WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural language question

  1. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  2. The question answer system based on natural language understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qing-lin; FAN Xiao-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Question Answer System(QAS) is a kind of high-powered software system based on Internet. Its key technology is the interrelated technology based on natural language understanding, including the construction of knowledge base and corpus, the Word Segmentation and POS Tagging of text, the Grammatical Analysis and Semantic Analysis of sentences etc. This thesis dissertated mainly the denotation of knowledge-information based on semantic network in QAS, the stochastic syntax-parse model named LSF of knowledge-information in QAS, the structure and constitution of QAS. And the LSF model's parameters were exercised, which proved that they were feasible. At the same time, through "the limited-domain QAS" which was exploited for banks by us, these technologies were proved effective and propagable.

  3. Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    data structures and data base design. The method I developed was essentially an interpretation of Carnap’s notion of truth conditions ( Carnap ...types of inference for answering questions, corresponding roughly to Carnap’s distinction between intension and extension ( Carnap , 1964b). First...and Newman Inc., Cambridge, MA, December. Carnap , R. (1964a). Foundations of Logic and Mathematics. In The Structure of Language; Readings in the

  4. Practical Approach to Knowledge-based Question Answering with Natural Language Understanding and Advanced Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This research hypothesized that a practical approach in the form of a solution framework known as Natural Language Understanding and Reasoning for Intelligence (NaLURI), which combines full-discourse natural language understanding, powerful representation formalism capable of exploiting ontological information and reasoning approach with advanced features, will solve the following problems without compromising practicality factors: 1) restriction on the nature of question and response, and 2) limitation to scale across domains and to real-life natural language text.

  5. Question Answering in a Natural Language Understanding System Based on Object-Oriented Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Ostapov, Yuriy

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms of question answering in a computer system oriented on input and logical processing of text information are presented. A knowledge domain under consideration is social behavior of a person. A database of the system includes an internal representation of natural language sentences and supplemental information. The answer {\\it Yes} or {\\it No} is formed for a general question. A special question containing an interrogative word or group of interrogative words permits to find a subject, object, place, time, cause, purpose and way of action or event. Answer generation is based on identification algorithms of persons, organizations, machines, things, places, and times. Proposed algorithms of question answering can be realized in information systems closely connected with text processing (criminology, operation of business, medicine, document systems).

  6. Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2014-01-01

    Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates.

  7. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of foreign language didactics are discussed both on a domain-general level(questions relevant for the whole field of subject didactics and on a domain-specificlevel (foreign language didactics specific questions.

  8. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  9. Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  10. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  11. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  12. The destinal question of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available How can we think the destinal place of language in the essentially historical condition of our existence if such historicity cannot be understood on the basis of the labor of negativity alone? The attempt is made here to think language in a more originary manner, as non-negative finitude, that affirms what is outside dialectical-speculative closure, what is to come. The notion of 'destinal' itself is thus transformed. No longer being merely a categorical grasp of "entities presently given", language is an originary exposure to the event of arrival in its lightning flash. Destiny appears as that of the messianic arrival of the 'not yet' which is not a telos that the immanent movement of historical reason reaches by an irresistible force of the negative. This essay reads Schelling, Heidegger and Kierkegaard to think language as a "place" of exposure to the non-teleological destiny that may erupt even today, here and now, without any given conditionality.Como nós podemos pensar o lugar destinal da linguagem na condição essencialmente histórica de nossa existência se tal historicidade não pode ser entendida com base apenas no trabalho da negatividade? Faz-se aqui a tentativa de pensar a linguagem de um modo mais originário, como finitude não negativa, que afirma o que se encontra fora do fechamento dialético-especulativo, o que está por vir. A própria noção de 'destinal' é então transformada. Não sendo mais apenas uma apreensão categorial de "entidades presentemente dadas", a linguagem é uma exposição originária ao evento da chegada em seu instante iluminador. O destino aparece como o da chegada messiânica do 'ainda não' que não é um telos que o movimento imanente da razão histórica atinge por meio de uma irresistível força do negativo. Este ensaio lê Schelling, Heidegger e Kierkegaard para pensar a linguagem como um "lugar" de exposição ao destino não teológico que pode irromper mesmo hoje, aqui e agora, sem

  13. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  14. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  15. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  16. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  17. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  18. The Language Question in Namibian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1997-01-01

    Builds on a consultancy report dealing primarily with the status of the African languages in Namibian schools after Independence in 1990. Contains a description of the Namibian languages, the language policy, and the status of the languages in Namibian schools. (42 citations) (VWC)

  19. The Language Question in Namibian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1997-03-01

    Namibia, a country in southwest Africa with only 1.5 million inhabitants, officially has thirteen languages as languages of instruction in the first grades of schooling. Three of these are European, and ten African. Of the three European languages, two are connected with the colonial history of Namibia. Namibia was colonized by the Germans from 1884 to 1914 and German is still an important business language in Namibia and the language one hears most frequently among shop-keepers in Windhoek. The South African colonization, which was supposed to be a Trusteeship, lasted until 1990. In this period Afrikaans (a variety of Dutch) became the main official language and the language of instruction from grade 4 upwards. This article deals with the period after Independence and focuses especially on the Namibian languages of African origin. The role of English, a European language without a colonial history in Namibia, and now the official language, is also discussed. How much is the furthering of this language to the detriment of the Namibian languages? The article contains a description of the Namibian languages, the language policy and the status of the languages in Namibian schools. The article builds on a larger consultancy report written by the author.

  20. Evolution, brain, and the nature of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Friederici, Angela D; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2013-02-01

    Language serves as a cornerstone for human cognition, yet much about its evolution remains puzzling. Recent research on this question parallels Darwin's attempt to explain both the unity of all species and their diversity. What has emerged from this research is that the unified nature of human language arises from a shared, species-specific computational ability. This ability has identifiable correlates in the brain and has remained fixed since the origin of language approximately 100 thousand years ago. Although songbirds share with humans a vocal imitation learning ability, with a similar underlying neural organization, language is uniquely human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Language Skills: Questions for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the changes in teaching the four language skills in the past 15 years. It focuses on two main changes for each skill: understanding spoken language and willingness to communicate for speaking; product, process, and genre approaches and a focus on feedback for writing; extensive reading and literature for reading; and…

  2. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-01-01

    This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language ...

  3. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  4. Generating and Executing Complex Natural Language Queries across Linked Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Thierry; Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    With the recent and intensive research in the biomedical area, the knowledge accumulated is disseminated through various knowledge bases. Links between these knowledge bases are needed in order to use them jointly. Linked Data, SPARQL language, and interfaces in Natural Language question-answering provide interesting solutions for querying such knowledge bases. We propose a method for translating natural language questions in SPARQL queries. We use Natural Language Processing tools, semantic resources, and the RDF triples description. The method is designed on 50 questions over 3 biomedical knowledge bases, and evaluated on 27 questions. It achieves 0.78 F-measure on the test set. The method for translating natural language questions into SPARQL queries is implemented as Perl module available at http://search.cpan.org/ thhamon/RDF-NLP-SPARQLQuery.

  5. Teaching natural language to computers

    OpenAIRE

    Corneli, Joseph; Corneli, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    "Natural Language," whether spoken and attended to by humans, or processed and generated by computers, requires networked structures that reflect creative processes in semantic, syntactic, phonetic, linguistic, social, emotional, and cultural modules. Being able to produce novel and useful behavior following repeated practice gets to the root of both artificial intelligence and human language. This paper investigates the modalities involved in language-like applications that computers -- and ...

  6. Handbook of Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Indurkhya, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, modern reference of practical tools and techniques for implementing natural language processing in computer systems. This title covers classical methods, empirical and statistical techniques, and various applications. It describes how the techniques can be applied to European and Asian languages as well as English

  7. Function, Type, and Distribution of Teacher Questions in Dual-Language Preschool Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…

  8. Lexpresso: a Controlled Natural Language

    OpenAIRE

    Saulwick, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of `Lexpresso', a Controlled Natural Language developed at the Defence Science & Technology Organisation as a bidirectional natural language interface to a high-level information fusion system. The paper describes Lexpresso's main features including lexical coverage, expressiveness and range of linguistic syntactic and semantic structures. It also touches on its tight integration with a formal semantic formalism and tentatively classifies it against the PENS sy...

  9. Structure discovery in natural language

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Current language technology is dominated by approaches that either enumerate a large set of rules, or are focused on a large amount of manually labelled data. The creation of both is time-consuming and expensive, which is commonly thought to be the reason why automated natural language understanding has still not made its way into ""real-life"" applications yet. This book sets an ambitious goal: to shift the development of language processing systems to a much more automated setting than previous works. A new approach is defined: what if computers analysed large samples of language data on the

  10. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    name Paris, and a photograph of the Eiffel Tower . Available modalities: maps, spoken and written language, pictures, tables, graphs, ordered lists. The...parallel. 64 [ _ Coordinates Name Photograph Information JJ_48N 2E Paris E iffel Tower Dimensionality double single single Volume I little singular

  12. Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-31

    Generator "* Grammars for each language "* Two lexicons "* A semantic Knowledge Base "* Interlanguage Translation Rules (in systems without an interlingua...represents both syntactic and semantic aspects of the input. Interlanguage Translation Rules: Many MT systems contain a set of rules that trans- form certain

  13. Using Talk to Scaffold Referential Questions for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Research from interactionist second language acquisition and sociocultural theoretical perspectives shows that referential questions are important for learning, but also, that they can be difficult for English language learners (ELLs) to understand and produce answers to. By integrating analytical tools from both traditions, this study examined…

  14. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  15. MATLAB based language for generating randomized multiple choice questions

    OpenAIRE

    Azamov, Nurulla

    2015-01-01

    In this work we describe a simple MATLAB based language which allows to create randomized multiple choice questions with minimal effort. This language has been successfully tested at Flinders University by the author in a number of mathematics topics including Numerical Analysis, Abstract Algebra and Partial Differential Equations.

