WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural map ii

  1. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  2. Sciences & Nature: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Sciences & Nature · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  4. Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  5. On the map: Nature and Science editorials

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijer C.J.F., van, Bochove C.A. van, Eck, N.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometric mapping of scientific articles based on keywords and technical terms in abstracts is now frequently used to chart scientific fields. In contrast, no significant mapping has been applied to the full texts of non-specialist documents. Editorials in Nature and Science are such non-specialist documents, reflecting the views of the two most read scientific journals on science, technology and policy issues. We use the VOSviewer mapping software to chart the topics of these editorials. ...

  6. Strange distributionally chaotic triangular maps II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganoni, L.; Smital, J.

    2006-01-01

    The notion of distributional chaos was introduced by Schweizer and Smital [Measures of chaos and a spectral decomposition of dynamical systems on the interval, Trans Am Math Soc 1994;344:737-854] for continuous maps of the interval. For continuous maps of a compact metric space three mutually non-equivalent versions of distributional chaos, DC1-DC3, can be considered. In this paper we study distributional chaos in the class T m of triangular maps of the square which are monotone on the fibres. The main results: (i) If F-bar T m has positive topological entropy then F is DC1, and hence, DC2 and DC3. This result is interesting since similar statement is not true for general triangular maps of the square [Smital and Stefankova, Distributional chaos for triangular maps, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21:1125-8]. (ii) There are F 1 ,F 2 -bar T m which are not DC3, and such that not every recurrent point of F 1 is uniformly recurrent, while F 2 is Li and Yorke chaotic on the set of uniformly recurrent points. This, along with recent results by Forti et al. [Dynamics of homeomorphisms on minimal sets generated by triangular mappings, Bull Austral Math Soc 1999;59:1-20], among others, make possible to compile complete list of the implications between dynamical properties of maps in T m , solving a long-standing open problem by Sharkovsky

  7. On the map: Nature and Science editorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; van Bochove, Cornelis A; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometric mapping of scientific articles based on keywords and technical terms in abstracts is now frequently used to chart scientific fields. In contrast, no significant mapping has been applied to the full texts of non-specialist documents. Editorials in Nature and Science are such non-specialist documents, reflecting the views of the two most read scientific journals on science, technology and policy issues. We use the VOSviewer mapping software to chart the topics of these editorials. A term map and a document map are constructed and clusters are distinguished in both of them. The validity of the document clustering is verified by a manual analysis of a sample of the editorials. This analysis confirms the homogeneity of the clusters obtained by mapping and augments the latter with further detail. As a result, the analysis provides reliable information on the distribution of the editorials over topics, and on differences between the journals. The most striking difference is that Nature devotes more attention to internal science policy issues and Science more to the political influence of scientists. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11192-010-0205-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  8. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Project Marna Natural Gamma Radiation MAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, E.; Fernandez, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The confusion created by the accident that occurred in one of the Chernobyl reactors in April of 1986 made the general public and governments aware of the need for improved monitoring of environmental radiation levels. The levels of total gamma radiation or total gamma exposure rate over large areas reached values as high as 400 micro Roentgen/hour (mu R/h) and at points exceeded 1000 mu R/h. It should be borne in mind that, depending on the type of geological formations, normal values range from 5 to 30 mu R/h. The IAEA recommended to all countries that natural gamma radiation maps be made available to evaluate the levels of natural gamma radiation and possible increases, and it also indicated its concern that information be standardized. In addition, it stressed the advisability of using data obtained from uranium prospecting. (Author)

  10. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  11. Islands of biogeodiversity in arid lands on a polygons map study: Detecting scale invariance patterns from natural resources maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J J; Pérez-Gómez, R; Brevik, Eric C; Cerdà, A

    2016-12-15

    Many maps (geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, etc.) are created to inventory natural resources. Each of these resources is mapped using a unique set of criteria, including scales and taxonomies. Past research indicates that comparing results of related maps (e.g., soil and geology maps) may aid in identifying mapping deficiencies. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Almeria Province, Spain to (i) compare the underlying map structures of soil and vegetation maps and (ii) investigate if a vegetation map can provide useful soil information that was not shown on a soil map. Soil and vegetation maps were imported into ArcGIS 10.1 for spatial analysis, and results then exported to Microsoft Excel worksheets for statistical analyses to evaluate fits to linear and power law regression models. Vegetative units were grouped according to the driving forces that determined their presence or absence: (i) climatophilous (ii) lithologic-climate; and (iii) edaphophylous. The rank abundance plots for both the soil and vegetation maps conformed to Willis or Hollow Curves, meaning the underlying structures of both maps were the same. Edaphophylous map units, which represent 58.5% of the vegetation units in the study area, did not show a good correlation with the soil map. Further investigation revealed that 87% of the edaphohygrophilous units were found in ramblas, ephemeral riverbeds that are not typically classified and mapped as soils in modern systems, even though they meet the definition of soil given by the most commonly used and most modern soil taxonomic systems. Furthermore, these edaphophylous map units tend to be islands of biodiversity that are threatened by anthropogenic activity in the region. Therefore, this study revealed areas that need to be revisited and studied pedologically. The vegetation mapped in these areas and the soils that support it are key components of the earth's critical zone that must be studied, understood, and preserved. Copyright © 2016

  12. Mathematics for natural scientists II advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the advanced mathematical techniques useful for physics and engineering students, presented in a form accessible to physics students, avoiding precise mathematical jargon and laborious proofs. Instead, all proofs are given in a simplified form that is clear and convincing for a physicist. Examples, where appropriate, are given from physics contexts. Both solved and unsolved problems are provided in each chapter. Mathematics for Natural Scientists II: Advanced Methods is the second of two volumes. It follows the first volume on Fundamentals and Basics.

  13. Method II : The energy-momentum map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we apply the energy–momentum map reduction method to the same class of systems as in Chap. 2, namely two degree-of-freedom systems with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. We calculate the tangent space and nondegeneracy conditions for the 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4

  14. Natural-focal diseases: mapping experience in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, Svetlana M; Mironova, Varvara A; Kotova, Tatiana V; Shartova, Natalia V; Orlov, Dmitry S

    2014-06-14

    Natural-focal diseases constitute a serious hazard for human health. Agents and vectors of such diseases belong to natural landscapes. The aim of this study is to identify the diversity and geography of natural-focal diseases in Russia and to develop cartographic approaches for their mapping, including mathematical-cartographical modeling. Russian medico-geographical mapping of natural-focal diseases is highly developed regionally and locally but extremely limited at the national level. To solve this problem, a scientific team of the Faculty of Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University has developed and implemented a project of a medico-geographical Atlas of Russia "Natural-Focal Diseases". The mapping is based on medical statistics data. The Atlas contains a series of maps on disease incidence, long-term dynamics of disease morbidity, etc. In addition, other materials available to the authors were used: mapping of the natural environment, field data, archival materials, analyzed satellite images, etc. The maps are processed using ArcGIS (ESRI) software application. Different methods of rendering of mapped phenomena are used (geographical ranges, diagrams, choropleth maps etc.). A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. Maps of the mean annual morbidity of certain infections and maps of morbidity dynamics and nosological profiles allow for a detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 administrative units of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by natural-focal diseases is reflected in a synthetic medico-geographical map that shows the degree of epidemic risks due to such diseases in Russia and allows one to estimate the risk of disease manifestation in a given region. This is the first attempt at aggregation and public presentation of diverse and multifaceted information about natural-focal diseases in Russia

  15. A road map for natural capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P

    1999-01-01

    No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge.

  16. Pseudo natural colour aerial imagery for urban and suburban mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Due to their near-infrared data channel, digital airborne four-channel imagers provide a potentially good discrimination between vegetation and human-made materials, which is very useful in automated mapping. Due to their red, green and blue data channels, they also provide natural colour images......, which are very useful in traditional (manual) mapping. In this paper, an algorithm is described which provides an approximation to the spectral capabilities of the four-channel imagers by using a colour-infrared aerial photo as input. The algorithm is tailored to urban/suburban surroundings, where...... the quality of the generated (pseudo) natural colour images are fully acceptable for manual mapping. This brings the combined availability of near-infrared and (pseudo) natural colours within reach for mapping projects based on traditional photogrammetry, which is valuable since traditional analytical cameras...

  17. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  18. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL *,**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638

  19. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R; Teyssier, D; Etxaluze, M; Goldsmith, P F; Ossenkopf, V; Gerin, M; Bergin, E A; Black, J H; Cernicharo, J; Cuadrado, S; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Hacar, A; Lis, D C; Marcelino, N; Melnick, G J; Müller, H S P; Persson, C; Pety, J; Röllig, M; Schilke, P; Simon, R; Snell, R L; Stutzki, J

    2015-10-10

    We present the first ~7.5'×11.5' velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s -1 ) map of the [C ii] 158 μ m line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel /HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41 α hydrogen recombination and CO J =2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud ( G 0 >500, n H >5×10 3 cm -3 ) and from dense PDRs ( G ≳10 4 , n H ≳10 5 cm -3 ) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [ 13 C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L [C ii]/ L FIR and L FIR / M Gas ratios and show that L [C ii]/ L FIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10 -2 -10 -3 ) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10 -3 -10 -4 ). The lowest values are reminiscent of the "[C ii] deficit" seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L [C ii]/ L FIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with L FIR / M Gas . We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L [C ii]/ L FIR variations through the cloud.

  20. From Natural Numbers to Numbers and Curves in Nature - II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    line grows from C towards both left and right. Suppose ... Let there be n steps of growth to the left, and n-l to the right. Then n .... right-hand spirals is 8 and that of left-hand .... [4] I Stewart, Nature's Numbers - Discovering Order and Pattern in the.

  1. Fast natural color mapping for night-time imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to render multi-band night-time imagery (images from sensors whose sensitive range does not necessarily coincide with the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, e.g. image intensifiers, thermal camera's) in natural daytime colors. The color mapping is derived from the

  2. Nature and properties of ionomer assemblies. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Ignác

    2005-12-30

    The principle subject in the current paper is to summarize and characterize the ionomers based on polymers and copolymers such as polystyrene (PSt), polyisoprene (PIP), polybutadiene (PB), poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (PSt-PIB-PSt), poly(butadiene-styrene) (PB-PSt), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBSi), poly(dimethylcarbosiloxanes), polyurethane, etc. The self-assembly of ionomers, models concerning ionomer morphologies, physical and rheological properties of ionomer phase and percolation behavior of ionomers were discussed. The ionomer phase materials and dispersions have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle X-ray catering (SAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), etc. The wide range of compositions, molecular architectures, and morphologies present in ionomeric disperse systems are of great interest. The research is particularly devoted to the potential application of these materials and an understanding of the fundamental principles of the ionomers. They are extremely complex systems, sensitive to changes in structure and composition, and therefore not easily amenable to modeling and to the derivation of general patterns of behavior. The reviewed data indicate that a large number of parameters are important in influencing multiplet formation and clustering in random ionomers. Among these are the ion content, size of the polyion and counterion, dielectric constant of the host, T(g) of the polymer, rigidity or persistence length of the backbone, position of the ion pair relative to the backbone, steric constraints, amount and nature of added additive (plasticizer), thermal history, etc.

  3. PODESY program for flux mapping of CNA II reactor:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    The PODESY program, developed by KWU, calculates the spatial flux distribution of CNA II reactor through a three-dimensional expansion of 90 incore detector measurements. The calculation is made in three steps: a) short-term calculation which considers the control rod positions and it has to be done each time the flux mapping is calculated; b) medium-term calculation which includes local burn-up dependent calculation made by diffusion methods in macro-cell configurations (seven channels in hexagonal distribution), and c) long-term calculation, or macroscopic flux determination, that is a fitting and expansion of measured fluxes, previously corrected by local effects, using the eigen functions of the modified diffusion equation. The paper outlines development of step (c) of the calculation. The incore detectors have been located in the central zone of the core. In order to obtain low errors in the expansion procedure it is necessary to include additional points, whose flux values are assumed to be equivalent to detector measurements. These flux values are calculated with detector measurements and a spatial flux distribution calculated by a PUMA code. This PUMA calculation employs a smooth burn-up distribution (local burn-up variations are considered in step (b) of the whole calculation) representing the state of core evolution at the calculation time. The core evolution referred to ends when the equilibrium core condition is reached. Additionally, a calculation method to be employed in the plant in case of incore detector failures, is proposed. (Author) [es

  4. Investigation of natural gas theft by magnetic remanence mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobó, Zsolt; Kovács, Helga; Tóth, Pál; Palotás, Árpád B

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas theft causes major losses in the energy industry in Hungary. Among the non-technical losses occurring in natural gas networks, fraudulent residential consumption is one of the main factors. Up to 2014, gas meters that are most widely used in residential monitoring are manufactured with ferromagnetic moving components, which makes it possible to alter or disrupt the operation of the meters non-intrusively by placing permanent magnets on the casing of the meters. Magnetic remanence mapping was used to investigate a sample of 80 recalled residential meters and detect potentially fraudulent activity. 10% of the meters were found suspect by magnetic remanence measurement, of which 50% were confirmed to be potentially hijacked by further mechanical investigation. The details of the technique are described in this paper, along with experimental results and the discussion of the analysis of the real-world samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  6. Multi-metals column adsorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and manganese(II) onto natural bentonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jock Asanja; Surajudeen, Abdulsalam; Aliyu, El-Nafaty Usman; Omeiza, Aroke Umar; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The present work was aimed at evaluating the multi-metals column adsorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and manganese(II) ions onto natural bentonite. The bentonite clay adsorbent was characterized for physical and chemical properties using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and cation exchange capacity. The column performance was evaluated using adsorbent bed height of 5.0 cm, with varying influent concentrations (10 mg/L and 50 mg/L) and flow rates (1.4 mL/min and 2.4 mL/min). The result shows that the breakthrough time for all metal ions ranged from 50 to 480 minutes. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained at initial concentration of 10 mg/L and flow rate of 1.4 mL/min, with 2.22 mg/g of lead(II), 1.71 mg/g of cadmium(II) and 0.37 mg/g of manganese(II). The order of metal ions removal by natural bentonite is lead(II) > cadmium(II) > manganese(II). The sorption performance and the dynamic behaviour of the column were predicted using Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. The linear regression analysis demonstrated that the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models fitted well with the column adsorption data for all metal ions. The natural bentonite was effective for the treatment of wastewater laden with multi-metals, and the process parameters obtained from this work can be used at the industrial scale.

  7. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  8. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier, M.; Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  10. Removal of Cu (II and Zn (II from water with natural adsorbents from cassava agroindustry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schwantes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study employs solid residues from the processing industry of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz (bark, bagasse and bark + bagasse as natural adsorbents for the removal of metal ions Cu(II and Zn(II from contaminated water. The first stage comprised surface morphological characterization (SEM, determination of functional groups (IR, point of zero charge and the composition of naturally existent minerals in the biomass. Further, tests were carried out to evaluate the sorption process by kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. The adsorbents showed a surface with favorable adsorption characteristics, with adsorption sites possibly derived from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The dynamic equilibrium time for adsorption was 60 min. Results followed pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, suggesting a chemisorption monolayer. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the biosorption process of Cu and Zn was endothermic, spontaneous or independent according to conditions. Results showed that the studied materials were potential biosorbents in the decontamination of water contaminated by Cu(II and Zn(II. Thus, the above practice complements the final stages of the cassava production chain of cassava, with a new disposal of solid residues from the cassava agroindustry activity.

  11. Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report / Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping (CLAMA) ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is pleased to ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  12. Outcome Mapping Virtual Learning Community - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first phase of the project (103520) focused on developing the Outcome ... as distance learning) and strategically communicating Outcome Mapping to key ... an organization based in India with South Asian reach, to facilitate exchange ...

  13. Lead (II) removal from natural soils by enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Mustafa

    2005-01-20

    Electrokinetic remediation is a very effective method to remove metal from fine-grained soils having low adsorption and buffering capacity. However, remediation of soil having high alkali and adsorption capacity via the electrokinetic method is a very difficult process. Therefore, enhancement techniques are required for use in these soil types. In this study, the effect of the presence of minerals having high alkali and cation exchange capacity in natural soil polluted with lead (II) was investigated by means of the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation method. Natural soil samples containing clinoptilolite, gypsum and calcite minerals were used in experimental studies. Moreover, a sample containing kaolinite minerals was studied to compare with the results obtained from other samples. Best results for soils bearing alkali and high sorption capacity minerals were obtained upon addition of 3 mol AcH and application of 20 V constant potential after a remediation period of 220 h. In these test conditions, lead (II) removal efficiencies for these samples varied between 60% and 70% up to 0.55 normalized distance. Under the same conditions, removal efficiencies in kaolinite sample varied between 50% and 95% up to 0.9 normalized distance.

  14. The General Urban Plan of Casimcea territorial administrative unit, map of natural and anthropogenic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BĂNICĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The General Urban Plan represents the legal ground for any development action proposed. After endorsement and approval as required by law, GUP is act of authority of local government for the area in which it applies. The aim is to establish priorities regulations applied in land use planning and construction of structures. In terms of geographical location, the administrative territory of Casimcea, Tulcea county, falls in the central Northwest Plateau Casimcei. This is the second unit of the Central Dobrogea Plateau. Geographical location in southeastern Romania, climatic and relief conditions and anthropogenic pressure, expose the village administrative territorial unit Casimcea, permanent susceptibility to produce natural and antropogenical risks. In this context, we identified the following categories of natural and anthropogenic risks: i natural risk phenomena (earthquakes, strong winds, heavy rains, floods caused by overflowing or precipitation, erosion of river banks and torrents, gravitational processes, rain droplet erosion and surface soil erosion; and ii anthropogenic risk phenomena (overgrazing, chemicals use in agriculture, road transport infrastructure and electricity, wind turbines for electricity production, waste deposits, agro-zootechnical complexs, and human cemeteries. Extending their surface was materialized by creating a map of natural and anthropogenic risk on Casimcea territorial administrative unit, explaining the share of potentially affected areas as territorial balance

  15. Natural decay series radionuclide studies at the Needle's Eye Natural Analogue Site, II, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Whitton, A.M.; Shimmield, T.M.; Jemielita, R.A.; Scott, R.D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic databases and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes the study of transport and retardation processes affecting natural radionuclides, mainly uranium (U), in the vicinity of pitchblende veins in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coast, SW Scotland. The natural decay series results from this study have been used to develop a well constrained geochemical model within which the codes can be tested. A conceptual geochemical model for the behaviour of U at the site was developed in stage I of the study; work in stage II is concerned with improving the information available on the U source term, groundwater chemistry, U aqueous phase specification, U retardation by fracture-lining minerals during fissure flow of groundwater, U-organic associations and loss of U from the site by stream drainage. (author)

  16. Removal of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by some fungi and natural adsorbents in single and multiple metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, A.; Badar, T.; Aslam, N.

    2011-01-01

    Six fungal and 10 natural biosorbents were analyzed for their Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake capacity from single, binary and ternary metal ion system. Preliminary screening biosorption of assays revealed 2 fungi (Aspergillus niger and Cunninghamella echinulata) and three natural [Cicer arietinum husk, Moringa oleifera flower and soil (clay)] adsorbents hold considerable high adsorption efficiency and capacity for 3 meta l ions amongst the adsorbents. Further biosorption trials with five elected adsorbents showed a considerable reduction in metal uptake capability of adsorbents in binary- and ternary systems as compared to singly metal system. Cd(II) manifested the highest inhibitory effect on the biosorption of other metal ions, followed by Pb(II) and Cu(II). On account of metal preference, the selectivity order for metal ion towards the studied biomass matrices was Pb(II) (40-90%) > Cd(II) (2-53%) > Cu(II) (2-30%). (author)

  17. MAP kinase-independent signaling in angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation in SHR neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1998-09-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), via its interaction with the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor subtype, causes enhanced stimulation of norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation. This involves increased transcription of NE transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine ss-hydroxylase genes in Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) brain neurons. AT1 receptor-mediated regulation of certain signaling events (such as activation of the Ras-Raf-1-mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, nuclear translocation of transcription factors such as Fos and Jun, and the interactions of these factors with AP-1 binding sites) is involved in this NE neuromodulation (Lu et al. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1609-1617). The aim of this study was to compare the signal transduction mechanism of Ang II regulation of NE neuromodulation in WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brain neurons, in view of the fact that AT1 receptor expression and Ang II stimulation of NE neuromodulation are higher in SHR neurons compared with WKY neurons. Despite this hyperactivity, Ang II stimulation of Ras, Raf-1, and MAP kinase activities was comparable between the neurons from WKY and SHR. Similarly, central injections of Ang II caused a comparable stimulation of MAP kinase in the hypothalamic and brain stem areas of adult WKY and SHR. Inhibition of MAP kinase by either an MAP kinase kinase inhibitor (PD98059) or an MAP kinase antisense oligonucleotide completely attenuated the stimulatory effects of Ang II on [3H]-NE uptake, NE transporter mRNA, and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels in WKY neurons. These treatments resulted in only 43% to 50% inhibition of [3H]-NE uptake and NE transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNAs in SHR neurons. Thus, Ang II stimulation of NE neuromodulation was completely blocked by MAP kinase inhibition in WKY neurons and only partially blocked in the SHR neurons. These observations suggest the presence of an additional signal transduction pathway involved in NE neuromodulation in SHR neurons

  18. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XIANGYANG, JIANG; MATEJICEK, JIRI; KULKARNI, ANAND; HERMAN, HERBERT; SAMPATH, SANJAY; GILMORE, DELWYN L.; NEISER A, RICHARD Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development

  19. Nature of the Nucleosomal Barrier to RNA Polymerase II | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the cell, RNA polymerase II (pol II) efficiently transcribes DNA packaged into nucleosomes, but in vitro encounters with the nucleosomes induce catalytic inactivation (arrest) of the pol II core enzyme. To determine potential mechanisms making nucleosomes transparent to transcription in vivo, we analyzed the nature of the nucleosome-induced arrest. We found that the arrests

  20. THE METHODOLOGY OF GEOSYSTEM MAPPING OF PHENOMENA OF THE NATURE TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Konovalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of modern geosystems properties, regularities of their formation, and changes under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is the basis for the timely prediction of adverse events occurring during the change of environment. Abstract review of the individual components and static Geosystems cannot bring substantive results in solving these problems. The situation is compounded by the need to study and map geosystems regions, which are characterized by tectonic activity and high dynamic processes. This makes it necessary to establish general principles of integrity and display the variability of the geosystems in the map legend, as rules for their cartographic interpretation. Currently, despite a significant amount of geological and geophysical data and landscape there are virtually no developments, dedicated to solving the problem of mapping geosystems such regions. Maps specificity is complex and consists in mapping geosystems, which are characterized by diverse genesis, different stages of development, in the synthesis of space and time into a single whole, the comparison of the current state of geosystems with the natural rhythms and patterns of development of the natural environment. These maps are a theoretical model of reality, a synthesized information on the functioning, dynamics and evolution of geosystems, the direction of their transformation, as in changing natural and anthropogenic conditions. In developing issues that are related to the multivariate analysis of the future state of geosystems, these maps are of high scientific and practical value. The present study offers modern geosystem mapping based on both the traditional route studies, and the use of of space images of the Earth. Methodology of geosystem mapping is associated with the implementation of synergetic approach and further development of the theory of geosystems of V. B. Sochava. The article considers the methodology of geosystems mapping based

  1. CERN helps with the mapping of natural disasters

    CERN Multimedia

    Daisy Yuhas

    2010-01-01

    The headquarters of UNOSAT, the Operational Satellite Applications Programme of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, are in an unassuming office, not far from Restaurant 2. There, UN experts are on hand twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, waiting for an emergency message from anywhere on the globe and ready to respond. It was there that experts were called upon to respond to the recent earthquakes in Haiti and Chile, using CERN computing resources to develop some of the first response maps.   In the case of January’s earthquake in Haiti, an SMS message was received at 23:20, Geneva time, on January 12, only minutes after the quake. Immediately, UNOSAT began organizing and downloading satellite images for analysis, to create the very first maps used by relief workers in Haiti. In the weeks following, UNOSAT members were on shift continually, day and night, working nonstop to develop reports of the damage. UNOSAT also sent two staff members on the ground to ver...

  2. Feasibility of Mapping Riparian Habitats Under Natural Conditions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Dawdy

    1989-01-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is conducting hearings to set quantity and quality standards for river flows into San Francisco Bay. Comparisons of present conditions with "natural conditions" prior to European settlement were introduced into the hearings. Consumptive use relations were developed for various riparian and water-related...

  3. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km 2 ). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh -1  at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh -1  at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh -1  at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation of an activation map for decommissioning planning of the Berlin Experimental Reactor-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The BER-II is an experimental facility with 10 MW that was operated since 1974. Its planned operation will end in 2019. To support the decommissioning planning, a map with the overall distribution of relevant radionuclides has to be created according to the state of the art. In this paper, a procedure to create these 3-d maps using a combination of MCNP and deterministic methods is presented. With this approach, an activation analysis is performed for the whole reactor geometry including the most remote parts of the concrete shielding.

  5. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Lin; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  6. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  7. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Hanford facility RCRA permit condition II.U.1 report: mapping of underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to fulfill Condition Il.U.1. of the Hanford Facility (HF) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit. The HF RCRA Permit, Number WA7890008967, became effective on September 28, 1994 (Ecology 1994). Permit Conditions Il.U. (mapping) and II.V. (marking) of the HF RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste (OW) Portion, require the mapping and marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines subject to the provisions of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-303. Permit Condition Il.U.I. requires the submittal of a report describing the methodology used to generate pipeline maps and to assure their quality. Though not required by the Permit, this report also documents the approach used for the field marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines.

  9. Constant-scale natural boundary mapping to reveal global and cosmic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable ...

  10. MAP ZONING OF NATURAL SLOPE STABILITY IN THE CITY OF IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian ADOMNIŢEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of this document – Hazard map for landslides in the city of Iasi, is part of the effort to support both local authorities in the field of urban planning and the persons and companies that are interested in acquiring and developing a real estate. The identification, location and delimitation of the areas exposed to the natural hazard of landslides involves the elaboration of the hazard maps for these areas, defining the conditions in which these phenomena occur in the city of Iasi, to establish the measures to prevent and reduce their effects and to determine the risk maps. Also, this map offers land lords a first glance on the necessary measures needed to be taken at their properties to prevent and/or combat landslides and on the estimated size of the subsequent costs, only by simply interrogating the map and thus determining the medium hazard coefficient for landslides.

  11. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Mapping of Natural Radionuclides using Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    2006-01-01

    Mapping of natural radionuclides from airborne gamma spectrometry suffer from random ”noise” in the spectra due to short measurement times. This is partly compensated for by using large volume detectors to improve the counting statistics. One method of further improving the quality of the measured...... spectra is to remove from the spectra a large fraction of this random noise using a special variant of Singular Value Decomposition: Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition. In 1997-1999 the natural radionuclides on the Danish Island of Bornholm were mapped using a combination of the standard 3...

  13. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R. [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  14. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of 137 Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from 137 Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au)

  15. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R L; Cox, J R [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  16. Cornering natural SUSY at LHC Run II and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Feld, David; Macaluso, Sebastian; Monteux, Angelo; Shih, David

    2017-08-01

    We derive the latest constraints on various simplified models of natural SUSY with light higgsinos, stops and gluinos, using a detailed and comprehensive reinterpretation of the most recent 13 TeV ATLAS and CMS searches with ˜ 15 fb-1 of data. We discuss the implications of these constraints for fine-tuning of the electroweak scale. While the most "vanilla" version of SUSY (the MSSM with R-parity and flavor-degenerate sfermions) with 10% fine-tuning is ruled out by the current constraints, models with decoupled valence squarks or reduced missing energy can still be fully natural. However, in all of these models, the mediation scale must be extremely low ( model-building directions for natural SUSY that are motivated by this work.

  17. On the Nature of Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Candidates. II. The Case of Cetus II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Blair C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon; Schirmer, Mischa

    2018-04-01

    We obtained deep Gemini GMOS-S g, r photometry of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Cetus II with the aim of providing stronger constraints on its size, luminosity, and stellar population. Cetus II is an important object in the size–luminosity plane, as it occupies the transition zone between dwarf galaxies and star clusters. All known objects smaller than Cetus II (r h ∼ 20 pc) are reported to be star clusters, while most larger objects are likely dwarf galaxies. We found a prominent excess of main-sequence stars in the color–magnitude diagram of Cetus II, best described by a single stellar population with an age of 11.2 Gyr, metallicity of [Fe/H] = ‑1.28 dex, an [α/Fe] = 0.0 dex at a heliocentric distance of 26.3 ± 1.2 kpc. As well as being spatially located within the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream, these properties are well matched to the Sagittarius galaxy’s Population B stars. Interestingly, like our recent findings on the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Tucana V, the stellar field in the direction of Cetus II shows no evidence of a concentrated overdensity despite tracing the main sequence for over six magnitudes. These results strongly support the picture that Cetus II is not an ultra-faint stellar system in the Milky Way halo, but made up of stars from the Sagittarius tidal stream.

  18. REMOVAL OF Pb(II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY NATURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The point of zero charge was defined as the pH at which the material takes a net zero .... impurities in natural calcite could account for its lower PZC value compared to synthetic ... Kozar et al. used a commercial CaCO3 for the adsorption of.

  19. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  20. The Chameleonic Nature of Platinum(II) Imidazopyridine Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Piermaria; Pittkowski, Rebecca; Soellner, Johannes; Strassner, Thomas

    2017-10-12

    The synthesis and characterization of cyclometalated C^C* platinum(II) complexes with unique photophysical properties, aggregation induced enhancement of the quantum yields with a simultaneous decrease of phosphorescence lifetimes, is reported. Additionally, a change of emission color is induced by variation of the excitation wavelength. The aggregation behavior of these complexes is controlled by the steric demand of the substituents. The photophysical properties of these complexes are investigated through emission-excitation matrix analysis (EEM). The monomeric complexes are excellent room temperature phosphorescent blue emitters with emission maxima below 470 nm and quantum yields of up to 93 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The possible nature of socket stars in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Close inspection of faint stars (V of about 14 mag) in H II regions show that they appear to be surrounded by circumstellar envelopes of about 10 arcsecs in diameter (as reported by Feibelman in 1989). The present premise is that the sockets are envelopes of obscuring dust which should emit a measurable amount of infrared radiation based on a simple thermal equilibrium model. A search of literature shows that, of 36 socket stars listed by Feibelman, 17 have been measured in the infrared. Of the 17, 14 show excess IR emission. This is very strong evidence that the socket stars are really stars with circumstellar envelopes. Socket stars may be a new type of astronomical object or well-known astronomical objects in environments or evolutionary states not previously seen. 22 refs

  2. A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilun; Qian, Yunsheng

    2018-01-01

    A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image method based on FPGA can transmit the color of the reference image to single-band night-time image, which is consistent with human visual habits and can help observers identify the target. This paper introduces the processing of the natural-color mapping algorithm based on FPGA. Firstly, the image can be transformed based on histogram equalization, and the intensity features and standard deviation features of reference image are stored in SRAM. Then, the real-time digital images' intensity features and standard deviation features are calculated by FPGA. At last, FPGA completes the color mapping through matching pixels between images using the features in luminance channel.

  3. geomorphological mapping and geophysical profiling for the evaluation of natural hazards in an alpine catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2006-01-01

    Liechtenstein has faced an increasing number of natural hazards over recent decades: debris flows, slides, snow avalanches and floods repeatedly endanger the local infrastructure. Geomorphological field mapping and geo-electrical profiling was used to assess hazards near Malbun, a village

  4. Penicillamine-modified sensor for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in natural samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A new penicillamine-GCE was developed based on the immobilization of d-penicillamine on aryl diazonium salt monolayers anchored to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and it was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by stripping voltammetric techniques. The detection and quantification limits at levels of µg L(-1) suggest that the penicillamine-GCE could be fully suitable for the determination of the considered ions in natural samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proceedings of the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    This is volume II of papers which were presented at the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting. Topics include: natural gas upgrading, storage, well drilling, completion, and stimulation. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  6. Cyprus natural analogue project (CNAP). Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Milodowski, A.E.

    2011-02-01

    Due to the extremely slow kinetics of bentonite reaction in low alkali cement leachates, natural analogues would appear to be the only viable method of studying bentonite reaction. As a result of a review of the available literature, several sites in Cyprus were selected as particularly promising for this purpose. This report presents the results of two short field campaigns in Cyprus in November/December, 2008 and February, 2009. The main aim of these campaigns was to establish if appropriate sites existed for a natural analogue study of bentonite-low alkali cement leachate reaction. Focus is on mineralogical changes and not changes in physical properties (such as porosity and permeability) of bentonite as the industrially-processed bentonite used in a repository will be completely different in terms of its engineering and hydrogeological properties to the unprocessed natural bentonite or analogue smectite-rich materials. The first campaign was in the form of a reconnaissance study to identify sites of likely interest and the second, follow-up, campaign focussed on obtaining preliminary groundwater and solid phase (bentonites/clay-rich sediments/altered igneous rocks/soils) samples which would allow a more detailed assessment of several of the potential sites. A large amount of information was collected during these short field campaigns and subsequent laboratory analysis of the collected samples so, to keep the main report down to a digestible size, much of the supporting information has been collated in seven appendices. These include full details of all 30 sites visited during both campaigns along with sample details, information on the analytical techniques, the analytical raw data and numerous photographs of the sites. The intention is that this report will provide full supporting information for a potential Phase III and a detailed database for our colleagues at the Geological Survey Department (GSD) in Cyprus. Consequently, all the information acquired

  7. First steps towards a European atlas of natural radiation: status of the European indoor radon map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, G.; Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; De Cort, M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of its institutional scientific support to the European Commission, in 2005 the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) group at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, started to explore the possibility of mapping indoor radon in European houses as a first step towards preparing a European Atlas of Natural Radiations. The main objective of such an atlas is to contribute to familiarizing the public with its naturally radioactive environment. The process of preparing the atlas should also provide the scientific community with a database of information that can be used for further studies and for highlighting regions with elevated levels of natural radiation. This document presents the status of the European indoor radon (Rn) map, first statistical results, and outlines of forthcoming challenges.

  8. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): natural history and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith G; Flora, Christina; Scott, Charles I; Pauli, Richard M; Tanaka, Kimi I

    2004-09-15

    A description of the clinical features of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is presented based on 58 affected individuals (27 from the literature and 31 previously unreported cases). The remarkable features of MOPD II are: severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), severe postnatal growth retardation; relatively proportionate head size at birth which progresses to true and disproportionate microcephaly; progressive disproportion of the short stature secondary to shortening of the distal and middle segments of the limbs; a progressive bony dysplasia with metaphyseal changes in the limbs; epiphyseal delay; progressive loose-jointedness with occasional dislocation or subluxation of the knees, radial heads, and hips; unusual facial features including a prominent nose, eyes which appear prominent in infancy and early childhood, ears which are proportionate, mildly dysplastic and usually missing the lobule; a high squeaky voice; abnormally, small, and often dysplastic or missing dentition; a pleasant, outgoing, sociable personality; and autosomal recessive inheritance. Far-sightedness, scoliosis, unusual pigmentation, and truncal obesity often develop with time. Some individuals seem to have increased susceptibility to infections. A number of affected individuals have developed dilation of the CNS arteries variously described as aneurysms and Moya Moya disease. These vascular changes can be life threatening, even in early years because of rupture, CNS hemorrhage, and strokes. There is variability between affected individuals even within the same family. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Natural radioelement mapping by carborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometry in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Rolando Y.; Petrache, Christina A.; Tabora, Estrellita U.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past years, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has been conducting a program aimed at mapping the abundance and distribution of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (radioelements) potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) through the use of carborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric survey techniques. This program was initiated with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a technical cooperation project entitled ''Gamma Ray Spectrometric Survey of the Philippines'', in which the carborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric systems were acquired. The objectives of this project were to generate radioelement maps for geological studies and mineral resource assessment, and establish baseline information on the natural radioactivity of the country for environmental studies and monitoring. The pilot survey for this project, conducted over Marinduque Island, Philippines, is presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Mapping and modelling the habitat of giant pandas in Foping Nature Reserve, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that only about 1000 giant pandas and 29500 km2 of panda habitat are left in the west part of China makes it an urgent issue to save this endangered animal species and protect its habitat. For effective conservation of the giant panda and its habitat, a thorough evaluation of panda habitat and panda-habitat relationship based on each individual panda nature reserve is necessary and important. Mapping has been an effective approach for wildlife habitat evaluation and monitoring. There...

  11. Removal of Cu(II) from leachate using natural zeolite as a landfill liner material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turan, N. Gamze; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    All hazardous waste disposal facilities require composite liner systems to act as a barrier against migration of contaminated leachate into the subsurface environment. Removal of copper(II) from leachate was studied using natural zeolite. A serial of laboratory systems on bentonite added natural zeolite was conducted and copper flotation waste was used as hazardous waste. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies were determined. The sorption efficiencies increased with increasing natural zeolite ratio. The pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The second-order model best described adsorption kinetic data. The results indicated that natural zeolite showed excellent adsorptive characteristics for the removal of copper(II) from leachate and could be used as very good liner materials due to its high uptake capacity and the abundance in availability.

  12. Removal of Cu(II) from leachate using natural zeolite as a landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N Gamze; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-08-15

    All hazardous waste disposal facilities require composite liner systems to act as a barrier against migration of contaminated leachate into the subsurface environment. Removal of copper(II) from leachate was studied using natural zeolite. A serial of laboratory systems on bentonite added natural zeolite was conducted and copper flotation waste was used as hazardous waste. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies were determined. The sorption efficiencies increased with increasing natural zeolite ratio. The pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The second-order model best described adsorption kinetic data. The results indicated that natural zeolite showed excellent adsorptive characteristics for the removal of copper(II) from leachate and could be used as very good liner materials due to its high uptake capacity and the abundance in availability.

  13. Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural and synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The point of zero charge values of 9.57 and 8.20 were obtained by mass titration method for synthetic and natural calcite, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of 200 mg/g and 150 mg/g Pb(II) of synthetic calcite and natural calcite were obtained at initial lead loading of 1200 mg/L at 25±2 °C, respectively.

  14. Virtual screening and optimization of Type II inhibitors of JAK2 from a natural product library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Wei, Guo; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Yang, Hui; Leung, Lai To; Gullen, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Pauline; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-11-21

    Amentoflavone has been identified as a JAK2 inhibitor by structure-based virtual screening of a natural product library. In silico optimization using the DOLPHIN model yielded analogues with enhanced potency against JAK2 activity and HCV activity in cellulo. Molecular modeling and kinetic experiments suggested that the analogues may function as Type II inhibitors of JAK2.

  15. Characteristics of lead(II) adsorption onto "Natural Red Earth" in simulated environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatantila, K.; Vithanage, M. S.; Seike, Y.; Okumura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lead is considered as a non-biodegradable and potentially toxic heavy metal and it is found as a common environmental pollutant. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto natural iron and aluminum coated sand, which is called Natural Red Earth (NRE), have been studied to ascertain the effect of pH, ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature and time. Lead(II) adsorption achieved its maximum adsorption of nearly 100% at neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The optimum pH was nearly 5.5 and 6.5 for 2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L initial Pb(II) concentrations, respectively. Lead(II) adsorption was independent of 100 fold variation of ionic strength (0.001 - 0.1), indirectly evidencing dominance of an inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial Pb(II) concentrations (2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Pb(II) binding. The modeling results better fit with the mixture of monodentate and bidentated binding of Pb(II) onto >FeOH site and bidentate binding of Pb(II) onto >AlOH site. The intrinsic constants obtained were log KFeOPb=13.93, log K(FeO)2Pb=11.88 and log K(AlO)2Pb=13.21. Time required to reach the equilibrium was also increase from 15 min to 1hr with increasing Pb(II) concentrations from 2.41 to 24.1 μmol/L. Kinetic data fitted better to pseudo second order kinetic model. Lead(II) adsorption onto NRE was better explained by Two-site Langmuir isotherm with sorption maximum of 1.39x10-2 and 2.30x10-3 mol/kg for two sites with different affinities. Negative Gibbs free energy values indicated spontaneity of Pb(II) adsorption onto NRE, and entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were 124.04 J/K mol and 17.71 KJ/mol, respectively. These results suggested that the NRE could be effectively used as a low cost candidate for removal of Pb(II) from environmental water, since use of low cost materials to treat

  16. Segmentation of Natural Gas Customers in Industrial Sector Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbar Rus, A. M.; Pramudita, R.; Surjandari, I.

