearing of the polyps by colonoscopy was not possible. Histological examination of the polyps was done. Follow-up colonoscopy was done in children with juvenile polyposis only. The mean age of these children was 6.12 +/- 2.7 yr, with a male preponderance (3.5:1). Rectal bleeding of a mean duration of 14 +/- 16 months was the presenting symptom in 98.7%. Solitary polyps were seen in 76%, multiple polyps in 16.5%, and juvenile polyposis in 7% (n = 17) of the children. A majority (93%) of the polyps were juvenile and 85% were rectosigmoid in location. Adenomatous changes, seen in 11%, were more common in juvenile polyposis (59%) than in juvenile polyps (5%). Among those with juvenile polyposis, colon clearance was achieved in eight, six required colectomy for intractable symptoms, and three were still on the polypectomy program. Polyps recurred in 5% of children with juvenile polyps and 37.5% of those with juvenile polyposis. Juvenile polyps remain the most common colonic polyps in children. A significant number of cases of polyps are multiple and proximally located, which emphasizes the need for total colonoscopy in all. Juvenile polyps should be removed even if asymptomatic because of their neoplastic potential. Colonoscopic polypectomy is effective even in juvenile polyposis. Surveillance colonoscopy is required in juvenile polyposis only.

  10. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  11. Sustainability: A Tedious Path to Galactic Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Dutil, Y.; Dumas, S.

    2007-01-01

    Civilization cannot sustain an exponential growth for long time even when neglecting numerous laws of physics! In this paper, we examine what are fundamental obstacles to long term survival of a civilization and its possibility to colonize the Galaxy. Using the solar system as a reference, resources available for sustained growth are analyzed. Using this information, we will explore the probability of discovering a civilization at its different stage of energy evolution as estimating some pos...

  12. Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

  13. Synchronous Occurrence of Colon and Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Goryń Tomasz; Meszka Monika; Pawlak Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The study presented two cases of synchronous occurrence of colon and appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Both patients required surgical intervention, due to acute peritonitis during the course of acute appendicitis. In case of one patient we performed abdominal CT confirming the presence of sigmoid cancer. The patient was subjected to appendectomy and Hartmann’s operation. The second patient underwent an appendectomy, and colonoscopy performed two months later revealed the presence of rectal adenoca...

  14. Transcatheter emboilization therapy of massive colonic bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, G. H.; Oh, J. H.; Yoon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    To evaulate the efficacy and safety of emergent superselective transcatheter embolization for controlling massive colonic bleeding. Six of the seven patients who had symptom of massive gastrointestinal bleeding underwent emergent transcatheter embolization for control of the bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients was originated from various colonic diseases: rectal cancer(n=1), proctitis(n=1), benign ulcer(n=1), mucosal injury by ventriculoperitoneal shunt(n=1), and unknown(n=2). All patients except one with rectal cancer were critically ill. Superselective embolization were done by using Gelfoam particles and/or coils. The vessels embolized were ileocolic artery(n=1). superior rectal artery(n=2), inferior rectal artery (n=1), and middle and inferior rectal arteries(n=1). Hemostasis was successful immediately in all patients. Two underwnet surgery due to recurrent bleeding developed 3 days after the procedure(n=1) or in associalion with underlying rectal cancer(n=1). On surgical specimen of two cases, there was no mucosal ischemic change. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and effective treatment of method for the control of massive colonic bleeding

  15. Social Media, Delinguistification and Colonization of Lifeworld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Heyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article critically investigates, from an interdisciplinary perspective, how the current evolution of social media—like social network sites—interferes with the balance between private, commercial, and public space. We build on the concepts of lifeworld and systems, developed in Habermas’ theory of communicative action. The discussion is supported and enriched by the work of Feenberg and van Dijck, integrating insights from Science and Technology Studies and media studies. Technology philosopher and critical Science and Technology Studies scholar Feenberg introduces technology as a steering “medium” that delinguistifies and possibly colonizes the lifeworld by reinterpreting media sociological perspectives of Habermas, Marcuse, Latour, and Callon. In a similar way, media scholar van Dijck analyses the transition from human connectedness to automated connectivity in the context of social media. We then illustrate the delinguistification and the colonization of lifeworld with a systematic analysis of the contingent evolution of Facebook as one particular case in social media. We focus on three specific artifacts in Facebook, framed as obligatory passage points: EdgeRank, Sponsored Stories, and Gatekeeper. Each of them gives an idea how the private space is subsumed under the commercial space and how the colonization reconfigures the public space in social media like Facebook. In this sense, we complement the political economy analysis of prosumer commodity with the action-theoretical autonomist approach of immaterial labor, highlighting new potential threats of the current social media development.