  16. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  17. The Nature of Language Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Arzoz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on language rights is affected by some confusion on the nature and status of rights. In this paper, a rigorous characterisation of language rights is proposed. It is argued that the general assimilation or equation between language rights and human rights is not only erroneous as far as it is inaccurate, but it leads to a distorted image of the relationship between law and politics. While human rights do limit (at least, ideally state behaviour, language rights are, more often than not, an issue devolved to the political process. The point being made in this paper is that recognition of language rights (as such or as part of minority rights is based primarily on contingent historical reasons. Some tentative explanations on the poor status or unequal recognition of language rights in international and domestic law will also be offered throughout the paper.

  18. The Importance of Questioning & Questions for Consideration in Programming for Intercultural Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The significance of questioning in intercultural language learning was highlighted during Phase 1 of the project as project team members worked with teachers preparing units of work and long-term programs. This paper explores the types of questions asked by team members to elicit teachers' thinking regarding students' learning and teachers' roles…

  19. Language matters a guide to everyday questions about language

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Donna Jo

    2003-01-01

    Is Ebonics really a dialect or simply bad English? Do women and men speak differently? Will computers ever really learn human language? The author shows how many of our most deeply held ideas about language and its role in our lives are either misconceived or influenced by myths and stereotypes.

  20. Intercultural Ethics: Questions of Methods in Language and Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how questions of ethics and questions of method are intertwined and unavoidable in any serious study of language and intercultural communication. It argues that the focus on difference and solution orientations to intercultural conflict has been a fundamental driver for theory, data collection and methods in the field. These…

  1. Languages as Categories: Reframing the "One Language or Two" Question in Early Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2014-01-01

    One of the most enduring questions in the field of bilingualism is whether bilingual infants and children initially have one language system or two. Research with adults indicates that, while bilinguals do not represent their languages in two fully encapsulated language systems, they are able to functionally differentiate their languages. This…

  2. Four central questions about prediction in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Falk

    2015-11-11

    The notion that prediction is a fundamental principle of human information processing has been en vogue over recent years. The investigation of language processing may be particularly illuminating for testing this claim. Linguists traditionally have argued prediction plays only a minor role during language understanding because of the vast possibilities available to the language user as each word is encountered. In the present review I consider four central questions of anticipatory language processing: Why (i.e. what is the function of prediction in language processing)? What (i.e. what are the cues used to predict up-coming linguistic information and what type of representations are predicted)? How (what mechanisms are involved in predictive language processing and what is the role of possible mediating factors such as working memory)? When (i.e. do individuals always predict up-coming input during language processing)? I propose that prediction occurs via a set of diverse PACS (production-, association-, combinatorial-, and simulation-based prediction) mechanisms which are minimally required for a comprehensive account of predictive language processing. Models of anticipatory language processing must be revised to take multiple mechanisms, mediating factors, and situational context into account. Finally, I conjecture that the evidence considered here is consistent with the notion that prediction is an important aspect but not a fundamental principle of language processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  3. Natural language processing with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java programmer who wants to learn about the fundamental tasks underlying natural language processing, this book is for you. You will be able to identify and use NLP tasks for many common problems, and integrate them in your applications to solve more difficult problems. Readers should be familiar/experienced with Java software development.

  4. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language mastery so that for many institutions of children education have got the bilingual learning. As the example, some of Islamic educational institutions at the level of playgroup have applied the instruction in English and teaching Arabic words, by considering that the earlier foreign language learning is the better, and the fact that the golden age of brain development occurs at the first five years. This needs to be analyzed further, because there is also important task to have mother tongue language acquisition. For the community of multilingual such as in Indonesia, the acquisition of many languages is unavoidable. Therefore, parents are faced with two choices: To prior the mother tongue and bahasa Indonesia as second language or encourage the bilingual learning of Arabic and English.

  5. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively.

  6. Models of natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M

    1995-10-24

    This paper surveys some of the fundamental problems in natural language (NL) understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse) and the current approaches to solving them. Some recent developments in NL processing include increased emphasis on corpus-based rather than example- or intuition-based work, attempts to measure the coverage and effectiveness of NL systems, dealing with discourse and dialogue phenomena, and attempts to use both analytic and stochastic knowledge. Critical areas for the future include grammars that are appropriate to processing large amounts of real language; automatic (or at least semi-automatic) methods for deriving models of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; self-adapting systems; and integration with speech processing. Of particular importance are techniques that can be tuned to such requirements as full versus partial understanding and spoken language versus text. Portability (the ease with which one can configure an NL system for a particular application) is one of the largest barriers to application of this technology.

  7. The oil question: nature and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    A review is given of the nature and origins of crude oil (petroleum) along with factors relating to its production and demand for it. The modern globalised world economy and its population has grown on the assumption of limitless supplies of cheap crude oil. Almost all agriculture now is completely dependent on available oil and natural gas to run machinery and to make chemical fertilizers. Our complacent regard for oil is however invalid and a gap between the relentlessly rising demand for oil and its supply is expected to appear at some time in the period 2010-2015. The global peak in oil production "peak oil" predicted by M. King Hubbert in 1956, will exacerbate the situation, and the world must seek to run and organise itself in an imminent reality where supplies of conventional crude oil are both limited and increasingly expensive. Providing the equivalent of 30 billion barrels of oil a year as is currently used across the globe, by unconventional kinds of oil, e.g. from oil shale and tar sands is not realistic. Since most of the oil produced in the world is refined into liquid fuels to run transportation, human survival will depend on devising localised economies and communities that necessarily rely far less on personalised transport (cars).

  8. Ten questions about terminology for children with unexplained language problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V M

    2014-01-01

    In domains other than language, there is fairly consistent diagnostic terminology to refer to children's developmental difficulties. For instance, the terms 'dyslexia', 'attention deficit hyperactivity disorder' and 'autistic spectrum disorder' are used for difficulties with reading, attention or social cognition, respectively. There is no agreed label, however, for children with unexplained language problems. To consider whether we need labels for unexplained language problems in children, and if so, what terminology is appropriate. There are both advantages and disadvantages to labels, but they are important to ensure children receive services, and to increase our knowledge of the nature and causes of such problems. A survey of labels in current use found 132 different terms, 33 of which had 600 or more returns on Google Scholar between 1994 and 2013. Many of these labels were too general to be useful. Of the remainder, the term 'specific language impairment' was the most commonly used. The current mayhem in diagnostic labels is unsustainable; it causes confusion and impedes research progress and access to appropriate services. We need to achieve consensus on diagnostic criteria and terminology. The DSM-5 term 'language disorder' is problematic because it identifies too wide a range of conditions on an internet search. One solution is to retain specific language impairment, with the understanding that 'specific' means idiopathic (i.e., of unknown origin) rather than implying there are no other problems beyond language. Other options are the terms 'primary language impairment', 'developmental language disorder' or 'language learning impairment'. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  9. Research in Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-31

    general recognition automata. The normal decomposition of natural language description into levels of phonology , lexicon, syntax, semantics, and...GTN’S) have potential applications in scene analysis, acoustic phonetic analysis of speech, medical diagnosis, discourse analysis, and data base...use of a network ♦•.hat consumed successive phonemes from the output of an - 34 - i Report No. 3963 Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. acoustic phonetic

  10. Phonetic Dictionary for Natural Language Processing: Kannada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallamma V. Reddy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available India has 22 officially recognized languages: Assamese, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. Clearly, India owns the language diversity problem. In the age of Internet, the multiplicity of languages makes it even more necessary to have sophisticated Systems for Natural Language Process. In this paper we are developing the phonetic dictionary for natural language processing particularly for Kannada. Phonetics is the scientific study of speech sounds. Acoustic phonetics studies the physical properties of sounds and provides a language to distinguish one sound from another in quality and quantity. Kannada language is one of the major Dravidian languages of India. The language uses forty nine phonemic letters, divided into three groups: Swaragalu (thirteen letters; Yogavaahakagalu (two letters; and Vyanjanagalu (thirty-four letters, similar to the vowels and consonants of English, respectively.

  11. Mobile speech and advanced natural language solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Speech and Advanced Natural Language Solutions provides a comprehensive and forward-looking treatment of natural speech in the mobile environment. This fourteen-chapter anthology brings together lead scientists from Apple, Google, IBM, AT&T, Yahoo! Research and other companies, along with academicians, technology developers and market analysts.  They analyze the growing markets for mobile speech, new methodological approaches to the study of natural language, empirical research findings on natural language and mobility, and future trends in mobile speech.  Mobile Speech opens with a challenge to the industry to broaden the discussion about speech in mobile environments beyond the smartphone, to consider natural language applications across different domains.   Among the new natural language methods introduced in this book are Sequence Package Analysis, which locates and extracts valuable opinion-related data buried in online postings; microintonation as a way to make TTS truly human-like; and se...