    2018-03-01

    The usage of the natural gas which is non-renewable energy, needs to be more efficient. Therefore, customer segmentation becomes necessary to set up a marketing strategy to be right on target or to determine an appropriate fee. This research was conducted at PT PGN using one of data mining method, i.e. Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The clustering process is based on the characteristic of its customers as a reference to create the customer segmentation of natural gas customers. The input variables of this research are variable of area, type of customer, the industrial sector, the average usage, standard deviation of the usage, and the total deviation. As a result, 37 cluster and 9 segment from 838 customer data are formed. These 9 segments then employed to illustrate the general characteristic of the natural gas customer of PT PGN.

  17. Self-organizing maps applied to two-phase flow on natural circulation loop studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Leonardo F.; Cunha, Kelly de P.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Rocha, Marcelo da S.; Masotti, Paulo H.F.; Mesquita, Roberto N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is found in many closed circuits using natural circulation for cooling purposes. Natural circulation phenomenon is important on recent nuclear power plant projects for heat removal on 'loss of pump power' or 'plant shutdown' accidents. The accuracy of heat transfer estimation has been improved based on models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. Self-Organizing Maps are trained to digital images acquired on natural circulation flow instabilities. This technique will allow the selection of the more important characteristics associated with each flow pattern, enabling a better comprehension of each observed instability. This periodic flow oscillation behavior can be observed thoroughly in this facility due its glass-made tubes transparency. The Natural Circulation Facility (Circuito de Circulacao Natural - CCN) installed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, is an experimental circuit designed to provide thermal hydraulic data related to one and two phase flow under natural circulation conditions. (author)

  18. Self-organizing maps applied to two-phase flow on natural circulation loop study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Leonardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is found in many closed circuits using natural circulation for cooling purposes. Natural circulation phenomenon is important on recent nuclear power plant projects for decay heat removal. The Natural Circulation Facility (Circuito de Circulacao Natural CCN) installed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, is an experimental circuit designed to provide thermal hydraulic data related to single and two-phase flow under natural circulation conditions. This periodic flow oscillation behavior can be observed thoroughly in this facility due its glass-made tubes transparency. The heat transfer estimation has been improved based on models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. This work presents experiments realized at CCN to visualize natural circulation cycles in order to classify two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Images are compared and clustered using Kohonen Self-organizing Maps (SOM's) applied on different digital image features. The Full Frame Discret Cosine Transform (FFDCT) coefficients were used as input for the classification task, enabling good results. FFDCT prototypes obtained can be associated to each flow pattern, enabling a better comprehension of each observed instability. A systematic test methodology was used to verify classifier robustness.

  19. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  20. SWIFT/UVOT GRISM MONITORING OF NGC 5548 IN 2013: AN ATTEMPT AT Mg ii REVERBERATION MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cackett, E. M.; Troyer, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Gültekin, K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Fausnaugh, M. M.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vestergaard, M., E-mail: ecackett@wayne.edu [Dark Cosmology Centre, The Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-09-10

    Reverberation-mapping-based scaling relations are often used to estimate the masses of black holes from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While the radius–luminosity relation that is the basis of these scaling relations is determined using reverberation mapping of the Hβ line in nearby AGNs, the scaling relations are often extended to use other broad emission lines, such as Mg ii, in order to get black hole masses at higher redshifts when Hβ is redshifted out of the optical waveband. However, there is no radius–luminosity relation determined directly from Mg ii. Here, we present an attempt to perform reverberation mapping using Mg ii in the well-studied nearby Seyfert 1 NGC 5548. We used Swift to obtain UV grism spectra of NGC 5548 once every two days from 2013 April to September. Concurrent photometric UV monitoring with Swift provides a well determined continuum light curve that shows strong variability. The Mg ii emission line, however, is not strongly correlated with the continuum variability, and there is no significant lag between the two. We discuss these results in the context of using Mg ii scaling relations to estimate high-redshift black hole masses.

  1. The structure of mode-locking regions of piecewise-linear continuous maps: II. Skew sawtooth maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. J. W.

    2018-05-01

    In two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of piecewise-linear continuous maps on , mode-locking regions typically have points of zero width known as shrinking points. Near any shrinking point, but outside the associated mode-locking region, a significant proportion of parameter space can be usefully partitioned into a two-dimensional array of annular sectors. The purpose of this paper is to show that in these sectors the dynamics is well-approximated by a three-parameter family of skew sawtooth circle maps, where the relationship between the skew sawtooth maps and the N-dimensional map is fixed within each sector. The skew sawtooth maps are continuous, degree-one, and piecewise-linear, with two different slopes. They approximate the stable dynamics of the N-dimensional map with an error that goes to zero with the distance from the shrinking point. The results explain the complicated radial pattern of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic dynamics that occurs near shrinking points.

  2. Results of radiometric and geochemical measurement for the natural radioactivity map of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Andjelov

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, a program was initiated to cover Slovenia with portable gamma-ray spectrometer measurements on a 5 x 5 km grid. The measurements were performed with a four channel Scintrex GAD-6 spectrometer. Five gamma-ray measurements were taken at each of 816 locations. Samples of the upper 10 cm of soil profile were collected for laboratory analysis. Uranium in samples was determinedby delayed neutron method (DNC. Other 35 elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be,Bi, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti,U, V, W, Y, Zn and Zr were analyzed by plasma-coupled emission spectrometry (ICP. The field gamma-ray measurements were converted to ground concentrationsof potassium, uranium and thorium. These show good correlation with the laboratory analyses of soil samples. Regardless of the wide spaced sampling, the produced maps show relatively good correlation with main geological units. They demonstrated that the methodology can be successfully implemented for environmental monitoring, geological mapping and mineral exploration. The product ofthis project is the frist natural background radioactivity map of Slovenia covering the entire country.

  3. Learning from Nature - Mapping of Complex Hydrological and Geomorphological Process Systems for More Realistic Modelling of Hazard-related Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Tilch, Nils

    2010-05-01

    Introduction Hydrological or geomorphological processes in nature are often very diverse and complex. This is partly due to the regional characteristics which vary over time and space, as well as changeable process-initiating and -controlling factors. Despite being aware of this complexity, such aspects are usually neglected in the modelling of hazard-related maps due to several reasons. But particularly when it comes to creating more realistic maps, this would be an essential component to consider. The first important step towards solving this problem would be to collect data relating to regional conditions which vary over time and geographical location, along with indicators of complex processes. Data should be acquired promptly during and after events, and subsequently digitally combined and analysed. Study area In June 2009, considerable damage occurred in the residential area of Klingfurth (Lower Austria) as a result of great pre-event wetness and repeatedly heavy rainfall, leading to flooding, debris flow deposit and gravitational mass movement. One of the causes is the fact that the meso-scale watershed (16 km²) of the Klingfurth stream is characterised by adverse geological and hydrological conditions. Additionally, the river system network with its discharge concentration within the residential zone contributes considerably to flooding, particularly during excessive rainfall across the entire region, as the flood peaks from different parts of the catchment area are superposed. First results of mapping Hydro(geo)logical surveys across the entire catchment area have shown that - over 600 gravitational mass movements of various type and stage have occurred. 516 of those have acted as a bed load source, while 325 mass movements had not reached the final stage yet and could thus supply bed load in the future. It should be noted that large mass movements in the initial or intermediate stage were predominately found in clayey-silty areas and weathered material

  4. Radiation exposure map based on fuzzy logic for the representation of areas with high natural background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The identification of areas with high concentrations of natural radionuclides is an important task in classifying these areas in relation to the health risk for residents in the region. The aim of this work is to identify areas of high exposure to nuclear radiation using a geographic representation based on the theory of fuzzy sets. Radiometric data obtained from previous works developed in a region of high concentrations in natural uranium were used to create a fuzzy map of the local radiation levels. During the image processing, a nonlinear filter was applied to eliminate noise i.e. to reduce isolated pixels that would eventually cause major uncertainties in the results. A resulting image was geographically positioned (WGS40) and obtained in gray scale. This image was fuzzified for membership functions that represent linguistic variables as low exposure, medium exposure and high exposure. After representing the membership grade in a RGB (red, green and blue) image it was possible to visualize the radiation level in the area of exposure. When compared to data from the region, results demonstrated the good efficiency of the technique here employed for the representation of areas with high radioactivity levels. The image obtained also provided important information about those areas where exposure to radiation is more pronounced. Hence, the fuzzy map can be applied in decision-making of experts when a risk situation is identified. (author)

  5. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  6. Towards natural language question generation for the validation of ontologies and mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Mrabet, Yassine; Pruski, Cédric; Da Silveira, Marcos

    2016-08-08

    The increasing number of open-access ontologies and their key role in several applications such as decision-support systems highlight the importance of their validation. Human expertise is crucial for the validation of ontologies from a domain point-of-view. However, the growing number of ontologies and their fast evolution over time make manual validation challenging. We propose a novel semi-automatic approach based on the generation of natural language (NL) questions to support the validation of ontologies and their evolution. The proposed approach includes the automatic generation, factorization and ordering of NL questions from medical ontologies. The final validation and correction is performed by submitting these questions to domain experts and automatically analyzing their feedback. We also propose a second approach for the validation of mappings impacted by ontology changes. The method exploits the context of the changes to propose correction alternatives presented as Multiple Choice Questions. This research provides a question optimization strategy to maximize the validation of ontology entities with a reduced number of questions. We evaluate our approach for the validation of three medical ontologies. We also evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of our mappings validation approach in the context of ontology evolution. These experiments are performed with different versions of SNOMED-CT and ICD9. The obtained experimental results suggest the feasibility and adequacy of our approach to support the validation of interconnected and evolving ontologies. Results also suggest that taking into account RDFS and OWL entailment helps reducing the number of questions and validation time. The application of our approach to validate mapping evolution also shows the difficulty of adapting mapping evolution over time and highlights the importance of semi-automatic validation.

  7. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  8. A Foreground Masking Strategy for [C II] Intensity Mapping Experiments Using Galaxies Selected by Stellar Mass and Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Moncelsi, L.; Viero, M. P.; Silva, M. B.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A. R.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Uzgil, B.; Hunacek, J. R.; Zemcov, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intensity mapping provides a unique means to probe the epoch of reionization (EoR), when the neutral intergalactic medium was ionized by energetic photons emitted from the first galaxies. The [C II] 158 μm fine-structure line is typically one of the brightest emission lines of star-forming galaxies and thus a promising tracer of the global EoR star formation activity. However, [C II] intensity maps at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 are contaminated by interloping CO rotational line emission (3 ≤ J upp ≤ 6) from lower-redshift galaxies. Here we present a strategy to remove the foreground contamination in upcoming [C II] intensity mapping experiments, guided by a model of CO emission from foreground galaxies. The model is based on empirical measurements of the mean and scatter of the total infrared luminosities of galaxies at z {10}8 {M}ȯ selected in the K-band from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA survey, which can be converted to CO line strengths. For a mock field of the Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Experiment, we find that masking out the “voxels” (spectral–spatial elements) containing foreground galaxies identified using an optimized CO flux threshold results in a z-dependent criterion {m}{{K}}AB}≲ 22 (or {M}* ≳ {10}9 {M}ȯ ) at z cost of a moderate ≲8% loss of total survey volume.

  9. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  10. Evaluation of the Natural Adsorbent Luffa cylindrical for the Removal of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahidi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water resources with heavy metals has nowadays become a global problem that requires continuous monitoring and control. An annual quantity of about 25,000 tons of cadmium is normally discharged into the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate cadmium removal from aqueous environments with the natural Luffa sorbent using equilibrium experiments consisting of the batch flow mode and the continuous flow mode reactors with a fixed bed column. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial solution concentration on the uptake of metal ions by the adsorbent in the batch operation were examined. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to investigate the adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption behavior of Cd(II ions fitted both isotherms but followed the Langmuir isotherm most precisely (R2=0.987, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 6.711 mg/g. Cadmium removal in the continuous flow mode using a fixed bed column was also studied. The effecte of operating parameters such as flow rate and inlet Cd(II concentration on the sorption characteristics of Luffa were determined by assessing the breakthrough curve. The data confirmed that the total amount of sorbet Cd(II and equilibrium Cd(II uptakes decreased with increasing flow rate but increased with increasing inlet Cd(II concentration. The Adams–Bohart model was applied to the experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column useful for process design. Results showed that the natural Luffa absorbent was capable of efficiently removing cadmium from water.

  11. Technologically enhanced natural radiation (TENR II). Proceedings of an international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Natural radiation is ubiquitous. In recent decades, there has been a developing interest in fully documenting exposure of human beings to radiation of natural origin. Radiation experts have recognized that natural sources of radiation can cause exposure of members of the general public and workers to levels that warrant consideration of whether controls should be applied. The second International Symposium on Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation (TENR II) was held in Rio de Janeiro from 12 to 17 September 1999. The objective of the symposium was to provide a forum for the international exchange of information on the scientific and technical aspects of those components of exposure to natural radiation that warrant consideration. These components were examined under the headings: the technological enhancement of natural radiation in mining and non-nuclear industries; radon indoors and outdoors; mobility and transfer of natural radionuclides; natural radiation and health effects; analytical techniques and methodologies; the remediation of contaminated sites; and regulatory and legal aspects. The symposium found that exposures to natural sources of radiation should be considered from the point of view of their amenability to control. This approach is reflected in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) and the associated IAEA documents on occupational exposure and rehabilitation of contaminated lands. The concepts of exclusion and intervention are particularly relevant to the amenability to control of natural sources of radiation. Indeed, the BSS specify that any exposure whose magnitude is essentially unamenable to control through the requirements of the BSS is out of the scope of the BSS. The BSS further indicate that protective or remedial actions shall be undertaken whenever they are justified in terms of the benefit to be obtained. Following their deliberations, the

  12. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their...

  13. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Bastide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  14. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Héloïse; Betancourt, Andrea; Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stöbe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  15. LARGE-AREA [Fe II] LINE MAPPING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE IRSF/SIRIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Takuma; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: kokusho@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC 443 with IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 {mu}m and [Fe II] 1.644 {mu}m lines. Covering a large area of 30' Multiplication-Sign 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC 443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe{sup +} and dust masses.

  16. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  17. Comparison of the performance of different modified graphene oxide nanosheets for the extraction of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayar, Omid; Mehrani, Kheirollah; Mehrani, Azadeh; Hoseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were modified with amino groups and the resulting material was used as a sorbent for the extraction of cadmium and lead ions. The nanosheets were characterized by IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The effects of sample pH, eluent parameters (type, concentration and volume of eluent), flow rates (of both sample and eluent), and of a variety of other ions on the efficiency of the extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were optimized. Following solid phase extraction, the elements were determined by FAAS. The limits of detection are <0.9 μg L −1 for Pb(II) and <5 ng L −1 for Cd(II). The relative standard deviations are <2.2 %. The method was validated by analyzing several certified reference materials and was then used for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination in natural waters and vegetables. (author)

  18. Surface density mapping of natural tissue by a scanning haptic microscope (SHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Takeshi; Oie, Tomonori; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Toru; Omata, Sadao; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2013-02-01

    To expand the performance capacity of the scanning haptic microscope (SHM) beyond surface mapping microscopy of elastic modulus or topography, surface density mapping of a natural tissue was performed by applying a measurement theory of SHM, in which a frequency change occurs upon contact of the sample surface with the SHM sensor - a microtactile sensor (MTS) that vibrates at a pre-determined constant oscillation frequency. This change was mainly stiffness-dependent at a low oscillation frequency and density-dependent at a high oscillation frequency. Two paragon examples with extremely different densities but similar macroscopic elastic moduli in the range of natural soft tissues were selected: one was agar hydrogels and the other silicon organogels with extremely low (less than 25 mg/cm(3)) and high densities (ca. 1300 mg/cm(3)), respectively. Measurements were performed in saline solution near the second-order resonance frequency, which led to the elastic modulus, and near the third-order resonance frequency. There was little difference in the frequency changes between the two resonance frequencies in agar gels. In contrast, in silicone gels, a large frequency change by MTS contact was observed near the third-order resonance frequency, indicating that the frequency change near the third-order resonance frequency reflected changes in both density and elastic modulus. Therefore, a density image of the canine aortic wall was subsequently obtained by subtracting the image observed near the second-order resonance frequency from that near the third-order resonance frequency. The elastin-rich region had a higher density than the collagen-rich region.

  19. New 3D gas density maps of NaI and CaII interstellar absorption within 300 pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Raimond, S.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We present new high resolution (R > 50 000) absorption measurements of the NaI doublet (5889-5895 Å) along 482 nearby sight-lines, in addition to 807 new measurements of the CaII K (3933 Å) absorption line. We have combined these new data with previously reported measurements to produce a catalog of absorptions towards a total of 1857 early-type stars located within 800 pc of the Sun. Using these data we have determined the approximate 3-dimensional spatial distribution of neutral and partly ionized interstellar gas density within a distance-cube of 300 pc from the Sun. Methods: All newly recorded spectra were analyzed by means of a multi-component line profile-fitting program, in most cases using simultaneous fits to the line doublets. Normalized absorption profiles were fitted by varying the velocity, doppler width and column density for all intervening interstellar clouds. The resulting total column densities were then used in conjunction with the Hipparcos distances of the target stars to construct inversion maps of the 3D spatial density distribution of the NaI and CaII bearing gas. Results: A plot of the equivalent width of NaI versus distance reveals a wall of neutral gas at ~80 pc that can be associated with the boundary wall to the central rarefied Local Cavity region. In contrast, a similar plot for the equivalent width of CaII shows no sharply increasing absorption at 80 pc, but instead we observe a slowly increasing value of CaII equivalent width with increasing sight-line distance sampled. Low values for the volume density of NaI (nNaI values in the range 10-8 >nNaI > 10-10 cm-3 are found for sight-lines with distance >300 pc. Both high and low values of the volume density of CaII (nCaII) are found for sight-lines 100 pc a value of nCaII ~ 10-9 cm-3 is typical for most sight-lines, indicating that the distribution of CaII bearing gas is fairly uniform throughout the general ISM. Our three maps of the 3D spatial distribution of local neutral Na

  20. Solid phase extraction-inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) from radioactive wastewaters by natural and modified zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar Malekpour; Mohammad Edrisi; Shamsollah Shirzadi; Saeed Hajialigol

    2011-01-01

    Natural and modified clinoptilolite as low-cost adsorbents have been used for adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) from nuclear wastewaters both in batch and continuous experiments. Zeolite X was also synthesized and its ability towards the selected cations was examined. Kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors for the process were investigated and adsorption equilibrium was interpreted in term of Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The effect of various parameters including the initial concentration, temperature, ionic strength and pH of solution were examined to achieve the optimized conditions. The clinoptilolite was shown good sorption potential for Co(II) and Ni(II) ions at pH values 4-6. Based on desorption studies, nearly 74 and 85% of adsorbed Co(II) and Ni(II) were removed from clinoptilolite by HCl. The Na + and NH 4 + forms of clinoptilolite were the best modified forms for the removal of investigated cations. It is concluded that the selectivity of clinoptilolite is higher for Co(II) than Ni(II). The synthesized zeolite showed more ability to remove cobalt and nickel ions from aqueous solution than the natural clinoptilolite. The microwave irradiation was found to be more rapid and effective for ion exchange compared to conventional ion exchange process. (author)

  1. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  2. Mapping Prevalence and Incidence of Coral Disease in reef-building corals at two Natural Reserves of the Southwest Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Viruet, I.; Irizarry-Soto, E.; Ruiz-Valentín, I.

    2016-02-01

    Coral diseases seems to be the main cause of coral reef decline in the Caribbean. Before the bleaching event of 2005, coral reefs in Puerto Rico were dominated by the reef-building taxa: Orbicella annularis, Porites astreoides, Montastrea cavernosa, Agaricia agaracites and Colpophyllia natans. After the event, live-coral cover significantly declined and more than 90% of the scleractinian corals in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico showed signals of thermal stressors. The prevalence of coral diseases in five reef-building coral (Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Orbicella faveolata, Porites porites and Pseudiploria strigosa) species was assessed by tagging, photographing, and mapping all diseased and healthy colonies within 10 permanent 40m2 band transects at each inshore and mid-shelf reefs of Belvedere and Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserves using a random stratified sampling method. Maximum and perpendicular diameter was used to assess coral size using Coral Point Count with Excel Extension. Corals were classified into three size class populations (class I: 0-50cm, class II: 50-100cm and class III: >100 cm). Data was used to develop a GIS-based map containing coral species, size and disease presence. Preliminary results of the inshore area showed a higher disease prevalence in Belvedere natural reserve and for P. strigosa (17.1%) and O. annularis (9.3%). Frequency distribution analysis showed a dominance of O. faveolata at Punta Guaniquilla and Belvedere (127 and 88 individuals respectively). Size class I dominates the distribution of each species within the natural reserves with a higher disease prevalence. Future work include continue prevalence surveys of the outer reef shelf on both natural reserves, monitoring and GIS-based mapping of incidence and resilience through time. This study will help in the assessment of the status of the coral reef of the southwest insular platform.

  3. Virtual screening filters for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase inhibitors: a fragment based library generation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we introduce the development and application of a three-step scoring and filtering procedure for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase leads using allosteric fragments extracted from virtual screening hits. The design of the virtual screening filters is based on a thorough evaluation of docking methods, DFG-loop conformation, binding interactions and chemotype specificity of the 138 p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from Protein Data Bank bound to DFG-in and DFG-out conformations using Glide, GOLD and CDOCKER. A 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation with the apo, type I with DFG-in and type II with DFG-out forms was carried out to delineate the effects of structural variations on inhibitor binding. The designed docking-score and sub-structure filters were first tested on a dataset of 249 potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from seven diverse series and 18,842 kinase inhibitors from PDB, to gauge their capacity to discriminate between kinase and non-kinase inhibitors and likewise to selectively filter-in target-specific inhibitors. The designed filters were then applied in the virtual screening of a database of ten million (10⁷) compounds resulting in the identification of 100 hits. Based on their binding modes, 98 allosteric fragments were extracted from the hits and a fragment library was generated. New type II p38 MAP kinase leads were designed by tailoring the existing type I ATP site binders with allosteric fragments using a common urea linker. Target specific virtual screening filters can thus be easily developed for other kinases based on this strategy to retrieve target selective compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Core map generation for the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using Genetic Algorithm coupled with Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türkmen, Mehmet, E-mail: tm@hacettepe.edu.tr [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Çolak, Üner [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazağa Campus, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Ergün, Şule [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimum core maps were generated for the ITU TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor. • Calculations were performed using a Monte Carlo based reactor physics code, MCNP. • Single-Objective and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms were used for the optimization. • k{sub eff} and ppf{sub max} were considered as the optimization objectives. • The generated core maps were compared with the fresh core map. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to present the results of Core Map (CM) generation calculations for the İstanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor by using Genetic Algorithms (GA) coupled with a Monte Carlo (MC) based-particle transport code. Optimization problems under consideration are: (i) maximization of the core excess reactivity (ρ{sub ex}) using Single-Objective GA when the burned fuel elements with no fresh fuel elements are used, (ii) maximization of the ρ{sub ex} and minimization of maximum power peaking factor (ppf{sub max}) using Multi-Objective GA when the burned fuels with fresh fuels are used. The results were obtained when all the control rods are fully withdrawn. ρ{sub ex} and ppf{sub max} values of the produced best CMs were provided. Core-averaged neutron spectrum, and variation of neutron fluxes with respect to radial distance were presented for the best CMs. The results show that it is possible to find an optimum CM with an excess reactivity of 1.17 when the burned fuels are used. In the case of a mix of burned fuels and fresh fuels, the best pattern has an excess reactivity of 1.19 with a maximum peaking factor of 1.4843. In addition, when compared with the fresh CM, the thermal fluxes of the generated CMs decrease by about 2% while change in the fast fluxes is about 1%.Classification: J. Core physics.

  5. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Luis; Berrios, Cristhian; Yanez, Mauricio; Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  6. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Luis [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Berrios, Cristhian [Laboratorio de Electrocatalisis, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Yanez, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Recursos Renovables, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla-160 C, Concepcion (Chile); Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I., E-mail: gloria.cardenas@usach.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-26

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  7. Radiometric mapping of Goiania urban area: natural and artificial radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: danilacdias@gmail.com, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the city of Goiania it is common to observe in some social groups, such as medical society, academy and communication (media), the association between cancer incidence and the 1987's Goiania radiological accident. Moreover, data of Population-Base Cancer Register published in 2010 by INCA (Instituto Nacional do Cancer), reveals that Goiania figures among the three cities where the major increases in cancer incidence were observed. Therefore, this project aims to provide a dose rate database over Goiania's road network aiming to: 1) assess the level radiation dose to which the population is exposed and 1) provide technical support for social communication of Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. The monitoring was accomplished by using a mobile system (EBERLINE FHT 1376) which includes a 5-liter plastic scintillator detector coupled with a GPS (Global Positioning System) and a portable computer. This system allowed the recording of both the geographical coordinates and the dose rate of each single point. Using a NBR (Natural Background Rejection) the system is able to discriminate between natural and artificial radiation. After the field campaign, the raw data were then treated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using the ArcGis software in order to produce dose maps. Therefore, this paper will present the results of the current stage of this research encompassing the monitoring of streets located on seven regions Goiania - divided in for administrative purposes. It is important to point out that more than 175175 individual data were collected with results ranging from 13 to 490 nSv/h. (author)

  8. Radiometric mapping of Goiania urban area: natural and artificial radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the city of Goiania it is common to observe in some social groups, such as medical society, academy and communication (media), the association between cancer incidence and the 1987's Goiania radiological accident. Moreover, data of Population-Base Cancer Register published in 2010 by INCA (Instituto Nacional do Cancer), reveals that Goiania figures among the three cities where the major increases in cancer incidence were observed. Therefore, this project aims to provide a dose rate database over Goiania's road network aiming to: 1) assess the level radiation dose to which the population is exposed and 1) provide technical support for social communication of Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. The monitoring was accomplished by using a mobile system (EBERLINE FHT 1376) which includes a 5-liter plastic scintillator detector coupled with a GPS (Global Positioning System) and a portable computer. This system allowed the recording of both the geographical coordinates and the dose rate of each single point. Using a NBR (Natural Background Rejection) the system is able to discriminate between natural and artificial radiation. After the field campaign, the raw data were then treated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using the ArcGis software in order to produce dose maps. Therefore, this paper will present the results of the current stage of this research encompassing the monitoring of streets located on seven regions Goiania - divided in for administrative purposes. It is important to point out that more than 175175 individual data were collected with results ranging from 13 to 490 nSv/h. (author)

  9. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  10. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  11. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section I-II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II which consists of map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780, and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the presented data (1:62,500), this sub-section was divided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets

  12. A degree theory for a class of perturbed Fredholm maps II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamai Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper we gave a notion of degree for a class of perturbations of nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero between real infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Our purpose here is to extend that notion in order to include the degree introduced by Nussbaum for local -condensing perturbations of the identity, as well as the degree for locally compact perturbations of Fredholm maps of index zero recently defined by the first and third authors.

  13. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  14. Detection of Second Sound in He-II for Thermal Quench Mapping of Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Stegmaier, Tobias; Kind, Matthias; Furci, Hernán; Koettig, Torsten; Peters, Benedikt

    The development of future particle accelerators requires intensive testing of superconducting radio frequency cavities with different sizes and geometries. Non-contact thermometry quench localisation techniques proved to be beneficial for the localisation of surface defects that can originate a quench (sudden loss of superconducting state). These techniques are based on the detection of second sound in helium II. Transition Edge Sensors (TES) are highly sensitive thin film thermometers with fast time response. In the present work, their capability as a thermal quench mapping device for superconducting radio frequency cavities is proven experimentally by detecting second sound waves emitted by SMD heaters in a He-II bath at saturated vapour pressure. A characterisation of the sensors at steady bath temperatures was conducted to calculate the thermal sensitivity. An intense metallurgical study of gold-tin TES with different compositions revealed important relations between the superconducting behaviour and the ...

  15. A Butterfly Diagram and Carrington Maps for Century-long CA II K Spectroheliograms from The Kodaikanal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Banerjee, Dipankar; Ravindra, B.

    2016-08-01

    The century-long (1907-2007) Ca II K spectroheliograms from the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KSO) are calibrated, processed, and analyzed to follow the evolution of the bright on-disc structures called plages, possible representatives of magnetic activity on the Sun. This is the longest data set studied in Ca II K to date, covering about 9.5 cycles of 11 yr periods. Plages are segmented with area ≥slant 1 {{arcmin}}2 using global thresholds for individual full disc images and subsequent application of a morphological closing operation. The plage index is calculated and is seen to have a close positive correlation with the fractional disc area covered by plages. The newly generated plage area cycle (from KSO) was compared with the same from the Mount Wilson Observatory (correlation 95.6%) for the overlapping years, I.e., 1915-2000. This study illustrates the time-latitude distribution of plage centroids by rendering a butterfly diagram (as observed for sunspots). The 3D visualization of the diagram shows one-to-one mapping between plage location, time, and area. This work further delineates the positional correlation between magnetic patches and plage regions through the comparison of synoptic maps derived from both KSO Ca II K images and space-based full disc line-of-sight magnetograms. Regular synoptic magnetograms from ground-based observatories are available only after 1970s. Thus the long term Ca II K data from KSO can be used as a proxy for estimating magnetic activity locations and their strengths at earlier times.

  16. Advancing the integration of spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Jamison M.; Walecka, Hilary R.; Donovan, Mary K.; Williams, Gareth J.; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Crowder, Larry B.; Erickson, Ashley; Falinski, Kim; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kittinger, John N.; McCoy, Kaylyn; Norström, Albert; Nyström, Magnus; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; White, Crow; Selkoe, Kimberly A.

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this gap, we established a transferable data synthesis methodology to integrate spatial data on environmental and anthropogenic drivers of coral reefs, and applied this methodology to a case study location–the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Environmental drivers were derived from time series (2002–2013) of climatological ranges and anomalies of remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, irradiance, and wave power. Anthropogenic drivers were characterized using empirically derived and modeled datasets of spatial fisheries catch, sedimentation, nutrient input, new development, habitat modification, and invasive species. Within our case study system, resulting driver maps showed high spatial heterogeneity across the MHI, with anthropogenic drivers generally greatest and most widespread on O‘ahu, where 70% of the state’s population resides, while sedimentation and nutrients were dominant in less populated islands. Together, the spatial integration of environmental and anthropogenic driver data described here provides a first-ever synthetic approach to visualize how the drivers of coral reef state vary in space and demonstrates a methodological framework for implementation of this approach in other regions of the world. By quantifying and synthesizing spatial drivers of change on coral reefs, we provide an avenue for further research to understand how drivers determine reef diversity and resilience, which can ultimately inform policies to protect coral reefs. PMID:29494613

  17. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. II. DATA, METHODS, AND DUST EXTINCTION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We present a new set of high-resolution dust extinction maps of the nearby and essentially starless Pipe Nebula molecular cloud. The maps were constructed from a concerted deep near-infrared imaging survey with the ESO-VLT, ESO-NTT, CAHA 3.5 m telescopes, and 2MASS data. The new maps have a resolution three times higher than the previous extinction map of this cloud by Lombardi et al. and are able to resolve structures down to 2600 AU. We detect 244 significant extinction peaks across the cloud. These peaks have masses between 0.1 and 18.4 M sun , diameters between 1.2 and 5.7 x 10 4 AU (0.06 and 0.28 pc), and mean densities of about 10 4 cm -3 , all in good agreement with previous results. From the analysis of the mean surface density of companions we find a well-defined scale near 1.4 x 10 4 AU below which we detect a significant decrease in structure of the cloud. This scale is smaller than the Jeans length calculated from the mean density of the peaks. The surface density of peaks is not uniform but instead it displays clustering. Extinction peaks in the Pipe Nebula appear to have a spatial distribution similar to the stars in Taurus, suggesting that the spatial distribution of stars evolves directly from the primordial spatial distribution of high-density material.

  18. Distributed GIS for automated natural hazard zonation mapping Internet-SMS warning towards sustainable society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanjan Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, open systems are needed for real time analysis and warnings on geo-hazards and over time can be achieved using Open Source Geographical Information System (GIS-based platform such as GeoNode which is being contributed to by developers around the world. To develop on an open source platform is a very vital component for better disaster information management as far as spatial data infrastructures are concerned and this would be extremely vital when huge databases are to be created and consulted regularly for city planning at different scales, particularly satellite images and maps of locations. There is a big need for spatially referenced data creation, analysis, and management. Some of the salient points that this research would be able to definitely contribute with GeoNode, being an open source platform, are facilitating the creation, sharing, and collaborative use of geospatial data. The objective is development of an automated natural hazard zonation system with Internet-short message service (SMS warning utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. A concept of developing an internet-resident geospatial geohazard warning system has been put forward in this research, which can communicate alerts via SMS. There has been a need to develop an automated integrated system to categorize hazard and issue warning that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled warning system exists which can disseminate warning after hazard evaluation at one go and in real time. The objective of this research work has been to formalize a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-hazard warning system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. In this paper, a model of an automated geo-spatial hazard warning system has been elaborated. The functionality is to be modular in architecture having GIS-graphical user interface (GUI, input, understanding, rainfall prediction, expert, output, and warning modules. A

  19. Linking Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to natural attenuation at a former U mining site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, D.; Bohu, T.; Beyer, A.; Schäffner, F.; Händel, M.; Johnson, C.; Merten, D.; Büchel, G.; Totsche, K.; Küsel, K.

    2012-04-01

    Uranium mining near Ronneburg, Germany resulted in widespread environmental contamination with acid mine drainage (AMD) and high concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides. Despite physical remediation of the area, groundwater is still a source of heavy metal contaminants, e.g., Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn, to nearby ecosystems. However, natural attenuation of heavy metals is occurring in Mn oxide rich soils and sediments ranging in pH from 5 to 7. While microorganisms readily oxidize Mn(II) and precipitate Mn oxides at pH ~7 under oxic conditions, few studies describe Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) at pH ~5 and/or in the presence of heavy metals. In this study we (1) isolated MOB from the contaminated Ronneburg area at pH 5.5 and 7 and (2) evaluated the biological formation of Mn oxides. We isolated nine MOB strains at pH 7 (members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla) and a single isolate at pH 5.5 (Oxalobacteraceae isolate AB_14, within the β-Proteobacteria). LA-ICP-MS showed that all isolates accumulated Mn and Fe in their biomass. However, the Oxalobacteraceae isolate AB_14 oxidizes more Mn without additional Fe in the medium. Preliminary FTIR analysis indicated that all isolates formed precipitates, which showed absorption bands that were characteristic for birnessite. High resolution TEM showed variable morphology of precipitates and EDS confirmed the presence of Mn oxides. Isolate AB_14 was not surrounded with precipitates whereas our Actinobacteria isolate AB_18 was encrusted with Mn oxides. Electron diffraction is currently being used to confirm the presence of birnessite and other Mn oxide phases. This, the first known report of any organism capable of Mn oxidation at low pH, demonstrated that MOB can be involved in the natural attenuation of both moderately acidic and neutral pH soils and sediments via the formation of biogenic Mn oxides. Future work will fully evaluate the minerals formed in this process as well

  20. Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Low Solar Chromosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rutten, R. J.; Szydlarski, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrowband Ca ii H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  1. Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells And Their Emerging Role In Health And Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by a class I MHC-like molecule CD1d, a member of the CD1 family. While most of the initial studies on NKT cells focused on a subset with semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) termed iNKT cells, majority of CD1d-restricted lipid-reactive human T cells express diverse TCRs and are termed as type II NKT cells. These cells constitute a distinct population of circulating and tissue-resident effector T cells with immune-regulatory properties. They react to a growing list of self- as well as non-self lipid ligands, and share some properties with both iNKT as well as conventional T cells. Emerging body of evidence points to their role in the regulation of immunity to pathogens/tumors and in autoimmune/metabolic disorders. Improved understanding of the biology of these cells and the ability to manipulate their function may be of therapeutic benefit in diverse disease conditions. PMID:28115591

  2. Uptake of Cd(II Using Natural Zeolite: Batch and Continuous Fixed-Bed Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna M. LMarashdeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of Cd(II ions by natural phillipsite tuff was investigated both in shake-flask and fixed-bed columns. Equilibrium uptake, qe, was found to best fit Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum value of 25.78 mg/g. Percent removal of Cd ions was close to 100% from initial metal ion concentrations in the range 50 - 75 mg/L at 5.0 g zeolite/L. Also, qe was found to vary exponentially with zeolite dose. Break points as high as 350 minutes were obtained from bed treatment at favorable conditions of a low solution flow rate and high bed depth. In batch experiments, equilibrium pH increased to < 8.0 excluding chemical precipitation as part of the removal while in fixed-beds the final pH exceeded 9.0. It is suggested that a sieve action of zeolite porous structure plays a role as an uptake mechanism in addition to the ion exchange.

  3. The Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants of finite order mapping tori II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Himpel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We identify the leading order term of the asymptotic expansion of the Witten–Reshetikhin–Turaev invariants for finite order mapping tori with classical invariants for all simple and simply-connected compact Lie groups. The square root of the Reidemeister torsion is used as a density on the moduli...... space of flat connections and the leading order term is identified with the integral over this moduli space of this density weighted by a certain phase for each component of the moduli space. We also identify this phase in terms of classical invariants such as Chern–Simons invariants, eta invariants...

  4. Possible Therapeutic Application of Targeting Type II Natural Killer T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell subset that exhibits characteristics from both the innate immune cells and T cells. There are at least two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II. These two subsets of NKT cells have opposite functions in antitumor immunity. Type I NKT cells usually enhance and type II NKT cells suppress antitumor immunity. In addition, these two subsets of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. In this review, we mainly focus on immunosuppressive NKT cells, type II NKT cells. After summarizing their definition, experimental tools to study them, and subsets of them, we will discuss possible therapeutic applications of type II NKT cell pathway targeted therapies. PMID:29520281

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  6. A new interpretation of the symbolic codes for the Henon Map. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    A certain region in the phase space for the area- and orientation-preserving Heon map is filled with the resonance chains. Taking this fact into account, the concept of block word has been introduced in the preceding paper. The concept of resonance chains in the symbol plane is also introduced and the marquetry structure of the symbol plane is investigated. If the orbit in the horseshoe travels over the resonance chains, the orbit is represented by a block word sequence. There are four purposes discussed in this paper. The first purpose is to introduce a new concept of parity to characterize the periodic orbits. The second is to study the detailed structure of the symbol plane. The third is to clarify the behaviors of symmetric periodic orbits in the resonance chain and determine their block word sequences. The fourth is to propose an improved construction method to make a braid for a non-Birkhoff periodic orbit in a resonance chain. (author)

  7. Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Natural Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

  8. Fine-scale mapping of natural variation in fly fecundity identifies neuronal domain of expression and function of an aquaporin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan O Bergland

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the molecular genetic basis of standing variation in fitness related traits, we identify a novel factor that regulates the molecular and physiological basis of natural variation in female Drosophila melanogaster fecundity. Genetic variation in female fecundity in flies derived from a wild orchard population is heritable and largely independent of other measured life history traits. We map a portion of this variation to a single QTL and then use deficiency mapping to further refine this QTL to 5 candidate genes. Ubiquitous expression of RNAi against only one of these genes, an aquaporin encoded by Drip, reduces fecundity. Within our mapping population Drip mRNA level in the head, but not other tissues, is positively correlated with fecundity. We localize Drip expression to a small population of corazonin producing neurons located in the dorsolateral posterior compartments of the protocerebrum. Expression of Drip-RNAi using both the pan-neuronal ELAV-Gal4 and the Crz-Gal4 drivers reduces fecundity. Low-fecundity RILs have decreased Crz expression and increased expression of pale, the enzyme encoding the rate-limiting step in the production of dopamine, a modulator of insect life histories. Taken together these data suggest that natural variation in Drip expression in the corazonin producing neurons contributes to standing variation in fitness by altering the concentration of two neurohormones.