  16. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  17. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  18. Sigmoid colon translocation of an intrauterine device misdiagnosed as a colonic polyp: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Xin; Yu, Mo-Sang; Gu, Meng-Li; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Hong-Ru; Ji, Feng; Pan, Hang-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are recommended as a means of contraception. Translocation of IUD is a rare and serious complication. Colonic inflammatory mass caused by translocated IUD initially misdiagnosed as a colonic polyp is extremely rare and has not been reported yet. This report presents a case of sigmoid colon translocation of intrauterine device on a 37-year-old female patient. Colonoscopy was performed due to her complain of repeated blood in stools and subsequently the patient was misdiagnosed as a sigmoid colon polyp. Nonetheless, the "polyp" was not able to be removed endoscopically. Sigmoid colon translocation of an intrauterine device. To further clarify the diagnosis, computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and the "polyp" was confirmed to be caused by a translocated IUD. The translocated IUD was removed easily by surgery, and the patient recovered soon after the operation. The present case indicates that an annual gynaecologic examination is necessary to determine the position of the IUD, and a CT examination may help confirm an ectopic IUD.

  19. Endophytes : Exploiting biodiversity for the improvement of natural product-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Endophytes, microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species, create a huge biodiversity with yet unknown novel natural products, presumed to push forward the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel, endophyte research has

  20. The soy-derived peptide Vglycin inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chang; Sun, Rui; Xie, Ya-Rong; Jiang, An-Li; Lin, Mei; Li, Min; Chen, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Ping; Jin, Honglin; Feng, Jue-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Vglycin, a novel natural polypeptide isolated from pea seeds, possesses antidiabetic properties. Our previous studies have shown that Vglycin can induce the differentiation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells. We aimed to determine the anticancer activity of Vglycin against colon cancer cells and to elucidate related apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. Treatment with purified Vglycin significantly reduced growth, viability, and colony formation of CT-26, SW480, and NCL-H716 colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner while down-regulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Mouse xenograft studies showed a 38% inhibition of colon cancer growth in mice treated with Vglycin (20 mg/kg/day) at day 21. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms involved in Vglycin-induced cell apoptosis were examined using cell cycle studies, ultrastructural examination, as well as apoptosis-associated pathway analysis. The results showed that Vglycin significantly promoted apoptosis and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. As revealed by Western blot, the expression of CDK2 and Cyclin D1 was down-regulated in all three Vglycin-treated colon cancer cells, indicating that the CDK2/Cyclin D1 cell cycle pathway involved in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Moreover, the inhibition of Vglycin-induced cell proliferation in colon cancer cells was accompanied by alteration of the expression levels of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, and an increase of caspase-3 activity. Together, our results suggest that Vglycin may be another plant-derived peptide that suppresses colon cancer, supporting the continued investigation of Vglycin as therapeutic agent for colon cancer. Impact statement The antidiabetic properties and the capability of inducing differentiation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells of Vglycin have been reported in our previous studies. However, the anticancer potential of Vglycin on colon cancer cells and its possible related mechanisms were

  1. Neutral processes forming large clones during colonization of new areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafajlović, M; Kleinhans, D; Gulliksson, C; Fries, J; Johansson, D; Ardehed, A; Sundqvist, L; Pereyra, R T; Mehlig, B; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2017-08-01

    In species reproducing both sexually and asexually clones are often more common in recently established populations. Earlier studies have suggested that this pattern arises due to natural selection favouring generally or locally successful genotypes in new environments. Alternatively, as we show here, this pattern may result from neutral processes during species' range expansions. We model a dioecious species expanding into a new area in which all individuals are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, and all individuals have equal survival rates and dispersal distances. Even under conditions that favour sexual recruitment in the long run, colonization starts with an asexual wave. After colonization is completed, a sexual wave erodes clonal dominance. If individuals reproduce more than one season, and with only local dispersal, a few large clones typically dominate for thousands of reproductive seasons. Adding occasional long-distance dispersal, more dominant clones emerge, but they persist for a shorter period of time. The general mechanism involved is simple: edge effects at the expansion front favour asexual (uniparental) recruitment where potential mates are rare. Specifically, our model shows that neutral processes (with respect to genotype fitness) during the population expansion, such as random dispersal and demographic stochasticity, produce genotype patterns that differ from the patterns arising in a selection model. The comparison with empirical data from a post-glacially established seaweed species (Fucus radicans) shows that in this case, a neutral mechanism is strongly supported. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on Behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Isolated metachronous splenic metastasis from synchronous colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aker Fugen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare and there are only 13 cases reported in the English literature so far. Most cases are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually made by imaging studies during the evaluation of rising CEA level postoperatively. Case presentation A 76-year-old man underwent an extended left hemicolectomy for synchronous colon cancers located at the left flexure and the sigmoid colon. The tumors were staged as IIIC (T3N2M0 clinically and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. During the first year follow-up period, the patient remained asymptomatic with normal levels of laboratory tests including CEA measurement. However, a gradually rising CEA level after the 14th postoperative month necessitated further imaging studies including computed tomography of the abdomen which revealed a mass in the spleen that was subsequently confirmed by 18FDG- PET scanning to be an isolated metastasis. The patient underwent splenectomy 17 months after his previous cancer surgery. Histological diagnosis confirmed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with no capsule invasion. After an uneventful postoperative period, the patient has been symptom-free during the one-year of follow-up with normal blood CEA levels, although he did not accept to receive any further adjuvant therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this 14th case of isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is also the first reported case of splenic metastasis demonstrated preoperatively by 18FDG PET-CT fusion scanning which revealed its solitary nature as well. Conclusion Isolated splenic metastasis is a rare finding in the follow-up of colorectal cancer patients and long-term survival can be achieved with splenectomy.