  12. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnow, T.; Ringe, D.; Taylor, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new methodology for determining the evolutionary history of related languages. Our methodology uses linguistic information encoded as qualitative characters, and provides much greater precision than previous methods. Our analysis of Indo-European (IE) languages resolves questions that have troubled scholars for over a century.

  13. Generating natural language under pragmatic constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Hovy, Eduard H

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that the generation of natural language is a goal- driven process, where many of the goals are pragmatic (i.e., interpersonal and situational) in nature, this book provides an overview of the role of pragmatics in language generation. Each chapter states a problem that arises in generation, develops a pragmatics-based solution, and then describes how the solution is implemented in PAULINE, a language generator that can produce numerous versions of a single underlying message, depending on its setting.

  14. Specifying Logic Programs in Controlled Natural Language

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, N; Fuchs, Norbert E.; Schwitter, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    Writing specifications for computer programs is not easy since one has to take into account the disparate conceptual worlds of the application domain and of software development. To bridge this conceptual gap we propose controlled natural language as a declarative and application-specific specification language. Controlled natural language is a subset of natural language that can be accurately and efficiently processed by a computer, but is expressive enough to allow natural usage by non-specialists. Specifications in controlled natural language are automatically translated into Prolog clauses, hence become formal and executable. The translation uses a definite clause grammar (DCG) enhanced by feature structures. Inter-text references of the specification, e.g. anaphora, are resolved with the help of discourse representation theory (DRT). The generated Prolog clauses are added to a knowledge base. We have implemented a prototypical specification system that successfully processes the specification of a simple...

  15. Complexity measurement of natural and artificial languages

    CERN Document Server

    Febres, Gerardo; Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We compared entropy for texts written in natural languages (English, Spanish) and artificial languages (computer software) based on a simple expression for the entropy as a function of message length and specific word diversity. Code text written in artificial languages showed higher entropy than text of similar length expressed in natural languages. Spanish texts exhibit more symbolic diversity than English ones. Results showed that algorithms based on complexity measures differentiate artificial from natural languages, and that text analysis based on complexity measures allows the unveiling of important aspects of their nature. We propose specific expressions to examine entropy related aspects of tests and estimate the values of entropy, emergence, self-organization and complexity based on specific diversity and message length.

  16. Natural language interface for command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  17. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions OMB Control Number: None Type... participants in ECA exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated Number of...

  18. Coarse-to-fine natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Slav

    2011-01-01

    The impact of computer systems that can understand natural language will be tremendous. To develop this capability we need to be able to automatically and efficiently analyze large amounts of text. Manually devised rules are not sufficient to provide coverage to handle the complex structure of natural language, necessitating systems that can automatically learn from examples. To handle the flexibility of natural language, it has become standard practice to use statistical models, which assign probabilities for example to the different meanings of a word or the plausibility of grammatical const

  19. How to Evaluate Controlled Natural Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework how controlled natural languages can be evaluated and compared on the basis of user experiments. The subjects are asked to classify given statements (in the language to be tested) as either true or false with respect to a certain situation that is shown in a graphical notation called "ontographs". A first experiment has been conducted that applies this framework to the language Attempto Controlled English (ACE).

  20. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity.

  1. Introduction: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of research into information and text retrieval problems highlights the work with automatic natural language processing (NLP) that is reported in this issue. Topics discussed include the occurrences of nominal compounds; anaphoric references; discontinuous language constructs; automatic back-of-the-book indexing; and full-text analysis.…

  2. Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

  3. Language and the Multisemiotic Nature of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Cheng, Dazhi

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how language and the multisemiotic nature of mathematics can present potential challenges for English language learners (ELLs). Based on two qualitative studies of the discourse of mathematics, we discuss some of the linguistic challenges of mathematics for ELLs in order to highlight the potential difficulties they may have…

  4. A Natural Language Interface to Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  5. Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from signal processing and the causal Bayesian models pioneered by especially Pearl. In signal processing, the Bayesian method finds the most probable interpretation by finding the one that maximizes the product of the prior probability and the likelihood of the interpretation. It thus stresses the importance of a production model for interpretation as in Grice's contributions to pragmatics or in interpretation by abduction.

  6. SQL Generation for Natural Language Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Kovács

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A hot issue in the area of database management is to provide a high level interface for nontechnical users. An important research direction is the application of natural language interface. The paperpresents an interface module that converts user’s query given in natural language into a corresponding SQL command. After clustering the input sentence, a pushdown automaton is used to verify the syntax. The corresponding SQL code is generated by a semantic matcher module.

  7. Language: UG or not to be, that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Language is not the same as speech or communication; rather, it is a computational cognitive system. It has appeared very recently, consistent with a minimalist view of language's hierarchical syntactic structure.

  8. Language : UG or not to be, that is the question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Language is not the same as speech or communication; rather, it is a computational cognitive system. It has appeared very recently, consistent with a minimalist view of language's hierarchical syntactic structure.

  9. Language: UG or not to be, that is the question.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J Bolhuis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Language is not the same as speech or communication; rather, it is a computational cognitive system. It has appeared very recently, consistent with a minimalist view of language's hierarchical syntactic structure.

  10. Why Doesn't Everyone Here Speak Sign Language? Questions of Language Policy, Ideology and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a thought experiment exploring the possibility of establishing universal bilingualism in Sign Languages. Focusing in the first part on historical examples of inclusive signing societies such as Martha's Vineyard, the author suggests that it is not possible to create such naturally occurring practices of Sign Bilingualism in societies…

  11. Why Doesn't Everyone Here Speak Sign Language? Questions of Language Policy, Ideology and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a thought experiment exploring the possibility of establishing universal bilingualism in Sign Languages. Focusing in the first part on historical examples of inclusive signing societies such as Martha's Vineyard, the author suggests that it is not possible to create such naturally occurring practices of Sign Bilingualism in societies…

  12. English as a Foreign Language, Globalisation and Conceptual Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordao, Clarissa Menezes

    2009-01-01

    This text discusses the locus of English in globalisation discourses. Assuming that languages constitute discursive formations informing ways of knowing, discourses of English as a global language (EGL) are positioned in relation to teaching English as a foreign language in the "glocal" scene. We draw on post-colonial theories and critical…

  13. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  14. Learning Language Naturally: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto Wishnoebroto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Experts believed that the best way in learning language is through natural process, which means that learning should go through process of understanding concept. Grammar and all language features are mastered through practice in certain context. This article tries to find a model of information technology that may be suitable for learning English but without leaving the main functions of textbook as the center for knowledge and information through an approach called the Dynamic Immersion Approach. This approach tries to mimic the process of children in learning language. From the analysis it shows that despite many advantages from the new approach this program cannot produce natural language since it lacks the capability of producing informal language.  

  15. Descriptions of Spoken Language for Higher Level Learners: The Example of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on question-response sequences in academic and work settings and examines the type of description of questioning conventionally offered in published English language teaching materials for higher-level learners. (Author/VWL)

  16. A Natural Logic for Natural-language Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach......-conservative constructs in order to approach scientific use of natural language. Finally, we outline a prototype system addressing life science for the natural logic knowledge base setup being under continuous development....... to semantic querying. Our core natural logic proposal covers formal ontologies and generative extensions thereof. It further provides means of expressing general relationships between classes in an application. We discuss extensions of the core natural logic with various conservative as well as non...

  17. A Natural Logic for Natural-Language Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach......-conservative constructs in order to approach scientific use of natural language. Finally, we outline a prototype system addressing life science for the natural logic knowledge base setup being under continuous development....... to semantic querying. Our core natural logic proposal covers formal ontologies and generative extensions thereof. It further provides means of expressing general relationships between classes in an application. We discuss extensions of the core natural logic with various conservative as well as non...

  18. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  19. Prediction During Natural Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L; Nijhof, Annabel D; Hagoort, Peter; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-06-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as well as surprisal A computational model determined entropy and surprisal for each word in 3 literary stories. Twenty-four healthy participants listened to the same 3 stories while their brain activation was measured using fMRI. Reversed speech fragments were presented as a control condition. Brain areas sensitive to entropy were left ventral premotor cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left supplementary motor area. Areas sensitive to surprisal were left inferior temporal sulcus ("visual word form area"), bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right amygdala, bilateral anterior temporal poles, and right inferior frontal sulcus. We conclude that prediction during language comprehension can occur at several levels of processing, including at the level of word form. Our study exemplifies the power of combining computational linguistics with cognitive neuroscience, and additionally underlines the feasibility of studying continuous spoken language materials with fMRI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Questioning Linguistic Instrumentalism: English, Neoliberalism, and Language Tests in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic instrumentalism, which underscores the importance of English skills for work and for achieving individual economic success, has influenced language education policies and proliferated the language teaching and testing industry in Japan. Linguistic instrumentalism is linked to the notion of human capital (i.e., skills deemed necessary…

  1. Language Disabilities in Adolescents: A Question of Cognitive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Elisabeth

    1984-01-01

    Research is reviewed on language growth between 10-14 years in children with language-learning disabilities. Delays are discussed in semantic development, concept formation, syntactic development, memory, and pragmatics. A strategies-based intervention focus is described along with the need for counseling and for developing adaptive coping and…

  2. How do 5-year-olds understand questions? Differences in languages across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, Joao; Dabasinskiene, Ineta; de Lopez, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kraljevic, Jelena Kuvac; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Masa; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically

  3. A natural language user interface for fuzzy scope queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 俞宏峰; 耿卫东; 潘云鹤

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a two-agent framework to build a natural language query interface for IC information system, focusing more on scope queries in a single English sentence. The first agent, parsing agent, syntactically processes and semantically interprets natural language sentence to construct a fuzzy structured query language (SQL) statement. The second agent, defuzzifying agent, defuzzifies the imprecise part of the fuzzy SQL statement into its equivalent executable precise SQL statement based on fuzzy rules. The first agent can also actively ask the user some necessary questions when it manages to disambiguate the vague retrieval requirements. The adaptive defuzzification approach employed in the defuzzifying agent is discussed in detail. A prototype interface has been implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness.