  9. Mapping and analysis of the assignment concepts process at academic secretaries of Colegio Pedro II: reflections and proposals for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bitencourt de Carvalho Athaydes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colegio Pedro II was equated to Federal Institutes of Education, Science and Technology by Law 12677 Publication of June 25, 2012. If, on the one hand, this equalization resulted in an expressive organizational restructuring, with growth of the number of educational units, in addition to the incorporation of new educational levels, on the other, this institutional growth was dissociated from efforts of standardization of administrative processes, notably, under the academic departments of different units – where it shows a variation of the process of launching notes/concepts. In order to contribute with improvements to the operation of the institution, the present article aims to map and analyse comparatively the launch process of notes/concepts in three campus of the Colegio Pedro II. Methodologically, are held in-person interviews with professionals responsible for the academic departments of the following units, Engenho Novo I, Humaita I and Realengo I, in order to obtain the necessary subsidies to support the design of the processes performed by these academic departments units. As a result, it can be verified that the processes of the academic departments are not aligned to any system of performance indicators, which motivated the proposal of a standard process for the launching of notes/concepts, as well as a performance indicators panel (KPIs.

  10. Cytogenetic mapping of a novel locus for type II Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selicorni, Angelo; Guerneri, Silvana; Ratti, Antonia; Pizzuti, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    An Italian family in which Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) segregates together with a der(8) chromosome from a (4p;8p) balanced translocation was studied. Cytogenetic analysis by painting and subtelomeric probe hybridization positioned the chromosome 8 breakpoint at p22-pter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with yeast artificial chromosomes from a contig spanning the 8p21-pter region refined the breakpoint in an interval of less than 170 kb between markers WI-3823 and D8S1819. The only cloned gene for WS2 is that for microphtalmia (MITF) on chromosome 3p. In this family, MITF mutations were excluded by sequencing the whole coding region. The 8p23 region may represent a third locus for WS2 (WS2C).

  11. Impurity heterogeneity in natural pyrite and its relation to internal electric fields mapped using remote laser beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, Jamie S., E-mail: csirojamie@gmail.com [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Large, Ross [Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ryan, Chris G. [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Regions of band-bending in naturally occurring semiconducting sulfides are thought to drive electrochemical reactions with passing fluids. Metal bearing fluids within the right pH range interact with the electric fields at the surface resulting in precious metal ore genesis, even in under-saturated solutions. Metal reduction at the surface occurs via field assisted electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk to the ion in solution via surface states. Better understanding the role these regions and their texturing play on nucleating ore growth requires imaging of electric field distributions near the sulfide surface and correlation with underlying elemental heterogeneity. In this paper we discuss PIXE measurements made on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe and correlate elemental maps with laser beam induced current maps of the electric field distribution.

  12. Computerized map-based information management system for natural resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.

    1995-12-01

    Federal agencies, states and resource managers have control and stewardship responsibility over a significant inventory of natural resources. A number of federal regulations require the review, protection and preservation of natural resource protection. Examples of such actions include the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and the modification of the National Contingency Plan to incorporate the requirements of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. To successfully preserve conserve and restore natural resources on federal reservations, and state and private lands, and to comply with Federal regulations designed to protect natural resources located on their sites, and the type of information on these resources required by environmental regulations. This paper presents an approach using a computerized, graphical information management system to catalogue and track data for the management of natural resources under Federal and state regulations, and for promoting resource conservation, preservation and restoration. The system is designed for use by Federal facility resource managers both for the day-to-day management of resources under their control, and for the longer-term management of larger initiatives, including restoration of significant or endangered resources, participation in regional stewardship efforts, and general ecosystem management. The system will be valuable for conducting natural resource baseline inventories an implementing resource management plans on lands other than those controlled by the Federal government as well. The system can provide a method for coordinating the type of natural resource information required by major federal environmental regulations--thereby providing a cost-effective means for managing natural resource information.

  13. Unbinding Kinetics of a p38 MAP Kinase Type II Inhibitor from Metadynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasnovas, Rodrigo; Limongelli, Vittorio; Tiwary, Pratyush; Carloni, Paolo; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the structural and energetic requisites of ligand binding toward its molecular target is of paramount relevance in drug design. In recent years, atomistic free energy calculations have proven to be a valid tool to complement experiments in characterizing the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of protein/ligand interaction. Here, we investigate, through a recently developed metadynamics-based protocol, the unbinding mechanism of an inhibitor of the pharmacologically relevant target p38 MAP kinase. We provide a thorough description of the ligand unbinding pathway identifying the most stable binding mode and other thermodynamically relevant poses. From our simulations, we estimated the unbinding rate as k off = 0.020 ± 0.011 s -1 . This is in good agreement with the experimental value (k off = 0.14 s -1 ). Next, we developed a Markov state model that allowed identifying the rate-limiting step of the ligand unbinding process. Our calculations further show that the solvation of the ligand and that of the active site play crucial roles in the unbinding process. This study paves the way to investigations on the unbinding dynamics of more complex p38 inhibitors and other pharmacologically relevant inhibitors in general, demonstrating that metadynamics can be a powerful tool in designing new drugs with engineered binding/unbinding kinetics.

  14. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  15. A rare polyglycine type II-like helix motif in naturally occurring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Eberhard; Weidenweber, Sina; Schühle, Karola; Demmer, Ulrike; Heider, Johann; Ermler, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Common structural elements in proteins such as α-helices or β-sheets are characterized by uniformly repeating, energetically favorable main chain conformations which additionally exhibit a completely saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain NH and CO groups. Although polyproline or polyglycine type II helices (PP II or PG II ) are frequently found in proteins, they are not considered as equivalent secondary structure elements because they do not form a similar self-contained hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain atoms. In this context our finding of an unusual motif of glycine-rich PG II -like helices in the structure of the acetophenone carboxylase core complex is of relevance. These PG II -like helices form hexagonal bundles which appear to fulfill the criterion of a (largely) saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main-chain groups and therefore may be regarded in this sense as a new secondary structure element. It consists of a central PG II -like helix surrounded by six nearly parallel PG II -like helices in a hexagonal array, plus an additional PG II -like helix extending the array outwards. Very related structural elements have previously been found in synthetic polyglycine fibers. In both cases, all main chain NH and CO groups of the central PG II -helix are saturated by either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, resulting in a self-contained hydrogen-bonding network. Similar, but incomplete PG II -helix patterns were also previously identified in a GTP-binding protein and an antifreeze protein. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Alumina physically loaded by thiosemicarbazide for selective preconcentration of mercury(II) ion from natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.

    2008-01-01

    The multifunctional ligand, thiosemicarbazide, was physically loaded on neutral alumina. The produced alumina-modified solid phase (SP) extractor named, alumina-modified thiosemicarbazide (AM-TSC), experienced high thermal and medium stability. This new phase was identified based on surface coverage determination by thermal desorption method to be 0.437 ± 0.1 mmol g -1 . The selectivity of AM-TSC phase towards the uptake of different nine metal ions was checked using simple, fast and direct batch equilibration technique. AM-TSC was found to have the highest capacity in selective extraction of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions all over the range of pH used (1.0-7.0), compared to the other eight tested metal ions. So, Hg(II) uptake was 1.82 mmol g -1 (distribution coefficient log K d = 5.658) at pH 1.0 or 2.0 and 1.78, 1.73, 1.48, 1.28 and 1.28 mmol g -1 (log K d = 4.607, 4.265, 3.634, 3.372 and 3.372), at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. On the other hand, the metal ions Ca(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed low uptake values in range 0.009-0.720 mmol g -1 (log K d < 3.0) at their optimum pH values. A mechanism was suggested to explain the unique uptake of Hg(II) ions based on their binding as neutral and chloroanionic species predominate at pH values ≤3.0 of a medium rich in chloride ions. Application of the new phase for the preconcentration of ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) ions spiked natural water samples: doubly distilled water (DDW), drinking tap water (DTW) and Nile river water (NRW) using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) was studied. The high recovery values obtained using AM-TSC (98.5 ± 0.5, 98.0 ± 0.5 and 103.0 ± 1.0) for DDW, DTW and NRW samples, respectively based on excellent enrichment factor 1000, along with a good precision (R.S.D.% 0.51-0.97%, n 3) demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the new modified alumina sorbent for preconcentrating ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) with no

  17. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte

    2015-07-01

    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  18. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathrellos, G. D.; Kalivas, D. P.; Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-07-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF), which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF) that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I.). (Author) 36 refs.

  19. Experimental study of the transition from forced to natural circulation in EBR-II at low power and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J.L.; Singer, R.M.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests have been conducted in EBR-II which studied the dynamics of the transition from forced to natural circulation flow in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Each test was initiated by abruptly tripping an electromagnetic pump which supplies 5 to 6% of the normal full operational primary flow rate. The ensuing flow coast-down reached a minimum value after which the flow increased as natural circulation was established. The effects of secondary system flow through the intermediate heat exchanger and reactor decay power level on the minimum in-core flow rates and maximum in-core temperatures were examined

  20. The ring-stiffened shell of the ISAR II nuclear power plant natural-draught cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Form, J.

    1986-01-01

    The natural-draught cooling tower of the ISAR II nuclear power plant is one of the largest in the world. The bid specifications provided for an unstiffened cooling tower shell. For the execution, however, it was decided to adopt a shell with three additional stiffening rings. The present contribution deals with the static and dynamic calculations of the execution and, in particular, with the working technique employed for the construction of the rings. (author)

  1. Animals and nature: mapping storylines and metaphors in David Kramer’s narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slabbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of animals and nature in selected lyrics from the oeuvre of singer, songwriter and producer David Kramer and considers his engagement with historical and contemporary discourses about human-animal and human-nature interaction in relation to ecological awareness within a South African context. I trace the socio-political commentary voiced through his depiction of animals in the folksongs he wrote during apartheid, especially in lyrics from the album “Baboondogs” (Kramer, 1986. Kramer also employs intertextual references to traditional South African folksongs and tales in his music. Furthermore, the social and environmental significance of Kramer’s representations of nature in a selection of his postapartheid lyrics is investigated. I argue that the pedagogical value of Kramer’s cultural commentary can contribute significantly to the challenge of teaching animal studies and ecocriticism in South African context.

  2. Spectral identification of plant communities for mapping of semi-natural grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anne; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    identification of plant communities was based on a hierarchical approach relating the test sites to i) management (Ma) and ii) flora (Fl) using spectral consistency and separability as the main criteria. Evaluation of spectral consistency was based on unsupervised clustering of test sites of Ma classes 1 to 7...... as a measure of plant community heterogeneity within management classes. The spectral analysis as well as the maximum likelihood classification indicated that the source of spectral variation within management classes might be related to vegetation composition....

  3. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Glas, Rickard, E-mail: rickard.glas@ki.se [Center for Molecular Medicine (CMM), Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  4. Mapping Rubber Plantations and Natural Forests in Xishuangbanna (Southwest China Using Multi-Spectral Phenological Metrics from MODIS Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van der Linden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed and evaluated a new approach for mapping rubber plantations and natural forests in one of Southeast Asia’s biodiversity hot spots, Xishuangbanna in China. We used a one-year annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and short-wave infrared (SWIR reflectance data to develop phenological metrics. These phenological metrics were used to classify rubber plantations and forests with the Random Forest classification algorithm. We evaluated which key phenological characteristics were important to discriminate rubber plantations and natural forests by estimating the influence of each metric on the classification accuracy. As a benchmark, we compared the best classification with a classification based on the full, fitted time series data. Overall classification accuracies derived from EVI and SWIR time series alone were 64.4% and 67.9%, respectively. Combining the phenological metrics from EVI and SWIR time series improved the accuracy to 73.5%. Using the full, smoothed time series data instead of metrics derived from the time series improved the overall accuracy only slightly (1.3%, indicating that the phenological metrics were sufficient to explain the seasonal changes captured by the MODIS time series. The results demonstrate a promising utility of phenological metrics for mapping and monitoring rubber expansion with MODIS.

  5. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on Support Vector Machine: A case study on natural slopes of Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X.; Tham, L. G.; Dai, F. C.

    2008-11-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an increasingly popular learning procedure based on statistical learning theory, and involves a training phase in which the model is trained by a training dataset of associated input and target output values. The trained model is then used to evaluate a separate set of testing data. There are two main ideas underlying the SVM for discriminant-type problems. The first is an optimum linear separating hyperplane that separates the data patterns. The second is the use of kernel functions to convert the original non-linear data patterns into the format that is linearly separable in a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, an overview of the SVM, both one-class and two-class SVM methods, is first presented followed by its use in landslide susceptibility mapping. A study area was selected from the natural terrain of Hong Kong, and slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, profile curvature of slope, lithology, vegetation cover and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used as environmental parameters which influence the occurrence of landslides. One-class and two-class SVM models were trained and then used to map landslide susceptibility respectively. The resulting susceptibility maps obtained by the methods were compared to that obtained by the logistic regression (LR) method. It is concluded that two-class SVM possesses better prediction efficiency than logistic regression and one-class SVM. However, one-class SVM, which only requires failed cases, has an advantage over the other two methods as only "failed" case information is usually available in landslide susceptibility mapping.

  6. GEOINFORMATION AND CARTOGRAPHIC SUPPORT FOR MONITORING NATURAL AND TECHNOGENIC PROCESSES BASED ON ATLAS MAPPING IN THE SAKHALIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Melkiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing anthropogenic impact often leads to emergence and development of negative processes on the lands, thereby reducing their economic value. Land of the Sakhalin Region located on the border of the Eurasian continent and the Pacific ocean, where interaction between geospheric shells is intense and therefore, exposed to a variety of active natural processes characteristic of such zones. Among the many processes that take place here very actively, one can be name seismic, volcanic, abrasion, morpholithodynamic, monsoon atmospheric circulation and several others. Active geothermal processes, combined with abundant moisture lead to changes in the biosphere (the gigantism of plants. It is therefore important to conduct periodic monitoring to assess the state of the environment, the pace of development and definition of processes speed.The operative regional land monitoring is possible only on the basis of data of Earth remote sensing with the regular updating of thematic maps using GIS technologies.The Sakhalin State University has been performing the analysis of the peculiarities of naturalclimatic conditions of the region, affecting the method of conducting monitoring of lands, as well as the interpretation of its results. When conducting scientific research the methods of geoinformation mapping, spatial analysis, thematic interpretation were used etc.As a result technology of integrated regional land monitoring in the Sakhalin has been developed and implemented on the Station of satellite data reception by Sakhalin State University, allowing one to receive, store, analyze, and provide map information on the assessment of the condition of lands, taking into account the specific natural conditions of the territory.The article presents a technological scheme of integrated regional monitoring of the land, reveals the content of databases on processes that change the state of the land and evidence-based period of space observations for them

  7. Suggesting a NOS Map for Nature of Science for Science Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…

  8. Activating Metaphors: Exploring the Embodied Nature of Metaphorical Mapping in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Metaphor is generally understood as the process of understanding one thing in terms of another. The activity described here is designed to make use of the principles of embodied cognition and meaning, and specifically the embodied nature of metaphor, to explore political discourse and communication. With high-school junior or senior students in…

  9. USING OF THE MULTITEMPORAL THERMAL INFRARED SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR NATURAL AREAS MAPPING (CASE OF MENDELEEV VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors examine the mountain group of Mendeleev volcano situated on the Kunashir island, Kuril archipelago, Russia. Ground observations were led to examine the vegetation cover of the area as well as its typical landscapes. The other type of used data is Landsat imagery. Images were combined into multitemporal thermal infrared and multispectral pictures, which were classified to reveal the heterogeneity of the study area. Ground observations and comparison of the classification results with landscape map derive that the multitemporal thermal infrared image classification result describes better the vegetation cover structure of the area and particularity of its typical landscapes distribution. It leads to the proposition that miltitemporal thermal infrared imagery can be used to refine landscape and vegetation cover contours. 

  10. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. Visual analysis of geocoded twin data puts nature and nurture on the map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O S P; Haworth, C M A; Lewis, C M; Plomin, R

    2012-09-01

    Twin studies allow us to estimate the relative contributions of nature and nurture to human phenotypes by comparing the resemblance of identical and fraternal twins. Variation in complex traits is a balance of genetic and environmental influences; these influences are typically estimated at a population level. However, what if the balance of nature and nurture varies depending on where we grow up? Here we use statistical and visual analysis of geocoded data from over 6700 families to show that genetic and environmental contributions to 45 childhood cognitive and behavioral phenotypes vary geographically in the United Kingdom. This has implications for detecting environmental exposures that may interact with the genetic influences on complex traits, and for the statistical power of samples recruited for genetic association studies. More broadly, our experience demonstrates the potential for collaborative exploratory visualization to act as a lingua franca for large-scale interdisciplinary research.

  12. The use of Polarimetric EMISAR for the Mapping and Characterization of the Semi-Natural Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefán Meulengracht

    Methods for segmentation and restoration of SAR data using Markov Random Fields (MRF) have been studied extensively by many researchers over the last two decades. What is of special interest is not only methods for segmentation and classification of SAR data for land cover labeling applications......-natural environments under study are very small, it is crucial for this investigation that the restoration methods are capable of restoring fine structures as well as preserving homogeneous areas. The restorations are carried out in a signal adaptive mode using MRF in a Bayesian framework. Different a priori models...... on statistics derived from the ratio images is presented together with comparative analyses of restorations using ICM and SA. The relation between the restored polarimetric SAR data and in situ data collected at two semi-natural wetland and grassland areas is investigated using multivariate techniques...

  13. Indexing Natural Products for Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity: Filtering and Mapping Discriminative Physicochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Mouhammad; Rayan, Mahmoud; Zeidan, Nuha; Falah, Mizied; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-09-17

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of 'iterative stochastic elimination' was utilized. This article describes a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve above 0.96. Using the indexing model and a mix ratio of 1:1000 (active/inactive), 65% of the anti-diabetic drugs in the sample were captured in the top 1% of the screened compounds, compared to 1% in the random model. Some of the natural products that scored highly as potential anti-diabetic drug candidates are disclosed. One of those natural products is caffeine, which is noted in the scientific literature as having the capability to decrease blood glucose levels. The other nine phytochemicals await evaluation in a wet lab for their anti-diabetic activity. The indexing model proposed herein is useful for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for the construction of anti-diabetes focused libraries.

  14. Indexing Natural Products for Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity: Filtering and Mapping Discriminative Physicochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhammad Zeidan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM poses a major health problem, for which there is an unmet need to develop novel drugs. The application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms is instrumental to achieving this goal. A set of 97 approved anti-diabetic drugs, representing the active domain, and a set of 2892 natural products, representing the inactive domain, were used to construct predictive models and to index anti-diabetic bioactivity. Our recently-developed approach of ‘iterative stochastic elimination’ was utilized. This article describes a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve above 0.96. Using the indexing model and a mix ratio of 1:1000 (active/inactive, 65% of the anti-diabetic drugs in the sample were captured in the top 1% of the screened compounds, compared to 1% in the random model. Some of the natural products that scored highly as potential anti-diabetic drug candidates are disclosed. One of those natural products is caffeine, which is noted in the scientific literature as having the capability to decrease blood glucose levels. The other nine phytochemicals await evaluation in a wet lab for their anti-diabetic activity. The indexing model proposed herein is useful for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for the construction of anti-diabetes focused libraries.

  15. Durabilidade natural do estipe de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae II: insetos Natural durability of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm, Arecaceae stipe II: insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Liege Souza de Abreu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados os resultados da durabilidade natural do estipe (madeira de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunha, quando submetido ao ataque de insetos xilófagos, em ensaios em ambiente florestal e urbano. Foram utilizados dez palmeiras, cinco com espinhos e cinco sem espinhos, de plantios da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, localizada no km 40 da rodovia Manaus-Boa Vista (BR 174. De cada uma das palmeiras foram cortados três discos de aproximadamente 30 cm de espessura, retirados da base, do meio e do topo. No ambiente florestal, os discos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, em área próxima ao plantio, no espaçamento de 0,5m, permanecendo durante 18 meses, período no qual foram efetuadas seis inspeções trimestrais para avaliar o grau de deterioração e coleta de insetos. Para o ensaio em condição urbana, os discos foram secionados axialmente para a retirada da medula e distribuídos aleatoriamente, nas posições côncava e convexa, sobre uma estrutura de madeira, localizada no Campus do INPA em Manaus, e inspecionados bimestralmente por um ano. Os resultados do ensaio no ambiente florestal indicaram que a maioria dos discos foi deteriorada por térmitas e a vida útil da base foi em torno de 18 meses, a do meio e do topo em torno de 15. As principais espécies de cupins foram: Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Rhinotermitidae responsável pela deterioração da parte basal, mediana e o topo; Nasutitermes similis Emerson (Termitidae que infestou a região da base e do meio; Anoplotermes sp.(Termitidae e Nasutitermes tatarandae (Holmgren (Termitidae responsáveis pela infestação da parte mediana do estipe. No ambiente urbano, o principal responsável pela deterioração das amostras foi o besouro Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollston (Bostrichidae, e em seguida, o térmita N. similis.The durability of the stipe of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Peach palm when under attack by xylophage insects, is evaluated in

  16. EcoBot-II: An artificial agent with a natural metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Melhuish

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of the robot EcoBot-II, which exhibits a primitive form of artificial symbiosis. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs were used as the onboard energy supply, which consisted of bacterial cultures from sewage sludge and employed oxygen from free air for oxidation at the cathode. EcoBot-II was able to perform sensing, information processing, communication and actuation when fed (amongst other substrates with flies. This is the first robot in the world, to utilise unrefined substrate, oxygen from free air and exhibit four different types of behaviour.

  17. Color Doppler flow mapping of stenotic and regurgitant natural heart valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    Color Doppler echocardiography has found widest application in reliable detection and assessment of severity of both atrio-ventricular and semi-lunar valve incompetence. The authors believe both the sensitivity and specificity of color Doppler for the detection of mitral and aortic regurgitation is very high in patients with adequate acoustic windows. In 82 patients with proven mitral regurgitation studied, the best correlations with angiography were noted when the maximum or average regurgitant jet are obtained by color Doppler from three standard 2-D echo planes (parasternal long and short axis and apical four chamber view) and expressed as a percentage of the left atrial area were considered. The criteria the authors used for assessment of tricuspid and pulmonary valve incompetence are similar to those used for mitral and aortic valve incompetence, but the lack of a good ''gold'' standard has hampered validation. The color Doppler technique also supplements conventional Doppler in the assessment of severity of stenotic lesions by facilitating parallel alignment of the continuous wave Doppler cursor line with the stenotic jet for accurate recording of maximal velocities and pressure gradients. The authors have found this method especially useful in the assessment of aortic stenosis. In conclusion, color Doppler flow mapping combined with conventional echocardiography provides, for the first time, a comprehensive noninvasive assessement of the severity of regurgitant and stenotic lesions

  18. Effects of Butyltins (BTs) on Mitogen-Activated-Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAP3K) and Ras Activity in Human Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Lindsay J.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally-infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to the activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 minutes of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after one hour exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT are impacting the regulation of c-Raf. PMID:24038145

  19. Mapping and analysis of natural radioactivity in external environments at the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taveira, Natália F.; Duarte, Mayara P.; Santos, Talita O.; Neto, Aimoré D.; Rocha, Zildete

    2017-01-01

    Natural radiation occurs due to two main contributors: particles of high energy cosmic rays incident on the Earth's atmosphere and radionuclides that are present in the earth's crust since its formation, also referred to as primordial radionuclides. For most people, these natural exposures are more significant than exposures caused by artificial sources. The most significant primordial radionuclides are related to the elements Thorium (Th), Uranium (U) and Potassium (K). This work aims to map and analyze the natural radioactivity in external environments in the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), in order to observe the variation of radioactivity in this locality. It is important to emphasize that, as it is an area of nuclear research center, some points indicated significant values of radiation when compared to the natural ones, being these coming from artificial sources. This study was developed with the RS-230 Radiation Solutions / CANADA spectrometer, with a Global Positioning System (GPS) coupled to quantitatively and qualitatively identifying environmental radionuclides, such as 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th. The results were exported to the ArcGis® program where a geospatial analysis was performed to correlate the data of the RS-230 with the coordinates obtained from the GPS. According to the values the results were classified into five classes: very low, low, medium, high and very high. The article therefore sought to distinguish between the contributions of natural and artificial radioactivity to the environment in the external environments of the CDTN and to provide an information base for future applications in other similar environments

  20. Compósitos de borracha natural ou policloropreno e celulose II: influência do tamanho de partícula Natural rubber or chloroprene rubber and cellulose II composites: influence of particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de A. Napolitano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de compósitos claros com propriedades de interesse tecnológico utilizando elastômeros com diferentes polaridades. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, celulose II em pó foi usada como carga, em borracha natural (NR ou policloropreno (CR. A celulose II foi obtida por coagulação da solução de xantato de celulose em meio ácido, sob agitação constante e à temperatura ambiente, constituindo uma nova forma de obtenção deste tipo de carga. Compósitos com 10 phr de celulose II com NR e CR, respectivamente, foram desenvolvidos tendo como variável o tamanho de partícula da carga. As propriedades mecânicas e os aspectos microscópicos dos diferentes compósitos foram avaliados e comparados com aqueles das formulações sem carga. Os resultados permitiram identificar o compósito como o de melhor resultado, influenciado pela polaridade da matriz elastomérica e pelo tamanho de partícula da carga, conseqüência das condições de moagem usadas.The aim of this work was to develop light composites with properties of technological interest by using elastomers of different polarities. This was achieved by employing cellulose II, in the powder form, as filler in natural rubber (NR and chloroprene (CR. Cellulose II was obtained by coagulation of cellulose xanthate solution, in acid medium, under stirring and at room temperature, which represents, to our knowledge, a new way of obtaining this type of filler. Composites with 10phr of cellulose II and NR or CR were prepared having the particle size as variable. The mechanical properties and the microscopic aspect of the different composites were evaluated and compared with compounds without filler. The results indicated best results for the CR composite, influenced by the polarity of the elastomeric matrix and by the particle size, as a consequence of the milling conditions of the filler used.

  1. Vehicle-based Methane Mapping Helps Find Natural Gas Leaks and Prioritize Leak Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Weller, Z.; Roscioli, J. R.; Lamb, B. K.; Ferrara, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, mobile methane sensing platforms have been developed to detect and locate natural gas (NG) leaks in urban distribution systems and to estimate their size. Although this technology has already been used in targeted deployment for prioritization of NG pipeline infrastructure repair and replacement, one open question regarding this technology is how effective the resulting data are for prioritizing infrastructure repair and replacement. To answer this question we explore the accuracy and precision of the natural gas leak location and emission estimates provided by methane sensors placed on Google Street View (GSV) vehicles. We find that the vast majority (75%) of methane emitting sources detected by these mobile platforms are NG leaks and that the location estimates are effective at identifying the general location of leaks. We also show that the emission rate estimates from mobile detection platforms are able to effectively rank NG leaks for prioritizing leak repair. Our findings establish that mobile sensing platforms are an efficient and effective tool for improving the safety and reducing the environmental impacts of low-pressure NG distribution systems by reducing atmospheric methane emissions.

  2. Nature as a treasure map! Teaching geoscience with the help of earth caches?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    This presentation looks at how earth caches are influence the learning process in the field of geo science in non-formal education. The development of mobile technologies using Global Positioning System (GPS) data to point geographical location together with the evolving Web 2.0 supporting the creation and consumption of content, suggest a potential for collaborative informal learning linked to location. With the help of the GIS in smartphones you can go directly in nature, search for information by your smartphone, and learn something about nature. Earth caches are a very good opportunity, which are organized and supervised geocaches with special information about physical geography high lights. Interested people can inform themselves about aspects in geoscience area by earth caches. The main question of this presentation is how these caches are created in relation to learning processes. As is not possible, to analyze all existing earth caches, there was focus on Bavaria and a certain feature of earth caches. At the end the authors show limits and potentials for the use of earth caches and give some remark for the future.

  3. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. This paper, presents example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. This approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. Presents the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO 2 , SO 2 , and O 3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. It is concluded that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. Pollutant data depicted in this analysis are limited to locationally specific data, and would be enhanced by utilizing spatial statistics, along with converging associated anthropogenic and climatological factors. Values used for critical levels were derived from current scientific knowledge. While not intended to be a definitive value, adjustments will occur as the scientific community gains new insight to pollutant/receptor relationships. We recommend future analysis to include a refinement of sensitive receptor data coverages and to report relative proportions of exceedances at varying grid scales. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Statistical nature of non-Gaussianity from cubic order primordial perturbations: CMB map simulations and genus statistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We simulate CMB maps including non-Gaussianity arising from cubic order perturbations of the primordial gravitational potential, characterized by the non-linearity parameter g NL . The maps are used to study the characteristic nature of the resulting non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations. We measure the genus and investigate how it deviates from Gaussian shape as a function of g NL and smoothing scale. We find that the deviation of the non-Gaussian genus curve from the Gaussian one has an antisymmetric, sine function like shape, implying more hot and more cold spots for g NL > 0 and less of both for g NL NL and also exhibits mild increase as the smoothing scale increases. We further study other statistics derived from the genus, namely, the number of hot spots, the number of cold spots, combined number of hot and cold spots and the slope of the genus curve at mean temperature fluctuation. We find that these observables carry signatures of g NL that are clearly distinct from the quadratic order perturbations, encoded in the parameter f NL . Hence they can be very useful tools for distinguishing not only between non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations and Gaussian ones but also between g NL and f NL type non-Gaussianities

  5. Identifying ozone-sensitive communities of (semi-)natural vegetation suitable for mapping exceedance of critical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.; Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Cinderby, S.

    2007-01-01

    Using published data on the responses of individual species to ozone, 54 EUNIS (European Nature Information System) level 4 communities with six or more ozone-sensitive species (%OS) and c. 20% or more species tested for ozone sensitivity, were identified as potentially ozone-sensitive. The largest number of these communities (23) was associated with Grasslands, with Heathland, scrub and tundra, and Mires, bogs and fens having the next highest representation at 11 and 8 level 4 communities each respectively. Within the grasslands classification, E4 (Alpine and sub-alpine grasslands), E5 (Woodland fringes and clearings) and E1 (Dry grasslands) were the most sensitive with 68.1, 51.6 and 48.6%OS respectively. It is feasible to map the land-cover for these and other communities at level 2, but it may not be currently possible to map the land-cover for all communities identified to be ozone-sensitive at levels 3 and 4. - Grassland communities such as alpine and sub-alpine grasslands have the highest potential sensitivity ozone, based on the responses of their component species

  6. An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    A method has been presented for estimating the variability of a system's natural frequencies arising from the variability of the system's parameters. The only information required to obtain the estimates is the member variability, in the form of second-order properties, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the mean system. It has also been established for the systems studied by means of Monte Carlo estimates that the specification of second-order properties is an adequate description of member variability.

  7. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  8. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  9. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  10. Effects of butyltin exposures on MAP kinase dependent transcription regulators in human natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Rachel J.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are a major immune defense mechanism against cancer development and viral infection. The butyltins (BTs), tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) have been widely used in industrial and other applications and significantly contaminate the environment. Both TBT and DBT have been detected in human blood. These compounds inhibit the lytic and binding function of human NK cells and thus could increase the incidence of cancer and viral infections. Butyltin (BT)-induced loss of NK function is accompanied by activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and decreases in expression of cell-surface and cytolytic proteins. MAPKs activate components of the transcription regulator AP-1 and activate the transcription regulator Elk-1. Based on the fact that BTs activate MAPKs and alter protein expression, the current study examined the effect of BT exposures on the levels and phosphorylation states of the components of AP-1 and the phosphorylation state of Elk-1. Exposure to 300 nM TBT for 10 min increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun in NK cells. 1 h exposures to 300 nM and 200 nM TBT increased the phosphorylation and overall level of c-Jun. During a 300 nM treatment with TBT for 1 h the binding activity of AP-1 was significantly decreased. There were no significant alterations of AP-1 components or of Elk-1 with DBT exposures. Thus, it appears that TBT-induced alterations on phosphorylation, total levels and binding activity of c-Jun might contribute to, but are not fully responsible for, TBT-induced alterations of NK protein expression. PMID:20370538

  11. Mapping natural radioactivity of soil samples in different regions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B S

    2017-09-01

    Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state. Overall concentration level of naturally occurring radio nuclides 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th has been found to be varied from 260.1±17.3 to 728.2±27.7, BDL to 41.9±10.3 and 29.5±7.1 to 88.1±6.2Bq/Kg respectively. Overall average level of 40 K and 232 Th has been found to be higher as compared to world's average concentration level. Average radium equivalent activity (134.8±23.03 (σ) Bq/Kg), dose rate (61.9±10.3nGy/h), outdoor and indoor dose (0.30±0.05 and 0.08±0.01 mSv/year), external and internal hazard index (0.36±0.06 and 0.42±0.08) has been calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II (EX0905, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are to test use of EX mapping sensors to characterize complex geological areas (i.e. volcanic field) and develop protocols to...

  13. Rhodium(II) metallopeptide catalyst design enables fine control in selective functionalization of natural SH3 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohidov, Farrukh; Coughlin, Jane M; Ball, Zachary T

    2015-04-07

    Chemically modified proteins are increasingly important for use in fundamental biophysical studies, chemical biology, therapeutic protein development, and biomaterials. However, chemical methods typically produce heterogeneous labeling and cannot approach the exquisite selectivity of enzymatic reactions. While bioengineered methods are sometimes an option, selective reactions of natural proteins remain an unsolved problem. Here we show that rhodium(II) metallopeptides combine molecular recognition with promiscuous catalytic activity to allow covalent decoration of natural SH3 domains, depending on choice of catalyst but independent of the specific residue present. A metallopeptide catalyst succeeds in modifying a single SH3-containing kinase at endogenous concentrations in prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lysate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Identification and mapping the high nature value farmland by the comparison of a combined and species approaches in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity farming systems play a crucial role in nature conservation by preserving 50% of habitats, flora and fauna occurring in Europe. For this reason the identification, classification and mapping of high nature value farmlands (HNVfs is becoming an overriding concern. In this study, two different approaches, namely combined approach and species-based approach, were used to spatially identify HNVfs (type 1, 2 and 3 across Tuscany region (Italy. The first approach calculated different indicators (extensive practices indicator, crop diversity indicator, landscape element indicator at 1×1 km grid cell spatial resolution using pre-existent spatial datasets integrated within a global information system environment. Whilst, the speciesbased approach relied on a pre-existent regional naturalistic inventory. All indicators and the resulting HNVfs derived from the two approaches were aggregated at municipality level. Despite some difference, the two adopted approaches intercepted spatially the same HNVfs areas, accounting for 35% of the total utilised agricultural area of the region. Just 16% of HNVfs resulted located inside protected areas, thus under current conservation and protection management actions. Finally, HNVfs of the Tuscany region were spatially aggregated in four relevant agro-ecosystems by taking into consideration the cropping systems and the landscape elements’ characteristics peculiar in the region.

  15. A Holling Type II Pest and Natural Enemy Model with Density Dependent IPM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource limitations and density dependent releasing of natural enemies during the pest control and integrated pest management will undoubtedly result in nonlinear impulsive control. In order to investigate the effects of those nonlinear control strategies on the successful pest control, we have proposed a pest-natural enemy system concerning integrated pest management with density dependent instant killing rate and releasing rate. In particular, the releasing rate depicts how the number of natural enemy populations released was guided by their current density at the fixed moment. The threshold condition which ensures the existence and global stability of pest-free periodic solution has been discussed first, and the effects of key parameters on the threshold condition reveal that reducing the pulse period does not always benefit pest control; that is, frequent releasing of natural enemies may not be beneficial to the eradication of pests when the density dependent releasing method has been implemented. Moreover, the forward and backward bifurcations could occur once the pest-free periodic solution becomes unstable, and the system could exist with very complex dynamics. All those results confirm that the control actions should be carefully designed once the nonlinear impulsive control measures have been taken for pest management.

  16. The Functions of Type I and Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Min; Zimmer, Michael I.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2013-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that rapidly produce an array of cytokines upon activation and play a critical role in regulating various immune responses. NKT cells are classified into two groups based on differences in T cell receptor (TCR) usage. Type I NKT cells have an invariant TCRα-chain and are readily detectable by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-loaded CD1d tetramers. Type II NKT cells have a more diverse TCR repertoire and cannot be directly identified. Both types of NKT cells as well as multiple CD1d-expressing cell types are present in the intestine and their interactions are likely to be modulated by pathogenic and commensal microbes, which in turn contribute to the intestinal immune responses in health and disease. Indeed, in several animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Type I NKT cells have been shown to make both protective and pathogenic contributions to disease. In contrast, in human patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), and a mouse model in which both CD1d expression and the frequency of Type II NKT cells are increased, Type II NKT cells appear to promote intestinal inflammation. In this review, we summarize present knowledge on the antigen recognition, activation and function of NKT cells with a particular focus on their role in IBD, and discuss factors that may influence the functional outcome of NKT cell responses in intestinal inflammation. PMID:23518808

  17. Removal of Copper(II) Ions in Aqueous Solutions Using Tannin-Rich Plants as Natural Bio-Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksamut, J.; Boonsong, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the purpose of our interest is to investigatethe adsorption behavior of copper (II) ions in aqueous solution using some tannin-rich plants as natural bio-adsorbents such as mangosteen peels (Garciniamangostana L.), cassava leaves (Manihotesculenta Crantz) and Thai copper pod leaves (Sennasiamea (Lam.)) as powder form in different dosage of adsorbent plant materials.The adsorption capacities at different pH of solution and contact time were performed.All the experiments in this studywere chosen at room temperature by batch technique. From the experimental results showed that cassava leaves gave better adsorbent properties than mangosteen peels and Thai copper pod leaves. The increasing dosage of all adsorbents and contact time have been found to increase adsorption capacities. In this respect, the adsorption capacities depend crucially on the adsorbents and contact time. The optimum pH of copper (II) ions adsorption was pH4. According to this work, it was observed that bioadsorbent materials from tannin-rich plants could be used to remove copper (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  18. EBR-II in-vessel natural circulation experiments on hot and cold pool stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragland, W.A.; Feldman, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II is located in a cylindrical pool of liquid sodium which is part of the cold-leg of the primary flow circuit. A vertical string of 32 thermocouples spans the 8 m tank height, at each of two diametrically opposed locations in the primary tank. Local temperatures were measured with these 64 thermocouples during dynamic tests. The instantaneous spacial temperature distribution obtained from a string of thermocouples can be viewed on a personal computer. The animation which results from displaying successive spacial distributions provide a very effective way to quickly obtain physical insights. The design of the two strings of thermocouples, the software used to create the animation, measured data from three different types of tests--two unprotected reactor transients, and one with the reactor at decay power levels and the reactor cover lifted, are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  20. Decoupled Scheme for Time-Dependent Natural Convection Problem II: Time Semidiscreteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    stability and the corresponding optimal error estimates are presented. Furthermore, a decoupled numerical scheme is proposed by decoupling the nonlinear terms via temporal extrapolation; optimal error estimates are established. Finally, some numerical results are provided to verify the performances of the developed algorithms. Compared with the coupled numerical scheme, the decoupled algorithm not only keeps good accuracy but also saves a lot of computational cost. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of the decoupled method for time-dependent natural convection problem.