  3. Immunosensing during colonization by Candida albicans: does it take a village to colonize the intestine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Carol A; Pierce, Jessica V

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a component of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, is a frequent colonizer of humans. Is C. albicans capable of sensing the immune status of its host, a process we term immunosensing, and, if so, how? C. albicans causes serious disease only in immunocompromised hosts and therefore the ability to immunosense would be advantageous to an organism. We propose a speculative model whereby, during colonization, C. albicans produces phenotypic variants that vary in relative concentration depending on host status. One variant is optimized for persistence as a commensal, whereas the other variant has higher capacity to initiate pathogenic interactions. When the ratio of the two variants changes, the pathogenic potential of the population changes. The critical element of this model is that the C. albicans colonizing population is not uniform but is composed of subpopulations of phenotypic variants that are advantageous under different host conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoscopic Localization of Colon Cancer Is Frequently Inaccurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayor, Jennifer; Rotman, Stephen R; Chan, Walter W; Goldberg, Joel E; Saltzman, John R

    2017-08-01

    Colonoscopic location of a tumor can influence both the surgical procedure choice and overall treatment strategy. To determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in determining the location of colon cancer compared to surgical localization and to elucidate factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of colon cancers diagnosed on colonoscopy at two academic tertiary-care hospitals and two affiliated community hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Colon cancer location was obtained from the endoscopic and surgical pathology reports and characterized by colon segment. We collected data on patient demographics, tumor characteristics, endoscopic procedure characteristics, surgery planned, and surgery performed. Univariate analyses using Chi-squared test and multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression were performed to determine factors that predict discordant colon cancer localization. There were 110 colon cancer cases identified during the study period. Inaccurate endoscopic colon cancer localization was found in 29% (32/110) of cases. These included 14 cases (12.7%) that were discordant by more than one colonic segment and three cases where the presurgical planned procedure was significantly changed at the time of surgery. On univariate analyses, right-sided colon lesions were associated with increased inaccuracy (43.8 vs 24.4%, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, right-sided colon lesions remained independently associated with inaccuracy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.03-2.93, p = 0.04). Colon cancer location as determined by colonoscopy is often inaccurate, which can result in intraoperative changes to surgical management, particularly in the right colon.

  5. Cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess as the herald of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Gun; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Seung Hoon; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Jin-Oh; Kim, Boo Sung; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong

    2012-02-01

    Colonic mucosal defects might be a route for bacterial invasion into the portal system, with subsequent hematogenous spread to the liver. We retrospectively investigated the results of colonoscopy and the clinical characteristics of patients with pyogenic liver abscess of colonic origin. A total of 230 consecutive patients with pyogenic liver abscess were reviewed between 2003 and 2010. The 230 patients were categorized into three groups (pancreatobiliary [n = 135], cryptogenic [n = 81], and others [n = 14]). Of the 81 cryptogenic patients, 37 (45.7%) underwent colonoscopy. Colonic lesions with mucosal defects were considered colonic causes of abscess. In the 37 colonoscopic investigations, colon cancer was found in six patients (16.2%), laterally-spreading tumor (LST) in two patients (5.4%), multiple colon ulcers in one patient (2.7%), colon polyps in 17 patients (45.9%), and diverticula in four patients (10.8%). Nine (11%) of 81 cryptogenic abscesses were therefore reclassified as being of colonic origin (colon cancer = 6, LST = 2, ulcer = 1). Three cases were stage III colon cancer, and the others were stage I. Two LST were high-grade dysplasia. The percentage of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and diabetes mellitus (DM) of colonic origin was 66.7%, which was significantly higher than the 8.6% for other causes (P colonic cause. Colonoscopy should be considered for the detection of hidden colonic malignant lesions in patients with cryptogenic pyogenic liver abscess, especially for patients with K. pneumoniae and DM. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Detection of colonic polyp candidates with level set-based thickness mapping over the colon wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Duan, Chaijie; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Huafeng; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-03-01

    Further improvement of computer-aided detection (CADe) of colonic polyps is vital to advance computed tomographic colonography (CTC) toward a screening modality, where the detection of flat polyps is especially challenging because limited image features can be extracted from flat polyps, and the traditional geometric features-based CADe methods usually fail to detect such polyps. In this paper, we present a novel pipeline to automatically detect initial polyp candidates (IPCs), especially flat polyps, from CTC images. First, the colon wall mucosa was extracted via a partial volume segmentation approach as a volumetric layer, where the inner border of colon wall can be obtained by shrinking the volumetric layer using level set based adaptive convolution. Then the outer border of colon wall (or the colon wall serosa) was segmented via a combined implementation of geodesic active contour and Mumford-Shah functional in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, the wall thickness was estimated along a unique path between the segmented inner and outer borders with consideration of the volumetric layers and was mapped onto a patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) colon wall model. The IPC detection results can usually be better visualized in a 2D image flattened from the 3D model, where abnormalities were detected by Z-score transformation of the thickness values. The proposed IPC detection approach was validated on 11 patients with 22 CTC scans, and each scan has at least one flat poly annotation. The above presented novel pipeline was effective to detect some flat polyps that were missed by our CADe system while keeping false detections in a relative low level. This preliminary study indicates that the presented pipeline can be incorporated into an existing CADe system to enhance the polyp detection power, especially for flat polyps.