  4. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  5. Wittgenstein on language and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text begins with the analysis of two terms regarding life crucial to both Wittgenstein's early and late philosophy. These are life form and nature, specifically, human nature. Wittgenstein treats both concepts in a very specific manner, different from the traditional approach of philosophy. He also criticized philosophical attempts to attribute special characteristics to human intellectual abilities which would separate them from natural processes. A particular 'spiritual' status of epistemic and other rational powers disappears when there is an insight into their dependence on discursive practices and specific forms of life on which these powers are based. Concepts such as certainty, knowledge, or explanations do not rest on a rational foundation, that is, they do not refer to processes with particular un-natural properties. Nor can they be reduced to neuro-physiological processes, either. Instead, it is a specific grammar of their usage that makes them different from other concepts describing physical or biological processes. In that sense, Wittgenstein develops a non-reductionist version of naturalism which preserves the diversity of human relations in the world. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  6. Statistical Physics for Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, Juan-Manuel Torres; SanJuan, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the {\\sc Enertex} model that has been applied to fundamental tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP) including automatic document summarization and topic segmentation. The model is language independent. It is based on the intuitive concept of Textual Energy, inspired by Neural Networks and Statistical Physics of magnetic systems. It can be implemented using simple matrix operations and on the contrary of PageRank algorithms, it avoids any iterative process.

  7. Combining Semantic Wikis and Controlled Natural Language

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate AceWiki that is a semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE). The goal is to enable easy creation and modification of ontologies through the web. Texts in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic and other languages, for example OWL. Previous evaluation showed that ordinary people are able to use AceWiki without being instructed.

  8. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  9. Semantic structures advances in natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Waltz, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is central to the goals of artificial intelligence. Any truly intelligent machine must be capable of carrying on a conversation: dialogue, particularly clarification dialogue, is essential if we are to avoid disasters caused by the misunderstanding of the intelligent interactive systems of the future. This book is an interim report on the grand enterprise of devising a machine that can use natural language as fluently as a human. What has really been achieved since this goal was first formulated in Turing's famous test? What obstacles still need to be overcome?

  10. You Know Arnold Schwarzenegger? On Doing Questioning in Second Language Dyadic Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses question-answer (QA) sequences in second language tutorial interaction. Using conversation analysis methodology as an analytical tool, the study demonstrates how the act of questioning is a dominant form of interaction in tutoring discourse. The doing of questioning is accomplished through a myriad of forms other than…

  11. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal; Isabel Tejada-Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    .... We then move on to analysing the choice of English as a synonym for bilingualism and conclude with emerging questions that are to be considered for future debates and reassessments of Colombia's...

  12. The nature of pragmatic language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The present dissertation reports on research into the nature of Pragmatic Language Impairment (PLI) in children aged 4 to 7 in the Netherlands. First, the possibility of screening for PLI in the general population is examined. Results show that this is indeed possible as well as feasible. Second, an

  13. Bibliography of Research in Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    17-19, 1979. [575] Ronald Kaplan, Klaus Netter, Jorgen Wedekind , [589] Martin Kiy. Unification grammar. Technical re- and Annie Zaenen. Translation by...ble, parallel model ofNatural [11801 Jllrgen Wedekind . Generation as structure driven Language Generation. PhD thegi, University of derivation. In

  14. Querying Source Code with Natural Language

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmig, Markus; Mezini, Mira

    2012-01-01

    One common task of developing or maintaining software is searching the source code for information like specific method calls or write accesses to certain fields. This kind of information is required to correctly implement new features and to solve bugs. This paper presents an approach for querying source code with natural language.

  15. Towards Automatic Treatment of Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Deryle

    1984-01-01

    Because automated natural language processing relies heavily on the still developing fields of linguistics, knowledge representation, and computational linguistics, no system is capable of mimicking human linguistic capabilities. For the present, interactive systems may be used to augment today's technology. (MSE)

  16. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  17. The social impact of natural language processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon

    Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...

  18. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  19. Semantic biomedical resource discovery: a Natural Language Processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakianaki, Pepi; Koumakis, Lefteris; Sfakianakis, Stelios; Iatraki, Galatia; Zacharioudakis, Giorgos; Graf, Norbert; Marias, Kostas; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2015-09-30

    A plethora of publicly available biomedical resources do currently exist and are constantly increasing at a fast rate. In parallel, specialized repositories are been developed, indexing numerous clinical and biomedical tools. The main drawback of such repositories is the difficulty in locating appropriate resources for a clinical or biomedical decision task, especially for non-Information Technology expert users. In parallel, although NLP research in the clinical domain has been active since the 1960s, progress in the development of NLP applications has been slow and lags behind progress in the general NLP domain. The aim of the present study is to investigate the use of semantics for biomedical resources annotation with domain specific ontologies and exploit Natural Language Processing methods in empowering the non-Information Technology expert users to efficiently search for biomedical resources using natural language. A Natural Language Processing engine which can "translate" free text into targeted queries, automatically transforming a clinical research question into a request description that contains only terms of ontologies, has been implemented. The implementation is based on information extraction techniques for text in natural language, guided by integrated ontologies. Furthermore, knowledge from robust text mining methods has been incorporated to map descriptions into suitable domain ontologies in order to ensure that the biomedical resources descriptions are domain oriented and enhance the accuracy of services discovery. The framework is freely available as a web application at ( http://calchas.ics.forth.gr/ ). For our experiments, a range of clinical questions were established based on descriptions of clinical trials from the ClinicalTrials.gov registry as well as recommendations from clinicians. Domain experts manually identified the available tools in a tools repository which are suitable for addressing the clinical questions at hand, either

  20. Content Questions In American Sign Language: An RRG Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    A Teacher’s Resource on Grammar and Culture (1980). Other early standards include Liddell (1980b), a study of ASL syntax, and Padden (1988), an... Oaxaca , Mexico: (6) Dolakha Newari (Genetti 1994, in Dryer In press a) Dolakhā khā tuŋ lā-eu rā Dolakha talk EMPH speak...Language: A Teacher’s Resource on Grammar and Culture . Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. BATTISON, ROBBIN. 1978. Loan Signs from

  1. Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpas, C

    1992-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a "user expert"-a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system.

  2. Brain readiness and the nature of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eBouchard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words, and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities.A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their representations may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language.Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax.Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that

  3. Language acquisition: hesitations in the question/answer dialogic pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Lourenço; Villega, Cristyane de Camargo Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    (1) To verify the existence (or not) of hesitation marks in the beginning of utterances in children's discourse; and (2) to determine to what extent the presence/absence of these marks could be explained by retrievable facts in the production conditions of their discourses. Interview situations with four children aged 5-6 years attending Kindergarten level II in a public preschool at the time of the data collection were analyzed. The interviews were recorded on audio and video, inside a soundproof booth, with high fidelity equipment. Afterwards, the recordings were transcribed by six transcribers that were specially trained for this task. Transcription rules that prioritized the analyses of hesitations were used. For the analysis of retrievable facts in the production conditions of children's discourse, the dialogic pair question-answer was adopted. A correlation between presence/absence of hesitation in the beginning of utterances in children and type of question (open/closed) made by the collocutor was observed. When the question was closed ended, the utterances were preferably initiated without hesitation marks, and when the question was open ended, the utterances were preferably initiated with hesitation marks. The presence/absence of hesitation marks in the beginning of utterances in children was found to be dependent on the production conditions of their discourses.

  4. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users....... This paper proposes a category-based framework for search in CQA archives. The framework embodies several new techniques that use language models to exploit categories of questions for improving question-answer search. Experiments conducted on real data from Yahoo! Answers demonstrate that the proposed...

  5. Current trends with natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Wagner, J; Baud, R

    1995-01-01

    Natural Language Processing in the medical domain becomes more and more powerful, efficient, and ready to be used in daily practice. The needs for such tools are enormous in the medical field, due to the vast amount of written texts for medical records. In the authors' point of view, the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is achieved neither with Information Systems of all kinds nor with commercially available word processing systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one dimension of the EPR, as well as Image Processing and Decision Support Systems. Analysis of medical texts to facilitate indexing and retrieval is well known. The need for a generation tool is to produce progress notes from menu driven systems. The computer systems of tomorrow cannot miss any single dimension. Since 1988, we've been developing an NLP system; it is supported by the European program AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) within the GALEN and HELIOS consortium and the CERS (Commission d'Encouragement á la Recherche Scientifique) in Switzerland. The main directions of development are: a medical language analyzer, a language generator, a query processor, and dictionary building tools to support the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). The knowledge representation schema is essentially based on Sowa's conceptual graphs, and the MLKB is multilingual from its design phase; it currently incorporates the English and the French languages; it will also continue using German. The goal of this demonstration is to provide evidence of what exists today, what will be soon available, and what is planned for the long term. Complete sentences will be processed in real time, and the browsing capabilities of the MLKB will be exercised. In particular, the following features will be presented: Analysis of complete sentences with verbs and relatives, as extracted from clinical narratives, with special attention to the method of "proximity processing" as developed in our group and the rule based

  6. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  7. Automated database design from natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

  8. Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E; Sripada, S G; 10.1613/jair.1176

    2011-01-01

    Natural language generation (NLG) systems are computer software systems that produce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. NLG systems, like most AI systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two NLG projects suggests that it is difficult to acquire correct knowledge for NLG systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (KA) technique we tried had significant problems. In general terms, these problems were due to the complexity, novelty, and poorly understood nature of the tasks our systems attempted, and were worsened by the fact that people write so differently. This meant in particular that corpus-based KA approaches suffered because it was impossible to assemble a sizable corpus of high-quality consistent manually written texts in our domains; and structured expert-oriented KA techniques suffered because experts disagreed and because we could not get enough information about special and unusual cases to build robust systems. We bel...