  1. A 1.4-Billion Pixel Map of the Seafloor: BOEM's Mission to Visualize Dynamic Geology and Identify Natural Seep Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.; Shedd, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    In May, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) published a high-resolution seafloor map of the northern Gulf of Mexico region. The new map, derived from 3-D seismic surveys, provides the scientific community with enhanced resolution and reveals previously undiscovered and poorly resolved geologic features of the continental slope, salt minibasin province, abyssal plain, Mississippi Fan, and the Florida Shelf and Escarpment. It becomes an even more powerful scientific tool when paired with BOEM's public database of 35,000 seafloor features, identifying natural hydrocarbon seeps, hard grounds, mud volcanoes, sediment flows, pockmarks, slumps, and many others. BOEM has mapped the Gulf of Mexico seafloor since 1998 in a regulatory mission to identify natural oil and gas seeps and protect the coral and chemosynthetic communities growing at those sites. The nineteen-year mapping effort, still ongoing, resulted in the creation of the 1.4-billion pixel map and the seafloor features database. With these tools and continual collaboration with academia, professional scientific institutions, and the offshore energy industry, BOEM will continue to incorporate new data to update and expand these two resources on a regular basis. They can be downloaded for free from BOEM's website at https://www.boem.gov/Gulf-of-Mexico-Deepwater-Bathymetry/ and https://www.boem.gov/Seismic-Water-Bottom-Anomalies-Map-Gallery/.

  2. Mapping recessive ophthalmic diseases: linkage of the locus for Usher syndrome type II to a DNA marker on chromosome 1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R A; Otterud, B; Stauffer, D; Lalouel, J M; Leppert, M

    1990-06-01

    Usher syndrome is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders that combines variably severe congenital neurosensory hearing impairment with progressive night-blindness and visual loss similar to that in retinitis pigmentosa. Usher syndrome type I is distinguished by profound congenital (preverbal) deafness and retinal disease with onset in the first decade of life. Usher syndrome type II is characterized by partial hearing impairment and retinal dystrophy that occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. The chromosomal assignment and the regional localization of the genetic mutation(s) causing the Usher syndromes are unknown. We analyzed a panel of polymorphic genomic markers for linkage to the disease gene among six families with Usher syndrome type I and 22 families with Usher syndrome type II. Significant linkage was established between Usher syndrome type II and the DNA marker locus THH33 (D1S81), which maps to chromosome 1q. The most likely location of the disease gene is at a map distance of 9 cM from THH33 (lod score 6.5). The same marker failed to show linkage in families segregating an allele for Usher syndrome type I. These data confirm the provisional assignment of the locus for Usher syndrome type II to the distal end of chromosome 1q and demonstrate that the clinical heterogeneity between Usher types I and II is caused by mutational events at different genetic loci. Regional localization has the potential to improve carrier detection and to provide antenatal diagnosis in families at risk for the disease.

  3. Analyses in Support of Risk-Informed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Codes and Standards: Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter; Muna, Alice Baca; Ehrhart, Brian David

    2018-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed natural gas fueled vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operating procedures. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase II work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest using risk ranking. Detailed simulations and modeling were performed to estimate the location and behavior of natural gas releases based on these scenarios. Specific code conflicts were identified, and ineffective code requirements were highlighted and resolutions proposed. These include ventilation rate basis on area or volume, as well as a ceiling offset which seems ineffective at protecting against flammable gas concentrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge Bill Houf (SNL -- Retired) for his assistance with the set-up and post-processing of the numerical simulations. The authors also acknowledge Doug Horne (retired) for his helpful discussions. We would also like to acknowledge the support from the Clean Cities program of DOE's Vehicle Technology Office.

  4. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  5. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: II. quality of soil maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of semi-detailed (scale 1:100.000 soil maps and the utility of a taxonomically based legend were assessed by studying 33 apparently homogeneous fields with strongly weathered soils in two regions in São Paulo State: Araras and Assis. An independent data set of 395 auger sites was used to determine purity of soil mapping units and analysis of variance within and between mapping units and soil classification units. Twenty three soil profiles were studied in detail. The studied soil maps have a high purity for some legend criteria, such as B horizon type (> 90% and soil texture class (> 80%. The purity for the "trophic character" (eutrophic, dystrophic, allic was only 55% in Assis. It was 88% in Araras, where many soil units had been mapped as associations. In both regions, the base status of clay-textured soils was generally better than suggested by the maps. Analysis of variance showed that mapping was successful for "durable" soil characteristics such as clay content (> 80% of variance explained and cation exchange capacity (≥ 50% of variance explained of 0-20 and 60-80 cm layers. For soil characteristics that are easily modified by management, such as base saturation of the 0-20 cm layer, the maps had explained very little ( 100 m; (b taking advantage of correlations between easily measured soil characteristics and chemical soil properties and, (c unbending the link between legend criteria and a taxonomic system. The maps are well suited to obtain an impression of land suitability for high-input farming. Additional field work and data on former land use/management are necessary for the evaluation of chemical properties of surface horizons.

  6. Cytokine-induced killer cells are type II natural killer T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until now, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells were assumed to be part of the type I natural killer T (NKT cell population, but it was not yet investigated if this is correct. Methods: For analysis, CIK cells were generated by various culture conditions. Human type I NKT cells express a T cell receptor (TCR composed of an invariant Vα24-JαQ chain combined with one of several Vβ chains. The Vα24 is a reliable marker for the presence of these TCRs. Results: While comparing cultures stimulated with different substances, we observed the lack of any Vα24 on the surface of CIK culture cells. Conclusion: We conclude that CIK cells do not belong to the type I NKT cells.

  7. Membrane reforming in converting natural gas to hydrogen: Production costs, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaquaniello, G; Cosenza, S [Technip-KTI S.p.A., via Castello della Magliana 75, Rome (Italy); Giacobbe, F; Morico, B; Farace, A [Processi Innovativi s.r.l., L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    This paper evaluates the production costs of a hybrid system based on a new membrane reforming MRR concept to convert natural gas to hydrogen and electricity. Membrane reforming with hydrogen-selective, palladium-silver membranes pushes the chemical equilibrium and allows higher methane conversions at lower temperature such as 650 C. The new MRR concept formed of a series of modules is put forward herein. Each module is made up of a reforming step and an external membrane separation unit. The estimates, based on utilities costs of a typical Italian refinery (end of 2006), show that the production costs for the hybrid system are 30% less than conventional tubular steam reforming technology, and 13% less than a gas-fired cogeneration plant coupled with a conventional H{sub 2} plant. (author)

  8. Virtues of Giambologna from Grimaldi Chapel Archaeometric Characterisation Part II: `Artistic' and Natural Patinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Valeria; Grosso, Pamela; Piccardo, Paolo; Magnani, Lauro G.; Carnasciali, Maria M.

    2016-08-01

    The scientific investigation on metal artwork is meant to expand the knowledge regarding the technical skills developed by artists in sculpture manufacturing. Moreover, all the gathered data support the speculation about the motivations behind the choices of certain material or a specific casting and/or finishing method (e.g., aesthetic, economic or technical reasons, or both) and give fundamental information for planning adequate restoration interventions. The subject of this study is the Virtues sculptural group made at the end of the XVI century by Giambologna to decorate the Grimaldi Chapel in the church of San Francesco di Castelletto (Genoa, Italy). Six life-size statues depicting Charity, Justice, Hope, Fortitude, Faith, and Temperance (i.e., the artwork discussed in this article); seven bas-reliefs; and six winged representations of putti are what remains of the original monumental project. Different micro-invasive analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, SEM-EDS; micro-Raman Spectroscopy, μRS; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) were applied to determine the chemical nature and the state of conservation of the "artistic" and natural patinas visible on the Virtues surfaces. Some patination tests were performed taking into account the collected analytical data and the indications provided by the scientific literature and the historical documents. The combination of the results obtained through the scientific investigations and the experimental work allowed for supposing the materials and the patination technique selected by the artist to adorn the sculptures and providing indications for the correct conservation of the six sculptures.

  9. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  10. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  11. Cassava root husks powder as green adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from natural river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgetto, A.O.; Silva, R.I.V.; Saeki, M.J.; Barbosa, R.C. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Martines, M.A.U. [UFMS – Dept. Química, 79074-460 Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Jorge, S.M.A.; Silva, A.C.P. [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Schneider, J.F. [USP – Instituto de Física de São Carlos, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Castro, G.R., E-mail: castrogr@ibb.unesp.br [IB-UNESP, Dept. Química e Bioquímica, C.P. 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of simple processes, cassava root husks were turned into a fine powder of controlled particle size (63–75 μm). FTIR spectrum demonstrated the existence of alcohol, amine and carboxylic groups; and elemental analysis confirmed the presence of elements of interest such as sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen. Cross-polarized {"1H}-{sup 13}C NMR technique indicated the existence of methionine and thiamine through the signals observed at 55 ppm and 54 ppm, respectively, and the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) was achieved at pH 5.2. The material was applied in solid-phase extraction of Cu(II) via batch experiments. Optimum adsorption pH was found to be in range of 3–6 and in the kinetic experiment the equilibrium was attained in 1 min. The highest adsorption capacity was 0.14 mmol g{sup −1}. The adsorption data were fit to the modified Langmuir equation, and the maximum amount of metal species extracted from the solution, N{sub s}, was determined to be ∼0.14 mmol g{sup −1}, which is an indicative that the main adsorption mechanism is through chemisorption. Under optimized conditions, the material was utilized in preconcentration experiments, which culminated in an enrichment factor of 41.3-fold. With the aid of the enrichment factor, experiments were carried out to determine the Cu(II) content in tap water and natural water. Preconcentration method was also applied to a certified reference material (1643e) and the concentration found was 23.03 ± 0.79 μg L{sup −1}, whereas the specified Cu(II) concentration was 22.7 ± 0.31 μg L{sup −1}.

  12. Evolution of natural populations in the Drosophila melanogaster sigma system II. Northern and central France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, A

    1990-01-01

    A survey of French natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster has been systematically performed, concerning their status of infection by the sigma virus and the characteristics of viral clones. These investigations, which were not as extensive as those performed in the Languedoc region (Fleuriet et al., 1990) nevertheless give a good representation of the evolution of this system because of the long period involved (almost 20 years). Some trends were observed in all French populations such as (1) a decrease in the high efficiency of transmission by males (which is an important parameter for the viral invading ability); (2) high frequency of a best adapted viral Type. These high frequencies might be due to a recent invasion which is expected to spread to other European populations. However, the frequency of infected flies remained low in northern and central France, unlike in Languedoc. The complexity of this, apparently simple, system of two well-known coevolving organisms should once again be stressed. It is impossible with the known parameters to arrive at a general interpretation of observations made in Languedoc and the rest of France. These data may also throw some light on the structure of French wild populations of D. melanogaster which appear to be subdivided into local populations between which gene flow might be low.

  13. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex with low energy accelerator-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Md. Emdadul; Makuuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) was radiation vulcanized under a low energy electron accelerator. Accelerating voltage and maximum beam current of this accelerator are 250 kV and 10 mA respectively. Irradiation was carried out in a reaction vessel with constant stirring. The capacity of the vessel is 18 liters. Radiation vulcanization accelerators (RVA) were normal butyl acrylate (n-BA) and nonane-diol-diacrylate (NDDA). NDDA has no bad smell like that of n-BA. 20 minutes irradiation time is enough to vulcanize 14 liters of latex when 5 phr RVA (both types) are used. Maximum of {approx}30 MPa tensile strength was obtained with 5 phr NDD-A. However the remained NDDA is difficult to remove due to high molecular weight. Water-extractable proteins content was determined in dipped films for various leaching conditions without and with additive (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA). Water extractable proteins content is reduced to {<=} 41 by adding 5 phr PVA and leaching for 8 hours. The tackiness of the dipped films is reduced to 0.1 from 9 gf by mixing 6 phr PVA with the irradiated latex. Hand gloves (surgical and examination) were successfully produced from the irradiated latex. (author)

  14. Formation of mercury sulfide from Hg(II)−thiolate complexes in natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain Manceau,; Cyprien Lemouchi,; Mironel Enescu,; Anne-Claire Gaillot,; Martine Lanson,; Valerie Magnin,; Pieter Glatzel,; Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Isabelle Gautier-Lunea,; Kathryn L. Nagy,

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury–sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury–sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  15. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  16. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Polarized Neutron Diffraction as a Tool for Mapping Molecular Magnetic Anisotropy: Local Susceptibility Tensors in Co(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; Gukasov, Arsen; Chaboussant, Grégory; Cousson, Alain; Luneau, Dominique; Borta, Ana; Jacquot, Jean-François; Checa, Ruben; Chiba, Yukako; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2016-01-11

    Polarized neutron diffraction (PND) experiments were carried out at low temperature to characterize with high precision the local magnetic anisotropy in two paramagnetic high-spin cobalt(II) complexes, namely [Co(II) (dmf)6 ](BPh4 )2 (1) and [Co(II) 2 (sym-hmp)2 ](BPh4 )2 (2), in which dmf=N,N-dimethylformamide; sym-hmp=2,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)methylaminomethyl]-4-methylphenolate, and BPh4 (-) =tetraphenylborate. This allowed a unique and direct determination of the local magnetic susceptibility tensor on each individual Co(II) site. In compound 1, this approach reveals the correlation between the single-ion easy magnetization direction and a trigonal elongation axis of the Co(II) coordination octahedron. In exchange-coupled dimer 2, the determination of the individual Co(II) magnetic susceptibility tensors provides a clear outlook of how the local magnetic properties on both Co(II) sites deviate from the single-ion behavior because of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. LHC signals for singlet neutrinos from a natural warped seesaw mechanism. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo

    2018-04-01

    A natural seesaw mechanism for obtaining the observed size of SM neutrino masses can arise in a warped extra-dimensional/composite Higgs framework. In a previous paper, we initiated the study of signals at the LHC for the associated ˜TeV mass SM singlet neutrinos, within a canonical model of S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )B-L (LR) symmetry in the composite sector, as motivated by consistency with the EW precision tests. Here, we investigate LHC signals in a different region of parameter space for the same model, where production of singlet neutrinos can occur from particles beyond those in the usual LR models. Specifically, we assume that the composite (B -L ) gauge boson is lighter than all the others in the EW sector. We show that the composite (B -L ) gauge boson can acquire a significant coupling to light quarks simply via mixing with elementary hypercharge gauge boson. Thus, the singlet neutrino can be pair-produced via decays of the(B -L ) gauge boson, without a charged current counterpart. Furthermore, there is no decay for the (B -L ) gauge boson directly into dibosons, unlike for the usual case of WR± and Z'. Independently of the above extension of the EW sector, we analyze production of singlet neutrinos in decays of composite partners of S U (2 )L doublet leptons, which are absent in the usual LR models. In turn, these doublet leptons can be produced in composite WL decays. We show that the 4 -5 σ signal can be achieved for both cases described above for the following spectrum with 3000 fb-1 luminosity: 2-2.5 TeV composite gauge bosons, 1 TeV composite doublet lepton (for the second case) and 500-750 GeV singlet neutrino.

  19. [C II] and {sup 12}CO(1-0) emission maps in HLSJ091828.6+514223: A strongly lensed interacting system at z = 5.24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B. [ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Clement, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boone, F. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Danielson, A. L. R.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Richard, J. [CRAL, Université Lyon-1, 9 Av. Charles Andr, F-69561 St Genis Laval (France); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290, Sauverny (Switzerland); Jones, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Kneib, J.-P., E-mail: tim.rawle@sciops.esa.int [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, Versoix 1290 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-03-01

    We present Submillimeter Array [C II] 158 μm and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission maps for the bright, lensed, submillimeter source at z = 5.2430 behind A 773: HLSJ091828.6+514223 (HLS0918). We combine these measurements with previously reported line profiles, including multiple {sup 12}CO rotational transitions, [C I], water, and [N II], providing some of the best constraints on the properties of the interstellar medium in a galaxy at z > 5. HLS0918 has a total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L {sub FIR(8–1000} {sub μm)} = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉} μ{sup –1}, where the total magnification μ{sub total} = 8.9 ± 1.9, via a new lens model from the [C II] and continuum maps. Despite a HyLIRG luminosity, the FIR continuum shape resembles that of a local LIRG. We simultaneously fit all of the observed spectral line profiles, finding four components that correspond cleanly to discrete spatial structures identified in the maps. The two most redshifted spectral components occupy the nucleus of a massive galaxy, with a source-plane separation <1 kpc. The reddest dominates the continuum map (demagnified L {sub FIR,} {sub component} = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) and excites strong water emission in both nuclear components via a powerful FIR radiation field from the intense star formation. A third star-forming component is most likely a region of a merging companion (ΔV ∼ 500 km s{sup –1}) exhibiting generally similar gas properties. The bluest component originates from a spatially distinct region and photodissociation region analysis suggests that it is lower density, cooler, and forming stars less vigorously than the other components. Strikingly, it has very strong [N II] emission, which may suggest an ionized, molecular outflow. This comprehensive view of gas properties and morphology in HLS0918 previews the science possible for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies once ALMA attains full sensitivity.

  20. Evaluation of the optical design of laser Thomson scattering diagnostics for high-temperature EAST tokamak and low-temperature MAP-II divertor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro; Scotti, Filippo; Xi Xiaoqi; Zhao Junyu

    2009-01-01

    The optical design of the laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system for EAST tokamak is now on-going. Based on the Visible YAG laser TVTS system developed in the MAP-II (material and plasma) steady-state linear divertor/edge plasma simulator at the University of Tokyo, the required specification and the applicability of the VIS-YAG-TVTS system was evaluated in terms of the photon number to be collected by the fiber light-guide to a spectrometer and the reciprocal linear dispersion of the spectrometer. Then, the possible design of the optical system was proposed. (author)

  1. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping models applied to natural and urban planning in Trikala, Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilodimou, H. D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is a practical tool in natural and urban planning; it can be applied for determining land use zones, in construction design and planning of a variety of projects. In this study, two different GIS based landslide susceptibility maps were generated in the mountainous part of the Trikala Prefecture in Thessaly, Central Greece. This was accomplished by using different methods for correlating factors, which have an effect on landslide occurrences. The instability factors taken into account were: lithology, tectonic features, slope gradients, road network, drainage network, land use and rainfall. A frequency distribution of the half number of the landslide events of the study area in each class of the instability factors was performed in order to rate the classes. Two models have been used to combine the instability factors and assess the overall landslide susceptibility, namely: the Weight Factor Model (WeF, which is a statistical method, and the Multiple Factor Model (MuF that is a logical method. The produced maps were classified into four zones: Low, Moderate, High and Very High susceptible zones and validated using the other half number of the landslide events of the area. Evaluation of the results is optimized through a Landslide Models Indicator (La.M.I..Los mapas de susceptibilidad de deslizamientos representan una práctica herramienta en la planificación urbana y de espacios naturales. Así, puede aplicarse a la determinación de los usos de terrenos, en el diseño de construcción civil y para la planificación de gran variedad de actividades. En este estudio se generaron dos tipos diferentes de mapas de susceptibilidad basados en GIS para la parte montañosa de la prefectura de Trikala en Tesalia (Grecia Central. Estos se llevaron a cabo usando dos métodos de correlación de los factores que pueden tener un efecto en la generación de deslizamientos. Los factores de desestabilización tenidos en cuenta

  2. Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Bajpai, R K; Tomar, B S

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay, proposed as a backfill material in the Indian geological repository, was studied using the out-diffusion method. Radiotracers (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were used; the first three are carrier-free enabling experimental work at sub-micromolar metal ion concentration, and Eu(III) tracer (154)Eu was used at sub millimolar concentration. An out-diffusion methodology, wherein a thin planar source of radioactivity placed between two clay columns diffuses out, was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) values. This methodology enabled determination of diffusion coefficient even for strongly sorbing (154)Eu. Da values for (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were 2.35 (±0.14) × 10(-11), 2.65 (±0.09) × 10(-12), 3.32 (±0.15) × 10(-11) and 1.23 (±0.15) × 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), respectively. Da values were found to be in fair agreement with literature data reported for similar mineralogical sediments. Sorption of radionuclides on the clay was also determined in the present study and differences in Da values were rationalized on the basis of sorption data. Distribution ratios (Kd) for Cs(I) and Eu(III) were higher than that for Sr(II), which in turn was higher than that for Na(I). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  4. The Effect of Guided Inquiry Learning with Mind Map to Science Process Skills and Learning Outcomes of Natural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hilman .

    2015-01-01

    Pengaruh Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing dengan Mind Map terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Hasil Belajar IPA   Abstract: Science learning in junior high school aims to enable students conducts scientific inquiry, improves knowledge, concepts, and science skills. Organization materials for students supports learning process so that needs to be explored techniques that allows students to enable it. This study aimed to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on...

  5. Identification and characterization of scenarios of natural source, representation of the same ones by means of radiological maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Gil Castillo, Reynaldo; Castillo Gomez, Rafael; Ramos Viltre, Enma O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Cuba Republic (NNERS) between their main functions of controlling permanently, from the radiological point of view, the environment in the whole national territory, monitoring, among other indicators, the environmental gamma dose rate. This monitoring is carried out in 18 radiological posts distributed by the whole country that gives us an idea of the atmospheric gamma background of a certain region. The influence of the natural sources scenarios in the measurement of the gamma dose rate, results in the variability of the measurement inside oneself region and even in distances so short as 500 meters the variation can be between the 30 or 40 nGy/h, for that, when we estimate the exhibition dose to which the population is subjected, we would introduce a great error when we take like base the gamma dose rate of the region in study. The study of the environmental gamma background was carried out in Havana City, using a mobile gamma dose rate system, with a high sensibility and a very low time of answer. The used system is able to register in real time the position and the gamma dose rate. The monitoring carries out from an automobile, using an interval of measurement of 10 seconds. The obtained results are classified by measurements ranges, and they were associated to different codes of colors and were showed in a map for a better interpretation and visualization of the same ones. Computer tools were developed for do that. The average value of dose rate in Havana City (taking into account the contribution of the cosmic radiation) is 55,6 nGy/h, similar to the national historical average reported by the NNERS that is of 55,3 nGy/h. The municipality of higher dose rate was Cerro with 61,3 nGy/h, and that of lower value was San Miguel del Padron with 51,9 nGy/h. If we discard the contribution of the cosmic radiation, the dose rate in air in Havana City is below 50 % of the world average. (author)

  6. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in resistance of mice to naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia W.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    Genetics plays a substantial role in host resistance in many host-parasite interactions. We examined the prevalence of naturally acquired infection with Syphacia obvelata in a number of mouse strains housed in a non-barrier facility. These mice, which included cross-bred and congenic, inbred strains on various genetic backgrounds, differ in the loci for the immune function genes--major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (Slc11a1)--which allowed comparisons of the impact of these genes on resistance to pinworm infection. Male and female mice of various ages were sampled over an 18-month period; infection was determined by use of the cellophane tape test. Results indicated that mice that were MHCII+/+ had a significantly lower prevalence of infection than did mice that were MHCII-/-. Differences were not seen between male and female mice. Although MHCII+/+ mice had an age-associated decrease in infection prevalence, such decrease was not seen in MHCII-/- mice. In contrast, infection prevalence in mice with the normal Tlr4 gene (Tlr4(LPS-n/LPS-n)) gene did not differ significantly compared with that in mice that were homozygous for either the point mutation (Tlr4(LPS-d/LPS-d)) or deletion (Tlr4(LPS-del/LPS-del)) of that gene. Likewise, the presence (Sle11a1r/r) or absence (Slc11a1s/s) of functional alleles for Slc11a1 had no effect on the prevalence of infection with S. obvelata. In conclusion, presence of MHCII, but not Tlr4 or Slc11a1 significantly influences prevalence of naturally acquired infection with S. obvelata. These data justify further comprehensive analyses of the immune components that are involved in pinworm resistance.

  7. Effect of nature convection on heat transfer in the liquid LiPb blanket for FDS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hongyan; Chen Hongli [Huaibei Coal Industry Teachers Coll. (China). Dept. of Physics; Zhou Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2007-07-01

    The He-cooled liquid LiPb tritium breeder (SLL) blanket concept is one of options of the blanket design of the fusion power reactor (FDS-II). The SLL blanket could be developed relatively easily with lower LiPb outlet temperature and slower LiPb flow velocity that allows the utilization of relatively mature material technology. The velocity of the liquid LiPb in the blanket is very slowly only in order to extract tritium. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer become very complex resulting from the differential heating of walls of the channels, especially adjacent to the First Wall (FW), and internal heat sources inside of the liquid LiPb. It is necessary to analyse the effect of the buoyancy-driven LiPb MHD flow on heat transfer in the channels with electrically and thermally conducting walls adjacent to the FW. The nature convection of the liquid LiPb, due to thermal diffusion, in the poloidal channel adjacent to the FW in the presence of the strong magnetic field of the SLL blanket has been considered and studied. The specially numerical MHD code based on the computational fluid dynamic software has been developed for analysis of the buoyancy-driven MHD flow. The properties of buoyantly convective flows have been investigated for various thermal boundary conditions. The numerical analysis was performed for the effect of nature convection on heat transfer of the liquid LiPb MHD flow in the poloidal channel in the SLL blanket. For the strong temperature gradient in the blanket and internal heat flux of Liquid LiPb, the three-dimensional temperature distributions of the LiPb, the FW and other walls have been given. Finally, The effect of the ratio of MHD buoyancy on the heat transfer characteristics of the LiPb flow have been calculated and presented. (orig.)

  8. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  9. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  10. A stochastic model for the synthesis and degradation of natural organic matter. Part III: Modeling Cu(II) complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabaniss, Stephen E. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)], E-mail: cabaniss@unm.edu; Maurice, Patricia A. [Department of Geology and Civil Engineering, University of Notre Dame (United States); Madey, Greg [Department of Computer Science, University of Notre Dame (United States)

    2007-08-15

    An agent-based biogeochemical model has been developed which begins with biochemical precursor molecules and simulates the transformation and degradation of natural organic matter (NOM). This manuscript presents an empirical quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) which uses the numbers of ligand groups, charge density and heteroatom density of a molecule to estimate Cu-binding affinity (K{sub Cu}{sup '}) at pH 7.0 and ionic strength 0.10 for the molecules in this model. Calibration of this QSAR on a set of 41 model compounds gives a root mean square error of 0.88 log units and r{sup 2} 0.93. Two simulated NOM assemblages, one beginning with small molecules (tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids) and one with biopolymers (protein, lignin), give markedly different distributions of logK{sub Cu}{sup '}. However, calculations based on these logK{sub Cu}{sup '} distributions agree qualitatively with published experimental Cu(II) titration data from river and lake NOM samples.

  11. The Effect of Guided Inquiry Learning with Mind Map to Science Process Skills and Learning Outcomes of Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman .

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Inkuiri Terbimbing dengan Mind Map terhadap Keterampilan Proses Sains dan Hasil Belajar IPA   Abstract: Science learning in junior high school aims to enable students conducts scientific inquiry, improves knowledge, concepts, and science skills. Organization materials for students supports learning process so that needs to be explored techniques that allows students to enable it. This study aimed to determine the effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on science process skills and cognitive learning outcomes. This experimental quasi studey used pretest-posttest control group design and consisted eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Papalang Mamuju of West Sulawesi. The results showed there where significant positive effect of guided inquiry learning with mind map on process science skills and cognitive learning outcomes. Key Words: guided inquiry, mind map, science process skills, cognitive learning outcomes   Abstrak: Pembelajaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (IPA di SMP bertujuan agar siswa dapat melakukan inkuiri ilmiah, meningkatkan pengetahuan, konsep, dan keterampilan IPA. Dalam pembelajaran, organisasi materi berperan penting dalam memudahkan anak belajar sehingga perlu ditelaah teknik yang memudahkan siswa membuat organisasi materi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing dengan mind map terhadap keterampilan proses sains dan hasil belajar kognitif. Penelitian kuasi eksperimen ini menggunakan rancangan pre test-post test control group design dengan subjek penelitian siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Papalang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada pengaruh positif yang signifikan pembelajaran inkuiri terbimbing dengan mind map terhadap kemampuan keterampilan proses sains dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Kata kunci:  inkuiri terbimbing, mind map, keterampilan proses sains,  hasil belajar kognitif

  12. Final Report for the MANNRRSS II Program Management of Nevada's Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems, Beatty, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester Miller; Brian Horowitz; Chris Kratt; Tim Minor; Stephen F. Zitzer; James. V. Taranik; Zan L. Aslett; Todd O. Morken

    2009-06-04

    This document provides the Final Report on the Management of Nevada’s Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems (MANNRRSS) II program. This is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project tasked with utilizing hyperspectral and ancillary electro-optical instrumentation data to create an environmental characterization of an area directly adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  13. Detection of Second Sound in He-II for Thermal Quench Mapping of Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmaier, Tobias; Grohmann, Steffen; Kind, Matthias; Furci, Hernán; Koettig, Torsten; Peters, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    The development of future particle accelerators requires intensive testing of superconducting radio frequency cavities with different sizes and geometries. Non-contact thermometry quench localisation techniques proved to be beneficial for the localisation of surface defects that can originate a quench (sudden loss of superconducting state). These techniques are based on the detection of second sound in helium II. Transition Edge Sensors (TES) are highly sensitive thin film thermometers with f...

  14. Removal of Cu(II) in water by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration: Influence of polymer nature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkodan, Olga D; Kochkodan, Viktor M; Sharma, Virender K

    2018-01-02

    This study presents an efficient removal of Cu(II) in water using the polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) method. Polymer of different molecular weight (MW) (polyethyleneimine (PEI), sodium lignosulfonates (SLS) and dextrans) were investigated to evaluate efficiency in removal of Cu(II) in water by the PEUF method. The decomposition of Cu(II)-polymer complex was also evaluated in order to reuse polymers. Cu(II) complexation depends on the MW of chelating polymer and the pH of feed solution. It was found that the Cu(II) rejection increased with the polymer dosage with high removal of Cu(II) when using PEI and SLS at a 10:20 (mg/mg) ratio ([Cu(II)]:[polymer]). It was found that the maximum chelating capacity was 15 mg of Cu(II) per 20 mg of PEI. The Cu(II)-PEI complex could be decomposed by acid addition and the polymer could be efficiently reused with multiple complexation-decomplexation cycles. A conceptual flow chart of the integrated process of efficient removal of Cu(II) by PEUF method is suggested.

  15. Open Knowledge Maps: Creating a Visual Interface to the World’s Scientific Knowledge Based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Open Knowledge Maps is to create a visual interface to the world’s scientific knowledge. The base for this visual interface consists of so-called knowledge maps, which enable the exploration of existing knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge. Our open source knowledge mapping software applies a mixture of summarization techniques and similarity measures on article metadata, which are iteratively chained together. After processing, the representation is saved in a database for use in a web visualization. In the future, we want to create a space for collective knowledge mapping that brings together individuals and communities involved in exploration and discovery. We want to enable people to guide each other in their discovery by collaboratively annotating and modifying the automatically created maps. Das Ziel von Open Knowledge Map ist es, ein visuelles Interface zum wissenschaftlichen Wissen der Welt bereitzustellen. Die Basis für die dieses Interface sind sogenannte “knowledge maps”, zu deutsch Wissenslandkarten. Wissenslandkarten ermöglichen die Exploration bestehenden Wissens und die Entdeckung neuen Wissens. Unsere Open Source Software wendet für die Erstellung der Wissenslandkarten eine Reihe von Text Mining Verfahren iterativ auf die Metadaten wissenschaftlicher Artikel an. Die daraus resultierende Repräsentation wird in einer Datenbank für die Anzeige in einer Web-Visualisierung abgespeichert. In Zukunft wollen wir einen Raum für das kollektive Erstellen von Wissenslandkarten schaffen, der die Personen und Communities, welche sich mit der Exploration und Entdeckung wissenschaftlichen Wissens beschäftigen, zusammenbringt. Wir wollen es den NutzerInnen ermöglichen, einander in der Literatursuche durch kollaboratives Annotieren und Modifizieren von automatisch erstellten Wissenslandkarten zu unterstützen.

  16. Engineering Geology Maps for Planning and Management of Natural Parks: “Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia” and “Quilamas” (Central Spanish System, Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Yenes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented herein is a cartographic procedure that is easy to utilise and at low-cost, which facilitates the first stages of planning and management of a naturally protected space and considers the geotechnical parameters that influence human activity. This procedure uses geographical information systems technology by combining the cartographies for the most influential parameters on the stability of the area (lithology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, slopes, lineament/fractures and seismicity with geomechanical mapping generated from geotechnical parameters obtained through field and laboratory tests. This geotechnical mapping facilitates the division of a territory into zones according to each type of problem and generates a cartography for natural hazards. Using this information, it is possible to produce a cartography of constructive conditions or geotechnical hazards. This methodology has been validated by application to two natural protected spaces, “Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia” and “Quilamas”. The validation confirmed that the cartography procedure described herein is a preventive, and not a structural measure. It is a tool that delimits areas with different constructive use recommendations and limitations, and therefore, is useful for natural space managers.

  17. Smartphones for post-event analysis: a low-cost and easily accessible approach for mapping natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    A real opportunity and challenge for the hazard mapping is offered by the use of smartphones and low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique (i.e. 'Structure-from-Motion'-SfM-). Differently from the other traditional photogrammetric methods, the SfM allows to reconstitute three-dimensional geometries (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) from randomly acquired images. The images can be acquired by standalone digital cameras (compact or reflex), or even by smartphones built-in cameras. This represents a "revolutionary" advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner TLS, airborne lidar) (Tarolli, 2014). Through fast, simple and consecutive field surveys, anyone with a smartphone can take a lot of pictures of the same study area. This way, high-resolution and multi-temporal DSMs may be obtained and used to better monitor and understand erosion and deposition processes. Furthermore, these topographic data can also facilitate to quantify volumes of eroded materials due to landslides and recognize the major critical issues that usually occur during a natural hazard (e.g. river bank erosion and/or collapse due to floods). In this work we considered different case studies located in different environmental contexts of Italy, where extensive photosets were obtained using smartphones. TLS data were also considered in the analysis as benchmark to compare with SfM data. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) derived from SfM at centimeter grid-cell resolution revealed to be effective to automatically recognize areas subject to surface instabilities, and estimate quantitatively erosion and deposition volumes, for example. Morphometric indexes such as landform curvature and surface roughness, and statistical thresholds (e.g. standard deviation) of these indices, served as the basis for the proposed analyses. The results indicate that SfM technique through smartphones really offers a fast, simple and affordable alternative to lidar

  18. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  19. Polyclonal type II natural killer T cells require PLZF and SAP for their development and contribute to CpG-mediated antitumor response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Weng, Xiufang; Bagchi, Sreya; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells with potent immunomodulatory function via rapid production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. NKT cells comprise well-characterized type I NKT cells, which can be detected by α-galactosylceramide-loaded CD1d tetramers, and less-studied type II NKT cells, which do not recognize α-galactosylceramide. Here we characterized type II NKT cells on a polyclonal level by using a Jα18-deficient IL-4 reporter mouse model. This model allows us to track type II NTK cells by the GFP+TCRβ+ phenotype in the thymus and liver. We found type II NKT cells, like type I NKT cells, exhibit an activated phenotype and are dependent on the transcriptional regulator promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) and the adaptor molecule signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) for their development. Type II NKT cells are potently activated by β-D-glucopyranosylceramide (β-GlcCer) but not sulfatide or phospholipids in a CD1d-dependent manner, with the stimulatory capacity of β-GlcCer influenced by acyl chain length. Compared with type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells produce lower levels of IFN-γ but comparable amounts of IL-13 in response to polyclonal T-cell receptor stimulation, suggesting they may play different roles in regulating immune responses. Furthermore, type II NKT cells can be activated by CpG oligodeoxynucletides to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-4 or IL-13. Importantly, CpG-activated type II NKT cells contribute to the antitumor effect of CpG in the B16 melanoma model. Taken together, our data reveal the characteristics of polyclonal type II NKT cells and their potential role in antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:24550295

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section III-IX Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II, which include map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780 and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets. It should be noted that TL6100 resides in both Areas II and III. The graphic data for TL6100 are presented in Volume IV - Area III - Graphic Data of this report

  1. Raman Microspectroscopic Mapping with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) Applied to the High-Pressure Polymorph of Titanium Dioxide, TiO2-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Ottaway, Joshua; Krull-Davatzes, Alexandra E; Simonson, Bruce M; Glass, Billy P; Booksh, Karl S

    2017-08-01

    The high-pressure, α-PbO 2 -structured polymorph of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -II) was recently identified in micrometer-sized grains recovered from four Neoarchean spherule layers deposited between ∼2.65 and ∼2.54 billion years ago. Several lines of evidence support the interpretation that these layers represent distal impact ejecta layers. The presence of shock-induced TiO 2 -II provides physical evidence to further support an impact origin for these spherule layers. Detailed characterization of the distribution of TiO 2 -II in these grains may be useful for correlating the layers, estimating the paleodistances of the layers from their source craters, and providing insight into the formation of the TiO 2 -II. Here we report the investigation of TiO 2 -II-bearing grains from these four spherule layers using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) applied to Raman microspectroscopic mapping. Raman spectra provide evidence of grains consisting primarily of rutile (TiO 2 ) and TiO 2 -II, as shown by Raman bands at 174 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 426 cm -1 (TiO 2 -II), 443 cm -1 (rutile), and 610 cm -1 (rutile). Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a predominantly three-phase system comprised of rutile, TiO 2 -II, and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggests heterogeneous grains containing polydispersed micrometer- and submicrometer-sized particles. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares applied to the Raman microspectroscopic mapping yielded up to five distinct chemical components: three phases of TiO 2 (rutile, TiO 2 -II, and anatase), quartz (SiO 2 ), and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Spectral profiles and spatially resolved chemical maps of the pure chemical components were generated using MCR-ALS applied to the Raman microspectroscopic maps. The spatial resolution of the Raman microspectroscopic maps was enhanced in comparable, cost-effective analysis times by limiting spectral resolution

  2. Dosimetry of a gammabeam - 650 60Co irradiator. II. Mapping of isodose curves in the irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, J.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1980-01-01

    On 1st April 1974 a map was made of the chamber at CENA containing the 650 Gammabeam 60 Co irradiator source with nominal activity of 29,080 curies, using Fricke's dosimeter. The isodose curves were determined for the geometry of 10 cm diameter between 12 active tubes and proved to be symetric around the irradiator. Additionally, three mathematical models (linear source, three point source and point source) were developed for a theoretical estimate of the exposure rates, which were in many cases less than the rates experimentally determined. This difference was probably due to radiation scattering by shielding, sidewalls and the ceilling of the chamber, not being taken into consideration in the theoretical estimate. There was no significant difference in the exposure rates of the mathematical models and as the point source model is the simplest, its use is recommended. (Author) [pt

  3. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  4. Mapping the extent of disease by multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sentinel node evaluation in stage I and II cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To map the extent of disease in women with stage I and II carcinoma cervix by multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sentinel nodes. (2 To assess accuracy of each modality individually and in conjunction with FIGO clinical staging. Design and Setting: Prospective, single-blind study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiodiagnosis, and Pathology, UCMS and GTBH and Division of Radiological Imaging and Bioinformatics, INMAS, Delhi. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 25 women with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II. Each woman underwent clinical staging, multislice spiral CT and MRI which was compared to the gold-standard histopathology/cytology. The overall accuracy of each modality and improvement of clinical staging by CT/MRI were noted. Sentinel nodes were evaluated by intracervical Patent Blue V dye injection. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by 2Χ2 contingency tables. Results: The accuracy of staging by FIGO, CT and MRI was 68%, 52% and 80%, respectively. MRI and CT improved the overall accuracy of FIGO staging to 96% and 80%, respectively. Sentinel nodes were identified in 89% of patients with 91% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI emerges as the most valuable stand-alone modality improving accuracy of FIGO staging to 96%. Sentinel lymph-node evaluation appears promising in evaluating spread beyond cervix.