  7. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  8. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  9. Ideology of white racial supremacy: colonization and de-colonization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gibran Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review on how the ideology of white racial supremacy dehumanizes and colonizes the minds of Whites and Blacks in Brazil. For this aim I use critical references about whiteness to highlight dehumanization processes in Whites, and I make use of critical references of Black and African studies to examine specific dehumanization processes of the Black population. Furthermore, the work seeks to reflect on possibilities of mental humanization and de-colonization in both groups considering current policies of Affirmative Action in Education in Brazil.

  10. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  11. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  12. γ-Aminobutyric acid inhibits the proliferation and increases oxaliplatin sensitivity in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihua; Du, Aiying; Xiong, Ying; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Yao; Tian, Zhaofeng; Yan, Hongli

    2016-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a natural non-protein amino acid, which broadly exists in many plant parts and is widely used as an ingredient in the food industry. In mammals, it is widely distributed in central nervous system and non-neural tissues. In addition to a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, endogenous GABA content has been found to be elevated in neoplastic tissues in colon cancer. However, the effect of extraneous GABA on colon cancer has rarely been reported. In this study, we found the inhibitory effects of GABA on the proliferation of colon cancer cells (CCCs). The amino acid also suppressed metastasis of SW480 and SW620 cells. To further study the correlated mechanism, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle distribution and found that GABA suppressed cell cycle progression through G2/M or G1/S phase. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis revealed GABA-induced changes in the mRNA expression of 30 genes, including EGR1, MAPK4, NR4A1, Fos, and FosB, in all the three types of CCC. Importantly, GABA enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of oxaliplatin (OXA) in subcutaneous xenograft tumor model in nude mice. The data suggest that GABA inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation perhaps by attenuating EGR1-NR4A1 axis, EGR1-Fos axis, and by disrupting MEK-EGR1 signaling pathway. This work reveals the pharmacological value of GABA derived from food and suggests that exogenous GABA might play an auxiliary role in polychemotherapy of colon cancer.

  13. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  14. Colonic inflammation in mice is improved by cigarette smoke through iNKT cells recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Montbarbon

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS protects against intestinal inflammation during ulcerative colitis. Immunoregulatory mechanisms sustaining this effect remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CS on experimental colitis and to characterize the intestinal inflammatory response at the cellular and molecular levels. Using the InExpose® System, a smoking device accurately reproducing human smoking habit, we pre-exposed C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks to CS, and then we induced colitis by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. This system allowed us to demonstrate that CS exposure improved colonic inflammation (significant decrease in clinical score, body weight loss and weight/length colonic ratio. This improvement was associated with a significant decrease in colonic proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cytokine expression, as compared to unexposed mice (TNF (p=0.0169, IFNγ (p<0.0001, and IL-17 (p=0.0008. Smoke exposure also induced an increased expression of IL-10 mRNA (p=0.0035 and a marked recruitment of iNKT (invariant Natural Killer T; CD45+ TCRβ+ CD1d tetramer+ cells in the colon of DSS-untreated mice. Demonstration of the role of iNKT cells in CS-dependent colitis improvement was performed using two different strains of NKT cells deficient mice. Indeed, in Jα18KO and CD1dKO animals, CS exposure failed to induce significant regulation of DSS-induced colitis both at the clinical and molecular levels. Thus, our study demonstrates that iNKT cells are pivotal actors in the CS-dependent protection of the colon. These results highlight the role of intestinal iNKT lymphocytes and their responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Targeting iNKT cells would represent a new therapeutic way for inflammatory bowel diseases.

  15. Comparative study to determine the need for intraoperative colonic irrigation for primary anastomosis in left-sided colonic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, H; Biondo, S; Ciga, M A; Kreisler, E; Oteiza, F; Fraccalvieri, D

    2009-07-01

    To compare the outcome of resection and primary anastomoses in patients undergoing emergency surgery of the left colon with and without intraoperative colonic irrigation. From January 2004 to December 2006, 102 consecutive patients with acute occlusion or perforation of the left colon were operated on an emergency basis in two Coloproctology units. According to the sample size calculation, 61 patients from one unit underwent surgery with intraoperative colonic irrigation, whereas 41 patients from the second unit underwent surgery without intraoperative colonic irrigation. The endpoints were mortality and morbidity. Thirty (49.2%) patients with intraoperative colonic irrigation and 8 (19.5%) without colonic irrigation developed one or more complications postoperatively (odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-10.0, P = 0.002). An increased number of wound infections was seen in the group managed with colonic irrigation 15 vs 3 (P = 0.034). The postoperative mortality rate and the occurrence of dehiscence of the anastomoses were similar in both study groups. The present findings indicate that resection and primary anastomosis in patients undergoing emergency surgery of the left colon can be safely performed without intraoperative colonic irrigation.