  9. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  10. An expert system for natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  11. Theoretical Studies in Natural Language Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    mental activity of the system that uses it. I will begin with a brief outline of a theory of intelligence put forward by Daniel Dennett (1974], which I...Eugene Charniak, Daniel Dennett , Gerald Gazdar, Steven Isard, David Israel, Philip Johnson-Laird, and Aaron Sloman (none of whom can be held...find highly satisfying and a useful precursor to a theory of the evolution of natural languages. Dennett presents a plausibly -8- Report No. 4395 Bolt

  12. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  13. A Genre Approach to the Effect of Academic Questions on CLIL Students' Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Ana; Pascual Peña, Irene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' questions and students' responses in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classes of history. Through the combined application of genre theory and a typology of CLIL teacher academic questions, the study aims at contributing to the understanding of how CLIL students use the foreign language…

  14. A Genre Approach to the Effect of Academic Questions on CLIL Students' Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Ana; Pascual Peña, Irene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' questions and students' responses in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classes of history. Through the combined application of genre theory and a typology of CLIL teacher academic questions, the study aims at contributing to the understanding of how CLIL students use the foreign…

  15. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  16. On the Relationship Between a Computational Natural Logic and Natural Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Fischer Nielsson, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a case for adopting appropriate forms of natural logic as target language for computational reasoning with descriptive natural language. Natural logics are stylized fragments of natural language where reasoning can be conducted directly by natural reasoning rules reflecting intui...

  17. [Understanding questions: a specific difficulty in children with pragmatic communication and language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, I; Monfort, M

    2010-03-03

    The question-answer schema is the basis for communicative interaction and is therefore a fundamental aim of the work carried out with children with severe communication and language impairment. Answering questions requires basic skills that enable the listener to identify intonation and facial expression, as well as skills in interpreting intentions and in understanding linguistic content. Some questions can rest on contextual-social keys and others may be based on lexical or structural keys. Some questions, however, call for a more complex understanding, such as 'what' and 'who' questions. Here, we propose an analysis of the skills involved in understanding questions and the consequences on intervention strategies. Intervention in understanding questions should combine different approaches (cognitive, social, linguistic) depending on the type of question, the specific difficulties the child has and the context.

  18. Natural language processing tools for computer assisted language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeventer Faltin, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.

  19. Natural Language Parsing as Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Magerman, D M

    1994-01-01

    Traditional natural language parsers are based on rewrite rule systems developed in an arduous, time-consuming manner by grammarians. A majority of the grammarian's efforts are devoted to the disambiguation process, first hypothesizing rules which dictate constituent categories and relationships among words in ambiguous sentences, and then seeking exceptions and corrections to these rules. In this work, I propose an automatic method for acquiring a statistical parser from a set of parsed sentences which takes advantage of some initial linguistic input, but avoids the pitfalls of the iterative and seemingly endless grammar development process. Based on distributionally-derived and linguistically-based features of language, this parser acquires a set of statistical decision trees which assign a probability distribution on the space of parse trees given the input sentence. These decision trees take advantage of significant amount of contextual information, potentially including all of the lexical information in ...

  20. Disseminating natural language processed clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, information can be extracted from clinical narratives for a variety of applications (e.g., patient management). While the complex and nested output of NLP systems can be expressed in standard formats, such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), these representations may not be directly suitable for certain end-users or applications. The availability of a âeuro tabular' format that simplifies the content and structure of NLP output may facilitate the dissemination and use by users who are more familiar with common spreadsheet, database, or statistical tools. In this paper, we describe the knowledge-based design of a tabular representation for NLP output and development of a transformation program for the structured output of MedLEE, an NLP system at our institution. Through an evaluation, we found that the simplified tabular format is comparable to existing more complex NLP formats in effectiveness for identifying clinical conditions in narrative reports.

  1. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  2. Language as a Field of Energy: A Critical Question for Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, Anna O.; Connors, Sean P.

    2017-01-01

    This essay offers a reorientation of our views on the interrelationships of language and thought as a field of constantly reprogrammable energy, and provides an argument as to why we believe this new metaphor (i.e., language as a field of energy) matters in language pedagogy, in classrooms at all levels, as well as within teacher education and…

  3. Second-Language Learners' Advantage in Metalinguistic Awareness: A Question of Languages' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Fanny; Marec-Breton, Nathalie; Gombert, Jean-Emile; Demont, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: The awareness of the formal structure of language has been widely studied in the literature but less in a bilingualism context. Even less with second-language learners (SLL) who are acquiring their second language (L2) and are not considered as bilinguals. Aims: This study aimed at providing an investigation of young SLL's skills in…

  4. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  5. On the Relationship between a Computational Natural Logic and Natural Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a case for adopting appropriate forms of natural logic as target language for computational reasoning with descriptive natural language. Natural logics are stylized fragments of natural language where reasoning can be conducted directly by natural reasoning rules reflecting...... intuitive reasoning in natural language. The approach taken in this paper is to extend natural logic stepwise with a view to covering successively larger parts of natural language. We envisage applications for computational querying and reasoning, in particular within the life-sciences....

  6. On the Relationship between a Computational Natural Logic and Natural Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Fischer Nielsson, Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a case for adopting appropriate forms of natural logic as target language for computational reasoning with descriptive natural language. Natural logics are stylized fragments of natural language where reasoning can be conducted directly by natural reasoning rules reflecting...... intuitive reasoning in natural language. The approach taken in this paper is to extend natural logic stepwise with a view to covering successively larger parts of natural language. We envisage applications for computational querying and reasoning, in particular within the life-sciences....

  7. On the Relationship between a Computational Natural Logic and Natural Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov; Fischer Nilsson, Jørgen;

    This paper makes a case for adopting appropriate forms of natural logic as target language for computational reasoning with descriptive natural language. Natural logics are stylized fragments of natural language where reasoning can be conducted directly by natural reasoning rules reflecting...... intuitive reasoning in natural language. The approach taken in this paper is to extend natural logic stepwise with a view to covering successively larger parts of natural language. We envisage applications for computational querying and reasoning, in particular within the life-sciences....

  8. New Branches from Old Roots: Experts Respond to Questions about African American English Development and Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Frances A.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Green, Lisa J.; Roeper, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a question-and-answer format to respond to questions about working with children who speak African American English (AAE) in clinical and educational contexts. The respondents urge speech-language pathologists to appreciate AAE as students' first language, to view all language for its communicative potential, and to remain aware…

  9. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  10. Brief Report: Question-Asking and Collateral Language Acquisition in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L; Green-Hopkins, Israel; Barnes, Cynthia Carter

    2010-04-01

    The literature suggests children with autism use communication primarily for requests and protests, and almost never for information-seeking. This study investigated whether teaching "Where" questions using intrinsic reinforcement procedures would produce the generalized use of the question, and whether concomitant improvements in related language structures, provided as answers to the children's questions, would occur. In the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, data showed that the children could rapidly acquire and generalize the query, and that there were collateral improvements in the children's use of language structures corresponding to the answers to the questions the children asked. The results are discussed in the context of teaching child initiations to improve linguistic competence in children with autism.

  11. Natural hazard management and sustainable development: a questionable link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Andres

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the nature of the possible link between natural hazards and sustainable development through a study of the area to the south of Grenoble in the French Alps, a zone subject to two major natural hazards: the extensive landslide known as the "Séchilienne Ruins" and flooding from the Romanche and Drac rivers. More specifically, the study analyzes the assumed transition from the management of natural hazards to the sustainable management of an area subject to natural hazards and is divided into three stages. Thus the link between natural hazards and sustainability is considered as: 1 an association that is entirely relative, 2 one that is logical but limited in the field, 3 one that is above all indirect. The interactions identified between risk and sustainability, in legislative as well as ideal and operational terms, are found to be complex and not necessarily explicit. They depend in particular on the juxtaposition of multiple territorial scales or spatial boundaries (national to local that bring into conflict the different strategies of the actors involved – from decision-makers to technical specialists.Cet article questionne la nature du lien envisageable entre risque naturel et développement durable à travers l’étude du territoire du sud grenoblois, soumis notamment à deux aléas naturels majeurs : le mouvement de terrain de grande ampleur dit des « Ruines de Séchilienne » et les probables crues de la Romanche et du Drac. Trois étapes structurent cette réflexion questionnant la transition supposée entre une gestion des risques naturels et une gestion durable des territoires soumis aux risques naturels : une association toute relative, un lien logique mais limité sur le terrain, une relation surtout indirecte. Les interactions identifiées, en termes législatifs mais aussi idéels et opérationnels, entre risque et durabilité se révèlent ainsi complexes et ne sont pas forcément explicites ; elles d

  12. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M

    1994-01-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) $\\Gamma$ and an input formula $F$ are given, and the goal is to construct a fo...