  5. Self-organizing maps applied to two-phase flow on natural circulation loop study; Aplicacao de mapas auto-organizaveis na classificacao de padroes de escoamento bifasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Leonardo Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is found in many closed circuits using natural circulation for cooling purposes. Natural circulation phenomenon is important on recent nuclear power plant projects for decay heat removal. The Natural Circulation Facility (Circuito de Circulacao Natural CCN) installed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, is an experimental circuit designed to provide thermal hydraulic data related to single and two-phase flow under natural circulation conditions. This periodic flow oscillation behavior can be observed thoroughly in this facility due its glass-made tubes transparency. The heat transfer estimation has been improved based on models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. This work presents experiments realized at CCN to visualize natural circulation cycles in order to classify two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Images are compared and clustered using Kohonen Self-organizing Maps (SOM's) applied on different digital image features. The Full Frame Discret Cosine Transform (FFDCT) coefficients were used as input for the classification task, enabling good results. FFDCT prototypes obtained can be associated to each flow pattern, enabling a better comprehension of each observed instability. A systematic test methodology was used to verify classifier robustness.

  6. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  7. Nature or Nurture in finger counting: a review on the determinants of the direction of number-finger mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePrevitali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous use of finger counting has been for long recognised as critical to the acquisition of number skills. Recently, the great interest on space-number associations shifted attention to the practice of finger counting itself, and specifically, to its spatial components. Besides general cross-cultural differences in mapping numbers onto fingers, contrasting results have been reported with regard to the directional features of this mapping. The key issue we address is to what extent directionality is culturally-mediated, i.e., linked to the conventional reading-writing system direction, and/or biologically determined, i.e. linked to hand dominance. Although the preferred starting hand for counting seems to depend on the surveyed population, even within the same population high inter-individual variability minimises the role of cultural factors. Even if so far largely overlooked, handedness represents a sound candidate for shaping finger counting direction. Here we discuss adults and developmental evidence in support of this view and we reconsider the plausibility of multiple and coexistent number-space mapping in physical and representational space.

  8. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  9. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  10. Performance of USGS one-year earthquake hazard map for natural and induced seismicity in the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Salditch, L.; Petersen, M. D.; McNamara, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in the central United States has dramatically increased since 2008 due to the injection of wastewater produced by oil and gas extraction. In response, the USGS created a one-year probabilistic hazard model and map for 2016 to describe the increased hazard posed to the central and eastern United States. Using the intensity of shaking reported to the "Did You Feel It?" system during 2016, we assess the performance of this model. Assessing the performance of earthquake hazard maps for natural and induced seismicity is conceptually similar but has practical differences. Maps that have return periods of hundreds or thousands of years— as commonly used for natural seismicity— can be assessed using historical intensity data that also span hundreds or thousands of years. Several different features stand out when assessing the USGS 2016 seismic hazard model for the central and eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes. First, the model can be assessed as a forecast in one year, because event rates are sufficiently high to permit evaluation with one year of data. Second, because these models are projections from the previous year thus implicitly assuming that fluid injection rates remain the same, misfit may reflect changes in human activity. Our results suggest that the model was very successful by the metric implicit in probabilistic hazard seismic assessment: namely, that the fraction of sites at which the maximum shaking exceeded the mapped value is comparable to that expected. The model also did well by a misfit metric that compares the spatial patterns of predicted and maximum observed shaking. This was true for both the central and eastern United States as a whole, and for the region within it with the highest amount of seismicity, Oklahoma and its surrounding area. The model performed least well in northern Texas, over-stating hazard, presumably because lower oil and gas prices and regulatory action reduced the water injection volume

  11. C II forbidden-line 158 micron mapping in Sagittarius A Rotation curve and mass distribution in the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.; Crawford, M. K.; Townes, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Based on data obtained with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91.4 cm telescope, the 158-micron fine structure line emission of C(+) is mapped near the galactic center. The strongest emission comes from a 10-pc FWHM diameter disk centered on Sgr A West whose dominant motion is rotation. Extended C(+) emission is also found from the +50 km/s galactic center molecular cloud, and a second cloud at v(LSR) of about -35 km/s. The rotation curve and mass distribution within 10 pc of the galactic center are derived, and the C(+) profiles show a drop-off of rotation velocity between 2 and 10 pc. A mass model is suggested with 2-4 million solar masses in a central point mass, and a M/L ratio of the central stellar cluster of 0.5 solar masses/solar luminosities, suggesting a large abundance of giants and relatively recent star formation in the center.

  12. Part I: nonlinear analysis of three coupled Josephson junctions. Part II. general bond-to-site mapping in aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenski, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this thesis deals with the analysis of a small array of Josephson junctions, superconducting devices of markedly nonlinear behavior. The components of the array are modeled as resistively-shunted junctions and are driven by direct current. A chapter is provided that reviews the validity and features of such a model for the case of a single junction. This chapter also includes background information on the subjects of bifurcation, chaos, and fractals. In the following chapters, the array of three junctions is studied, first with one driving current and later with an additional bias current. The analysis includes both numerical results from computer simulations and analytic computations using a perturbative approach. The two approaches are shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the array is dominated by hysteresis effects. The second part of the thesis describes an exact bound-to-site transformation for diffusion-limited aggregation. A review is provided that summarizes the field of aggregation and demonstrates the need for such exact results. The equivalence maps a class of partial adhesion problems on arbitrary lattices to absolute adhesion problems on transformed lattices. Examples are given for diffusion in the presence and absence of an external field

  13. Behaviour of palladium(II), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) in artificial and natural waters: Influence of reactor surface and geochemistry on metal recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: antonio.cobelo-garcia@plymouth.ac.uk; Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Couceiro, Fay [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-07

    The recovery of dissolved platinum group elements (PGE: Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Rh(III)) added to Milli-Q[reg] water, artificial freshwater and seawater and filtered natural waters has been studied, as a function of pH and PGE concentration, in containers of varying synthetic composition. The least adsorptive and/or precipitative loss was obtained for borosilicate glass under most of the conditions employed, whereas the greatest loss was obtained for low-density polyethylene. Of the polymeric materials tested, the adsorptive and/or precipitative loss of PGE was lowest for fluorinated ethylene propylene (Teflon[reg]). The loss of Pd(II) in freshwater was significant due to its affinity for surface adsorption and its relatively low solubility. The presence of natural dissolved organic matter increases the recovery of Pd(II) but enhances the loss of Pt(IV). The loss of Rh(III) in seawater was significant and was mainly due to precipitation, whereas Pd(II) recovery was enhanced, compared to freshwater, because of its complexation with chloride. The results have important implications regarding protocols employed for sample preservation and controlled laboratory experiments used in the study of the speciation and biogeochemical behaviour of PGE.

  14. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  15. Ten-year technical and clinical outcomes in TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II infrainguinal C/D lesions using duplex ultrasound arterial mapping as the sole imaging modality for critical lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) as the sole imaging modality when planning for bypass surgery (BS) and endovascular revascularization (EvR) in patients with critical limb ischemia for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C\\/D infrainguinal lesions.

  16. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  17. Mapping of residues of fibrinogen cleaved by protease II of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis IMV B-7465

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Stohniy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The limited proteolysis of macromolecules allows obtaining the fragments that preserve the structure and functional properties of the whole molecule and could be used in the study of proteins structure and function. Proteases targeted to fibrinogen and fibrin are of interest as the tool for obtaining of functionally active fragments of fibrin(ogen and for the direct defibrination in vivo. That is why the aim of the present work was to study the proteolytic action of Protease II (PII purified from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis IMV B-7465 on fibrinogen. Hydrolysis products of fibrinogen by PII were analysed by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions with further immunoprobing using the mouse monoclonal 1-5A (anti-Aα509-610 and ІІ-5С (anti-Aα20-78 antibodies. It was shown that PII cleaved preferentially the Aα-chain of fibrinogen splitting off the peptide with apparent molecular weight of 10 kDa that corresponded the C-terminal part of Aα-chain of fibrinogen molecule. MALDI-TOF analysis of hydrolysis of fibrinogen was performed using a Voyager-DE. Results analyzed by Data Explorer 4.0.0.0 allowed to detect the main peak occurring at mass/charge (M/Z ratio of 11 441 Da. According to “Peptide Mass Calculator” this peptide corresponded to fragment Аα505-610 of fibrinogen molecule. The result showed that PII cleaves the peptide bond AαAsp-Thr-Ala504-Ser505. Thus, PII can be used for the obtaining of unique fragments of fibrinogen molecule. As far as αC-domain contains numerous sites of fibrin intermolecular interactions we can consider PII as a prospective agent for their study and for the defibrination.

  18. A promising magnetic resonance stem cell tracer based on natural biomaterials in a biological system: manganese (II chelated to melanin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu SJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Jie Liu,1,2,* Ling-Jie Wang,1,* Ying Qiao,1 Hua Zhang,1 Li-Ping Li,1 Jing-Hua Sun,1 Sheng He,1 Wen Xu,1,2 Xi Yang,1 Wen-Wen Cai,2 Jian-Ding Li,1 Bin-Quan Wang,3 Rui-Ping Zhang2 1Medical Imaging Department, First Clinical Medical College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Imaging Department, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China *These authors contributed equally to the paper Background: Melanin and manganese are both indispensable natural substances that play crucial roles in the human body. Melanin has been used as a multimodality imaging nanoplatform for biology science research because of its natural binding ability with metal ions (eg, 64Cu2+, Fe3+, and Gd3+. Because of its effects on T1 signal enhancement, Mn-based nanoparticles have been used in magnetic resonance (MR quantitative cell tracking in vivo. Stem cell tracking in vivo is an essential technology used to characterize engrafted stem cells, including cellular viability, biodistribution, differentiation capacity, and long-term fate.Methods: In the present study, manganese(II ions chelated to melanin nanoparticles [MNP-Mn(II] were synthesized. The characteristics, stem cell labeling efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were evaluated. MR imaging of the labeled stem cells in vivo and in vitro were also further performed. In T1 relaxivity (r1, MNP-Mn(II were significantly more abundant than Omniscan. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs can be labeled easily by coincubating with MNP-Mn(II, suggesting that MNP-Mn(II had high biocompatibility.Results: Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that MNP-Mn(II had almost no cytotoxicity when used to label BMSCs, even with a very high concentration (1,600 µg/mL. BMSCs labeled with MNP-Mn(II could generate a hyperintense T1 signal both in vitro

  19. Generation IV nuclear energy systems: road map and concepts. 2. Generation II Measurement Systems for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Don W.

    2001-01-01

    need for substantial research. As we consider I and C systems in Generation IV reactors, we have the opportunity to take a much less 'timid' design philosophy than was taken in the design of I and C systems in the ALWRs. We need to make use of advanced technology to design an I and C system for the Generation IV multi-unit plant designs currently being considered. Such a design should accomplish the following: 1. provides for multi-unit control; 2. contributes to a plant design objective of a very low core damage frequency; 3. maximizes plant thermal efficiency (>50%); 4. maximizes plant capacity factor (>90%); 5. optimizes operability; 6. maximizes maintainability; 7. provides for on-line monitoring, calibration, and diagnostics; 8. provides optimum response to disturbances; 9. provides excellent load-following capability. When we consider the current situation in operating Generation I and II nuclear power plants and even Generation III ALWR design, we conclude that Generation IV reactors should employ at least Generation II measurement systems. Let us first consider data transmission, which is a form of communication, and ask the question: Do new communication-transferring methods by electrons flow in copper wires? The obvious answer is no. Virtually all new communication systems are using some electromagnetic method, such as light, microwaves, HF or VHF radio signals, and virtually no copper wires. When we envision Generation IV nuclear power plants, we should minimize the use of copper wires for data transmission. We should transmit data primarily by fiber optics and various wireless methods, some of which can penetrate thick barriers. Now let us consider sensors. If we use light for data transmission, then we should also use optical-based sensors. We should also take advantage of microprocessors, which provide opportunities to embed 'intelligence' in the sensor that can be used to increase accuracy, stability, and tolerance to external stressors (i.e., radiation

  20. Deciphering Natural Allelic Variation in Switchgrass for Biomass Yield and Quality Using a Nested Association Mapping Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Malay C. [The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., Ardmore, OK (United States). Forage Improvement Division (FID); Brummer, E. Charles [The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., Ardmore, OK (United States); Kaeppler, Shawn [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bhandari, Hem S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-28

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass with high biomass yield potential and a model species for bioenergy feedstock development. Understanding the genetic basis of quantitative traits is essential to facilitate genome-enabled breeding programs. The nested association mapping (NAM) analysis combines the best features of both bi-parental and association analyses and can provide high power and high resolution in QTL detection and will ensure significant improvements in biomass yield and quality. To develop a NAM population of switchgrass, 15 highly diverse genotypes with specific characteristics were selected from a diversity panel and crossed to a recurrent parent, AP13, a genotype selected for whole genome sequencing and parent of a mapping population. Ten genotypes from each of the 15 F1 families were then chain crossed. Progenies form each family were randomly selected to develop the NAM population. The switchgrass NAM population consists of a total of 2000 genotypes from 15 families. All the progenies, founder parents, F1 parents (n=2350) were evaluated in replicated field trials at Ardmore, OK and Knoxville, TN. Phenotypic data on plant height, tillering ability, regrowth, flowering time, and biomass yield were collected. Dried biomass samples were also analyzed using prediction equations of NIRS at the Noble Foundation and for lignin content, S/G ratio, and sugar release characteristics at the NREL. Genomic shotgun sequencing of 15 switchgrass NAM founder parental genomes at JGI produced 28-66 Gb high-quality sequence data. Alignment of these sequences with the reference genome, AP13 (v3.0), revealed that up to 99% of the genomic sequences mapped to the reference genome. A total of 2,149 individuals from NAM populations were sequenced by exome capture and two sets of 15 SNP matrices (one for each family) were generated. QTL associated with important traits have been identified and verified in breeding populations. The QTL detected and their associated

  1. I. Structural studies of termite defense secretions. II. Structural studies of natural products of marine nudibranchs. [Kempene, tridachione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    Three families of termites have the ability to produce a sticky secretion that envelopes and immobilizes the enemy. In the family Termitidae the secretion contains the diterpenoid hydrocarbons, kempene I and kempene II. The molecular structure of kempene II from the termite, Nasutitermes kempae, is described in detail. Another species of termite, Cubitermes umbratus, contained the diterpenoid hydrocarbon biflora-4,10-19,15-triene in the secretion and this compound is described. Studies were also conducted on the mucous secretion of the pedal gland of the marine nudibranch, Tidachiella diomedea. Tridachione, a substituted ..gamma..-pyrone, was isolated in the pure state and its molecular structure is described in detail. (HLW)

  2. Speciative Determination of Dissolved Inorganic Fe(II), Fe(III) and Total Fe in Natural Waters by Coupling CPE with FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurkan, R.; Altunay, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of trace iron speciation in natural waters prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was developed in the present study. In this method, Fe(II) sensitively and selectively reacts with Calcon carboxylic acid (CCA) in presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) yielding a hydrophobic complex at pH 10.5, which is then entrapped in surfactant-rich phase. Total Fe was accurately and reliably determined after the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) with sulfite. The amount of Fe(III) in samples was determined from the difference between total Fe and Fe(II). CPC was used not only as an auxiliary ligand in CPE, but also as sensitivity enhancement agent in FAAS. The nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) was used as an extracting agent. The analytical variables affecting CPE efficiency were investigated in detail. The preconcentration/enhancement factors of 50 and 82 respectively, were obtained for the preconcentration of Fe(II) with 50 mL solution. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of Fe(II) in linear range of 0.2-60 μg L/sup -1/ was 0.06 μg L/sup -1/. The relative standard deviation was 2.7 percentage (20 μg L/sup -1/, N: 5), recoveries for Fe(II) were in range of 99.0-102.0 percentage for all water samples including certified reference materials (CRMs). In order to verify its accuracy, two CRMs were analyzed and the results obtained were statistically in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  3. Fracture detection, mapping, and analysis of naturally fractured gas reservoirs using seismic technology. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Many basins in the Rocky Mountains contain naturally fractured gas reservoirs. Production from these reservoirs is controlled primarily by the shape, orientation and concentration of the natural fractures. The detection of gas filled fractures prior to drilling can, therefore, greatly benefit the field development of the reservoirs. The objective of this project was to test and verify specific seismic methods to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured reservoir. The Upper Green River tight gas reservoir in the Uinta Basin, Northeast Utah was chosen for the project as a suitable reservoir to test the seismic technologies. Knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic geologic setting, the fracture azimuths, and estimates of the local in-situ stress field, were used to guide the acquisition and processing of approximately ten miles of nine-component seismic reflection data and a nine-component Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP). Three sources (compressional P-wave, inline shear S-wave, and cross-line, shear S-wave) were each recorded by 3-component (3C) geophones, to yield a nine-component data set. Evidence of fractures from cores, borehole image logs, outcrop studies, and production data, were integrated with the geophysical data to develop an understanding of how the seismic data relate to the fracture network, individual well production, and ultimately the preferred flow direction in the reservoir. The multi-disciplinary approach employed in this project is viewed as essential to the overall reservoir characterization, due to the interdependency of the above factors.

  4. Insights into Photosystem II from Isomorphous Difference Fourier Maps of Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction Data and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Structural Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin; Askerka, Mikhail; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2017-02-10

    Understanding structure-function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metal centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Here, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure-function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  5. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library

  6. Physique ou leçons sur les principes généraux de la nature II

    CERN Document Server

    Aristote

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Définition de la nature : elle est dans les êtres, le principe du mouvement et du repos. Des êtres naturels. L'existence de la nature est évidente ; il n'est pas nécessaire de la démontrer.""

  7. Tangent map intermittency as an approximate analysis of intermittency in a high dimensional fully stochastic dynamical system: The Tangled Nature model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruelas, Alvaro; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik; Piovani, Duccio; Robledo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic maps close to a tangent bifurcation exhibit intermittency and this circumstance has been exploited, e.g., by Procaccia and Schuster [Phys. Rev. A 28, 1210 (1983)], to develop a general theory of 1/f spectra. This suggests it is interesting to study the extent to which the behavior of a high-dimensional stochastic system can be described by such tangent maps. The Tangled Nature (TaNa) Model of evolutionary ecology is an ideal candidate for such a study, a significant model as it is capable of reproducing a broad range of the phenomenology of macroevolution and ecosystems. The TaNa model exhibits strong intermittency reminiscent of punctuated equilibrium and, like the fossil record of mass extinction, the intermittency in the model is found to be non-stationary, a feature typical of many complex systems. We derive a mean-field version for the evolution of the likelihood function controlling the reproduction of species and find a local map close to tangency. This mean-field map, by our own local approximation, is able to describe qualitatively only one episode of the intermittent dynamics of the full TaNa model. To complement this result, we construct a complete nonlinear dynamical system model consisting of successive tangent bifurcations that generates time evolution patterns resembling those of the full TaNa model in macroscopic scales. The switch from one tangent bifurcation to the next in the sequences produced in this model is stochastic in nature, based on criteria obtained from the local mean-field approximation, and capable of imitating the changing set of types of species and total population in the TaNa model. The model combines full deterministic dynamics with instantaneous parameter random jumps at stochastically drawn times. In spite of the limitations of our approach, which entails a drastic collapse of degrees of freedom, the description of a high-dimensional model system in terms of a low

  8. NOAA's Shoreline Survey Maps - Raster NOAA-NOS Shoreline Survey Manuscripts that define the shoreline and alongshore natural and man-made features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOS coastal survey maps (often called t-sheet or tp-sheet maps) are special use planimetric or topographic maps that precisely define the shoreline and alongshore...

  9. Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Jon; Oakley, Christopher G; Lundemo, Sverre; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    Recent mesoscale iron fertilization studies in the Southern Ocean (e.g. SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX) have demonstrated the importance of iron as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in these high nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Results of these experiments have demonstrated that factors which influence the biological availability of the iron supplied to phytoplankton are crucial in bloom development, longevity, and generation of carbon export flux. These findings have important implications for the future development of iron fertilization protocols to enhance carbon sequestration in high-latitude oceans. In particular, processes which lead to the mobilization and retention of iron in dissolved form in the upper ocean are important in promoting continued biological availability of iron. Such processes can include photochemical redox cycling, which leads to the formation of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), within iron-enriched waters. Creation of effective fertilization schemes will thus require more information about Fe(II) photoproduction in Southern Ocean waters as a means to retain new iron within the euphotic zone. To contribute to our knowledge base in this area, this project was funded by DOE with a goal of characterizing the production and retention of dissolved Fe as Fe(II) in an area of the southern Drake Passage near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge, a region with a strong recurrent chlorophyll gradient which is believed to be a site of natural iron enrichment in the Southern Ocean. This area was the focus of a multidisciplinary NSF/OPP-funded investigation in February 2004 (OPP02-30443, lead PI Greg Mitchell, SIO/UCSD) to determine the influence of mesoscale circulation and iron transport with regard to the observed patterns in sea surface chlorophyll in the region near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge. A number of parameters were assessed across this gradient in order to reveal interactions between plankton community structure and iron distributions

  11. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  12. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  13. Differentiating the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Natural and Anthropogenic Processes on River Water-Quality Variation Using a Self-Organizing Map With Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lee, Jin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the historical improvement and advanced measure of river water quality in the Taipei metropolitan area, this study applied the self-organizing map (SOM) technique with factor analysis (FA) to differentiate the spatiotemporal distribution of natural and anthropogenic processes on river water-quality variation spanning two decades. The SOM clustered river water quality into five groups: very low pollution, low pollution, moderate pollution, high pollution, and very high pollution. FA was then used to extract four latent factors that dominated water quality from 1991 to 2011 including three anthropogenic process factors (organic, industrial, and copper pollution) and one natural process factor [suspended solids (SS) pollution]. The SOM revealed that the water quality improved substantially over time. However, the downstream river water quality was still classified as high pollution because of an increase in anthropogenic activity. FA showed the spatiotemporal pattern of each factor score decreasing over time, but the organic pollution factor downstream of the Tamsui River, as well as the SS factor scores in the upstream major tributary (the Dahan Stream), remained within the high pollution level. Therefore, we suggest that public sewage-treatment plants should be upgraded from their current secondary biological processing to advanced treatment processing. The conservation of water and soil must also be reinforced to decrease the SS loading of the Dahan Stream from natural erosion processes in the future.

  14. Universal composition-structure-property maps for natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhavand, Navid; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2015-03-16

    Many natural and biomimetic platelet-matrix composites--such as nacre, silk, and clay-polymer-exhibit a remarkable balance of strength, toughness and/or stiffness, which call for a universal measure to quantify this outstanding feature given the structure and material characteristics of the constituents. Analogously, there is an urgent need to quantify the mechanics of emerging electronic and photonic systems such as stacked heterostructures. Here we report the development of a unified framework to construct universal composition-structure-property diagrams that decode the interplay between various geometries and inherent material features in both platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures. We study the effects of elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic matrices, overlap offset ratio and the competing mechanisms of platelet versus matrix failures. Validated by several 3D-printed specimens and a wide range of natural and synthetic materials across scales, the proposed universally valid diagrams have important implications for science-based engineering of numerous platelet-matrix composites and stacked heterostructures.

  15. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  16. Mapping and analysis of natural radioactivity in external environments at the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, MG, Brazil; Mapeamento e análise da radioatividade natural em ambientes externos no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveira, Natália F.; Duarte, Mayara P.; Santos, Talita O.; Neto, Aimoré D.; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br, E-mail: dutraa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural radiation occurs due to two main contributors: particles of high energy cosmic rays incident on the Earth's atmosphere and radionuclides that are present in the earth's crust since its formation, also referred to as primordial radionuclides. For most people, these natural exposures are more significant than exposures caused by artificial sources. The most significant primordial radionuclides are related to the elements Thorium (Th), Uranium (U) and Potassium (K). This work aims to map and analyze the natural radioactivity in external environments in the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), in order to observe the variation of radioactivity in this locality. It is important to emphasize that, as it is an area of nuclear research center, some points indicated significant values of radiation when compared to the natural ones, being these coming from artificial sources. This study was developed with the RS-230 Radiation Solutions / CANADA spectrometer, with a Global Positioning System (GPS) coupled to quantitatively and qualitatively identifying environmental radionuclides, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. The results were exported to the ArcGis® program where a geospatial analysis was performed to correlate the data of the RS-230 with the coordinates obtained from the GPS. According to the values the results were classified into five classes: very low, low, medium, high and very high. The article therefore sought to distinguish between the contributions of natural and artificial radioactivity to the environment in the external environments of the CDTN and to provide an information base for future applications in other similar environments.

  17. INTERNATIONAL MAPPING PROJECT “THE ATLAS OF GREATER ALTAI: NATURE, HISTORY, CULTURE” AS THE FOUNDATION FOR MODELS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Rotanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept and approaches to the creation of a special interdisciplinary Atlas of Greater Altai. The main objective of the Atlas is to ensure the maximal possible access of the international community to reliable, current, and accurate spatial information on the transboundary Greater Altai region. The paper discusses the preconditions that facilitate the development of this unique cartographic product, the main sections of its structure (nature, history, and culture, and the main themes of its maps. The paper demonstrates the need for geoinformation support and a web-based version of the GIS-based Atlas. The Atlas can be used indecision-making in the scope of the international cross-border cooperation in the Altai region.

  18. Results of LA-ICP-MS sulfide mapping from Algoma-type BIF gold systems with implications for the nature of mineralizing fluids, metal sources, and deposit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, B.; Kontak, D. J.; Thurston, P. C.; Petrus, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) element distribution maps combined with traverse mode analyses have been acquired on various sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite) from three Canadian Algoma-type BIF-hosted gold deposits ( 4 Moz Au Meadowbank, ≥ 2.8 Moz Au Meliadine district, 6 Moz Au Musselwhite). These data, in conjunction with detailed petrographic and SEM-EDS observations, provide insight into the nature and relative timing of gold events, the presence and implication of trace element zoning regarding crystallization processes, and elemental associations that fingerprint gold events. Furthermore, the use of an innovative method of processing the LA-ICP-MS data in map and traverse modes, whereby the results are fragmented into time-slice data, to generate various binary plots (Ag versus Ni) provides a means to identify elemental associations (Te, Bi) not otherwise apparent. This integrated means of treating geochemical data, along with petrography, allows multiple gold events and remobilization processes to be recognized and their elemental associations determined. The main gold event in each of these deposits is characterized by the coupling of an As-Se-Te-Ag element association coincident with intense stratabound sulfide-replacement of the Fe-rich host rock. Additionally, the data indicate presence of a later remobilization event, which upgraded the Au tenor, as either non-refractory or refractory type, along fracture networks due to the ingress of subsequent base metal-bearing metamorphic fluids (mainly a Pb-Bi association). Furthermore, the data reveal a stratigraphic influence, as reflected in the elemental associations and the elemental enrichments observed and the nature of the sulfide phase hosting the gold mineralization (arsenopyrite versus pyrite).

  19. Polytene chromosome map and inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ananina

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.

  20. Giordano Bruno crater on the Moon: Detection and Mapping of Hydration Features of Endogenic and/or Exogenic Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Chauhan, Prakash

    2017-10-01

    We analyze high resolution spectral and spatial data from the recent lunar missions and report the presence of strong hydration features within the inner flank, hummocky floor, ejecta and impact melt deposits of crater Giordano Bruno. Hydroxyl-bearing lithologies at Giordano Bruno are characterized primarily by a prominent absorption feature near 2800 nm, the band minima of which goes beyond 3000 nm. The hydration features are found to be associated with low-Ca pyroxene-bearing noritic lithologies along the inner crater flanks, whereas similar features are also seen within the hummocky crater floor in association with shocked plagioclase-bearing anorthositic lithology. Interestingly, the ejecta blanket is characterized by sharp, narrow features centered near 2800 nm similar to the features previously reported from Compton-Belkovich volcanic complex and central peak of crater Theophilus. The low-Ca pyroxene-bearing rock exposures within the crater inner flanks are characterized by both presence and absence of the hydration features. Enhanced hydration is also seen within the ejecta blanket covering the nearby Harkhebi K and J craters. We also analyze the impact melts and ejecta using radar images at regions interior and exterior to the Giordano Bruno crater rim.Anomalous behaviors of hydration feature associated with low-Ca pyroxene-rich exposures, its nature and occurrences within the impact melt sheets inside the crater along with the ejecta blankets could possibly indicate endogenic and/or exogenic nature of the observed hydration feature. Initial results indicate the presence of strongest hydration feature in the partially shadowed pole-facing slopes (with low-Ca pyroxene-bearing exposures) and its complete absence in the equator-facing sun-lit slopes. This hints at a possible exogenic origin, whereas the same feature occurring (with same mineral) under both sun-lit and shadowed conditions suggest it to be of magmatic origin. We propose that the heterogeneous

  1. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part II. The model BERN - assessment of vegetation change and biodiversity; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht II. Das BERN-Modell - ein Bewertungsmodell fuer die oberirdische Biodiversitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Schlutow, Angela; Kraft, Philipp; Scheuschner, Thomas; Weigelt-Kirchner, Regine [OEKO-DATA - Ecosystem Analysis and Environmental Data Management, Strausberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physicochemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OEKO-DATA and Waldkundeinstitut Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at OEKO-DATA initially concentrated on the development of the BERN-model. About 14 585 vegetation inventories from all over Germany and other 2 914 relevant inventories evaluated from neighboring countries were integrated in BERN database. With this model, the vegetation changes as a function of variations in the location conditions could be identified due to the implementation of the corresponding time series of geochemical and climate parameters from MoBiLE. A validation of the MoBiLE-BERN-coupling was carried out at Level II sites. From the dynamics of the vegetation development in the context of location changes could be derived critical loads and limits. Also the current regeneration potential as well as a harmonious natural balance of location factors could be determined. Likewise, the potential of danger to biodiversity and the livelihood opportunities of plant species or societies could be demonstrated. The most distinct dependence of biodiversity change could be detected on the alterations of

  2. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosynthesis. Part II. Composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high-resolution size exclusion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Cheng Ching K. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Barkakaty, Balaka [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Puskas, Judit E. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Xie, Wenshuang [The Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Cornish, Katrina [The Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Peruch, Federic [Univ. of Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France); Deffieux, Alain [Univ. of Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France)

    2014-09-01

    The superior properties of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene [NR]) are a function of its structure and composition, properties that still remain a mystery and that are irreplaceable by any synthetic rubber. NR from guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has been gaining special interest for its hypoallergenic properties while maintaining superior mechanical properties that are commonly associated with the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the most common source of NR. Techniques exist to isolate washed rubber particles (WRPs) that contain enzymatically active rubber transferase, to study NR biosynthesis, and previous work on the in vitroNRgrowth in Hevea has demonstrated the presence of around 50wt%of a low molecular weight ([MW], Mn <10 000 g/mol) fraction. Structural and compositional analyses of this low MW fraction in Hevea are challenging due to the high protein content. Here, we discuss the analysis and composition of guayule latex and WRPs using high-resolution Size Exclusion Chromatography. We also discuss the composition of the soluble fraction of inactive guayule latex using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry.

  3. Chapter 5: Exponential experiments on natural uranium graphite moderated systems. II: Correlation of results with the method of Syrett (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.G.F.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    The results are given of exponential experiments on graphite moderated systems with fuel elements consisting of single rods and tubes of natural uranium metal. A correlation is given with the method of calculation proposed by Syrett (1961) and new consistent values of neutron yield and effective resonance integral are derived. (author)

  4. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  5. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - II. Development of Intermediate and Suppressed Trees Following Release in Natural Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Development of 86 intermediate and suppressed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, that had been recently released from overtopping pines and hardwoods, was monitored over a 15 year period. The trees were growing in natural stands on good sites (site index = 90 ft at 50 years) that had been recently cut to stocking levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent. At time of...

  6. Efeito da hibridização de montmorilonita e celulose II sobre as propriedades mecânicas de nanocompósitos de borracha natural Effect of montmorillonite and cellulose II hybridization on mechanical properties of natural rubber nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos híbridos de borracha natural (NR com argila mineral montmorilonita (MMT e celulose II (CEL II foram obtidos partindo de látex elastomérico, xantato de celulose e suspensão aquosa de MMT. O conteúdo de MMT foi variado de 1 a 5 phr (per hundred resin e a quantidade de celulose II utilizada foi mantida constante em 15 phr. Foi comprovada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM a formação de nanocompósitos, na ausência e presença de xantato de celulose, mostrando a eficiência da técnica utilizada. Além do resultado de TEM, a viscosidade e relaxação Mooney, e propriedades mecânicas foram estudadas em todas as composições desenvolvidas. A adição da argila mineral promoveu aumento nas propriedades mecânicas estudadas, sendo que o aumento na viscosidade Mooney e a redução na capacidade de relaxação indicaram boa interação entre a montmorilonita e o sistema NR/CEL II.Hybrid nanocomposites of natural rubber (NR, clay (MMT and cellulose II (CEL II were obtained with elastomeric latex, cellulose xanthate and aqueous suspension of the clay. The content of MMT varied from 1 to 5 phr (per hundred resin while cellulose II was kept as 15 phr. The formation of nanocomposites from co-coagulation of natural rubber latex and MMT aqueous suspension, in the presence and absence of cellulose xanthate, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thus showing the efficiency of the technique used. In addition to the TEM investigation, all compositions were studied with measurements of the Mooney viscosity and relaxation and mechanical properties. The MMT addition improved the mechanical properties, causing an increase in Mooney viscosity and a reduction in relaxation capability, which indicate a good interaction between MMT and NR/CEL II system.

  7. Host Factors Influencing the Retrohoming Pathway of Group II Intron RmInt1, Which Has an Intron-Encoded Protein Naturally Devoid of Endonuclease Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nisa-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that have an open reading frame encoding an intron-encoded protein (IEP with reverse transcriptase (RT and RNA splicing or maturase activity. Some IEPs carry a DNA endonuclease (En domain, which is required to cleave the bottom strand downstream from the intron-insertion site for target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT of the inserted intron RNA. Host factors complete the insertion of the intron. By contrast, the major retrohoming pathway of introns with IEPs naturally lacking endonuclease activity, like the Sinorhizobium meliloti intron RmInt1, is thought to involve insertion of the intron RNA into the template for lagging strand DNA synthesis ahead of the replication fork, with possible use of the nascent strand to prime reverse transcription of the intron RNA. The host factors influencing the retrohoming pathway of such introns have not yet been described. Here, we identify key candidates likely to be involved in early and late steps of RmInt1 retrohoming. Some of these host factors are common to En+ group II intron retrohoming, but some have different functions. Our results also suggest that the retrohoming process of RmInt1 may be less dependent on the intracellular free Mg2+ concentration than those of other group II introns.

  8. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  9. Teaching and investigating the use of Concept Maps as educational resource facilitator of meaningful learning for natural sciences in elementary education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipa Pacífico Ribeiro de Assis Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tried to answer questions pertinent to the use of concept maps (CM as a teaching resource facilitator of meaningful learning of scientific concepts of Natural Sciences, in the classroom of elementary school. To answer the questions and insert the MC in the classroom every day, we adopted the interdependence between the process of learning, teaching and investigation. To ensure a triadic relationship, outline an intervention / investigation with theoretical and methodological support in quantitative and qualitative approach. The teaching and learning were secured from a teaching strategy, able to share and negotiate concepts relevant to the field of education, enabling students move beyond their existing knowledge, ensuring the data of research about the effects of MC in learning of the groups investigated. The MC was defined as a teaching resource potential for this level of education and principles of the Theory of Meaningful Learning that supports it. It was evident the recursive procedural character inherent in meaningful learning as using the MC as a teaching resource in the construction of scientific knowledge of Natural Sciences, the occurrence of learning of the groups using the MC and its validation in the presence of students of final grades of elementary school.

  10. Natural Gas Hydrates in the Offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin-Study of a Feasible Energy Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    In the offshore part of Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin depth of methane hydrate stability reaches more than 1.5 km. However, there are areas in the western part of the basin where there are no conditions of methane hydrate stability. Construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost in the offshore area, shows that these zones can reach 1200 m and 900 m, respectively. Depth to the base of ice-bearing relict permafrost under the sea (depth of the -1 o C isotherm-ice-bearing permafrost base) and regional variations of geothermal gradient are the main controlling factors. Hydrostatic pressures in the upper 1500 m are the rule. History of methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost and it reached maximum depth in early Holocene. More recently, the permafrost and hydrate zone is diminishing because of sea transgression. Reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences is done from the analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone. In the offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 21 wells. Nine of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate-stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections and maps of geological sequences reveals that hydrates are occurring in the Iperk-Kugmallit sequence. Hydrate-gas contact zones, however, are possible in numerous situations. As there are no significant geological seals in the deeper part of the offshore basin (all hydrates are within Iperk), it is suggested that overlying permafrost and hydrate stability zone acted as the only trap for upward migrating gas during the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene)

  11. INVESTIGANDO OS RUMOS CURRICULARES DA DISCIPLINA HISTÓRIA NATURAL NO COLÉGIO PEDRO II: AS ATAS DE CONCURSOS PARA PROFESSORES COMO FONTE HISTÓRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cassab

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na intenção de contribuir para a compreensão do processo sócio-histórico da mudança do ensino de História Natural para Biologia no Colégio Pedro II, este trabalho procura analisar as atas de três concursos para docentes em História Natural, realizados durante as décadas de 1950/60. Tomadas como testemunhos não-neutros deste processo, a análise das atas sugere transformações e permanências nos conteúdos e métodos selecionados para o ensino de História Natural, em um período de intensas disputas e tensões sobre uma disciplina escolar que procura resistir e manter seu espaço de influência no currículo – a História Natural – e outra que procura se estabelecer – Biologia.

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  13. Background level of natural radioactivities in a giant water Cherenkov detector and its surrounding environment; KAMIOKANDE-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakanoue, Masanobu; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru [Kanazawa Univ., Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa (Japan). Low Level Radioactivity Lab.

    1989-12-01

    The KAMIOKANDE-II water Cherenkov detector for the measurement of nucleon decay and/or solar neutrino has been operating in the underground laboratory at a depth of 2,700 m.w.e. (meter water equivalent) in Kamioka mine of Gifu Prefecture. Concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn as the major background sources have been measured for various kinds of rocks, mine water, mine air and high purity water used as a detector during the period from August 1986 to December 1987. The concentration levels of these radionuclides and their seasonal variation have become clear. Some of these results have provided useful informations for decreasing the background level of water Cherenkov detector. (author).

  14. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  15. Ogallala Aquifer Mapping Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    A computerized data file has been established which can be used efficiently by the contour-plotting program SURFACE II to produce maps of the Ogallala aquifer in 17 counties of the Texas Panhandle. The data collected have been evaluated and compiled into three sets, from which SURFACE II can generate maps of well control, aquifer thickness, saturated thickness, water level, and the difference between virgin (pre-1942) and recent (1979 to 1981) water levels. 29 figures, 1 table

  16. Identification of novel human dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors of natural origin (Part II: in silico prediction in antidiabetic extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012 [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors.

  17. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  18. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae) II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...

  19. Green synthesis of cobalt (II, III) oxide nanoparticles using Moringa Oleifera natural extract as high electrochemical electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinise, N.; Mayedwa, N.; Fuku, X. G.; Mongwaketsi, N.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    The research work involved the development of a better, inexpensive, reliable, easily and accurate way for the fabrication of Cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles through a green synthetic method using Moringa Oleifera extract. The electrochemical activity, crystalline structure, morphology, isothermal behaviour and optical properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles were studied using various characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles. The pseudo-capacitor behaviour of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles on Nickel foam electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3M KOH solution. The CV curve revealed a pairs of redox peaks, indicating the pseudo-capacitive characteristics of the Ni/Co3O4 electrode. EIS results showed a small semicircle and Warburg impedance, indicating that the electrochemical process on the surface electrode is kinetically and diffusion controlled. The charge-discharge results indicating that the specific capacitance Ni/Co3O4 electrode is approximately 1060 F/g at a discharge current density of at 2 A/g.