  16. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sima Singh,1,* Niranjan G Kotla,2,* Sonia Tomar,3 Balaji Maddiboyina,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Dinesh Sharma,7 Omprakash Sunnapu2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, 2Technologies for the Advancement of Science, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bangalore, Karnataka, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Ram Gopal College of Pharmacy, Rohtak, Haryana, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 7Ranbaxy Laboratory Ltd, Gurgaon, Haryana, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics, and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data

  17. Cytotoxic of Ganoderma lucidum in Colon Cancer through Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 as Its Molecular Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies were designed explore chemopreventive activity of natural products on colon cancer especially addressing COX-2 as molecular target. Another promising source of natural product that potentially exhibit anticancer activity on colon cancer is Ganoderma lucidum. This study assessed selectivity of cytotoxic effect of G. lucidum extract on WiDr to Vero cells and investigated molecular mechanism on COX-2. G. lucidum ex-tract was prepared by reflux extraction method; in vitro anticancer was assayed by MTT method on WiDr and Vero cell line. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to observe cell death mechanism using double staining method; further COX-2 expression was stained by immunocytochemistry method. G. lucidum extract has cytotoxic effect on WiDr cells with IC50 135 µg/mL. However, the cytotoxic effect had low selectivity to-wards Vero cells with Selectivity Index (SI 3.66. The extract induced apoptosis and suppressed COX-2 ex-pression in WiDr cells. G. lucidum extract was potential to be developed as anticancer agent towards colon cancer.

  18. Mechanisms and rates of bacterial colonization of sinking aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, H.P.; Ploug, H.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the rate at which bacteria colonize aggregates is a key to understanding microbial turnover of aggregates. We used encounter models based on random walk and advection-diffusion considerations to predict colonization rates from the bacteria's motility patterns (swimming speed, tumbling...... (0 to 2 s(-1)). The rates at which these bacteria colonized artificial aggregates (stationary and sinking) largely agreed with model predictions. We report several findings. (i) Motile bacteria rapidly colonize aggregates, whereas nonmotile bacteria do not. 00 Flow enhances colonization rates. (iii......) Tumbling strains colonize aggregates enriched with organic substrates faster than unenriched aggregates, while a nontumbling strain did not. (iv) Once on the aggregates, the bacteria may detach and typical residence time is about 3 h. Thus, there is a rapid exchange between attached and free bacteria. (v...

  19. Colon capsule endoscopy: Advantages, limitations and expectations. Which novelties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Cianci, Rossella; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Spada, Cristiano; Costamagna, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Since the first reports almost ten years ago, wireless capsule endoscopy has gained new fields of application. Colon capsule endoscopy represents a new diagnostic technology for colonic exploration. Clinical trials have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible, accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases and might be a valid alternative to conventional colonoscopy in selected cases such as patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or with contraindications to colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is incomplete. Despite the enthusiasm surrounding this new technique, few clinical and randomized controlled trials are to be found in the current literature, leading to heterogeneous or controversial results. Upcoming studies are needed to prove the substantial utility of colon capsule endoscopy for colon cancer screening, especially in a low prevalence of disease population, and for other indications such as inflammatory bowel disease. Possible perspectives are critically analysed and reported in this paper. PMID:22523610

  20. Re-colonization by common eiders Somateria mollissima in the Aleutian Archipelago following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sexson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Islands provide refuges for populations of many species where they find safety from predators, but the introduction of predators frequently results in elimination or dramatic reductions in island-dwelling organisms. When predators are removed, re-colonization for some species occurs naturally, and inter-island phylogeographic relationships and current movement patterns can illuminate processes of colonization. We studied a case of re-colonization of common eiders Somateria mollissima following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. We expected common eiders to resume nesting on islands cleared of foxes and to re-colonize from nearby islets, islands, and island groups. We thus expected common eiders to show limited genetic structure indicative of extensive mixing among island populations. Satellite telemetry was used to record current movement patterns of female common eiders from six islands across three island groups. We collected genetic data from these and other nesting common eiders at 14 microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine population genetic structure, historical fluctuations in population demography, and gene flow. Our results suggest recent interchange among islands. Analysis of microsatellite data supports satellite telemetry data of increased dispersal of common eiders to nearby areas and little between island groups. Although evidence from mtDNA is suggestive of female dispersal among island groups, gene flow is insufficient to account for recolonization and rapid population growth. Instead, near-by remnant populations of common eiders contributed substantially to population expansion, without which re-colonization would have likely occurred at a much lower rate. Genetic and morphometric data of common eiders within one island group two and three decades after re-colonization suggests reduced movement of eiders among islands and little movement between island groups after

  1. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  2. Introduction: Theories and Practices of Internal Colonization. The Cultivation of Lands and People in the Age of Modern Territoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van de Grift

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that internal colonization should be analyzed from a transnational perspective, as a shared repertoire of ideas and practices that can be observed in the interwar period. First, it critically discusses the use of ‘internal colonization’ and ‘internal colonialism’ as historical and analytical concepts. It then links these to recent debates in historiography about the ‘colonial’ nature of continental empires and the distinct place and importance ascribed to internal colonization within these debates. The last part presents the variety of rationales underpinning resettlement schemes and shows how these were articulated in the various programmes and practices of internal colonization analyzed in this theme issue.