  13. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  14. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  15. Understanding natural language for spacecraft sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Boris; Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a natural language understanding system, START, that translates English text into a knowledge base. The understanding and the generating modules of START share a Grammar which is built upon reversible transformations. Users can retrieve information by querying the knowledge base in English; the system then produces an English response. START can be easily adapted to many different domains. One such domain is spacecraft sequencing. A high-level overview of sequencing as it is practiced at JPL is presented in the paper, and three areas within this activity are identified for potential application of the START system. Examples are given of an actual dialog with START based on simulated data for the Mars Observer mission.

  16. Mathematical Formula Search using Natural Language Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how to search mathematical formulae written in MathML when given plain words as a query. Since the proposed method allows natural language queries like the traditional Information Retrieval for the mathematical formula search, users do not need to enter any complicated math symbols and to use any formula input tool. For this, formula data is converted into plain texts, and features are extracted from the converted texts. In our experiments, we achieve an outstanding performance, a MRR of 0.659. In addition, we introduce how to utilize formula classification for formula search. By using class information, we finally achieve an improved performance, a MRR of 0.690.

  17. A Tableau Prover for Natural Logic and Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzianidze, Lasha

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the entailment relation over sentences is one of the generic problems of natural language understanding. In order to account for this problem, we design a theorem prover for Natural Logic, a logic whose terms resemble natural language expressions. The prover is based on an analytic tableau

  18. DEFINING RELATIONS IN PRECISIATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING FOR SEMANTIC WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Shafi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As we know people using semantic web which facilitates them to organize, locate and process content. The content access by people comfortably is the natural language which we all use in our day today life. The Semantic Web aims at complementing the current text-based web with machine interpretable semantics to facilitate automated processing and integration of the vast amount of availableinformation. Given the enormous amount of textual data that is available online, it seems natural that these methods rely largely on the use of natural language processing techniques. The field of NLP has matured over the last decade to a point at which robust and scalable applications are possible in a variety of areas, and current Semantic Web projects are now poised to exploit this development. In this paper we define relations enables precisiation of natural language for question answer systems and to deduce answers for questions.

  19. This Thinking Lacks a Language: Heidegger and Gadamer’s Question of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Regan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin Heidegger’s preparation of the question of human existence was the focus of his seminal work Being and Time, first published in 1927. This paper refers to Heidegger’s phenomenological work through Heidegger’s colleague and friend Hans-Georg Gadamer to focus on how Heidegger prepares the question of Being and the problem of language in his later work. In his conversation with the Japanese scholar professor Tezuka, the meaning of language in the west appears to restrict an understanding of Being by conceptualising it ad infinitum. To the Japanese the simple term “what is” appears to be closer to Being because it does not attempt to conceptualise it. Therefore, Heidegger, Gadamer and Tezuka’s discussion about ontology concludes that language does get in the way of understanding Being.

  20. The nature of the language input affects brain activation during learning from a natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Gómez, Rebecca; Almryde, Kyle R; White, Milo G; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-11-01

    Artificial language studies have demonstrated that learners are able to segment individual word-like units from running speech using the transitional probability information. However, this skill has rarely been examined in the context of natural languages, where stimulus parameters can be quite different. In this study, two groups of English-speaking learners were exposed to Norwegian sentences over the course of three fMRI scans. One group was provided with input in which transitional probabilities predicted the presence of target words in the sentences. This group quickly learned to identify the target words and fMRI data revealed an extensive and highly dynamic learning network. These results were markedly different from activation seen for a second group of participants. This group was provided with highly similar input that was modified so that word learning based on syllable co-occurrences was not possible. These participants showed a much more restricted network. The results demonstrate that the nature of the input strongly influenced the nature of the network that learners employ to learn the properties of words in a natural language.

  1. Landscape Design and the language of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Perry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition that we need to live in a more ecologically sustainable way and that the physical forms of designed landscapes are an expression of the social values and cultural drivers of the time has underpinned the call by some landscape design professionals for a new design aesthetic - one that reflects modern ecological concerns. However, for an 'ecological aesthetic' to be accepted, it must be capable of generating landscape forms that are pleasurable to the general public, as it is the general public who will be responsible for delivering ecological sustainability in the long term. The growth in understanding of the mathematical properties of natural systems and processes has led some authors to suggest that fractal geometry, called the language of nature, could playa role in developing such an aesthetic. This is supported by recent research that suggests human perceptual systems have evolved to process fractal patterning and that we have a visual preference for images with certain fractal qualities. However, how fractal geometry can be used, and what form an aesthetic based on this geometry might take, remains elusive and undefined. To develop an aesthetic based on fractal geometry it is necessary to understand why fractal geometry should be considered as a potential tool and whether the application of fractal analysis can differentiate between the types of landscape forms encountered every day.

  2. The Question of Scale in Integrated Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lovell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from integrated natural resource management (INRM practiced at different scales are reviewed, with a focus on catchment management. INRM is complex, and many interactions have to be addressed. Consequently, the scale of investigation can restrict the generality and utility of the findings. Examples show that temporal, biophysical, and institutional scales can each be critical. Contexts and dynamics associated with particular scales, and interactions or lateral flows that become important with increasing scale, also pose serious challenges. A conceptual framework is presented for scaling issues in INRM and how to deal with them. To benefit many people over large areas within sensible time frames requires considerable political will, investment, and strategic planning from the outset. Only then will an enabling environment be created to meet a range of preconditions identified in previous studies of integrated catchment management, watershed development, common property management, and devolution. This paper focuses on the links between the organizational/human aspects and the biophysical/technical perspective of various scaling issues. In particular, there is a need to reconcile current top-down and bottom-up approaches, both of which are needed to achieve effective delivery in structured programs beyond the scale of a few villages or isolated success stories. Options for bridging this gap are discussed and recommendations are made for research that might be undertaken. Action research is recommended to enable learning-by-doing, and should focus at two levels: strategic studies to help create the political and institutional landscapes required for scaling-up; and specific studies of gaps in knowledge, in particular, programs that account for scale issues. These suggestions are illustrated using the example of groundwater management via nested scales of interdisciplinary research.

  3. Decomposition Theorems for Various Kinds of Languages Parallel in Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we give a method for decomposing subclasses of different families of languages, parallel in nature, into other families. These decomposition theorems can be used to produce languages not it a family by using examples of languages not belonging to some “smaller” family....

  4. Acceptability of variations in question intonation in natural and synthesized American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrdal, Ann K.; Jilka, Matthias

    2004-05-01

    In a previous study exploring American English question intonation, we found that some speakers deviated considerably from expected question prosody. In this study, we focus on listener-rated acceptability of the various prosodic patterns observed for yes/no and wh questions. A variety of intonational patterns realized in both question utterances recorded from five female and three male professional speakers and in questions synthesized from several TTS voices of both genders was presented to listeners. Subjects judged the acceptability of each utterance in the context of a dialogue between a travel agent and customer. We hypothesized that question utterances with the expected intonational features (phrase-final fall in wh questions, phrase-final rise in yes/no questions) would be rated as more acceptable than question utterances with deviating intonational features, and that this result would hold for both natural and synthetic speech conditions. In addition, following our previous results, we hypothesized that the unexpected intonation pattern of phrase-final falls for yes/no questions would be more acceptable for lower-pitched than for higher-pitched voices. We also varied the prominence of the interrogative pronouns in synthetic wh questions in order to see whether simulating their high intonational prominence in natural wh questions improved the acceptability of synthetic wh questions.

  5. TEACHING THE HERITAGE LANGUAGE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: ON THE QUESTIONS OF BILINGUALISM AND MINORITY LANGUAGE TEACHING IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Laakso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Hungarians in Austria are an officially recognised ethnic minority, surprisingly little attention has been given to the specific problems in teaching Hungarian as a heritage language.This paper focuses on the situation of heritage-language students who study Hungarian as part of a university curriculum in Vienna,together with German speakers. These students have learnt colloquial varieties of Hungarian as a spoken language in their families but typically have no formal training in the standard written language.This leads to learners’ errors which are often due to lacking language awareness: heritage-language students are unable to analyse their grammatical intuitions. It is also obvious that heritage-language students do not profit from traditional second-language teaching methods and material; furthermore, heterogeneous teaching groups rather create than solve problems. These issues, probably critical for an increasing group of multilingual speakers in many countries, call for more differentiated approaches to language planning and educational strategies.