  20. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  1. Implementing Dementia Care Mapping to develop person-centred care: results of a process evaluation within the Leben-QD II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quasdorf, Tina; Riesner, Christine; Dichter, Martin Nikolaus; Dortmann, Olga; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Halek, Margareta

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate Dementia Care Mapping implementation in nursing homes. Dementia Care Mapping, an internationally applied method for supporting and enhancing person-centred care for people with dementia, must be successfully implemented into care practice for its effective use. Various factors influence the implementation of complex interventions such as Dementia Care Mapping; few studies have examined the specific factors influencing Dementia Care Mapping implementation. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design embedded in a quasi-experimental trial was used to assess Dementia Care Mapping implementation success and influential factors. From 2011-2013, nine nursing units in nine different nursing homes implemented either Dementia Care Mapping (n = 6) or a periodic quality of life measurement using the dementia-specific instrument QUALIDEM (n = 3). Diverse data (interviews, n = 27; questionnaires, n = 112; resident records, n = 81; and process documents) were collected. Each data set was separately analysed and then merged to comprehensively portray the implementation process. Four nursing units implemented the particular intervention without deviating from the preplanned intervention. Translating Dementia Care Mapping results into practice was challenging. Necessary organisational preconditions for Dementia Care Mapping implementation included well-functioning networks, a dementia-friendly culture and flexible organisational structures. Involved individuals' positive attitudes towards Dementia Care Mapping also facilitated implementation. Precisely planning the intervention and its implementation, recruiting champions who supported Dementia Care Mapping implementation and having well-qualified, experienced project coordinators were essential to the implementation process. For successful Dementia Care Mapping implementation, it must be embedded in a systematic implementation strategy considering the specific setting. Organisational preconditions may need to

  2. Sparse maps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. II. Linear scaling domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riplinger, Christoph; Pinski, Peter; Becker, Ute; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Domain based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster theory with single-, double-, and perturbative triple excitations (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) is a highly efficient local correlation method. It is known to be accurate and robust and can be used in a black box fashion in order to obtain coupled cluster quality total energies for large molecules with several hundred atoms. While previous implementations showed near linear scaling up to a few hundred atoms, several nonlinear scaling steps limited the applicability of the method for very large systems. In this work, these limitations are overcome and a linear scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) method for closed shell systems is reported. The new implementation is based on the concept of sparse maps that was introduced in Part I of this series [P. Pinski, C. Riplinger, E. F. Valeev, and F. Neese, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 034108 (2015)]. Using the sparse map infrastructure, all essential computational steps (integral transformation and storage, initial guess, pair natural orbital construction, amplitude iterations, triples correction) are achieved in a linear scaling fashion. In addition, a number of additional algorithmic improvements are reported that lead to significant speedups of the method. The new, linear-scaling DLPNO-CCSD(T) implementation typically is 7 times faster than the previous implementation and consumes 4 times less disk space for large three-dimensional systems. For linear systems, the performance gains and memory savings are substantially larger. Calculations with more than 20 000 basis functions and 1000 atoms are reported in this work. In all cases, the time required for the coupled cluster step is comparable to or lower than for the preceding Hartree-Fock calculation, even if this is carried out with the efficient resolution-of-the-identity and chain-of-spheres approximations. The new implementation even reduces the error in absolute correlation energies by about a factor of two, compared to the already accurate

  3. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  4. Quantitative assessment of consequences of natural events for the performance of waste disposal isolation system: Part (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo

    1999-12-01

    This year, first, regarding to the volcanism, seismicity and faulting, and uplift and erosion scenarios, in addition to the evaluation of those scenarios are variant cases carried out last year, variant cases where directly impacted repository could be also treated have been studied and evaluated. Secondly, based on a series of discussions in these years, a comprehensive study was made to evaluate the complex effect caused by combining natural events such as volcanism, seismicity and faulting, uplift and erosion, and climate change as well as human activity, where discussions have been made on which combined scenario was more important and how to set the analysis framework. Finally, in order to discuss alternatives such as non-groundwater scenario and/or non-geological disposal strategy, long-term storage scenario was considered to be compared with geological disposal scenario. (author)

  5. Identification of Outlier Loci Responding to Anthropogenic and Natural Selection Pressure in Stream Insects Based on a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water quality maintenance should be considered from an ecological perspective since water is a substrate ingredient in the biogeochemical cycle and is closely linked with ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing the status of live organisms in aquatic ecosystems is a critical issue for appropriate prediction and water quality management. Recently, genetic changes in biological organisms have garnered more attention due to their in-depth expression of environmental stress on aquatic ecosystems in an integrative manner. We demonstrate that genetic diversity would adaptively respond to environmental constraints in this study. We applied a self-organizing map (SOM to characterize complex Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP of aquatic insects in six streams in Japan with natural and anthropogenic variability. After SOM training, the loci compositions of aquatic insects effectively responded to environmental selection pressure. To measure how important the role of loci compositions was in the population division, we altered the AFLP data by flipping the existence of given loci individual by individual. Subsequently we recognized the cluster change of the individuals with altered data using the trained SOM. Based on SOM recognition of these altered data, we determined the outlier loci (over 90th percentile that showed drastic changes in their belonging clusters (D. Subsequently environmental responsiveness (Ek’ was also calculated to address relationships with outliers in different species. Outlier loci were sensitive to slightly polluted conditions including Chl-a, NH4-N, NOX-N, PO4-P, and SS, and the food material, epilithon. Natural environmental factors such as altitude and sediment additionally showed relationships with outliers in somewhat lower levels. Poly-loci like responsiveness was detected in adapting to environmental constraints. SOM training followed by recognition shed light on developing algorithms de novo to

  6. Analysis and Comaprison of Three Tourist-Hiking Maps - Island of Vis, Nature Park Biokovo and Orjen-Sniježnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian Mountain Rescue Service (CMRS donated maps it has published so far to the Croatian Cartographic Society (CCS. Considering I had already reviewed some maps published by CMRS, my colleague Prof. Dr. Miljenko Lapaine, president of CCS, suggested me to write a review of these maps. I analysed three tourist-hiking maps in detail: Island of Vis, Biokovo and Orjen-Sniježnica.Basic elements of the three maps were analysed, i.e.: title with subtitles and the title page, represented area, field and orientation, content, scale and format, projection data, legend, map graphics, generalization, author (production and production date, publisher and circulation, production and printing type, sources and other secondary map elements.

  7. Radiotracer study of the adsorption of Fe(III), Cr(III) and Cd(II) on natural and chemically modified Slovak zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesova, M.; Dillinger, P.; Lukac, P.

    1998-01-01

    In order to minimize the contamination of environment with metals in ionic form the more types of natural and chemically modified zeolites were examined to their uptake of Fe(III), Cr(III) and Cd(II) from water solutions by batch radio-exchange equilibration method. In this study was used zeolitic tuff from deposit Nizny Hrabovec (content of clinoptilolite 50-70%) with the grain size from 1.2 to 2.2 mm. The granules of zeolite were modified with the following NaOH solutions: ).5, 1, 2 and 4 mol.l -1 at 80 grad C for 4 hours. The sorption of Fe, Cr and Cd ions on all types of zeolites was studied by radio-exchange method and the sorption of Fe and Cr also flame atomic absorption method. From sorption curves the sorption coefficients were calculated. The results obtained in this work show that zeolites modified with NaOH solution are suitable for adsorption of Fe(III), Cr(III) and Cd(II) from underwater, waste water, feed water and coolant water from nuclear plants. The adsorbed zeolites can be solidified by conventional way

  8. Forecasting energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Greece. An evaluation of the consequences of the Community Support Framework II and natural gas penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, N.M.; Kalyvitis, S.C.; Lalas, D.P.; Pesmajoglou, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the future demand for energy and the trajectory of CO2 emissions level in Greece, taking into account the impact of the Community Support Framework (CSF) II on the development process and the penetration of natural gas, which is one of the major CSF II interventions, in the energy system. Demand equations for each sector of economic activity (traded, non-traded, public and agricultural sector) and for each type of energy (oil, electricity and solid fuels) are derived. The energy system is integrated into a fully developed macroeconometric model, so that all interactions between energy, prices and production factors are properly taken into account. Energy CO2 forecasts are then derived based on alternative scenarios for the prospects of the Greek economy. According to the main findings of the paper the growth pattern of forecast total energy consumption closely follows that of forecast output showing no signs of decoupling. As regards CO2 emissions, they are expected to increase with an annual average rate, which is higher than world forecasts. 17 refs

  9. Genetic Diversity, Natural Selection and Haplotype Grouping of Plasmodium knowlesi Gamma Protein Region II (PkγRII): Comparison with the Duffy Binding Protein (PkDBPαRII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun Yik; Rashdi, Sarah A A; Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. This parasite invades the erythrocytes of humans and of its natural host, the macaque Macaca fascicularis, via interaction between the Duffy binding protein region II (PkDBPαRII) and the Duffy antigen receptor on the host erythrocytes. In contrast, the P. knowlesi gamma protein region II (PkγRII) is not involved in the invasion of P. knowlesi into humans. PkγRII, however, mediates the invasion of P. knowlesi into the erythrocytes of M. mulata, a non-natural host of P. knowlesi via a hitherto unknown receptor. The haplotypes of PkDBPαRII in P. knowlesi isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo have been shown to be genetically distinct and geographically clustered. Also, the PkDBPαRII was observed to be undergoing purifying (negative) selection. The present study aimed to determine whether similar phenomena occur in PkγRII. Blood samples from 78 knowlesi malaria patients were used. Forty-eight of the samples were from Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 were from Malaysia Borneo. The genomic DNA of the samples was extracted and used as template for the PCR amplification of the PkγRII. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were analysed for genetic diversity and natural selection using MEGA6 and DnaSP (version 5.10.00) programmes. Genetic differentiation between the PkγRII of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo isolates was estimated using the Wright's FST fixation index in DnaSP (version 5.10.00). Haplotype analysis was carried out using the Median-Joining approach in NETWORK (version 4.6.1.3). A total of 78 PkγRII sequences was obtained. Comparative analysis showed that the PkγRII have similar range of haplotype (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) with that of PkDBPαRII. Other similarities between PkγRII and PkDBPαRII include undergoing purifying (negative) selection, geographical clustering of haplotypes

  10. Genetic Diversity, Natural Selection and Haplotype Grouping of Plasmodium knowlesi Gamma Protein Region II (PkγRII: Comparison with the Duffy Binding Protein (PkDBPαRII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Yik Fong

    Full Text Available Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported to cause malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. This parasite invades the erythrocytes of humans and of its natural host, the macaque Macaca fascicularis, via interaction between the Duffy binding protein region II (PkDBPαRII and the Duffy antigen receptor on the host erythrocytes. In contrast, the P. knowlesi gamma protein region II (PkγRII is not involved in the invasion of P. knowlesi into humans. PkγRII, however, mediates the invasion of P. knowlesi into the erythrocytes of M. mulata, a non-natural host of P. knowlesi via a hitherto unknown receptor. The haplotypes of PkDBPαRII in P. knowlesi isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo have been shown to be genetically distinct and geographically clustered. Also, the PkDBPαRII was observed to be undergoing purifying (negative selection. The present study aimed to determine whether similar phenomena occur in PkγRII.Blood samples from 78 knowlesi malaria patients were used. Forty-eight of the samples were from Peninsular Malaysia, and 30 were from Malaysia Borneo. The genomic DNA of the samples was extracted and used as template for the PCR amplification of the PkγRII. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were analysed for genetic diversity and natural selection using MEGA6 and DnaSP (version 5.10.00 programmes. Genetic differentiation between the PkγRII of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo isolates was estimated using the Wright's FST fixation index in DnaSP (version 5.10.00. Haplotype analysis was carried out using the Median-Joining approach in NETWORK (version 4.6.1.3.A total of 78 PkγRII sequences was obtained. Comparative analysis showed that the PkγRII have similar range of haplotype (Hd and nucleotide diversity (π with that of PkDBPαRII. Other similarities between PkγRII and PkDBPαRII include undergoing purifying (negative selection, geographical clustering of

  11. Natural environments, ancestral diets, and microbial ecology: is there a modern "paleo-deficit disorder"? Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan C; Katzman, Martin A; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent

    2015-03-10

    Famed microbiologist René J. Dubos (1901-1982) was an early pioneer in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) construct. In the 1960s, he conducted groundbreaking research concerning the ways in which early-life experience with nutrition, microbiota, stress, and other environmental variables could influence later-life health outcomes. He recognized the co-evolutionary relationship between microbiota and the human host. Almost 2 decades before the hygiene hypothesis, he suggested that children in developed nations were becoming too sanitized (vs. our ancestral past) and that scientists should determine whether the childhood environment should be "dirtied up in a controlled manner." He also argued that oft-celebrated growth chart increases via changes in the global food supply and dietary patterns should not be equated to quality of life and mental health. Here in the second part of our review, we reflect the words of Dubos off contemporary research findings in the areas of diet, the gut-brain-axis (microbiota and anxiety and depression) and microbial ecology. Finally, we argue, as Dubos did 40 years ago, that researchers should more closely examine the relevancy of silo-sequestered, reductionist findings in the larger picture of human quality of life. In the context of global climate change and the epidemiological transition, an allergy epidemic and psychosocial stress, our review suggests that discussions of natural environments, urbanization, biodiversity, microbiota, nutrition, and mental health, are often one in the same.

  12. Thermodynamic analyses of hydrogen production from sub-quality natural gas. Part II: Steam reforming and autothermal steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Part I of this paper analyzed sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) pyrolysis and autothermal pyrolysis. Production of hydrogen via direct thermolysis of SQNGs produces only 2 mol of hydrogen and 1 mol of carbon per mole of methane (CH 4). Steam reforming of SQNG (SRSQNG) could become a more effective approach because the processes produce two more moles of hydrogen via water splitting. A Gibbs reactor unit operation in the AspenPlus™ chemical process simulator was employed to accomplish equilibrium calculations for the SQNG + H 2O and SQNG + H 2O + O 2 systems. The results indicate that water and oxygen inlet flow rates do not significantly affect the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) at temperatures lower than 1000 °C. The major co-product of the processes is carbonyl sulfide (COS) while sulfur dimer (S 2) and carbon disulfide (CS 2) are minor by-products within this temperature range. At higher temperatures (>1300 °C), CS 2 and S 2 become major co-products. No sulfur dioxide (SO 2) or sulfur trioxide (SO 3) is formed during either SRSQNG or autothermal SRSQNG processes, indicating that no environmentally harmful acidic gases are generated.

  13. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS. II. DEPENDENCE ON NATURE DARK MATTER AND GRAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Niño, Armando; Pichardo, Barbara; Valenzuela, Octavio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., Universitaria, D.F., México (Mexico); Martínez-Medina, Luis A., E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-05-20

    Recent studies have presented evidence that the Milky Way global potential may be non-spherical. In this case, the assembling process of the Galaxy may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo, potentially originated by orbital resonances. We further investigate such a possibility, now considering potential models further away from ΛCDM halos, like scalar field dark matter halos and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and including several other factors that may mimic the emergence and permanence of kinematic groups, such as a spherical and triaxial halo with an embedded disk potential. We find that regardless of the density profile (DM nature), kinematic groups only appear in the presence of a triaxial halo potential. For the case of a MOND-like gravity theory no kinematic structure is present. We conclude that the detection of these kinematic stellar groups could confirm the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  14. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FOLLY-RAMOS

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  15. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  16. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic mapping of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The geologic framework of the intercrater plains on Mercury and the Moon as determined through geologic mapping is presented. The strategies used in such mapping are discussed first. Then, because the degree of crater degradation is applied to both mapping and crater statistics, the correlation of degradation classification of lunar and Mercurian craters is thoroughly addressed. Different imaging systems can potentially affect this classification, and are therefore also discussed. The techniques used in mapping Mercury are discussed in Section 2, followed by presentation of the Geologic Map of Mercury in Section 3. Material units, structures, and relevant albedo and color data are discussed therein. Preliminary conclusions regarding plains' origins are given there. The last section presents the mapping analyses of the lunar intercrater plains, including tentative conclusions of their origin.

  17. Study of the Cd (II) removal in the presence of methyl orange with a natural zeolite conditioned with iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xingu C, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study on the removal of cadmium and/or methyl-orange dye in aqueous solution, using natural zeolite clinoptilolite, as sodium homo-ionized and impregnated with iron nanoparticles. Iron nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of the zeolite by chemical reduction. The evaluation of the removal ability was performed in a monocomponent (cadmium or methyl-orange dye) system by varying the contact time and its initial concentration. Removal capacity in a bi-component (cadmium and methyl orange) system was also studied while varying their concentrations. The characterization of the zeolites, before and after the sorption process, was carried out using several analytical techniques. The characteristics of zeolite clinoptilolite and iron particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The iron particles showed diameter sizes between 60 and 200 nm, localized on the surface of the zeolite. By IR spectroscopy no structural changes were detected for any of the treatments made to the zeolitic materials. By X-ray diffraction the clinoptilolite crystalline phase was mainly identified, however, it failed to detect any phase of iron in the zeolite impregnated with iron nanoparticles. Moessbauer spectroscopy indeed detected the impregnated iron phase as iron borides. The homo-ionized and iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite showed no change in the specific surface area, or the isoelectric point, their values were 22.3 m"2/g and ph 9.8, respectively. However, whereas the active site density for the homo-ionized zeolite was 2.87 sites/nm"2, for iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite was 20.32 sites/nm"2. As a result of the analysis of the isotherms of cadmium, the maximum sorption capacity of the homo-ionized zeolite was 35.03 mg/g and for the iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite was 36.43 mg/g. These maximum sorption capacities represent up to 85% of removed cadmium from concentrations of 50 to 600 mg/L. For the removal of methyl orange dye

  18. Effect of natural phosphate to remove silver interference in the detection of mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lahrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A silver particles impregnated onto natural phosphate (Ag/NP was synthesized using reaction in solid state. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The (Ag/NP was used as modifier of carbon paste electrode (CPE to determine mercury by square wave voltammetry. The calibration graph obtained is linear from 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol·L−1 at preconcentration time of 5 min, percentage loading of 7%, with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limits of detection (DL,3σ and quantification (QL,10σ were 5.8 × 10−9 mol·L−1 and 19.56 × 10−9 mol·L−1 respectively. The repeatability of the method expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D. is 2.1% (n = 8. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples. Keywords: Natural phosphate, Square wave voltammetry, Silver, Mercury, Aquatic algae, Seawater

  19. Farmland Mapping and Monitoring 2004 Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program (FMMP) produces maps and statistical data used for analyzing impacts on California's agricultural resources. Agricultural...

  20. Evaluation of the Cu (II) sorption in four natural sorbents, obtained form the tannin re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Ecualiptus saligna and Pinus caribea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchor, K.; Lima, L.; Luzardo, F. M.; Vargas, L. M.; Santana, J. L.; E.mail: keniamr@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2003-01-01

    There are shown the results obtained from the study of the Cu (II) sorption in four natural sorbents, obtained form the tannin re-immobilization in the vegetal bark of the species Eucaliptus saligna and Pinus caribea. It was studied by means of static conditions the best conditions of pH and contact time for Cu (II) sorption in every sorbent. Two models were used for describe the results obtaining form the corresponding sorption isotherms. It was evaluated the behavior of the metallic ion retain in the natural resins under the presence of Ca2+ and NaCl in similar concentrations to the ones reported for natural waters. It was obtained the breakdown curve under dynamic conditions for one of the sorbents studied, from this curve it was determined the absorption capacity of it for the Cu (II)

  1. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  2. Trace Cd(II, Pb(II and Ni(II ions extraction and preconcentration from different water samples by using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay as a natural new adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigate presents the extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from water samples using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay or “Geleh-Sar-Shoor” (means head-washing clay as a natural and native new adsorbent in batch single element systems. The Ghezeljeh clay is categorized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer Operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, Surface property valuation (SBET by the BET method from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface area of Ghezeljeh nanoclay was computed as 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was determined as 150 meq (100 g-1. The results of XRD, FT-IR, XRF, zeta potential, BET surface area and CEC of the Ghezeljeh clay confirm that montmorillonite is the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and the adsorption capacity were obtained. The result of several interfering ions was considered. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay as a new adsorbent and experimental method were effectively used for the extraction of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel in a variety of real water samples.

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by GDP chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Yang, Jianliang; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Shengyu; Gui, Lin; He, Xiaohui; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Changgong; Yang, Sheng; Xing, Puyuan; Sun, Yan; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the majority of ENKTL cases are diagnosed at the localized stage. Radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has been used for localized ENKTL, but the optimal combination treatment modality and the best first-line chemotherapy regimen have not been defined. In this retrospective study, 44 patients with newly diagnosed, stages I/II ENKTL were enrolled and received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, 50-56 Gy) followed by GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) chemotherapy. The median number of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 (range, 2-6 cycles). At the end of treatment, the overall response rate was 95% (42/44), including 39 patients (89%) who attained complete response. Two patients developed systemic progression after IMRT. With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression-free survival (PFS) rate were 85% (95% CI, 74 to 96%) and 77% (95% CI, 64 to 91%), respectively. Locoregional and systemic failure rates for this treatment were 9% (4/44) and 14% (6/44), respectively. The most common grades 3 to 4 adverse events included leukopenia (37%), neutropenia (34%), and mucositis (25%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. This study suggested high efficacy and low toxicity of IMRT followed by GDP regimen chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage I/II ENKTL patients. These results require further investigation in prospective trials.

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  5. Avaliação de bis(4-metilfenilditiocarbimatozincato(II de tetrabutilamônio como acelerador em composições de borracha natural Evaluation of tetrabutyl ammonium bis(4-methylphenyldithiocarbimatozincate(II as accelerator in natural rubber (NR compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Mariano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a substância ZNIBU [bis(4-metilfenilditiocarbimatozincato(II de tetrabutilamônio] foi usada em formulações de borracha natural (NR e o seu efeito como acelerador de vulcanização foi investigado. As composições, vulcanizadas com a substância em questão, foram submetidas a testes mecânicos e os resultados comparados com os de outras composições vulcanizadas com os aceleradores comerciais CBS (N-ciclohexil-2-benzotiazol-2-sulfenamida, TMTD (dissulfeto de tetrametiltiuram e MBTS (dissulfeto de benzotiazol. Propriedades como dureza, resiliência e densidade foram avaliadas em presença ou não da carga negro de fumo.The acceleration potential of ZNIBU [tetrabutyl ammonium bis(4-methylphenyldithiocarbimatozincate(II] in the vulcanization process of natural rubber compounds was investigated. The vulcanized compounds were tested for hardness, resilience and density and compared with those vulcanized with commercial accelerators such as CBS (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulphenamide, TMTD (tetramethyl thiuram disulphide and MBTS (dibenzothiazole disulphide. The new accelerator tested was found to be too slow for a commercial application, but its properties were similar to those of other accelerators.

  6. Using Vegetation Maps to Provide Information on Soil Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Ibáñez, Juan; Pérez-Gómez, Rufino; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Many different types of maps (geology, hydrology, soil, vegetation, etc.) are created to inventory natural resources. Each of these resources is mapped using a unique set of criteria, including scales and taxonomies. Past research has indicated that comparing the results of different but related maps (e.g., soil and geology maps) may aid in identifying deficiencies in those maps. Therefore, this study was undertaken in the Almería Province (Andalusia, Spain) to (i) compare the underlying map structures of soil and vegetation maps and (ii) to investigate if a vegetation map can provide useful soil information that was not shown on a soil map. To accomplish this soil and vegetation maps were imported into ArcGIS 10.1 for spatial analysis. Results of the spatial analysis were exported to Microsoft Excel worksheets for statistical analyses to evaluate fits to linear and power law regression models. Vegetative units were grouped according to the driving forces that determined their presence or absence (P/A): (i) climatophilous (climate is the only determinant of P/A) (ii); lithologic-climate (climate and parent material determine PNV P/A); and (iii) edaphophylous (soil features determine PNV P/A). The rank abundance plots for both the soil and vegetation maps conformed to Willis or Hollow Curves, meaning the underlying structures of both maps were the same. Edaphophylous map units, which represent 58.5% of the vegetation units in the study area, did not show a good correlation with the soil map. Further investigation revealed that 87% of the edaphohygrophylous units (which demand more soil water than is supplied by other soil types in the surrounding landscape) were found in ramblas, ephemeral riverbeds that are not typically classified and mapped as soils in modern systems, even though they meet the definition of soil given by the most commonly used and most modern soil taxonomic systems. Furthermore, these edaphophylous map units tend to be islands of biodiversity

  7. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B. M.; Ferrarese, L.; Gilbert, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained...

  8. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to gro...

  9. Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-MAP kinase. Durable type II inhibitors that do not require binding into the canonical ATP hinge region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu Mi; Clare, Michael; Ensinger, Carol L; Hood, Molly M; Lord, John W; Lu, Wei-Ping; Miller, David F; Patt, William C; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Kaufman, Michael D; Petillo, Peter A; Wise, Scott C; Abendroth, Jan; Chun, Lawrence; Clark, Robin; Feese, Michael; Kim, Hidong; Stewart, Lance; Flynn, Daniel L

    2010-10-01

    Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-alpha kinase are described. Durable type II inhibitors were designed which bind to arginines (Arg67 or Arg70) that function as key residues for mediating phospho-threonine 180 dependant conformational fluxing of p38-alpha from an inactive type II state to an active type I state. Binding to Arg70 in particular led to potent inhibitors, exemplified by DP-802, which also exhibited high kinase selectivity. Binding to Arg70 obviated the requirement for binding into the ATP Hinge region. X-ray crystallography revealed that DP-802 and analogs induce an enhanced type II conformation upon binding to either the unphosphorylated or the doubly phosphorylated form of p38-alpha kinase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MHC class II DRB diversity predicts antigen recognition and is associated with disease severity in California sea lions naturally infected with Leptospira interrogans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances; Bowen, Lizabeth

    2018-01-01

    We examined the associations between California sea lion MHC class II DRB (Zaca-DRB) configuration and diversity, and leptospirosis. As Zaca-DRB gene sequences are involved with antigen presentation of bacteria and other extracellular pathogens, we predicted that they would play a role in determining responses to these pathogenic spirochaetes. Specifically, we investigated whether Zaca-DRB diversity (number of genes) and configuration (presence of specific genes) explained differences in disease severity, and whether higher levels of Zaca-DRB diversity predicted the number of specific Leptospira interrogans serovars that a sea lion's serum would react against. We found that serum from diseased sea lions with more Zaca-DRB loci reacted against a wider array of serovars. Specific Zaca-DRB loci were linked to reactions with particular serovars. Interestingly, sea lions with clinical manifestation of leptospirosis that had higher numbers of Zaca-DRB loci were less likely to recover from disease than those with lower diversity, and those that harboured Zaca-DRB.C or –G were 4.5 to 5.3 times more likely to die from leptospirosis, regardless of the infective serovars. We propose that for leptospirosis, a disadvantage of having a wider range of antigen presentation might be increased disease severity due to immunopathology. Ours is the first study to examine the importance of Zaca-DRB diversity for antigen detection and disease severity following natural exposure to infective leptospires.

  11. POSSIBILITIES TO USE NATURAL EXTRACTS FROM MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS (MAP LIKE BOTANICAL REPELLENT OR INSECTICIDE COMPOUNDS AGAINST PEST INSECTS IN ECOLOGICAL CROPS (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropods pests continues to expand i.e. repellents based on essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Rosmarinus officinalis to mosquitoes, or cinnamon oil, sandalwood oil and turmeric oil are previously reported as insect repellents evaluatede in the laboratory conditions. With the constantly increasing problems of insecticide resistance and increasing public concerns regarding pesticide safety, new, safer active ingredients are becoming necessary to replace existing compounds on the market. The present study carried out in the period 2010-2012 comprises a review of two insect repellents, followed by some new research conducted in our laboratory on plant-derived insect repellents. The two alkaloids tested against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in laboratory conditions was obtained by water and alchohol extraction from two vegetal species, Cichorium intybus L. (Asterales:Asteraceae and Delphinium consolida L. (Ranales:Ranunculaceae. The tests carried out in laboratory and field experimentally plots under cages permit to evaluate several other compounds for repellent activity of lacctucin alkaloids.

  12. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  13. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  14. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  15. Ecologically Sound Procedural Generation of Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Onrust

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current techniques for the creation and exploration of virtual worlds are largely unable to generate sound natural environments from ecological data and to provide interactive web-based visualizations of such detailed environments. We tackle this challenge and propose a novel framework that (i explores the advantages of landscape maps and ecological statistical data, translating them to an ecologically sound plant distribution, and (ii creates a visually convincing 3D representation of the natural environment suitable for its interactive visualization over the web. Our vegetation model improves techniques from procedural ecosystem generation and neutral landscape modeling. It is able to generate diverse ecological sound plant distributions directly from landscape maps with statistical ecological data. Our visualization model integrates existing level of detail and illumination techniques to achieve interactive frame rates and improve realism. We validated with ecology experts the outcome of our framework using two case studies and concluded that it provides convincing interactive visualizations of large natural environments.

  16. APLICAÇÃO DE IMAGENS IKONOS II E TM/LANDSAT-5 NA ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BASE CARTOGRÁFICA PARA A RESERVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL MAMIRAUÁ – AMAZONAS / APPLICATION OF IKONOS II AND TM/LANDSAT-5 SATELLITES DATA FOR DIGITAL BASE MAPPING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESERVE MAMIRAUÁ, AMAZON, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Martins Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as purpose present the methodology developed to produce an updated digital map base support for participatory management Mamirauá Reserve of Sustainable Development in the state of Amazonas, Braszil. Because this protected área is situated within an area of flooded forest, both the physical landscape and social organization often change, and the dynamic demand the systematic update of cartographic databases. This work has images of orbital sensors IKONOS II and LANDSAT 5 TM, interviews with users and collecting spatial data in the Mamirauá Reserve. This work obtained a cartographic base at 1:100.000 scale and a geodatabase compatible with the local references, with which is possible to generate thematic maps updated to support dialogue in the sustainable management programs of the Mamirauá Reserve and minimize conflicts with communities.

  17. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  18. Meso(topoclimatic maps and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Plánka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric characteristics can be studied from many points of view, most often we talk about time and spatial standpoint. Application of time standpoint leads either to different kinds of the synoptic and prognostic maps production, which presents actual state of atmosphere in short time section in the past or in the near future or to the climatic maps production which presents longterm weather regime. Spatial standpoint then differs map works according to natural phenomenon proportions, whereas the scale of their graphic presentation can be different. It depends on production purpose of each work.In the paper there are analysed methods of mapping and climatic maps production, which display longterm regime of chosen atmospheric features. These athmosphere features are formed in interaction with land surface and also have direct influence on people and their activities throughout the country. At the same time they’re influenced by anthropogenic intervention to the landscape.

  19. Natural variation for responsiveness to flg22, flgII-28, and csp22 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in heirloom tomatoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Veluchamy

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is susceptible to many diseases including bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Bacterial speck disease is a serious problem worldwide in tomato production areas where moist conditions and cool temperatures occur. To enhance breeding of speck resistant fresh-market tomato cultivars we identified a race 0 field isolate, NC-C3, of P. s. pv. tomato in North Carolina and used it to screen a collection of heirloom tomato lines for speck resistance in the field. We observed statistically significant variation among the heirloom tomatoes for their response to P. s. pv. tomato NC-C3 with two lines showing resistance approaching a cultivar that expresses the Pto resistance gene, although none of the heirloom lines have Pto. Using an assay that measures microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, we investigated whether the heirloom lines showed differential responsiveness to three bacterial-derived peptide MAMPs: flg22 and flgII-28 (from flagellin and csp22 (from cold shock protein. Significant differences were observed for MAMP responsiveness among the lines, although these differences did not correlate strongly with resistance or susceptibility to bacterial speck disease. The identification of natural variation for MAMP responsiveness opens up the possibility of using a genetic approach to identify the underlying loci and to facilitate breeding of cultivars with enhanced disease resistance. Towards this goal, we discovered that responsiveness to csp22 segregates as a single locus in an F2 population of tomato.

  20. Comparison of MODIS and Landsat TM5 images for mapping tempo-spatial dynamics of Secchi disk depths in Poyang Lake national nature reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.; Liu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Landsat has successfully been applied to map Secchi disk depth of inland water bodies. Operational use for monitoring a dynamic variable like Secchi disk depth is however limited by the 16-day overpass cycle of the Landsat system and cloud cover. Low spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging

  1. Isostructural and cage-specific replacement occurring in sII hydrate with external CO2/N2 gas and its implications for natural gas production and CO2 storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young-ju; Park, Seongmin; Kang, Hyery; Ahn, Yun-Ho; Lim, Dongwook; Kim, Se-Joon; Lee, Jaehyoung; Lee, Joo Yong; Ahn, Taewoong; Seo, Yongwon; Lee, Huen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural sustainability of sII hydrate is demonstrated during the replacement. • The experimental evidence of isostructural replacement is revealed. • The cage-specific replacement in sII hydrates allows long-term CO 2 storage. • The compositions and extent of replacement are cross-checked by GC and NMR analyses. - Abstract: A replacement technique has been regarded as a promising strategy for both CH 4 exploitation from gas hydrates and CO 2 sequestration into deep-ocean reservoirs. Most research has been focused on replacement reactions that occur in sI hydrates due to their prevalence in natural gas hydrates. However, sII hydrates in nature have been also discovered in some regions, and the replacement mechanism in sII hydrates significantly differs from that in sI hydrates. In this study, we have intensively investigated the replacement reaction of sII (C 3 H 8 + CH 4 ) hydrate by externally injecting CO 2 /N 2 (50:50) gas mixture with a primary focus on powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and gas chromatography analyses. In particular, it was firstly confirmed that there was no structural transformation during the replacement of C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas injection, indicating that sII hydrate decomposition followed by sI hydrate formation did not occur. Furthermore, the cage-specific replacement pattern of the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate revealed that CH 4 replacement with N 2 in the small cages of sII was more significant than C 3 H 8 replacement with CO 2 in the large cages of sII. The total extent of the replacement for the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate was cross-checked by NMR and GC analyses and found to be approximately 54%. Compared to the replacement for CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas, the lower extent of the replacement for the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas was attributable to the persistent presence of C 3 H 8 in the large cages and the lower content of N 2 in the feed gas. The

  2. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine ovine lactation curve characteristics. Derived milk traits for milk, fat, protein and lactose yield, as well as percentage composition and somatic cell score were used for single and two-QTL approaches using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. A total of 15 significant (P P http://crcidp.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/cgi-bin/gbrowse/oaries_genome/. Many of the QTL for milk production traits have been reported on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 16 and 20. Those on chromosomes 3 and 20 are in strong agreement with the results reported here. In addition, novel QTL were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 14, 22 and 24. In a cross-species comparison, we extended the meta-assembly by comparing QTL regions of sheep and cattle, which provided strong evidence for synteny conservation of QTL regions for milk, fat, protein and somatic cell score data between cattle and sheep.

  4. Genetic dissection of hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. II. Mapping hybrid male sterility loci on the third chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Li, Jian; Hartl, Daniel L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2003-08-01

    Hybrid male sterility (HMS) is a rapidly evolving mechanism of reproductive isolation in Drosophila. Here we report a genetic analysis of HMS in third-chromosome segments of Drosophila mauritiana that were introgressed into a D. simulans background. Qualitative genetic mapping was used to localize 10 loci on 3R and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) procedure (multiple-interval mapping) was used to identify 19 loci on the entire chromosome. These genetic incompatibilities often show dominance and complex patterns of epistasis. Most of the HMS loci have relatively small effects and generally at least two or three of them are required to produce complete sterility. Only one small region of the third chromosome of D. mauritiana by itself causes a high level of infertility when introgressed into D. simulans. By comparison with previous studies of the X chromosome, we infer that HMS loci are only approximately 40% as dense on this autosome as they are on the X chromosome. These results are consistent with the gradual evolution of hybrid incompatibilities as a by-product of genetic divergence in allopatric populations.

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  7. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  8. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Constuction of the paleogeologic maps. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Post Caoris surface was derived from the geologic map by plotting all Class 1 and 2 features. To construct the Caloris surface, Class 3 craters were plotted onto the map, as well as all Class 3 plains. However, if P3 plains were adjacent to P2 units, and appeared continuous with other exposures of P3 material, the P2 unit was assumed to overlie the C3 and P3 material. The younger superposed craters were ignored with respect to the Class 3 surface. The boundaries of P3 materials were then continued under the superposed units, using a minimum of reasonable assumptions. For instance, if P2 and P4 plains were adjacent units, no P3 plains were presumed to lie under the P2 material. Similarly, all C3 craters were considered to have some deposits of impact melt after formation, even if they are mapped containing younger units. C3 craters which were superposed with younger units, C1 or C2 craters, and perhaps P2 plains, were redrawn as if later materials had not been emplaced, i.e., in their post impact, pre-degradation states.

  9. EXTRAPOLATING THE SUITABILITY OF SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS USING AN EXISTING SOIL MAP: APPLICATION OF PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS, SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND VALIDATION PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Guadalupe Aguilar Duarte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the spatial identification of the suitability of soils as reactors in the treatment of swine wastewater in the Mexican state of Yucatan, as well as the development of a map with validation procedures. Pedotransfer functions were applied to the existing soils database. A methodological approach was adopted that allowed the spatialization of pedotransfer function data points. A map of the suitability of soil associations as reactors was produced, as well as a map of the level of accuracy of the associations using numerical classification technique, such as discriminant analysis. Soils with the highest suitability indices were found to be Vertisols, Stagnosols, Nitisols and Luvisols. Some 83.9% of the area of Yucatan is marginally suitable for the reception of swine wastewater, 6.5% is moderately suitable, while 6% is suitable. The percentages of the spatial accuracy of the pedotransfer functions range from 62% to 95% with an overall value of 71.5%. The methodological approach proved to be practical, accurate and inexpensive.

  10. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom clay - Part II: analysis of migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, T.; Bennett, D.; Maes, N.; Wang, L.; Warwick, P.; Hall, T.; Walker, G.; Dierckx, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as a potential site for the disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs investigation. Trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may have opposing effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase (mobile) NOM, radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide-NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase (immobile) NOM, migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier with the objective of deriving conceptual models that can be implemented in repository performance assessment (PA) models. A separate paper describes the results of column migration experiments involving the transport of 241 Am- 14 C-NOM complexes through Boom Clay cores. This paper describes the transport model, POPCORN, that was developed to describe and evaluate the influence of NOM on radionuclide transport in clay, taking into account attachment/detachment rates of NOM to clay surfaces and the kinetics of RN complexation to, and destabilization from, NOM. The POPCORN model was used to evaluate diffusion experiments involving injection of 14 C-labelled NOM in Boom Clay cores. Model fits were obtained by varying the rates of filtration of NOM by attachment to the surface of the clay matrix. POPCORN was then used to analyse the 241 Am- 14 C-NOM migration experiments. The stability properties of the 241 Am-NOM were characterised by kinetic constants, and good matches to the migration data were achieved for the experiments. The findings suggest that a small sub-population of the original 241 Am-OM is the most stable, and that this

  11. Sensitivity mapping of the German North Sea Coast II. Data update and development of an operational model for precaution measures of oil spill response; Sensititivaetsraster Deutsche Nordseekueste II. Aktualisierung und Erstellung eines operationellen Modells zur Vorsorgeplanung bei der Oelbekaempfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Doerffer, R.; Heymann, K.; Kleeberg, U.; Krasemann, H.; Schiller, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Grohnert, A.; Reichert, J. [IfaB - Institut fuer Angewandte Biologie Freiburg/Niederelbe (Germany); Reichert, M. [ARCADIS, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Wadden Sea is an area of tidal flats and salt marshes extending between the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. It has enormous value as a cleansing site for North Sea water, as a nursery for young fish and as a feeding ground for many bird species. Due to the proximity of important shipping routes and harbours, this region is especially threatened by oil spills. Thus, for oil spill response and precaution measures, a sensitivity study of the entire intertidal area was badly needed in order to assess and minimize the potential ecological and economical damage. Based on comprehensive field surveys and in close cooperation with the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies, an automated expert-model for the german part of Wadden Sea areas was developed at the Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS-Research Centre). As an operational model it will serve as important instrument for decision making processes, precautionary measures and the further design of oil spill response strategies. Since it is not possible to protect the entire German North Sea coast equally at all levels, oil spill contingency planning requires a more detailed classification. For this reason, individual soft bottom habitats, communities and stocks of saltmarshes, macrofauna, waterfowl and estuarine biotop types were evaluated and classified according to their vulnerability to oil pollution. Hence, the fieldwork for habitat mapping during 2003-2006 was a central part of the study. For this part, the experiences and results obtained from the previous GKSS-project ''Thematic mapping and sensitivity study of Intertidal flats'' during the years 1987-1992 served as an valuable basis. For example, the documentation of changes during these periods of observation provides information on stability features of the ecosystems. During the first project nearly 5000 locations were processed and characterised using about 70 parameters for each site. The in-situ mapping

  12. Fine-scale mapping of High Nature Value farmlands: novel approaches to improve the management of rural biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho-Santos, C.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) are defined as rural lands characterized by high levels of biodiversity and extensive farming practices. These farmlands are also known to provide important ecosystems services, such as food production, pollination, water purification and landscape recreation.