  3. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD

  5. natural theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ancient Greece. The aim of this article is not to propose a new natural theology; nor does it seek to resurrect older models. It is necessary, however, to examine the extent to ... In studies like this one the South African context is relevant, as Barth is ... human reason to reach knowledge about God's nature and works insofar as.

  6. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature Watch. When Dragons Fly ... K A Subramanian. A Natural History of Odonata. We have all held them by their wings, made them lift pebbles from our palms, tied their tails to paper flags and watched them flyaway, wondering all the while where and how they lived and what they did. I only knew that we called them ...

  7. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  8. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  9. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  10. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.   In this PhD thesis

  11. Expression of ICAM-1 in colon epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Sørensen, Susanne; Seidelin, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers...... of cancer cells. Conflicting results exist on epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and the aim of this study was to compare the expression in various models of colonic epithelium....

  12. Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0527 TITLE: Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Aik...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Collaborative Model for Acceleration of Individualized Therapy of Colon Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0527 5c...neck, lung, breast and colon malignancies, among others. In this preclinical study we assessed the antitumor effects of the novel Plk inhibitor, TAK

  13. Directory of Colon and Rectal Cancer Specialist Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health; Social Services and Public Safety

    2004-01-01

    The Directory of Colon and Rectal Cancer Specialist Teams has been produced under the auspices of the Northern Ireland Regional Advisory Committee on Cancer. It contains details of the full membership of the clinical teams providing care for colon and rectal cancer in each of Health and Social Services Board Area. Lead Clinicians For Colon and Rectal Cancer Services (PDF 74 KB) EHSSB (PDF 198 KB) NHSSB (PDF 107 KB) SHSSB (PDF 130 KB) WHSSB (PDF 131 KB)

  14. New Trends in Acute Management of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Tabola, Renata; Poli, Giulia; Avenia, Stefano; Farinella, Eleonora; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; D?Andrea, Vito; Binda, Gian Andrea; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonic diverticular disease is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past, this condition was usually managed with urgent colectomy. Recently, the development of endoscopy and interventional radiology has led to a change in the management of colonic diverticular bleeding. The aim of this systematic review is to define the best treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding. A systematic bibliographic research was performed on the online databases for studies ...

  15. Preliminary Findings on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Organic Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Anne; Fox, Dr. Stephen; Entz, Dr. Martin; Tenuta, Dr. Mario

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi aid many crop plants in the uptake of phosphorus, which is one of the most limiting nutrients in organic crop production. Genotypic variation for mycorrhizal colonization exists in wheat cultivars. Mycorrhizal colonization and yield were studied in 5 modern wheat cultivars and 5 older wheat cultivars to investigate if differences in colonization exist between the cultivars. Cultivars that may be better suited for organic production are identified.

  16. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  17. Transverse colon cancer with Krukenberg tumor : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    東門, 敦子; 松原, 洋孝; 下地, 英明; 伊佐, 勉; 濱安, 俊吾; 仲地, 厚; 宮里, 浩; 白石, 祐之; 武藤, 良弘; Tomon, Atsuko; Matsubara, Hirotaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Nakachi, Atsushi; Miyazato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    A case of Krukenberg tumor in a 30-year-old woman with transverse colon cancer is reported herein. The patient was found to have bilateral ovarian tumors and abnormal elevation of serum CEA at a community hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to the University Hospital for further work. Diagnostic examinations including US, CT and colonoscopy demonstrated transverse colon cancer and bilateral ovarian tumors. Exploratory laparotomy showed the growth of transverse colon cancer over the perit...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  19. An Unusual Case of Colon Perforation Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Aghenta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonic complications of severe acute pancreatitis occur rarely. Although there have been several theories on how pancreatic pseudocysts rupture into the colon, the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. We report an unusual case of pseudocysts complicating severe acute pancreatitis presenting with colonic perforation in a 71-year-old man with a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Pressure effects from a giant pseudocyst and intravascular volume depletion with acute insult on chronic mesenteric ischemia are highlighted as possible etiologic factors.

  20. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. Landscape architecture might, however, provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  1. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, D.; Farthmann, E.H.

    1983-12-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment.

  2. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, D.; Farthmann, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment. (orig.)

  3. The Psi colonization of educational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé Blanch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of psychological discourse in education. On the one hand, the authors criticize the abuse of the mental health diagnosis in the field of education. On the other hand, analyze the effects of the expansion of the neurosciences in the conditions of production of pedagogical knowledge. Finally, examine the role of the neuroeducation and the development of emotional psychology in the construction of enterprising subjectivities. Against these colonizing tendencies of educational discourse, the authors advocate the establishment of a new pedagogical contract that allows rethink the exercise of the educational function of teachers and educators.