  6. Restricted natural language based querying of clinical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2014-12-01

    To elevate the level of care to the community it is essential to provide usable tools for healthcare professionals to extract knowledge from clinical data. In this paper a generic translation algorithm is proposed to translate a restricted natural language query (RNLQ) to a standard query language like SQL (Structured Query Language). A special purpose clinical data analytics language (CliniDAL) has been introduced which provides scheme of six classes of clinical questioning templates. A translation algorithm is proposed to translate the RNLQ of users to SQL queries based on a similarity-based Top-k algorithm which is used in the mapping process of CliniDAL. Also a two layer rule-based method is used to interpret the temporal expressions of the query, based on the proposed temporal model. The mapping and translation algorithms are generic and thus able to work with clinical databases in three data design models, including Entity-Relationship (ER), Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) and XML, however it is only implemented for ER and EAV design models in the current work. It is easy to compose a RNLQ via CliniDAL's interface in which query terms are automatically mapped to the underlying data models of a Clinical Information System (CIS) with an accuracy of more than 84% and the temporal expressions of the query comprising absolute times, relative times or relative events can be automatically mapped to time entities of the underlying CIS and to normalized temporal comparative values. The proposed solution of CliniDAL using the generic mapping and translation algorithms which is enhanced by a temporal analyzer component provides a simple mechanism for composing RNLQ for extracting knowledge from CISs with different data design models for analytics purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of Weighted Automata in Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kevin; May, Jonathan

    We explain why weighted automata are an attractive knowledge representation for natural language problems. We first trace the close historical ties between the two fields, then present two complex real-world problems, transliteration and translation. These problems are usefully decomposed into a pipeline of weighted transducers, and weights can be set to maximize the likelihood of a training corpus using standard algorithms. We additionally describe the representation of language models, critical data sources in natural language processing, as weighted automata. We outline the wide range of work in natural language processing that makes use of weighted string and tree automata and describe current work and challenges.

  8. Natural Language Video Description using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-23

    videos by exploiting temporal structure. arXiv:1502.08029v4, 2015. 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 27 [108] Haonan Yu and Jeffrey Mark Siskind. Grounded language ...Examples 32 Translating Videos to Natural Language CNN [Venugopalan et. al. NAACL’15] 33 Does not consider temporal sequence of frames. Can our model be...Natural Language Video Description using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks Subhashini Venugopalan University of Texas at Austin vsub@cs.utexas.edu

  9. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  10. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  11. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  12. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  13. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  14. A Hybrid Architecture For Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loatman, R. Bruce

    1987-05-01

    The PRC Adaptive Knowledge-based Text Understanding System (PAKTUS) is an environment for developing natural language understanding (NLU) systems. It uses a knowledge-based approach in an integrated hybrid architecture based on a factoring of the NLU problem into its lexi-cal, syntactic, conceptual, domain-specific, and pragmatic components. The goal is a robust system that benefits from the strengths of several NLU methodologies, each applied where most appropriate. PAKTUS employs a frame-based knowledge representation and associative networks throughout. The lexical component uses morphological knowledge and word experts. Syntactic knowledge is represented in an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) grammar that incorporates rule-based programming. Case grammar is used for canonical conceptual representation with constraints. Domain-specific templates represent knowledge about specific applications as patterns of the form used in logic programming. Pragmatic knowledge may augment any of the other types and is added wherever needed for a particular domain. The system has been constructed in an interactive graphic programming environment. It has been used successfully to build a prototype front end for an expert system. This integration of existing technologies makes limited but practical NLU feasible now for narrow, well-defined domains.

  15. Still a bridge too far? Biolinguistic questions for grounding language on brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we discuss how Fibonacci growth patterns are apparent in the structure of human language. We moreover show how familiar dynamics yielding these sorts of patterns in nature may be taken to apply, at some level of abstraction, for the human faculty of language. The overall picture casts doubts on any simplistic treatment of language behavior, of the sort stemming from classical behaviorism in psychology (which is again popular in contemporary computational models). Instead, it appears to be more profitable to study language as a complex dynamic system, emerging in human brains for physical reasons which are yet to be fully comprehended, but which in the end disfavor any dualistic approach to the study of mind in general, and the human mind in particular.

  16. ONE GRAMMAR OR TWO? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages - such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality, but also in the form of sign languages, has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language - in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression.

  17. Is Mandarin Chinese a truth-based language? Rejecting responses to negative assertions and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the central question of whether Mandarin Chinese (MC is a canonical truth-based language, a language that is expected to express the speaker’s disagreement to a negative proposition by means of a negative particle followed by a positive sentence. Eight native speakers of MC participated in an oral Discourse Completion Task which elicited rejecting responses to negative propositions and broad focus statements (control condition. Results show that MC speakers convey REJECT by relying on a combination of lexico-syntactic strategies (e.g., negative particles such as bù, méi(yǒu, and positive sentences together with prosodic (e.g., mean pitch and gestural strategies (mainly, the use of head nods. Importantly, the use of a negative particle, which was the expected outcome in truth-based languages, only appeared in 52% of the rejecting answers. This system puts into question the macroparametric division between truth-based and polarity-based languages and calls for a more general view of the instantiation of a REJECT speech act that integrates lexical and syntactic strategies with prosodic and gestural strategies.

  18. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NATURAL LANGUAGE SWITCHING BETWEEN TWO LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni eRodriguez-Fornells

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual persons. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching is a very fast, efficient and flexible process which seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. Here we aimed to characterize individual differences in language switching psychometrically and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a Bilingual Switching Questionnaire (BSWQ. As a working hypothesis and based on the previous literature on code switching we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1 (L1-switch, (ii L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch; (iii Contextual Switch (CS, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic or environment and, (iv Unintended Switch (US, which is measuring the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish-Catalan bilingual university students was studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct. The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using Minimum Rank Factor Analysis (MRFA followed by oblique Direct Oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was .86. Finally, in order to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of assessing individual differences in language switching when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.

  19. So much more than just a list: exploring the nature of critical questioning in undergraduate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical

  20. A Structural Algorithm for Complex Natural Languages Parse Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikuomehin, A. O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In artificial intelligence, the study of how humans understand natural languages is cognitive based and such science is essential in the development of a modern day embedded robotic systems. Such systems should have the capability to process natural languages and generate meaningful output. As against machines, humans have the ability to understand a natural language sentence due to the in-born facility inherent in them and such is used to process it. Robotics requires appropriate PARSE systems to be developed in order to handle language based operations. In this paper, we present a new method of generating parse structures on complex natural language using algorithmic processes. The paper explores the process of generating meaning via parse structure and improves on the existing results using well established parsing scheme. The resulting algorithm was implemented in Java and a natural language interface for parse generation is presented. The result further shows that tokenizing sentences into their respective units affects the parse structure in the first instance and semantic representation in the larger scale. Efforts were made to limit the rules used in the generation of the grammar since natural language rules are almost infinite depending on the language set. (Abstract

  1. Visitor Perspectives on the Nature and Practice of Science: Challenging Beliefs through "A Question of Truth."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia; Macdonald, Ronald D.; Gitari, Wanja; McLaughlin, Hooley

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "A Question of Truth" exhibit at the Ontario Science Centre which examines several questions about the nature of science itself, how ideas are formed, and how cultural and political conditions affect the practice of science. Observation data indicate that science center visitors are interested in considering science and the…

  2. Nature et seconde nature dans l'enseignement/apprentissage des language (Nature and Second Nature in the Teaching/Learning of Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1998-01-01

    Criticizes the naturalist argument underlying current propositions bearing on second language (L2) learning in natural or formal contexts. Contests Piaget's interpretation of "Didacta Magna," shows how Krashen's acquisition/learning hypothesis follows from the two brain theory and certain naturalist suppositions, and proposes language learning…

  3. Natural language computing an English generative grammar in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ray C

    2013-01-01

    This book's main goal is to show readers how to use the linguistic theory of Noam Chomsky, called Universal Grammar, to represent English, French, and German on a computer using the Prolog computer language. In so doing, it presents a follow-the-dots approach to natural language processing, linguistic theory, artificial intelligence, and expert systems. The basic idea is to introduce meaningful answers to significant problems involved in representing human language data on a computer. The book offers a hands-on approach to anyone who wishes to gain a perspective on natural language

  4. Top 40 questions in coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boyd. Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems (CHANS is a central challenge of the 21st century, but more focus is needed to pursue the most important questions within this vast field given limited research capacity and funding. We present 40 important questions for CHANS research, identified through a two-part crowdsourcing exercise within the CHANS community. We solicited members of the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net to submit up to three questions that they considered transformative, receiving 540 questions from 207 respondents. After editing for clarity and consistency, we asked the network's members to each evaluate a random subset of 20 questions in importance on a scale from 1 (least important to 7 (extremely important. Questions on land use and agriculture topped the list, with a median importance ranking of 5.7, followed by questions of scale, climate change and energy, sustainability and development, adaptation and resilience, in addition to seven other categories. We identified 40 questions with a median importance of 6.0 or above, which we highlight as the current view of researchers active in the field as research questions to pursue in order to maximize impact on understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems for achieving sustainable development goals and addressing emerging global challenges.

  5. A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2012-06-11

    One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to arbitrary databases using a

  6. The Use and Effectiveness of a Question Exploration Routine in Secondary-Level English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith; Schumaker, Jean B.

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of the study was to determine the effects of teachers using the Question Exploration Routine (QER) in regularly scheduled secondary-level English Language Arts classes to help students answer questions about the development and use of main ideas in Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." Questions were posed in both…

  7. Phoneme-level speech and natural language intergration for agglutinative languages

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Kim, K; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Kyunghee

    1994-01-01

    A new tightly coupled speech and natural language integration model is presented for a TDNN-based large vocabulary continuous speech recognition system. Unlike the popular n-best techniques developed for integrating mainly HMM-based speech and natural language systems in word level, which is obviously inadequate for the morphologically complex agglutinative languages, our model constructs a spoken language system based on the phoneme-level integration. The TDNN-CYK spoken language architecture is designed and implemented using the TDNN-based diphone recognition module integrated with the table-driven phonological/morphological co-analysis. Our integration model provides a seamless integration of speech and natural language for connectionist speech recognition systems especially for morphologically complex languages such as Korean. Our experiment results show that the speaker-dependent continuous Eojeol (word) recognition can be integrated with the morphological analysis with over 80\\% morphological analysis s...