  13. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Netzer, Hagai; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR -L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR -L relationship.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of the Carotid-Kundalini Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Liang, Qingyong; Meng, Juan

    The nature of the fixed points of the Carotid-Kundalini (C-K) map was studied and the boundary equation of the first bifurcation of the C-K map in the parameter plane is presented. Using the quantitative criterion and rule of chaotic system, the paper reveals the general features of the C-K Map transforming from regularity to chaos. The following conclusions are obtained: (i) chaotic patterns of the C-K map may emerge out of double-periodic bifurcation; (ii) the chaotic crisis phenomena are found. At the same time, the authors analyzed the orbit of critical point of the complex C-K Map and put forward the definition of Mandelbrot-Julia set of the complex C-K Map. The authors generalized the Welstead and Cromer's periodic scanning technique and using this technology constructed a series of the Mandelbrot-Julia sets of the complex C-K Map. Based on the experimental mathematics method of combining the theory of analytic function of one complex variable with computer aided drawing, we investigated the symmetry of the Mandelbrot-Julia set and studied the topological inflexibility of distribution of the periodic region in the Mandelbrot set, and found that the Mandelbrot set contains abundant information of the structure of Julia sets by finding the whole portray of Julia sets based on Mandelbrot set qualitatively.

  15. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  16. Naturalitatea pădurii: concepte, caracteristici și implicații asupra conservării [Forest naturalness: concepts, characteristics and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Teodosiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper review the naturalness related concepts, with a special emphasis on forests, and also their implications on forest conservation. Beside naturalness, key aspects of wild(erness, ecosystem integrity, ecosystem health, forest quality and authenticity are disscussed. The main approaches on forest naturalness are presented, including the basic (minimum naturalness requests, the shortcomings of associating high extreme naturalness levels (virgin, pristine to forests, or the necessity to consider the temporal component of naturalness (e.g. the forest history. In the section of conservation issues is presented a brief summary of the most important regional/world based statistics of high naturalness forests, including practical reccomendations regarding their size and weight at landscape scale.

  17. YSOVAR II: Mapping YSO Inner Disk Structure in NGC 2264 with Simultaneous Spitzer and CoRoT Time Series Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Rebull, Luisa; Affer, Laura; Alencar, Sylvia; Allen, Lori; Barrado, David; Bouvier, Jerome; Calvet, Nuria; Carey, Sean; Carpenter, John; Ciardi, David; Covey, Kevin; D'Alessio, Paola; Espaillat, Catherine; Favata, Fabio; Flaccomio, Ettore; Forbrich, Jan; Furesz, Gabor; Hartman, Lee; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Holtzman, Jon; Hora, Joe; Marchis, Franck; McCaughrean, Mark; Micela, Giusi; Mundt, Reinhard; Plavchan, Peter; Turner, Neal; Skrutzkie, Mike; Smith, Howard; Song, Inseok; Szentgyorgi, Andy; Terebey, Susan; Vrba, Fred; Wasserman, Lawrence; Watson, Alan; Whitney, Barbara; Winston, Elaine; Wood, Kenny

    2011-05-01

    We propose a simultaneous, continuous 30 day observation of the star forming region NGC2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT. NGC2264 is the only nearby, rich star-forming region which can be observed with CoRoT; it is by definition then the only nearby, rich star-forming region where a simultaneous Spitzer/CoRoT campaign is possible. Fortunately, the visibility windows for the two spacecraft overlap, allowing this program to be done in the Nov. 25, 2011 to Jan. 4, 2012 time period. For 10 days, we propose to map the majority of the cluster (a 35'x35' region) to a depth of 48 seconds per point, with each epoch taking 1.7 hours, allowing of order 12 epochs per day. For the other 20 days, we propose to obtaining staring-mode data for two positions in the cluster having a high density of cluster members. We also plan to propose for a variety of other ground and space-based data, most of which would also be simultaneous with the Spitzer and CoRoT observing. These data will allow us to address many astrophysical questions related to the structure and evolution of the disks of young stars and the interaction of those disks with the forming star. The data may also help inform models of planet formation since planets form and migrate through the pre-main sequence disks during the 0.5-5 Myr age range of stars in NGC2264. The data we collect will also provide an archive of the variability properties of young stars that is unmatched in its accuracy, sensitivity, cadence and duration and which therefore could inspire investigation of phenomena which we cannot now imagine. The CoRoT observations have been approved, contingent on approval of a simultaneous Spitzer observing program (this proposal).

  18. The Structure of the Homunculus. I. Shape and Latitude Dependence from H2 and [Fe II] Velocity Maps of η Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2006-06-01

    High-resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the three-dimensional structure of the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae. The new near-infrared spectra dramatically confirm the double-shell structure inferred previously from thermal dust emission, resolving the nebula into a very thin outer shell seen in H2 and a warmer, thicker inner layer seen in [Fe II]. The remarkably thin and uniform H 2 skin hints that the most important mass loss during the 19th century eruption had a very short duration of ~106.5 cm-3. This emission, in turn, yields our first definitive picture of the exact shape of the nebula, plus a distance of 2350+/-50 pc and an inclination angle of ~41°. The distribution of the H2 emission provides the first measure of the latitude dependence of the speed, mass loss, and kinetic energy associated with η Car's 19th century explosion. Almost 75% of the total mass and more than 90% of the kinetic energy in the ejecta were released at high latitudes between 45° and the polar axis. This rules out a model for the bipolar shape in which an otherwise spherical explosion was pinched at the waist by a circumstellar torus. Instead, most of the mass appears to have been directed poleward by the explosion itself. H2 emission also provides our first reliable picture of the critical innermost waist of the Homunculus, yielding clues to the observed morphology of the core and the more extended equatorial debris. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  19. Onion Park Research Natural Area: Botanical and ecological resources inventory, mapping and analysis with recommendations towards the development of a long-term monitoring and research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle F. Layser

    1992-01-01

    Onion Park is a floristically rich naturally occurring mountain meadow and wetland complex which is surrounded by subalpine forest. The grass- and wetlands comprising the Park contribute biological diversity to an otherwise predominantly lodgepole pine-forested, subalpine setting. Onion Park is located at 7400' elevation in the Little Belt Mountains, five miles...

  20. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  1. Weather regimes over Senegal during the summer monsoon season using self-organizing maps and hierarchical ascendant classification. Part II: interannual time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueye, A.K. [ESP, UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Janicot, Serge; Sultan, Benjamin [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris cedex 05 (France); Niang, A. [LTI, ESP/UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Sawadogo, S. [LTI, EPT, Thies (Senegal); Diongue-Niang, A. [ANACIM, Dakar (Senegal); Thiria, S. [LOCEAN/IPSL, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this work is to define over the period 1979-2002 the main synoptic weather regimes relevant for understanding the daily variability of rainfall during the summer monsoon season over Senegal. ''Interannual'' synoptic weather regimes are defined by removing the influence of the mean 1979-2002 seasonal cycle. This is different from Part I where the seasonal evolution of each year was removed, then removing also the contribution of interannual variability. As in Part I, the self-organizing maps approach, a clustering methodology based on non-linear artificial neural network, is combined with a hierarchical ascendant classification to compute these regimes. Nine weather regimes are identified using the mean sea level pressure and 850 hPa wind field as variables. The composite circulation patterns of all these nine weather regimes are very consistent with the associated anomaly patterns of precipitable water, mid-troposphere vertical velocity and rainfall. They are also consistent with the distribution of rainfall extremes. These regimes have been then gathered into different groups. A first group of four regimes is included in an inner circuit and is characterized by a modulation of the semi-permanent trough located along the western coast of West Africa and an opposite modulation on the east. This circuit is important because it associates the two wettest and highly persistent weather regimes over Senegal with the driest and the most persistent one. One derivation of this circuit is highlighted, including the two driest regimes and the most persistent one, what can provide important dry sequences occurrence. An exit of this circuit is characterised by a filling of the Saharan heat low. An entry into the main circuit includes a southward location of the Saharan heat low followed by its deepening. The last weather regime is isolated from the other ones and it has no significant impact on Senegal. It is present in June and September, and

  2. Urolinin: The First Linear Peptidic Urotensin-II Receptor Agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandholtz, Sebastian; Erdmann, Sarah; von Hacht, Jan Lennart; Exner, Samantha; Krause, Gerd; Kleinau, Gunnar; Grötzinger, Carsten

    2016-11-23

    This study investigated the role of individual U-II amino acid positions and side chain characteristics important for U-IIR activation. A complete permutation library of 209 U-II variants was studied in an activity screen that contained single substitution variants of each position with one of the other 19 proteinogenic amino acids. Receptor activation was measured using a cell-based high-throughput fluorescence calcium mobilization assay. We generated the first complete U-II substitution map for U-II receptor activation, resulting in a detailed view into the structural features required for receptor activation, accompanied by complementary information from receptor modeling and ligand docking studies. On the basis of the systematic SAR study of U-II, we created 33 further short and linear U-II variants from eight to three amino acids in length, including d- and other non-natural amino acids. We identified the first high-potency linear U-II analogues. Urolinin, a linear U-II agonist (nWWK-Tyr(3-NO 2 )-Abu), shows low nanomolar potency as well as improved metabolic stability.

  3. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  4. Global Geological Map of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    units is ~81.7% of the map area, whereas the younger units cover ~14.1% of the surface. Depending upon the estimates of T (750 Ma [36], 500 Ma [37], 300 Ma [38]), duration of Fortunian Period can be from 300 m.y (T=750 Ma) to 120 m.y (T=300 Ma). The minimum integrated resurfacing rate (both volcanic and tectonic) at this time was from ~1.2 to ~3.1 km2/y. Duration of Atlian Period is estimated to be from 750 to 300 m.y and the integrated resurfacing rate during this period could be from ~0.2 to ~0.4 km2/y. Such a significant drop of the resurfacing rates suggests that Fortunian and Atlian periods correspond to two different geodynamic regimes that probably were related to different regimes of mantle convection and lithospheric properties. References: 1) Basilevsky, A. T. and J.W. Head, PSS, 43, 1523, 1995; 2) Basilevsky, A.T. and J.W. Head, PSS, 48, 75, 2000 3) DeShon, H.R. et al., JGR, 105, 6983, 2000; 4) Head, J.W. et al., JGR, 97, 13153, 1992; 5) Solomon, S.C. et al., JGR, 97, 13199, 1992; 6) Squyres, S.W. et al., JGR, 97, 13579, 1992; 7) Stofan, E. R. et al., JGR, 97, 13347, 1992; 8) Guest, J.E., and E.R., Icarus139, 56, 1999; 9) Basilevsky, A.T.,et al., in: Venus II, S.W. Bougher et al. eds., Univ. Arizona Press 1047, 1997; 10) Head, J.W. and A.T. Basilevsky, Geology, 26, 35, 1998; 11) Ivanov, M.A. and J.W. Head, JGR, 106, 17515, 2001; 12) Price, M. and J., Nature, 372, 756, 1994; 13) Price, M. et al., JGR, 101, 4657, 1996 14) Namiki, N. and S.C. Solomon, Science, 265, 929, 1994 15) Parmentier, E.M. and P.C. Hess, GRL, 19, 2015, 1992; 16) Head, J.W. et al., PSS, 42, 803, 1994; 17) Turcotte, D.L., JGR, 98, 127061, 1993; 18) Arkani-Hamed, J. and M.N. Toksoz, PEPI, 34, 232, 1984; 19) Solomon, S.C, LPSC (Abstr.), XXIV, 1331, 1993; 20) Phillips R.J. and V.L. Hansen, Science, 279, 1492, 1998; 21) Solomatov, S.V. and L.-N. Moresi, JGR, 101, 4737, 1996; 22) Bender, K.C., et al., USGS Map I-2620, 2000; 23) Rosenberg, E. and G. E. McGill, USGS Map I-2721, 2001; 24) Ivanov, M

  5. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  6. Natural Type II Collagen Hydrogel, Fibrin Sealant, and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Promising Combination for Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Mariana; Bordeaux-Rego, Pedro; Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Duarte, Adriana S S; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Zorzi, Alessandro Rozim; de Miranda, João Batista; Lenz Cesar, Carlos; Luzo, Ângela; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2017-10-01

    Objective Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited ability of self-regeneration and the current clinical treatments have restricted capacity to restore damages induced by trauma or diseases. Therefore, new techniques are being tested for cartilage repair, using scaffolds and/or stem cells. Although type II collagen hydrogel, fibrin sealant, and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent suitable alternatives for cartilage formation, their combination has not yet been investigated in vivo for focal articular cartilage defects. We performed a simple experimental procedure using the combination of these 3 compounds on cartilage lesions of rabbit knees. Design The hydrogel was developed in house and was first tested in vitro for chondrogenic differentiation. Next, implants were performed in chondral defects with or without ASCs and the degree of regeneration was macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. Results Production of proteoglycans and the increased expression of collagen type II (COL2α1), aggrecan (ACAN), and sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) confirmed the chondrogenic character of ASCs in the hydrogel in vitro. Importantly, the addition of ASC induced a higher overall repair of the chondral lesions and a better cellular organization and collagen fiber alignment compared with the same treatment without ASCs. This regenerating tissue also presented the expression of cartilage glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of the 3 compounds is effective for articular cartilage repair and may be of future clinical interest.

  7. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  8. Effects of interleukins 2 and 12 on TBT-induced alterations of MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 in human natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluoch, Aloice O; Whalen, Margaret M

    2006-01-01

    NK cells are lymphocytes in the non-adaptive immune system that protect the body against intracellular pathogens and eliminate tumor cells. Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical that has been detected in human foods as well as in human blood. The role of TBT in immunosuppression has been described, including inhibition of the human NK-cell cytotoxic function. Previous studies indicated that exposure of NK cells to TBT for 1 h induced progressive and irreversible inhibition of cytotoxic function. However, it was found that if NK cells were incubated in TBT-free media with either IL-2 or IL-12, loss of cytotoxic function was prevented/reversed within 24 h. Molecular studies established that loss of cytotoxic function is accompanied by alteration of MAP kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p44/42 phosphorylation. This study examined whether interleukin-mediated recovery of cytotoxicity involved reversal of tributyltin-altered p38 and p44/42 phosphorylation. The results indicated that there was no substantial IL-2 prevention/reversal of the TBT-induced alteration of phosphorylation of either p38 or p44/42 after either a 24 or 48 h recovery period. Additionally, IL-12 caused no substantial prevention/reversal of the TBT-induced alteration of phosphorylation of the MAPKs seen after either 24 or 48 h. These data suggest that IL-2 and/or IL-12-mediated recovery of NK cytotoxic function is not a result of prevention/reversal of TBT-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42 MAPKs at the 24 or 48 h time points. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  10. Exceedance probability map: a tool helping the definition of arsenic Natural Background Level (NBL) within the Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination affects worldwide shallower groundwater bodies. Starting from the actual knowledges around arsenic origin into groundwater, we know that the major part of dissolved arsenic is naturally occurring through the dissolution of As-bearing minerals and ores. Several studies on the shallow aquifers of both the regional Venetian Plain (NE Italy) and the local Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (DBVL) show local high arsenic concentration related to peculiar geochemical conditions, which drive arsenic mobilization. The uncertainty of arsenic spatial distribution makes difficult both the evaluation of the processes involved in arsenic mobilization and the stakeholders' decision about environmental management. Considering the latter aspect, the present study treats the problem of the Natural Background Level (NBL) definition as the threshold discriminating the natural contamination from the anthropogenic pollution. Actually, the UE's Directive 2006/118/EC suggests the procedures and criteria to set up the water quality standards guaranteeing a healthy status and reversing any contamination trends. In addition, the UE's BRIDGE project proposes some criteria, based on the 90th percentile of the contaminant's concentrations dataset, to estimate the NBL. Nevertheless, these methods provides just a statistical NBL for the whole area without considering the spatial variation of the contaminant's concentration. In this sense, we would reinforce the NBL concept using a geostatistical approach, which is able to give some detailed information about the distribution of arsenic concentrations and unveiling zones with high concentrations referred to the Italian drinking water standard (IDWS = 10 µg/liter). Once obtained the spatial information about arsenic distribution, we can apply the 90th percentile methods to estimate some Local NBL referring to every zones with arsenic higher than IDWS. The indicator kriging method was considered because it

  11. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes: An assessment of natural vegetation, environmental, and crop analogs. [Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateaus, Northern Great Valley (CA), and Louisiana Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was performed to develop and test a procedure for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems in the semi-arid and wood regions of the Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateau areas, and for the estimating of rice crop production in the Northern Great Valley (Ca.) and the Louisiana Coastal Plain. ERTS-1 and high flight and low flight aerial photos were used in a visual photointerpretation scheme to identify vegetation complexes, map acreages, and evaluate crop vigor and stress. Results indicated that the vegetation analog concept is valid; that depending on the kind of vegetation and its density, analogs are interpretable at different levels in the hierarchical classification from second to the fourth level. The second level uses physiognomic growth form-structural criteria, and the fourth level uses floristic or taxonomic criteria, usually at generic level. It is recommended that analog comparisons should be made in relatively small test areas where large homogeneous examples can be found of each analog.

  12. Mapping of Vegetation with the Geoinformation System and Determining of Carrying Capacity of the Pre-Urals Steppe area for a Newly Establishing Population of the Przewalski Horse Equus ferus przewalskii at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, N. I.; Mikhailenko, O. I.; Zharkikh, T. L.; Bakirova, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the vegetation (1:25000) of the Pre-Urals Steppe area at the Orenburg State Nature Reserve was completed in 2016. A map created with the geoinformation system contains 1931 simple and complex polygons for 25 types of vegetation. In a drought year, the average stock of palatable vegetation of the whole area is estimated at 8380 tons dry weight. The estimation is based on the size of areas covered by different types of vegetation, their grass production, the correction coefficients for decreasing of pasture forage stocks in winter and decreasing of production of grass communities in dry years. Based on pasture forage stocks the area could tolerate the maximum population size of 1769 individuals of the Przewalski horse, their average density could be 0.11 horse per ha. Yet, as watering places for animals are limited in Pre-Urals Steppe, grazing pressures on the vegetation next to the water sources may increase in dry years. That is why the above-mentioned calculated maximum population size and density must be reduced at least by half until some additional watering places are established and monitoring of the grazing effect on the vegetation next to the places is carried out regularly. Thus, the maximum size of the population is estimated at 800 to 900 individuals, which is almost 1.5 times more than necessary to establish a self-sustained population of the Przewalski horse.

  13. Coordination Nature of 4-Mercaptoaniline to Sn(II Ion: Formation of a One Dimensional Coordination Polymer and Its Decomposition to a Mono Nuclear Sn(IV Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon S. Burkett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of the bifunctional ligand 4-mercaptoaniline with aqueo us tin(II metal ion was studied. A coordination polymer was synthesized when an aqueous solution of SnCl2 was treated with 4-MA. The crystalline material is stable under atmospheric conditions retaining its oxidation state. However, when submerged in a solution saturated with oxygen, the compound oxidizes to a mononuclear tin(IV complex. Both the compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Although the structure of the tin(IV complex was previously reported, crystal structure of this compound was redetermined.

  14. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  15. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  16. Animal Sociology and a Natural Economy of the Body Politic, Part II: The Past Is the Contested Zone: Human Nature and Theories of Production and Reproduction in Primate Behavior Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraway, Donna

    1978-01-01

    Theories of animal and human society based on sex and reproduction have been powerful in legitimating beliefs in the natural necessity of aggression, competition, and hierarchy. Feminists attempting to answer this bias are caught in a political-scientific struggle to formulate and articulate adequate biosocial theories. (Author/KR)

  17. Naturally processed measles virus peptide eluted from class II HLA-DRB1*03 recognized by T lymphocytes from human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Naylor, Stephen; Muddiman, David C.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of the direct identification of a HLA-DRB1*03 measles-derived peptide from measles virus infected EBV-transformed B cells. We purified HLA-DR3-peptide complexes from EBV-B cells infected with measles virus (Edmonston strain) and sequenced the HLA-DR3-peptides by mass spectrometry. A class II peptide, derived from a measles phosphoprotein, ASDVETAEGGEIHELLRLQ (P1, residues 179-197), exhibited the capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. Our data provides direct evidence that the antigenic peptide of measles virus was processed by antigen-presenting cells, presented in the context of HLA class II molecules, and was recognized by peripheral blood T cells from healthy individuals previously immunized with measles vaccine. The approach described herein provides a useful methodology for the future identification of HLA-presented pathogen-derived epitopes using mass spectrometry. The study of cell-mediated immune responses to the measles-derived peptide in immune persons should provide significant insight into the design and development of new vaccines

  18. Experimental studies on the nature of bonding of DNA/bipyridyl-(ethylenediamine)platinum(II) and DNA/netropsin complexes in solution and oriented wet-spun films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, R. L.; Szabo, A.; Lee, S. A.; Rupprecht, A.

    2002-03-01

    The stability of complexes of NaDNA with bipyridyl-(ethylenediamine)platinum(II) (abbreviated [(bipy)Pt(en)]) and with netropsin has been studied using two techniques: (i) ultraviolet melting experiments were done on NaDNA/[(bipy)Pt(en)], showing that the [(bipy)Pt(en)] ligand stabilizes the DNA double helix structure; and (ii) swelling measurements (via optical microscopy) as a function of relative humidity were done on wet-spun oriented films of NaDNA/[(bipy)Pt(en)] and of NaDNA/netropsin. The swelling data shows that an irreversible transition of the films occurs at high relative humidity, first for the NaDNA/netropsin, then for pure NaDNA, and lastly for the NaDNA/[(bipy)Pt(en)]. These results are indicative that the [(bipy)Pt(en)] complex stabilizes the intermolecular bonds which mediate the film swelling characteristics. A model is suggested for the binding of [(bipy)Pt(en)] to DNA to explain why the swelling experiments show this ligand as increasing the intermolecular bond strength between the DNA double helices, while netropsin decreases this degree of stabilization.

  19. Derivation of the dipole map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2004-01-01

    In our method of maps [Punjabi et al., Phy. Rev. Lett. 69, 3322 (1992), and Punjabi et al., J. Plasma Phys. 52, 91 (1994)], symplectic maps are used to calculate the trajectories of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks. Effects of the magnetic perturbations are calculated using the low MN map [Ali et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 1908 (2004)] and the dipole map [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. The dipole map is used to calculate the effects of externally located current carrying coils on the trajectories of the field lines, the stochastic layer, the magnetic footprint, and the heat load distribution on the collector plates in divertor tokamaks [Punjabi et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 3992 (2003)]. Symplectic maps are general, efficient, and preserve and respect the Hamiltonian nature of the dynamics. In this brief communication, a rigorous mathematical derivation of the dipole map is given

  20. Stories and Maps, Images and Archives: Multimethod Approach to the Political Ecology of Native Property Rights and Natural Resource Management in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Amity A.

    2010-01-01

    The study of human-environmental relations is complex and by nature draws on theories and practices from multiple disciplines. There is no single research strategy or universal set of methods to which researchers must adhere. Particularly for scholars interested in a political ecology approach to understanding human-environmental relationships, very little has been written examining the details of “how to” design a project, develop appropriate methods, produce data, and, finally, integrate multiple forms of data into an analysis. A great deal of attention has been paid, appropriately, to the theoretical foundations of political ecology, and numerous scholarly articles and books have been published recently. But beyond Andrew Vayda’s “progressive contextualization” and Piers Blaikie and Harold Brookfield’s “chains of explanation,” remarkably little is written that provides a research model to follow, modify, and expand. Perhaps one of the reasons for this gap in scholarship is that, as expected in interdisciplinary research, researchers use a variety of methods that are suitable (and perhaps unique) to the questions they are asking. To start a conversation on the methods available for researchers interested in adopting a political ecology perspective to human-environmental interactions, I use my own research project as a case study. This research is by no means flawless or inclusive of all possible methods, but by using the details of this particular research process as a case study I hope to provide insights into field research that will be valuable for future scholarship.

  1. Mapping the dynamics of ligand reorganization via {sup 13}CH{sub 3} and {sup 13}CH{sub 2} relaxation dispersion at natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jpeng@nd.edu; Wilson, Brian D.; Namanja, Andrew T. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Flexible ligands pose challenges to standard structure-activity studies since they frequently reorganize their conformations upon protein binding and catalysis. Here, we demonstrate the utility of side chain {sup 13}C relaxation dispersion measurements to identify and quantify the conformational dynamics that drive this reorganization. The dispersion measurements probe methylene {sup 13}CH{sub 2} and methyl {sup 13}CH{sub 3} groups; the latter are highly prevalent side chain moieties in known drugs. Combining these side chain studies with existing backbone dispersion studies enables a comprehensive investigation of {mu}s-ms conformational dynamics related to binding and catalysis. We perform these measurements at natural {sup 13}C abundance, in congruence with common pharmaceutical research settings. We illustrate these methods through a study of the interaction of a phosphopeptide ligand with the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, Pin1. The results illuminate the side-chain moieties that undergo conformational readjustments upon complex formation. In particular, we find evidence that multiple exchange processes influence the side chain dispersion profiles. Collectively, our studies illustrate how side-chain relaxation dispersion can shed light on ligand conformational transitions required for activity, and thereby suggest strategies for its optimization.

  2. Stories and maps, images and archives: multimethod approach to the political ecology of native property rights and natural resource management in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Amity A

    2010-01-01

    The study of human-environmental relations is complex and by nature draws on theories and practices from multiple disciplines. There is no single research strategy or universal set of methods to which researchers must adhere. Particularly for scholars interested in a political ecology approach to understanding human-environmental relationships, very little has been written examining the details of "how to" design a project, develop appropriate methods, produce data, and, finally, integrate multiple forms of data into an analysis. A great deal of attention has been paid, appropriately, to the theoretical foundations of political ecology, and numerous scholarly articles and books have been published recently. But beyond Andrew Vayda's "progressive contextualization" and Piers Blaikie and Harold Brookfield's "chains of explanation," remarkably little is written that provides a research model to follow, modify, and expand. Perhaps one of the reasons for this gap in scholarship is that, as expected in interdisciplinary research, researchers use a variety of methods that are suitable (and perhaps unique) to the questions they are asking. To start a conversation on the methods available for researchers interested in adopting a political ecology perspective to human-environmental interactions, I use my own research project as a case study. This research is by no means flawless or inclusive of all possible methods, but by using the details of this particular research process as a case study I hope to provide insights into field research that will be valuable for future scholarship.

  3. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  4. Pattern of MAP kinases p44/42 and JNK activation by non-lethal doses of tributyltin in human natural killer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluoch, Aloice O. [Tennessee State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O.; Whalen, Margaret M. [Tennessee State University, Department of Chemistry, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been shown to disrupt the ability of natural killer (NK) cells to destroy tumor targets in vitro even at exposures of 25 nM for 24 h, but cell viability was not significantly impacted. Thus, evaluation of intracellular molecular events that regulate cell viability in TBT exposed NK cells are of interest. It has been suggested that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), may promote apoptosis while activation of the MAPK p44/42 may be crucial in mediating anti-apoptotic stimuli. However, it is well established that increases in pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, such as Bax, results in cell death. We have set out to study the effects of a range of TBT concentrations on the MAPKs, JNK and p44/42. Additionally, we examined the effects of TBT on the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 as well as anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The results show that 300-25 nM TBT activated JNK within 10 min. MAPK p44/42 was also activated by 300-50 nM TBT within 10 min. These data show that while 300-200 nM TBT activates p44/42 significantly more than JNK, the pattern of 100-25 nM TBT activation of these MAPKs may be similar. TBT exposure alters neither pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 nor anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 levels at any exposure studied. The results suggest that exposure to TBT activated the anti-apoptotic regulatory p44/42 pathway to a greater extent than the pro-apoptotic JNK pathway, which may explain to some extent how NK cell viability is maintained. (orig.)

  5. Automated NDE Flaw Mapping System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Aircraft Aging and Durability Project (AADP) aims to ensure the safety of both commercial and military aviation aircraft. Non-destructive evaluation (NDE)...

  6. Mapeamento dos fragmentos de vegetação florestal nativa da bacia hidrográfica do rio Alegre, Espírito Santo, a partir de imagens do satélite IKONOS II Native forest fragmentation mapping of the Alegre river watershed, Espirito Santo State, Brazil, using IKONOS II data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior Carlos do Nascimento

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos elaborar o mapa de uso da terra e diagnosticar, em nível de paisagem, os fragmentos de vegetação florestal nativa por meio da classificação visual da imagem do satélite IKONOS II. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na bacia hidrográfica do rio Alegre, situada no extremo sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Foram mapeadas 12 classes de uso da terra, destacando-se 475 fragmentos florestais. As classes cafezal (2.086,2 ha, pastagem (14.130,1 ha e fragmento florestal (2.978,9 ha ocuparam 92,16% (19.195,2 ha da área total da bacia, que é de 20.819,8 ha. A maioria dos fragmentos florestais possui formas fortemente alongadas e área média de 6,3 ha. Também se constatou que a maior parte está sujeita a um elevado nível de perturbação, com 452 e 166 fragmentos florestais vizinhos às classes pastagem e cafezal, respectivamente.The main objective of this study was to create land use and diagnosis maps, at landscape level, of the native forest fragmentation through visual classification using IKONOS II data. The study was conducted in the river Alegre watershed, situated in the south region of State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Twelve land use classes were mapped, pointing out 475 forest fragments. The classes of coffee plantation (2,086.2 ha, pasture (14,130.1 ha and forest fragmentation (2,978.9 ha occupied 92.16% (19,195.2 ha of the total study area, which was about 20,819.8 ha. The majority of the forest fragments presented strongly elongated shapes, with an average of 6.3 ha. It was also noticed that most of them presented a high level of disturbance, with 452 and 166 forest fragments neighboring the pasture and coffee plantation classes, respectively.

  7. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  8. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mast, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Husemann, B.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution—the local mass-metallicity relation—extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce—with a noticeable agreement—the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  9. A NEW SCALING RELATION FOR H II REGIONS IN SPIRAL GALAXIES: UNVEILING THE TRUE NATURE OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Diaz, A. I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, S. F.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Mast, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Camino Bajo de Huetor s/n, Aptdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Husemann, B., E-mail: frosales@cantab.net [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate the existence of a local mass, metallicity, star formation relation using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy of H II regions in the local universe. One of the projections of this distribution-the local mass-metallicity relation-extends over a wide range in this parameter space: three orders of magnitude in mass and a factor of eight in metallicity. We explain the new relation as the combined effect of the differential distributions of mass and metallicity in the disks of galaxies, and a selective star formation efficiency. We use this local relation to reproduce-with a noticeable agreement-the mass-metallicity relation seen in galaxies, and conclude that the latter is a scale-up integrated effect of a local relation, supporting the inside-out growth and downsizing scenarios of galaxy evolution.

  10. Electrochemical maps and movies of the hydrogen evolution reaction on natural crystals of molybdenite (MoS2): basal vs. edge plane activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Cameron L; Kang, Minkyung; Maddar, Faduma M; Li, Fengwang; Walker, Marc; Zhang, Jie; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-09-01

    Two dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have attracted considerable interest in a range of chemical and electrochemical applications, for example, as an abundant and low-cost alternative electrocatalyst to platinum for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). While it has been proposed that the edge plane of MoS 2 possesses high catalytic activity for the HER relative to the "catalytically inert" basal plane, this conclusion has been drawn mainly from macroscale electrochemical (voltammetric) measurements, which reflect the "average" electrocatalytic behavior of complex electrode ensembles. In this work, we report the first spatially-resolved measurements of HER activity on natural crystals of molybdenite, achieved using voltammetric scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), whereby pixel-resolved linear-sweep voltammogram (LSV) measurements have allowed the HER to be visualized at multiple different potentials to construct electrochemical flux movies with nanoscale resolution. Key features of the SECCM technique are that characteristic surface sites can be targeted and analyzed in detail and, further, that the electrocatalyst area is known with good precision (in contrast to many macroscale measurements on supported catalysts). Through correlation of the local voltammetric response with information from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a multi-microscopy approach , it is demonstrated unequivocally that while the basal plane of bulk MoS 2 (2H crystal phase) possesses significant activity, the HER is greatly facilitated at the edge plane ( e.g. , surface defects such as steps, edges or crevices). Semi-quantitative treatment of the voltammetric data reveals that the HER at the basal plane of MoS 2 has a Tafel slope and exchange current density ( J 0 ) of ∼120 mV per decade and 2.5 × 10 -6 A cm -2 (comparable to polycrystalline Co, Ni, Cu and Au), respectively, while the edge

  11. Simulating and Optimizing Hydrogen Production by Low-pressure Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II

    OpenAIRE

    Azarhoosh, M. J.; Ale Ebrahim, H.; Pourtarah, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional hydrogen production plants consist of natural gas steam reforming to CO+3H2 on Ni catalysts in a furnace, water-gas shift reaction for converting CO into CO2 and CO2 absorption. A new alternative method for highly endothermic steam reforming is autothermal reforming (steam reforming with air input to the reactor) without the need for external heating. In this study, hydrogen production by autothermal reforming for fuel cells (base case) was simulated based on a heterogeneous and ...

  12. Natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes (MATRIX, FASES I y II projects); Analogos naturales de la liberacion y migracion del UO2 y elementos metalicos asociados (Proyecto MATRIX, FASES I y II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villa, L.; Campos, R.; Garralon, A.; Crespo, M. T.; Quejido, J. A.; Cozar, J. S.; Arcos, D.; Bruno, J.; Grive, M.; Domenech, C.; Duro, L.; Ruiz Sanchez-Prro, J.; Marin, F.; Izquierdo, A.; Cattetero, G.; Ortuno, F.; Floria, E.

    2005-07-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of HLNW repositories and their interaction with the environment. The U ore deposit of Mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) is hosted in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in the ENRESA option for nuclear waste disposal. However, the processes occurring at Mina Fe maintain some analogies with those occurring in a HLNW repository: The existence of large U concentrations as pitchblende (UO{sub 2}+x), which is chemically analogous to the main component of spent nuclear fuel, which has an oxidation degree of 2.25 < x < 2.66 as a result of radiolytic oxidation. The solubility behaviour of pitchblende as a result of interaction with groundwaters of varying chemical composition can be used to validate predictive models for spent fuel stability under severe alteration conditions. Some of the weathering products of pitchblende are similar to those that have been identified during the experimental oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2}, Sim fuel, as well as natural uraninite and pitchblende. This is a subject that has been previously investigated in other research projects. Fe(III)-oxy hydroxides in the oxidised zone of the deposit could be similar to the spent fuel container corrosion products that could be formed under redox transition conditions. These corrosion products may act as radionuclide and trace metal scavengers. (Author)

  13. Design and update of a classification system: the UCSD map of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Börner

    Full Text Available Global maps of science can be used as a reference system to chart career trajectories, the location of emerging research frontiers, or the expertise profiles of institutes or nations. This paper details data preparation, analysis, and layout performed when designing and subsequently updating the UCSD map of science and classification system. The original classification and map use 7.2 million papers and their references from Elsevier's Scopus (about 15,000 source titles, 2001-2005 and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (WoS Science, Social Science, Arts & Humanities Citation Indexes (about 9,000 source titles, 2001-2004-about 16,000 unique source titles. The updated map and classification adds six years (2005-2010 of WoS data and three years (2006-2008 from Scopus to the existing category structure-increasing the number of source titles to about 25,000. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a widely used map of science was updated. A comparison of the original 5-year and the new 10-year maps and classification system show (i an increase in the total number of journals that can be mapped by 9,409 journals (social sciences had a 80% increase, humanities a 119% increase, medical (32% and natural science (74%, (ii a simplification of the map by assigning all but five highly interdisciplinary journals to exactly one discipline, (iii a more even distribution of journals over the 554 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines when calculating the coefficient of variation, and (iv a better reflection of journal clusters when compared with paper-level citation data. When evaluating the map with a listing of desirable features for maps of science, the updated map is shown to have higher mapping accuracy, easier understandability as fewer journals are multiply classified, and higher usability for the generation of data overlays, among others.

  14. In-situ fluorimetry: A powerful non-invasive diagnostic technique for natural dyes used in artefacts. Part II. Identification of orcein and indigo in Renaissance tapestries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, C.; Miliani, C.; Romani, A.; Santamaria, U.; Morresi, F.; Mlynarska, K.; Favaro, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, three Renaissance tapestries depicting scenes painted by Raffaello Sanzio, conserved at the Vatican Museum, were investigated using in-situ UV-Visible fluorimetric measurements. The results show that this technique is suitable for the detection of natural organic colorants used for dyeing the threads woven in these tapestries. The emission signals detected on red-purple colours were assigned to the colorant orcein and those on different nuances of blue and green colours to indigo by comparison with data from reference laboratory samples. The assignments were supported by chromatographic experiments carried out on threads taken from the back side of the tapestry in the same points analysed by spectrofluorimentry.

  15. Effect of natural phosphate to remove silver interference in the detection of mercury(II) in aquatic algae and seawater samples

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lahrich; H. Hammani; W. Boumya; A. Loudiki; El Bouabi; R. Elmoubarki; A. Farahi; M. Achak; M. Bakasse; M.A. El Mhammedi

    2016-01-01

    A silver particles impregnated onto natural phosphate (Ag/NP) was synthesized using reaction in solid state. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The (Ag/NP) was used as modifier of carbon paste electrode (CPE) to determine mercury by square wave voltammetry. The calibration graph obtained is linear from 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol·L−1 at preconcentration time of 5 min, percentage loading of 7%, with correla...

  16. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  17. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  18. Bio-functionalizing of α-MnO_2 nanorods with natural L-amino acids: A favorable adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Motirasoul, Forough

    2017-01-01

    α-MnO_2 nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method and then the surface of these nanorods were covalently biofunctionalized with natural L-amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and valine). The modified α-MnO_2 nanorods were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Morphological studies were carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of nanorods was improved after biofunctionalization and aggregation was reduced. In addition, the thermal gravimetric analysis was used for demonstrating a successful grafting of amino acids to the surface of α-MnO_2 nanorods and determine the degree of functionalization. The amount of amino acids grafted onto α-MnO_2 surface was estimated to be 5–32 wt%. Finally, the α-MnO_2 and α-MnO_2-L-valine were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution. The results showed that they have a potential to be used as effective adsorbents for cadmium ions removal from the aqueous solution. The equilibrium adsorption data showed the best fit for the pseudo-second-order and the Freundlich models. - Highlights: • α-MnO_2 nanorods were biofunctionalized with natural L-amino acids. • Biofunctionalized α-MnO_2 nanorods by solvothermal strategy were fully characterized. • Cadmium adsorption property of α-MnO_2 and α-MnO_2-L-valine was studied.