  4. Kombineret endoskopisk-laparoskopisk polypektomi i colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sandra; Rud, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Combined endoscopic laparoscopic surgery (CELS) is a novel technique for resection of benign colon polyps, which are not amenable for endoscopic resection. A review of ten studies including 416 patients shows that polyps were successfully resected in 65-97% of the patients. Polyp recurrence after...... CELS is low, and the frequency of adenocarcinoma is comparable with the frequency in large polyps (> 2 cm) resected endoscopically. CELS can be performed for a variety of indications but should be done after renewed endoscopy. Due to the risk of cancer it should only be performed in specialized centres....

  5. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay...

  6. Exploration of mechanisms regulating ectomycorrhizal colonization of boron-fertilized pine. [Pisolithus tinctorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, H.E.; Sword, M.A.

    1991-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal association is a naturally occurring symbiotic relationship existing between ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi and the root system of some plants, including many coniferous species. Since boron fertilization (BF) has been reported to increase fungal colonization of clover and alfalfa, the effect of BF on fungal colonization and growth of shortleaf pine was examined. Inoculation of seedlings was shown to increase growth responses in boron treated plants. BF increases root sucrose concentrations required for fungal development and improves the nutritional balance of the plant. Mycorrhizae increase auxin levels in root (possibly increasing root primordial development) while BF decreases root auxin (possibly increasing root elongation). BF reduces phenolic concentrations in the root. BF enhances mycorrhizae and root development, and results in increased tree seedling growth. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Journey of a Swallowed Toothbrush to the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Kim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Kang Hun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok

    2007-01-01

    Toothbrush swallowing is a rare event. Because no cases of spontaneous passage have been reported, prompt removal is recommended to prevent the development of complications. Most swallowed toothbrushes have been found in the esophagus or the stomach of affected patients, and there has been no previously reported case of a toothbrush in the colon. Here, we report a case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the ascending colon that caused a fistula between the right colon and the liver, with a complicating small hepatic abscess. This patient was successfully managed using exploratory laparotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the colon. PMID:17616026

  8. Genome-wide identification of bacterial plant colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Robert J.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Mucyn, Tatiana S.; Ryan, Elizabeth M.; Wang, Gaoyan; Ul-Hasan, Sabah; McDonald, Meredith; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Visel, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Diverse soil-resident bacteria can contribute to plant growth and health, but the molecular mechanisms enabling them to effectively colonize their plant hosts remain poorly understood. We used randomly barcoded transposon mutagenesis sequencing (RB-TnSeq) in Pseudomonas simiae, a model root-colonizing bacterium, to establish a genome-wide map of bacterial genes required for colonization of the Arabidopsis thaliana root system. We identified 115 genes (2% of all P. simiae genes) with functions that are required for maximal competitive colonization of the root system. Among the genes we identified were some with obvious colonization-related roles in motility and carbon metabolism, as well as 44 other genes that had no or vague functional predictions. Independent validation assays of individual genes confirmed colonization functions for 20 of 22 (91%) cases tested. To further characterize genes identified by our screen, we compared the functional contributions of P. simiae genes to growth in 90 distinct in vitro conditions by RB-TnSeq, highlighting specific metabolic functions associated with root colonization genes. Our analysis of bacterial genes by sequence-driven saturation mutagenesis revealed a genome-wide map of the genetic determinants of plant root colonization and offers a starting point for targeted improvement of the colonization capabilities of plant-beneficial microbes. PMID:28938018

  9. Sigmoid Colonic Perforation with Faecal Peritonitis due to Faecaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colon perforation is an uncommon event usually caused by malignancy, diverticular disease, amoebic colitis, steroid therapy, trauma and ulcerative colitis, but stercoral perforation is very rare. Severe chronic constipation is considered to be the main causative factor in development of stercoral perforation of colon. Sometimes it can also produce catastrophic complications like colonic obstruction, faecal peritonitis and septicaemia. We report a rare case of sigmoid colonic perforation with faecal peritonitis and pneumoperitonium due to faecaloma which was diagnosed after exploratory laparotomy.

  10. Colon capsule endoscopy: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Andrea O; Vermehren, Johannes; Albert, Jörg G

    2014-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE; PillCam Colon; Given Imaging; Yoqneam, Israel) is a minimally invasive wireless technique for the visualization of the colon. With the recent introduction of the second generation colon capsule the diagnostic accuracy of CCE for polyp detection has significantly improved and preliminary data suggest it may be useful to monitor mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Limitations include the inability to take biopsies and the procedural costs. However, given the potentially higher acceptance within an average risk colorectal cancer (CRC) screening population, its usefulness as a screening tool with regard to CRC prevention should be further evaluated. PMID:25469027

  11. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  12. [Colonic gallstone ileus: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando

    A gallstone colonic ileus is a very rare condition. The case is reported of an 87 year-old patient who came to the Emergency Department due to an intestinal obstruction of several days onset, which was caused by a gallstone affected sigmoid colon. Colonic gallstone ileus is a rare disease that usually occurs in older patients due to the passage of large gallstone directly from the gallbladder to colon, through a cholecystocolonic fistula. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in vascular patients (Ogilvie syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, V; Van Hee, R

    2009-01-01

    Two patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction are presented. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, first described by Ogilvie in 1948, is characterised by signs of colonic obstruction, but without mechanical obstruction to the intestinal flow. The current hypothesis states that it is caused by an imbalance between sacral parasympathetic excitatory nerves and sympathetic inhibitory nerves, thus inducing functional obstruction. It mostly develops in hospitalised patients with a variety of medical and surgical conditions. Two such patients with extensive co-morbidities, developed progressive colon dilatation with signs of acute peritonitis, and were operated on urgently. In both patients, right hemicolectomy and postoperative medical treatment resulted in complete recovery.

  14. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. A comparison of CT, colonic enema and laparoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefansson, T. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery]|[Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Epidemiology; Nyman, R. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Nilsson, S. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ekbom, A. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery]|[Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Epidemiology; Paahlman, L. [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery

    1997-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy, CT, colonic enema (CE), and laboratory tests (white blood cell count (WBC), sedimentation rate (SR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Material and Methods: The diagnostic methods were prospectively evaluated in 88 patients, 30 of whom were referred for laparoscopy. Results: Fity-two patients were found to have sigmoid diverticulitis: 20 patients by lanparoscopy, 21 by CT, and 11 by CE combined with one positive laboratory test. Laparoscopy proved to be superior to the other diagnostic methods in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT had a high specificity (1.0; 95% CI: 0.92-1.0) but low sensitivity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.56-0.79) in detecting diverticulitis. CE had a higher sensitivity (0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.90) but a lower specificity (0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91) than CT. Conclusion: CT was the best method for diagnosing abdominal pathology outside the colon. CT can be recommended as the first examination in seriously ill patients where abscesses and other causes of the symptoms than diverticulitis must first be rule out. Laparoscopy is probably the most accurate method in diagnosing diverticulitis. (orig.).

  15. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. A comparison of CT, colonic enema and laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, T.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Nyman, R.; Nilsson, S.; Ekbom, A.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Paahlman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy, CT, colonic enema (CE), and laboratory tests (white blood cell count (WBC), sedimentation rate (SR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Material and Methods: The diagnostic methods were prospectively evaluated in 88 patients, 30 of whom were referred for laparoscopy. Results: Fity-two patients were found to have sigmoid diverticulitis: 20 patients by lanparoscopy, 21 by CT, and 11 by CE combined with one positive laboratory test. Laparoscopy proved to be superior to the other diagnostic methods in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT had a high specificity (1.0; 95% CI: 0.92-1.0) but low sensitivity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.56-0.79) in detecting diverticulitis. CE had a higher sensitivity (0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.90) but a lower specificity (0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91) than CT. Conclusion: CT was the best method for diagnosing abdominal pathology outside the colon. CT can be recommended as the first examination in seriously ill patients where abscesses and other causes of the symptoms than diverticulitis must first be rule out. Laparoscopy is probably the most accurate method in diagnosing diverticulitis. (orig.)

  16. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: Muc2 is the prominent secretory mucin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Büller, H. A.; Opdam, F. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Einerhand, A. W.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium produces large amounts of mucin. The aim of this study was to examine mucin biosynthesis in the human colon. Human colonic mucin was isolated using CsCl density gradients, and polyclonal antiserum was raised. Biosynthesis of colonic mucins was studied by labeling colonic

  17. Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Directs Intestinal Colonization of Enteric Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking its retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.

  18. Dietary Patterns and Colon Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Satia, Jessie A.; Tseng, Marilyn; Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods captured diet over the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview date (controls). Three meaningful i...

  19. Primary linitis plastic of the colon: report of two cases; Linite plastica primaria do colon: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, M.; Fillmann, E.; Gaiger, A.; Guerrero, A.L.; Lazaroto, D.M. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Mallmann, A. [Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    Two cases of primary linitis plastica of the colon are presented. Linitis plastica is a type of scrirrhous adenocarcinoma which frequently occurs in the stomach and rarely in the colon. When in the colon, it can be primary or secondary one and very few cases are found in the English medical literature. The clinical and radiologic findings remind of those found in colitis. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs.

  20. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, L.; Alcaide, M.; Grande, J.M.; Muñoz, J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, Kevin; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced immune gene diversity is thought to negatively affect the capacity of organisms to adapt to pathogen challenges, which represent a major force in natural selection. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are the most widely invoked adaptive loci in conservation biology, and have become the most popular genetic markers to investigate pathogen-host interactions in vertebrates. Although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes described in the vertebrate genome, the extent to which MHC diversity determines the long-term persistence of populations is, unclear and often debated, as recent studies have documented the occurrence of natural populations thriving even after a depletion of MHC diversity caused by genetic drift. Here, we show that some phylogenetically related species belonging to the Falco genus (Aves: Falconidae) present a dramatically low MHC variability that has not precluded, nevertheless, the successful colonization of almost all existing regions and habitats worldwide. We found evidence for two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus. While kestrels show a high MHC variation according to the general theory, falcons exhibit an ancestrally low intra- and inter-specific MHC allelic diversity. We provide compelling evidence that this pattern is not caused by the degeneration of functional genes into pseudogenes, the inadvertent analyses of paralogous MHC genes, or the devastating action of genetic drift. Instead, our results strongly support the idea of an evolutionary transition driven and maintained by natural selection from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic, but functional and expressed, MHC genes with species-specific pathogen-recognition capabilities.