  19. A comparative study of natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peel for Pb(II) adsorption under batch and continuous mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Lugo, Violeta; Hernandez-Lopez, Susana; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Urena-Nunez, Fernando; Bilyeu, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Natural, formaldehyde-treated and copolymer-grafted orange peels were evaluated as adsorbents to remove lead ions from aqueous solutions. The optimum pH for lead adsorption was found to be pH 5. The adsorption process was fast, reaching 99% of sorbent capacity in 10 min for the natural and treated biomasses and 20 min for the grafted material. The treated biomass showed the highest sorption rate and capacity in the batch experiments, with the results fitting well to a pseudo-first order rate equation. In the continuous test with the treated biomass, the capacity at complete exhaustion was 46.61 mg g -1 for an initial concentration of 150 mg L -1 . Scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the materials had a rough surface, and that the adsorption of the metal took place on the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the functional groups responsible for metallic biosorption were the -OH, -COOH and -NH 2 groups on the surface. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a mass reduction of 80% can be achieved at 600 deg. C

  20. Characterising the Decays of High-pt Top Quarks and Addressing Naturalness with Jet Substructure in ATLAS Runs I and II

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00397460

    The coupling of the Standard Model top quark to the Higgs boson is O(1), which leads to large quantum corrections in the perturbative expansion of the Higgs boson mass. Possible solutions to this so-called naturalness problem include supersymmetric models with gluinos and stop squarks whose masses are at the electroweak scale, O(1 TeV). If supersymmetry is realised in nature at this scale, these particles are expected to be accessible with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A search for gluino pair production with decays mediated by stop- and sbottom-squark loops in the initial 14.8 ifb of the ATLAS run 2 dataset is presented in terms of a pair of simplified models, which targets extreme regions of phase space using jet substructure techniques. No excess is observed and limits are set which greatly extend the previous exclusion region of this search, up to 1.9 TeV (1.95 TeV) for gluinos decaying through light stop (sbottom) squarks to the lightest neutralinos. A performance study of top tagging algorithms in ...

  1. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  2. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  3. Magnesium acceptor in gallium nitride. II. Koopmans-tuned Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional calculations of its dual nature and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, D. O.; Diallo, I. C.; Reshchikov, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of magnesium acceptor in gallium nitride is that experimental photoluminescence measurements clearly reveal a shallow defect state, while most theoretical predictions favor a localized polaronic defect state. To resolve this contradiction, we calculate properties of magnesium acceptor using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, tuned to fulfill the generalized Koopmans condition. We test Koopmans tuning of HSE for defect calculations in GaN using two contrasting test cases: a deep state of gallium vacancy and a shallow state of magnesium acceptor. The obtained parametrization of HSE allows calculations of optical properties of acceptors using neutral defect-state eigenvalues, without relying on corrections due to charged defects in periodic supercells. Optical transitions and vibrational properties of M gGa defect are analyzed to bring the dual (shallow and deep) nature of this defect into accord with experimental photoluminescence measurements of the ultraviolet band in Mg-doped GaN samples.

  4. Synchronizability of coupled PWL maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polynikis, A.; Di Bernardo, M.; Hogan, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of synchronization of chaotic systems in the case of coupled piecewise linear (PWL) continuous and discontinuous one-dimensional maps. We present numerical results for two examples of coupled systems consisting of two PWL maps. We illustrate how the coupled system can achieve synchronization and discuss the nature of the bifurcation that occurs at a critical value of the coupling strength. We then determine this critical coupling using linear stability analysis. We discuss the effects of variation of the parameters of the PWL maps on the critical coupling and present different bifurcation scenarios obtained for different sets of values of these parameters. Finally, we discuss an extension of our work to the synchronizability of networks consisting of two or more PWL maps. We show how the synchronizability of a network of PWL maps can be improved by tuning the map parameters.

  5. Bio-functionalizing of α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with natural L-amino acids: A favorable adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Motirasoul, Forough [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method and then the surface of these nanorods were covalently biofunctionalized with natural L-amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and valine). The modified α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Morphological studies were carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of nanorods was improved after biofunctionalization and aggregation was reduced. In addition, the thermal gravimetric analysis was used for demonstrating a successful grafting of amino acids to the surface of α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods and determine the degree of functionalization. The amount of amino acids grafted onto α-MnO{sub 2} surface was estimated to be 5–32 wt%. Finally, the α-MnO{sub 2} and α-MnO{sub 2}-L-valine were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution. The results showed that they have a potential to be used as effective adsorbents for cadmium ions removal from the aqueous solution. The equilibrium adsorption data showed the best fit for the pseudo-second-order and the Freundlich models. - Highlights: • α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were biofunctionalized with natural L-amino acids. • Biofunctionalized α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods by solvothermal strategy were fully characterized. • Cadmium adsorption property of α-MnO{sub 2} and α-MnO{sub 2}-L-valine was studied.

  6. A comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy and sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of Stage I-II nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianfeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, Chongqing (China); Yang, Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Jin, Fu; He, Yanan; Zhong, Mingsong; Luo, Huanli; Qiu, Da; Li, Chao; Yang, Han; He, Guanglei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, Chongqing (China); Wang, Ying, E-mail: zjajf@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, Chongqing (China)

    2016-04-01

    This article is aimed to compare the dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for Stage I-II nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL). Ten patients with Stage I-II NNKTL treated with IMRT were replanned with VMAT (2 arcs). The prescribed dose of the planning target volume (PTV) was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The VMAT plans with the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (Version 8.6.15) were based on an Eclipse treatment planning system; the monitor units (MUs) and treatment time (T) were scored to measure the expected treatment efficiency. All the 10 patients under the study were subject to comparisons regarding the quality of target coverage, the efficiency of delivery, and the exposure of normal adjacent organs at risk (OARs). The study shows that VMAT was associated with a better conformal index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) (both p < 0.05) but slightly higher dose to OARs than IMRT. The MUs with VMAT (650.80 ± 24.59) were fewer than with IMRT (1300.10 ± 57.12) (relative reduction of 49.94%, p = 0.00) when using 2-Gy dose fractions. The treatment time with VMAT (3.20 ± 0.02 minutes) was shorter than with IMRT (7.38 ± 0.18 minutes) (relative reduction of 56.64%, p = 0.00). We found that VMAT and IMRT both provide satisfactory target dosimetric coverage and OARs sparing clinically. Likely to deliver a bit higher dose to OARs, VMAT in comparison with IMRT, is still a better choice for treatment of patients with Stage I-II NNKTL, thanks to better dose distribution, fewer MUs, and shorter delivery time.

  7. eMAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise (MAPS), the paper version of the annual appraisal report has been replaced by an electronic EDH version - eMAPS (see Weekly Bulletin 48/2004). As announced in Weekly Bulletin 2/2005, information sessions to explain the features of eMAPS using EDH have been arranged as follows: 18 January 2005: Main Auditorium (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB Auditorium II (864-1-D02) from 14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT Auditorium (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. The changeover to an electronic appraisal report is designed to reduce the administrative workload involving, e.g. photocopying, tracing and filing paper copies, while allowing staff members and their hierarchy access to the report form at the appropriate times. There is no change in the procedure for the annual interview and the advancement exercise, though Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) has been updated to take account of the introduction of eMAPS. The content...

  8. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Part I. Application of pulse polarography and pulse anodic stripping to the determination of selected heavy metals in natural waters. Part II. Application of controlled potential coulometric techniques to the determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosmun, S.T.

    1977-06-01

    The use of a thin mercury film wax-impregnated graphite electrode for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in an acetate buffer by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is described. Optimal instrumental parameters for maximum resolution and sensitivity for simultaneous analysis of these three elements in natural waters are discussed. The interference of copper with the determination of zinc is investigated in detail. An optimal mercury film thickness for this electrode is suggested. A method utilizing differential pulse polarography for the determination of chromium (VI) in natural water is described. Additions of 0.62 μg Cu(II) ml -1 and 0.55 μg Fe(III) ml -1 did not interfere with the determination of 0.050 μg Cr(VI) ml -1 . The natural water samples containing Cr(VI) were buffered to approximately pH 7 with 0.1 M ammonium acetate and 0.005 M ethylenediamine and analyzed. Natural water samples of chromium from 0.035 μg to 2.0 μg.ml -1 may be analyzed directly without further preparation. The detection limit is 0.010 μg.ml -1 . A novel, highly efficient cell with integral stirrer for controlled potential coulometry is described. This cell was used to demonstrate the feasibility of determining uranium (VI) by predictive coulometry. A PDP 8/I minicomputer was used to predict the coulometric endpoint with high accuracy within 2.5 minutes in a titration which normally takes about 10 minutes. This technique was shown to yield acceptable results even in the presence of an interfering phosphate matrix

  10. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  11. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  12. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  13. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  14. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  15. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  16. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  17. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  18. Natural and man-made hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in groundwater near a mapped plume, Hinkley, California—study progress as of May 2017, and a summative-scale approach to estimate background Cr(VI) concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Groover, Krishangi D.

    2018-03-22

    This report describes (1) work done between January 2015 and May 2017 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), background study and (2) the summative-scale approach to be used to estimate the extent of anthropogenic (man-made) Cr(VI) and background Cr(VI) concentrations near the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) natural gas compressor station in Hinkley, California. Most of the field work for the study was completed by May 2017. The summative-scale approach and calculation of Cr(VI) background were not well-defined at the time the USGS proposal for the background Cr(VI) study was prepared but have since been refined as a result of data collected as part of this study. The proposed summative scale consists of multiple items, formulated as questions to be answered at each sampled well. Questions that compose the summative scale were developed to address geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical constraints on Cr(VI) within the study area. Each question requires a binary (yes or no) answer. A score of 1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data consistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI); a score of –1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data inconsistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI). The areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated from the summative-scale analyses will be compared with the areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated on the basis of numerical groundwater flow model results, along with particle-tracking analyses. On the basis of these combined results, background Cr(VI) values will be estimated for “Mojave-type” deposits, and other deposits, in different parts of the study area outside the summative-scale mapped extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI).

  19. Strange distributionally chaotic triangular maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganoni, L.; Smital, J.

    2005-01-01

    The notion of distributional chaos was introduced by Schweizer, Smital [Measures of chaos and a spectral decompostion of dynamical systems on the interval. Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 344;1994:737-854] for continuous maps of the interval. For continuous maps of a compact metric space three mutually nonequivalent versions of distributional chaos, DC1-DC3, can be considered. In this paper we study distributional chaos in the class T m of triangular maps of the square which are monotone on the fibres; such maps must have zero topological entropy. The main results: (i) There is an F-bar T m such that F-bar DC2 and F vertical bar Rec(F)-bar DC3. (ii) If no ω-limit set of an F-bar T m contains two minimal subsets then F-bar DC1. This completes recent results obtained by Forti et al. [Dynamics of homeomorphisms on minimal sets generated by triangular mappings. Bull Austral Math Soc 59;1999:1-20], Smital, Stefankova [Distributional chaos for triangular maps, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 21;2004:1125-8], and Balibrea et al. [The three versions of distributional chaos. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 23;2005:1581-3]. The paper contributes to the solution of a long-standing open problem by Sharkovsky concerning classification of triangular maps

  20. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  1. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  2. Mapping and Naming the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ewen A.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. First Era: From Prehistoric Images to Archetype Map: 1. Pre-telescopic lunar observations; 2. Early telescopic observations of the Moon; 3. Van Langren (Langrenus) and the birth of selenography; 4. Six more years of sporadic activity; Part II. Second Era: From Archetype to Maturity: 5. 140 years of sporadic activity; 6. A globe, tree rings, and a city; 7. Lunar cartography comes of age; Part III. Third Era: From proliferation to standardisation: 8. Lunar mapping in the Victorian period; 9. Nomenclature gets international attention; Part IV. The Space Age Demands Changes: 10. Setting up guidelines; 11. Planets and satellites set the rules. Appendices 1 - 22.

  3. Mapping the backbone of science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN); BÞorner, Katy (Strategies for Science & Technology, Incorporation, Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a new map representing the structure of all of science, based on journal articles, including both the natural and social sciences. Similar to cartographic maps of our world, the map of science provides a bird's eye view of today's scientific landscape. It can be used to visually identify major areas of science, their size, similarity, and interconnectedness. In order to be useful, the map needs to be accurate on a local and on a global scale. While our recent work has focused on the former aspect, this paper summarizes results on how to achieve structural accuracy. Eight alternative measures of journal similarity were applied to a data set of 7,121 journals covering over 1 million documents in the combined Science Citation and Social Science Citation Indexes. For each journal similarity measure we generated two-dimensional spatial layouts using the force-directed graph layout tool, VxOrd. Next, mutual information values were calculated for each graph at different clustering levels to give a measure of structural accuracy for each map. The best co-citation and inter-citation maps according to local and structural accuracy were selected and are presented and characterized. These two maps are compared to establish robustness. The inter-citation map is then used to examine linkages between disciplines. Biochemistry appears as the most interdisciplinary discipline in science.

  4. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  5. Generalized fixed point theorems for compatible mappings with some types in fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeol Je; Sedghi, Shaban; Shobe, Nabi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give some new definitions of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in fuzzy metric spaces and prove some common fixed point theorems for four mappings under the condition of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in complete fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and improve the corresponding results given by many authors.

  6. MAPPING OF SOIL DEGRADATION POTENCY IN PADDY FIELD WONOGIRI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of paddy field becomes the main concern as the media of biomass production, thus it is needed a datum and information about land characteristics to find out its degradation. Mapping of soil degradation potency in paddy field is an identification of initial soil condition to discover the land degradation potency. Mapping was done by overlaying map of soil, slope, rainfall and land use with standard procedures to obtain its value and status of soil degradation potency. Area mapping is an effective land for biomass production (natural forest, mixed farm, savanna, paddy field, shrub and dry field with approximately 43,291.00 hectares (ha in Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo District. The result shows that soil degradation potency (SDP in Districts of Sidoharjo, Girimarto, Jatipurno, Jatisrono, Jatiroto, Tirtomoyo, Nguntoronadi and Ngadirojo are very low, low (DP II 20,702.47 ha (47.82%, moderate (DP III 15,823.80 ha (36,55% and high (DP IV 6,764.73 ha (15.63%. Paddy field covered 22,036.26 ha or about 50.90% of all area as effective biomass production, its SDP considers as low (DP II 16,021.04 ha (37.01% and moderate (DP III 6,015.22 ha (13,89%. Paddy field has a low SDP because it is commonly lies on flat area and conservation method by the farmer is maintaining the paddy bund and terrace. This study needs an advanced study to identify actual SDP through detail verification in the field, and also support by soil sample analysis in the laboratory.

  7. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  8. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  9. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic map analyses: Correlation of geologic and cratering histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic map analyses are expanded, beginning with a discussion of particular regions which may illustrate volcanic and ballistic plains emplacement on Mercury. Major attention is focused on the surface history of Mercury through discussion of the areal distribution of plains and craters and the paleogeologic maps of the first quadrant. A summary of the lunar intercrater plains formation similarly interrelates the information from the Moon's geologic and cratering histories.

  10. A map of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott III, J. Richard; Juric, Mario; Schlegel, David; Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael; Tegmark, Max; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon

    2003-10-20

    We have produced a new conformal map of the universe illustrating recent discoveries, ranging from Kuiper belt objects in the Solar system, to the galaxies and quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map projection, based on the logarithm map of the complex plane, preserves shapes locally, and yet is able to display the entire range of astronomical scales from the Earth s neighborhood to the cosmic microwave background. The conformal nature of the projection, preserving shapes locally, may be of particular use for analyzing large scale structure. Prominent in the map is a Sloan Great Wall of galaxies 1.37 billion light years long, 80 percent longer than the Great Wall discovered by Geller and Huchra and therefore the largest observed structure in the universe.

  11. A framework for evaluating and utilizing medical terminology mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Sun, Hong; Sinaci, Anil; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Mead, Charles; Gray, Alasdair J G; McGuinness, Deborah L; Prud'Hommeaux, Eric; Daniel, Christel; Forsberg, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Use of medical terminologies and mappings across them are considered to be crucial pre-requisites for achieving interoperable eHealth applications. Built upon the outcomes of several research projects, we introduce a framework for evaluating and utilizing terminology mappings that offers a platform for i) performing various mappings strategies, ii) representing terminology mappings together with their provenance information, and iii) enabling terminology reasoning for inferring both new and erroneous mappings. We present the results of the introduced framework from SALUS project where we evaluated the quality of both existing and inferred terminology mappings among standard terminologies.

  12. Maintaining Mappings Valid between Dynamic KOS

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Reis , Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) and the existing mappings between them have become extremely relevant in semantic-enabled systems especially for interoperability reasons. KOS may have a dynamic nature since knowledge in a lot of domains evolves fast, and thus KOS evolution can potentially impact mappings, turning them unreliable. A still open research problem is how to adapt mappings in the course of KOS evolution without re- computing semantic correspondences bet...

  13. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  14. A Concept Map of Curiosity Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Curiosity is a commonly studied topic in psychology. I produced the following mind map to categorize and understand key contributions to curiosity literature, to inform the design of technology-enhanced learning technologies to evoke curiosity that we are presently undertaking. Just as the mind map categorizes the literature, the literature de?fines the shape and nature of the mind map presented here-in.

  15. Efeito do óleo de linhaça e do óleo de amendoim sobre a vulcanização da borracha natural (NR. parte II: modelo detalhado Effect of linseed oil and peanut oil upon natural rubber (NR vulcanization. part II: detailed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da substituição total ou parcial do ácido esteárico por óleos vegetais de linhaça e amendoim foi investigado em composições de borracha natural (NR. Um sistema de vulcanização convencional foi escolhido e os estudos cinéticos foram conduzidos nas temperaturas de 160 ºC, 170 ºC e 180 ºC. O modelo cinético detalhado permitiu estudar os diferentes estágios da vulcanização e verificar que na etapa de formação do precursor de ligações cruzadas (A → B houve diferenças significativas entre o ácido esteárico e os óleos vegetais. Tal resultado foi devido à presença expressiva de ácidos graxos insaturados na composição química dos óleos de linhaça e de amendoim (principalmente, os ácidos oléico e linolênico, o que facilitou a ocorrência de reações laterais inesperadas e, consequentemente, diminuiu o rendimento final de ligações cruzadas nos vulcanizados.The effect of the total or partial replacement of stearic acid with vegetable oils of linseed and peanut has been investigated in natural rubber (NR compositions. A conventional vulcanization system has been chosen and kinetic studies have been done in the temperatures of 160 ºC, 170 ºC and 180 ºC. The detailed kinetic model has allowed studying the different stages of vulcanization and verifying that in the formation of the crosslink precursor (A → B there were significant differences between stearic acid and the vegetable oils. This result has been attributed to the high concentration of unsaturated fat acids in the chemical composition of the vegetable oils (mainly, oleic and linolenic acids, which allowed unexpected side reactions and, consequently, diminished the final yield of crosslinking in the vulcanizates.

  16. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [ESCET (Edificio Departamental II), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain); Brenig, Leon [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 231, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-02-13

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper, the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given.

  17. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito; Brenig, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper, the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given

  18. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito; Brenig, Léon

    2004-02-01

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper [1], the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given.

  19. Study of the Cd (II) removal in the presence of methyl orange with a natural zeolite conditioned with iron nanoparticles; Estudio de la remocion de Cd(II) en presencia de naranja de metilo con una zeolita natural acondicionada con nanoparticulas de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingu C, E. G.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a study on the removal of cadmium and/or methyl-orange dye in aqueous solution, using natural zeolite clinoptilolite, as sodium homo-ionized and impregnated with iron nanoparticles. Iron nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of the zeolite by chemical reduction. The evaluation of the removal ability was performed in a monocomponent (cadmium or methyl-orange dye) system by varying the contact time and its initial concentration. Removal capacity in a bi-component (cadmium and methyl orange) system was also studied while varying their concentrations. The characterization of the zeolites, before and after the sorption process, was carried out using several analytical techniques. The characteristics of zeolite clinoptilolite and iron particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The iron particles showed diameter sizes between 60 and 200 nm, localized on the surface of the zeolite. By IR spectroscopy no structural changes were detected for any of the treatments made to the zeolitic materials. By X-ray diffraction the clinoptilolite crystalline phase was mainly identified, however, it failed to detect any phase of iron in the zeolite impregnated with iron nanoparticles. Moessbauer spectroscopy indeed detected the impregnated iron phase as iron borides. The homo-ionized and iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite showed no change in the specific surface area, or the isoelectric point, their values were 22.3 m{sup 2}/g and ph 9.8, respectively. However, whereas the active site density for the homo-ionized zeolite was 2.87 sites/nm{sup 2}, for iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite was 20.32 sites/nm{sup 2}. As a result of the analysis of the isotherms of cadmium, the maximum sorption capacity of the homo-ionized zeolite was 35.03 mg/g and for the iron nanoparticles impregnated zeolite was 36.43 mg/g. These maximum sorption capacities represent up to 85% of removed cadmium from concentrations of 50 to 600 mg/L. For the removal of methyl

  20. The European radon mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  1. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  2. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sanchez-Serrano, J.J.; Salinas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  3. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  4. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  5. The National Map: from geography to mapping and back again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmelis, John A.; DeMulder, Mark L.; Ogrosky, Charles E.; Van Driel, J. Nicholas; Ryan, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    When the means of production for national base mapping were capital intensive, required large production facilities, and had ill-defined markets, Federal Government mapping agencies were the primary providers of the spatial data needed for economic development, environmental management, and national defense. With desktop geographic information systems now ubiquitous, source data available as a commodity from private industry, and the realization that many complex problems faced by society need far more and different kinds of spatial data for their solutions, national mapping organizations must realign their business strategies to meet growing demand and anticipate the needs of a rapidly changing geographic information environment. The National Map of the United States builds on a sound historic foundation of describing and monitoring the land surface and adds a focused effort to produce improved understanding, modeling, and prediction of land-surface change. These added dimensions bring to bear a broader spectrum of geographic science to address extant and emerging issues. Within the overarching construct of The National Map, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is making a transition from data collector to guarantor of national data completeness; from producing paper maps to supporting an online, seamless, integrated database; and from simply describing the Nation’s landscape to linking these descriptions with increased scientific understanding. Implementing the full spectrum of geographic science addresses a myriad of public policy issues, including land and natural resource management, recreation, urban growth, human health, and emergency planning, response, and recovery. Neither these issues nor the science and technologies needed to deal with them are static. A robust research agenda is needed to understand these changes and realize The National Map vision. Initial successes have been achieved. These accomplishments demonstrate the utility of

  6. Separate the inseparable one-layer mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2000-04-01

    When the input-output mapping of a one-layered perceptron (OLP) does NOT meet the PLI condition which is the if-and- only-if, or 'IFF, condition that the mapping can be realized by a OLP, then no matter what learning rule we use, a OLP just cannot realize this mapping at all. However, because of the nature of the PLI, one can still construct a parallel- cascaded, two-layered perceptron system to realize this `illegal' mapping. Theory and design example of this novel design will be reported in detail in this paper.

  7. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  8. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  9. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... (i) the development of microsatellite markers; (ii) the use of these markers ... libraries were subjected to sequencing using 454 GS FLX. Keywords. ..... 1996 A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 ...

  10. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  11. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  12. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  13. Resolving Iron(II) Sorption and Oxidative Growth on Hematite (001) Using Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Sandra D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Liu, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-02-13

    The distribution of iron resulting from the autocatalytic interaction of aqueous Fe(II) with the hematite (001) surface was directly mapped in three dimensions (3D) for the first time, using iron isotopic labelling and atom probe tomography (APT). Analyses of the mass spectrum showed that natural abundance ratios in 56Fe-dominant hematite are recovered at depth with good accuracy, whereas at the relict interface with 57Fe(II) solution evidence for hematite growth by oxidative adsorption of Fe(II) was found. 3D reconstructions of the isotope positions along the surface normal direction showed a zone enriched in 57Fe, which was consistent with an average net adsorption of 3.2 – 4.3 57Fe atoms nm–2. Statistical analyses utilizing grid-based frequency distribution analyses show a heterogeneous, non-random distribution of oxidized Fe on the (001) surface, consistent with Volmer-Weber-like island growth. The unique 3D nature of the APT data provides an unprecedented means to quantify the atomic-scale distribution of sorbed 57Fe atoms and the extent of segregation on the hematite surface. This new ability to spatially map growth on single crystal faces at the atomic scale will enable resolution to long-standing unanswered questions about the underlying mechanisms for electron and atom exchange involved in a wide variety of redox-catalyzed processes at this archetypal and broadly relevant interface.

  14. Vegetation Mapping - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds656

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation mapping has been conducted at various City of San Diego Park and Recreation Open Space lands in support of natural resource management objectives and the...

  15. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  16. Lophelia II 2009: Deepwater Program: Exploration and Research of Northern Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Natural and Artificial Hard Bottom Habitats with Emphasis on Coral Communities: Reefs, Rigs and Wrecks on NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown between 20090819 and 20090912

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise used the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II to: explore 4-6 new sites for the occurrence of deep water coral reefs; made collections of Lophelia...

  17. A short note on nearly perfect maps of locales | Razafindrakoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We characterise compact locales in terms of nearly perfect maps. We show in particular that these maps are the natural pointfree version of Bourbaki's proper maps - when defined via any ultrafillter - and that they extend Herrlich's notion of nearly closed sublocales [10]. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 06A15, ...

  18. Quantisation of monotonic twist maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasman, P.A.; Smilansky, U.

    1993-08-01

    Using an approach suggested by Moser, classical Hamiltonians are generated that provide an interpolating flow to the stroboscopic motion of maps with a monotonic twist condition. The quantum properties of these Hamiltonians are then studied in analogy with recent work on the semiclassical quantization of systems based on Poincare surfaces of section. For the generalized standard map, the correspondence with the usual classical and quantum results is shown, and the advantages of the quantum Moser Hamiltonian demonstrated. The same approach is then applied to the free motion of a particle on a 2-torus, and to the circle billiard. A natural quantization condition based on the eigenphases of the unitary time--development operator is applied, leaving the exact eigenvalues of the torus, but only the semiclassical eigenvalues for the billiard; an explanation for this failure is proposed. It is also seen how iterating the classical map commutes with the quantization. (authors)

  19. Mapping the interaction site for the tarantula toxin hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a) in the voltage sensor module of domain II of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianfu; Luo, Ji; Meng, Er; Ding, Jiuping; Liang, Songping; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    Peptide toxins often have pharmacological applications and are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a group of potential VGSC inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism of their interaction with VGSCs. In this study, we showed that hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a, HNTX-IV in brief), a 35-residue peptide from Ornithoctonus hainana venom, preferentially inhibited rNav1.2, rNav1.3 and hNav1.7 compared with rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. hNav1.7 was the most sensitive to HNTX-IV (IC50∼21nM). In contrast to many other tarantula toxins that affect VGSCs, HNTX-IV at subsaturating concentrations did not alter activation and inactivation kinetics in the physiological range of voltages, while very large depolarization above +70mV could partially activate toxin-bound hNav1.7 channel, indicating that HNTX-IV acts as a gating modifier rather than a pore blocker. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the toxin bound to site 4, which was located on the extracellular S3-S4 linker of hNav1.7 domain II. Mutants E753Q, D816N and E818Q of hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by 2.0-, 3.3- and 130-fold, respectively. In silico docking indicated that a three-toed claw substructure formed by residues with close contacts in the interface between HNTX-IV and hNav1.7 domain II stabilized the toxin-channel complex, impeding movement of the domain II voltage sensor and inhibiting hNav1.7 activation. Our data provide structural details for structure-based drug design and a useful template for the design of highly selective inhibitors of a specific subtype of VGSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping of T cell epitopes of the major fraction of rye grass using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopics and non-atopics. II. Isoallergen clone 5A of Lolium perenne group I (Lol p I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungy, G A; Rodda, S; Roitt, I; Brostoff, J

    1994-09-01

    Rye grass is the major cause of hay fever which currently affects 20% of the population. Lolium perenne group I (Lol p I) is a glycoprotein of 240 amino acid residues, representing the main allergen of rye grass. We have used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from controls and subjects allergic to rye grass and cultured them with L. perenne extract (LPE) and Lol p I and measured lymphocyte activation using thymidine incorporation. Patients were further studied against the 115 overlapping peptides of the iso-allergen clone 5A of Lol p I to see whether the 4 amino acid residue differences between clone 1A and clone 5A affect the T cell epitope and thus, lymphocyte activation. There are 24 peptide differences between isoallergen clone 1A and clone 5A occurring in pools 4, 13, 16 and 19 each one of which could be an immunodominant epitope. The PBMC from all allergic patients studied showed a strong proliferative response to LPE and Lol p I. Five immunogenic peptide pools, pool 6, 15, 16, 17 and 19 of the isoallergen clone 5A were also identified. Most of these pools are in the C-terminal region of Lol p I. Out of 20 pools tested in vitro 1 pool (pool-17) induced PBMC proliferation in five out of six patients who were not restricted to an HLA class II DR gene product. However, three out of the six subjects responded to various other peptide pools in addition to the immunodominant pool. In spite of the amino acid differences between the two clones, pool 17 still remains the immunodominant T cell epitope. Control subjects showed only weak responses to LPE and no detectable response to either Lol p I or peptide pools. From within the most active pool we have defined two peptides of the isoallergen clone 5A (identical in sequence with clone 1A) which stimulate lymphocytes from rye grass-sensitive patients in vitro. Previous studies with the two continuous sequences (193WGAVWRIDTPDK204 and 195AVWRIDTPDKLT206) tested in vivo by intradermal skin testing have shown

  1. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGraw, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Sigda, J.M. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds).

  2. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  3. The Utilization of ALOS PALSAR Image to Estimate Natural Forest Biomass: Case Study at Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park (Pemanfaatan Citra ALOS PALSAR dalam Menduga Biomasa Hutan Alam: Studi Kasus di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlita Indah Wahyuni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of remote sensing technology makes it possible to utilize its data in many sectors including forestry. Remote sensing image has been used to map land cover and monitor deforestation. This paper presents utilization of ALOS PALSAR image to estimate and map aboveground biomass at natural forest of Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park especially SPTN II Doloduo and SPTN III Maelang. We used modeling method between biomass value from direct measurement and digital number of satellite image. There are two maps which present the distribution of biomass and carbon from ALOS PALSAR image with 50 m spatial resolution. These maps were built based on backscatter polarization of HH and HV bands. The maps indicate most research area dominated with biomass stock 0-5.000 ton/ha.

  4. Distributional chaos for triangular maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smital, Jaroslav; Stefankova, Marta

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we exhibit a triangular map F of the square with the following properties: (i) F is of type 2 ∞ but has positive topological entropy; we recall that similar example was given by Kolyada in 1992, but our argument is much simpler. (ii) F is distributionally chaotic in the wider sense, but not distributionally chaotic in the sense introduced by Schweizer and Smital [Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 344 (1994) 737]. In other words, there are lower and upper distribution functions PHI xy and PHI xy * generated by F such that PHI xy * ≡1 and PHI xy (0 + ) uv , and PHI uv * such that PHI uv * ≡1 and PHI uv (t)=0 whenever 0 0. We also show that the two notions of distributional chaos used in the paper, for continuous maps of a compact metric space, are invariants of topological conjugacy

  5. Remote sensing mapping of carbon and energy fluxes over forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Pelgrum, H.; Mücher, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the EU project "Carbon and water fluxes of Mediterranean forests and impacts of land use/cover changes". The objectives of the project can be summarized as follows: (I) surface energy balance mapping using remote sensing, (ii) carbon uptake mapping using remote

  6. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Alves, Monica; Bunya, Vatinee Y.; Jalbert, Isabelle; Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Malet, Florence; Na, Kyung-Sun; Schaumberg, Debra; Uchino, Miki; Vehof, Jelle; Viso, Eloy; Vitale, Susan; Jones, Lyndon

    The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was

  7. Endovascular brain intervention and mapping in a dog experimental model using magnetically-guided micro-catheter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Tomas; Leinveber, Pavel; Vlasin, Michal; Jurak, Pavel; Novak, Miroslav; Novak, Zdenek; Chrastina, Jan; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Belehrad, Milos; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in interventional cardiology and cardiac electrophysiology, endovascular intervention for the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as stroke, epilepsy and CNS malignancy is still limited, particularly due to highly tortuous nature of the cerebral arterial and venous system. Existing interventional devices and techniques enable only limited and complicated access especially into intra-cerebral vessels. The aim of this study was to develop a micro-catheter magnetically-guided technology specifically designed for endovascular intervention and mapping in deep CNS vascular structures. Mapping of electrical brain activity was performed via the venous system on an animal dog model with the support of the NIOBE II system. A novel micro-catheter specially designed for endovascular interventions in the CNS, with the support of the NIOBE II technology, was able to reach safely deep intra-cerebral venous structures and map the electrical activity there. Such structures are not currently accessible using standard catheters. This is the first study demonstrating successful use of a new micro-catheter in combination with NIOBE II technology for endovascular intervention in the brain.

  8. Map of the Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    1999-07-02

    Various efforts to map the structure of science have been undertaken over the years. Using a new tool, VxInsight{trademark}, we have mapped and displayed 3000 journals in the physical sciences. This map is navigable and interactively reveals the structure of science at many different levels. Science mapping studies are typically focused at either the macro-or micro-level. At a macro-level such studies seek to determine the basic structural units of science and their interrelationships. The majority of studies are performed at the discipline or specialty level, and seek to inform science policy and technical decision makers. Studies at both levels probe the dynamic nature of science, and the implications of the changes. A variety of databases and methods have been used for these studies. Primary among databases are the citation indices (SCI and SSCI) from the Institute for Scientific Information, which have gained widespread acceptance for bibliometric studies. Maps are most often based on computed similarities between journal articles (co-citation), keywords or topics (co-occurrence or co-classification), or journals (journal-journal citation counts). Once the similarity matrix is defined, algorithms are used to cluster the data.

  9. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  10. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  11. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  12. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  13. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  14. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  15. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  16. Modification of the ultrasound induced activity by the presence of an electrode in a sono-reactor working at two low frequencies (20 and 40 kHz). Part II: Mapping flow velocities by particle image velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandroyan, A; Doche, M L; Hihn, J Y; Viennet, R; Bailly, Y; Simonin, L

    2009-01-01

    Sonoelectrochemical experiments differ from sonochemical ones by the introduction of electrodes in the sonicated reaction vessel. The aim of the study is to characterize the changes in the ultrasonic activity induced by the presence of an electrode located in front of the transducer. The scope of our investigations concerns two low frequency vibration modes: 20 and 40 kHz. For this purpose, two laser visualization techniques have been used. The first part of the study, described in a previous paper (Part I), deals with the laser tomography technique which provides an accurate picture of the reactor active zones, related to numerous cavitation events. The second part of the paper (Part II) will describe the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique used to measure the velocity vector field in the fluid portion between the horn and the electrode. As for the previous study, two parameters were studied: the electrical power supplied to the transducer and the electrode/transducer distance. The velocity vector fields show a main flow in the reactor axis. This flow seems to correspond to the conical cavitation bubbles structure which is observed on the laser tomography pictures. When an electrode is introduced into the reactor, two additional symmetric transversal flows can be quantified on both sides of the electrode.

  17. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  18. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  19. Mapping discourses using Q methodology in Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugé, Jean; Vande Velde, Katherine; Benitez-Capistros, Francisco; Japay, Jan Harold; Satyanarayana, Behara; Nazrin Ishak, Mohammad; Quispe-Zuniga, Melissa; Mohd Lokman, Bin Husain; Sulong, Ibrahim; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2016-12-01

    The sustainable management of natural resources requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders' perspectives and knowledge claims, in order to inform complex and possibly contentious decision-making dilemmas. Hence, a better understanding of why people in particular contexts do manage natural resources in a particular way is needed. Focusing on mangroves, highly productive tropical intertidal forests, this study's first aim is to map the diversity of subjective viewpoints among a range of stakeholders on the management of Matang Mangrove Forest in peninsular Malaysia. Secondly, this study aims to feed the reflection on the possible consequences of the diversity of perspectives for the future management of mangroves in Malaysia and beyond. The use of the semi-quantitative Q methodology allowed us to identify three main discourses on mangrove management: i. the optimization discourse, stressing the need to improve the current overall satisfactory management regime; ii. the 'change for the better' discourse, which focuses on increasingly participatory management and on ecotourism; and iii. the conservative 'business as usual' discourse. The existence of common points of connection between the discourses and their respective supporters provides opportunities for modifications of mangrove management regimes. Acknowledging this diversity of viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders see and talk about mangrove management, highlights the need to develop pro-active and resilient natural resource management approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering mathematics-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, A

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book Engineering Mathematics-II is designed as a self-contained, comprehensive classroom text for the second semester B.E. Classes of Visveswaraiah Technological University as per the Revised new Syllabus. The topics included are Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus and Vector Integration, Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms. The book is written in a simple way and is accompanied with explanatory figures. All this make the students enjoy the subject while they learn. Inclusion of selected exercises and problems make the book educational in nature. It shou

  1. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  2. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  3. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  4. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  5. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  6. A tiered approach for ecosystem services mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Rabe, Sven-Erik; Burkhard, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Mapping ecosystem services delivers essential insights into the spatial characteristics of various goods’ and services’ flows from nature to human society. It has become a central topic of science, policy, business and society – all belonging on functioning ecosystems. This textbook summarises the current state-of-the-art of ecosystem services mapping, related theory and methods, different ecosystem service quantification and modelling approaches as well as practical applications. The book...

  7. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  8. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  9. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, James C; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K; Konopka, Allan E

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  10. Estimating and Mapping Ecological Processes Influencing Microbial Community Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Stegen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  11. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  12. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  13. Levels and properties of map perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyszkowska Wiesława

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement. However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance. Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial

  14. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  15. Deep Mapping the Biome: The Biology of Place in Don Gayton's "The Wheatgrass Mechanism" and John Janovy Jr.'s "Dunwoody Pond"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Susan Naramore

    2005-01-01

    The term "deep map" is the invention of writer William Least Heat-Moon, whose extended essay "PrairyErth (a deep map)" has given definition to this form. Deep-map writing is marked by its intertextual, interdisciplinary, and multivocal nature. It is also self-consciously cartographic, presenting maps, following maps, and redrawing maps. Deep…

  16. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  17. A Joint Sea Beam/SeaMARC II Survey of the East Pacific Rise and Its Flanks 7 deg 50 min-10 deg 30 min N, to Establish a Geologic Acoustic Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-15

    of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island , Narragansett, R.I. 02882, A. Shor and C. Nishimura, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii...across the Clipperton and the absence of intra-transform spreading, and opening across the Siqueiros with sustained intra-transform spreading. An...Ma. Future work will focus on the significant task of combining this survey with three 1987 SeaMARC II surveys of the Clipperton transform, the 9°N

  18. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  19. Using maps in genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    In genealogical research, maps can provide clues to where our ancestors may have lived and where to look for written records about them. Beginners should master basic genealogical research techniques before starting to use topographic maps.

  20. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  1. National Pipeline Mapping System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  2. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  3. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  4. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  5. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  7. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  8. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  9. Antagonistic properties of a natural product-Bicuculline with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor: studied through electrostatic potential mapping, electronic and vibrational spectra using ab initio and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Asthana, B P

    2011-12-15

    (+)-Bicuculline (hereinafter referred to as bicuculline), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid is of current interest as an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its inhibitor properties have been studied through molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping of this molecule and GABA receptor. The hot site on the potential surface of bicuculline, which is also isosteric with GABA receptor, has been used to interpret the inhibitor property. A systematic quantum chemical study of the possible conformations, their relative stabilities, FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of bicuculline has been reported. The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of all the conformers of bicuculline have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO gap ΔE, ionization potential, dipole moments and total energy have also been obtained for the optimized geometries of both the molecules. TD-DFT method is used to calculate the electronic absorption parameters in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) employing 6-31G basis set and the results thus obtained are compared with the UV absorption spectra. The combination of experimental and calculated results provides an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of bicuculline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  11. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  12. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  13. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  15. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  16. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  17. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  18. Digitised Maps in the Danish Map Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Annie Lenschau-Teglers; Vivi Gade Rønsberg

    2005-01-01

    As in the rest of the library world, The Royal Library in Copenhagen is in the process of digitising its collections. At the moment we are mainly working on the handwritten manual catalogue - but digitising the material is also a major working assignment. The Map Collection at The Royal Library has today divided the effort in digitising its materials into 3 groups: 1. Digitised maps as a vital addition to the records in our bibliographic database REX 2. Digitised maps presented as a Digital F...

  19. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  20. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....