  8. Naturalizing language: human appraisal and (quasi) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific...... the verbal aspect of language constrains action and thinking, we also develop customary ways of behaving. Humans extend embodiment by linking real-time activity to actions through which the collectivity imposes a variable degree of control over how individuals realise values....

  9. Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealey, Douglas

    This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

  10. MyProLang - My Programming Language: A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language and an environment for writing computer applications based on source-code generation. It is mainly a template-driven automatic natural imperative programming language called MyProLang. It harnesses GUI templates to generate proprietary natural language source-code, instead of having computer programmers write the code manually. MyProLang is a blend of five elements. A proprietary natural programming language with unsophisticated grammatical rules and expressive syntax; automation templates that automate the generation of in...

  11. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  12. Natural Languages Processing for Building Computer-based Learning Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 李娜

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer-based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  13. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  14. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question; Gas natural: roupagem moderna - a questao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: miriam@fem.unicamp.br; sguerra@fem.unicamp.br

    1999-07-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO{sub 2} per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment.

  15. Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

  16. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application ... The questions were generated by first extracting the text from the materials supplied by the ... Keywords: Discourse Connectives, Machine Learning, Automatic Test Generation E-Learning.

  17. A Cross-linguistic Perspective on Questions in German and French Adult Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bonnesen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the morphological and syntactic aspects of adult second language acquisition (SLA. Two prominent hypotheses that have been put forward concerning late L2 speakers' knowledge of inflectional morphology and of related functional categories and their feature values are the Impaired Representation Hypothesis (IRH and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH.The cross-linguistic comparison of the acquisition of questions in German and French provided in this study offers a new perspective to differences and similarities between first language acquisition (FLA and adult SLA. Comparing a Germanic and a Romance L2, differing not only in their overall linguistic properties (such as i. e. OV/VO, V2, clitics, but explicitly in the formation and regularities of questions, we present striking similarities in adult SLA, and irrespective of the first and the second languages and of instructed versus non-instructed learning. The investigation of the adult SLA of morphological and structural aspects of questions in French and German strengthens the assumption that the acquisition of morphology and syntax is connected in French and German FLA but is disentangled in adult SLA. Our data reveal variability of question syntax, and with the syntactic position of the verb in particular. Instead of discovering the correct position of the verb at a certain stage of acquisition which can be accounted for by parameter setting in FLA, the adult learners gradually approach the target word order but still exhibit a great deal of variation after several years of exposure to the L2.The findings provided here contradict the predictions of the MSIH (Prévost/White 2000; Ionin/Wexler 2002; among others, for not only morphological features, but syntactic finiteness of finiteness are problematic in adult SLA, and that the Impairment Representation Hypothesis (IRH (Beck 1998; Eubank 1993/1994; among others

  18. Visual Execution and Data Visualisation in Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Gaizauskas, Robert; Humphreys, Kevin; Cunningham, Hamish

    1997-01-01

    We describe GGI, a visual system that allows the user to execute an automatically generated data flow graph containing code modules that perform natural language processing tasks. These code modules operate on text documents. GGI has a suite of text visualisation tools that allows the user useful views of the annotation data that is produced by the modules in the executable graph. GGI forms part of the GATE natural language engineering system.

  19. Finite-State Methodology in Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korzycki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent mathematical and algorithmic results in the field of finite-state technology, as well the increase in computing power, have constructed the base for a new approach in natural language processing. However the task of creating an appropriate model that would describe the phenomena of the natural language is still to be achieved. ln this paper I'm presenting some notions related to the finite-state modelling of syntax and morphology.

  20. Natural Language Interfaces to Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    of Toronto, Philip A. Bernstein , Harvard University, and Harry K.T. Wong, IBM Research Laboratory, "A Language Facility for Designing Database...Colin Blakemore and Susan Greenfield (editors), Mindwaves - Thoughts on Intelligence, Identity, and Consciousness, Basil Blackwell, Inc. 1987. 1110

  1. The Unnatural Nature of Nature and Nurture: Questioning the Romantic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From a cultural-historical perspective, nature and nurture (and thus education) are contested concepts. The paper focuses on the nature/nurture debate in the work of William Shakespeare (influenced by Montaigne) and in the Romantic tradition (evidenced by Rousseau and Wordsworth), and argues that while our Romantic inheritance (still highly…

  2. The Unnatural Nature of Nature and Nurture: Questioning the Romantic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    From a cultural-historical perspective, nature and nurture (and thus education) are contested concepts. The paper focuses on the nature/nurture debate in the work of William Shakespeare (influenced by Montaigne) and in the Romantic tradition (evidenced by Rousseau and Wordsworth), and argues that while our Romantic inheritance (still highly…

  3. An overview of computer-based natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  4. Natural Language Processing and its Use in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khaled M. Alhawiti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Language Processing (NLP is an effective approach for bringing improvement in educational setting. Implementing NLP involves initiating the process of learning through the natural acquisition in the educational systems. It is based on effective approaches for providing a solution for various problems and issues in education. Natural Language Processing provides solution in a variety of different fields associated with the social and cultural context of language learning. It is an effective approach for teachers, students, authors and educators for providing assistance for writing, analysis, and assessment procedures. Natural Language Processing is widely integrated with the large number of educational contexts such as research, science, linguistics, e-learning, evaluations system, and contributes resulting positive outcomes in other educational settings such as schools, higher education system, and universities. The paper aims to address the process of natural language learning and its implication in the educational settings. The study also highlights how NLP can be utilized with scientific computer programs to enhance the process of education. The study follows qualitative approach. Data is collected from the secondary resources in order to identify problems faced by the teachers and students for understanding the context due to obstacles of language. Results provide effectiveness of linguistic tools such as grammar, syntax, and textual patterns that are fairly productive in educational context for learning and assessment.

  5. MyProLang - My Programming Language: A Template-Driven Automatic Natural Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef A. Bassil; Aziz M. Barbar

    2012-01-01

    Modern computer programming languages are governed by complex syntactic rules. They are unlike natural languages; they require extensive manual work and a significant amount of learning and practicing for an individual to become skilled at and to write correct programs. Computer programming is a difficult, complicated, unfamiliar, non-automated, and a challenging discipline for everyone; especially, for students, new programmers and end-users. This paper proposes a new programming language an...

  6. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  7. Mixed Signals: Combining Linguistic and Affective Functions of Eyebrows in Questions in Sign Language of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Connie; van der Kooij, Els; Crasborn, Onno

    2009-01-01

    The eyebrows are used as conversational signals in face-to-face spoken interaction (Ekman, 1979). In Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT), the eyebrows are typically furrowed in content questions, and raised in polar questions (Coerts, 1992). On the other hand, these eyebrow positions are also associated with anger and surprise, respectively, in…

  8. ROPE: Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding of Natural Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widemann, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Eric X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We present a novel Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding (ROPE) of natural language. ROPE maps natural language passages from sparse concatenated one-hot representations to distributed vector representations of predetermined fixed length. We use Euclidean distance to return search results that are both grammatically and semantically similar. ROPE is based on a series of random projections of distributed word embeddings. We show that our technique typically forms a dictionary with sufficient incoherence such that sparse recovery of the original text is possible. We then show how our embedding allows for efficient and meaningful natural search and retrieval on Microsoft’s COCO dataset and the IMDB Movie Review dataset.

  9. From language to nature: The semiotic metaphor in biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper Normann

    1991-01-01

    complex of related ideas, which has a long history in the philosophy of nature and biology, is critically reviewed. The general nature of metaphor in science is considered, and different levels of metaphorical transfer of signification is distinguished. It is argued, that the metaphors may......The development of form in living organisms continues to challenge biological research. The concept of biological information encoded in the genetic program that controls development forms a major part of the semiotic metaphor in biology. Development is here seen in analogy to an execution...... of a program, written in a formal language in the computer. Other versions of the semiotic or "nature-as-language" metaphor uses other formal or informal aspects of language to comprehend the specific structural relations in nature as explored by molecular and evolutionary biology. This intuitively appealing...

  10. From language to nature: The semiotic metaphor in biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper Normann

    1991-01-01

    complex of related ideas, which has a long history in the philosophy of nature and biology, is critically reviewed. The general nature of metaphor in science is considered, and different levels of metaphorical transfer of signification is distinguished. It is argued, that the metaphors may...... of a program, written in a formal language in the computer. Other versions of the semiotic or "nature-as-language" metaphor uses other formal or informal aspects of language to comprehend the specific structural relations in nature as explored by molecular and evolutionary biology. This intuitively appealing......The development of form in living organisms continues to challenge biological research. The concept of biological information encoded in the genetic program that controls development forms a major part of the semiotic metaphor in biology. Development is here seen in analogy to an execution...

  11. A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

  12. A prototype natural language interface to a large complex knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelhorst, Gregory; Srivastava, Vishrut; Rosse, Cornelius; Brinkley, James F

    2003-01-01

    We describe a constrained natural language interface to a large knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The interface, called GAPP, handles simple or nested questions that can be parsed to the form, subject-relation-object, where subject or object is unknown. With the aid of domain-specific dictionaries the parsed sentence is converted to queries in the StruQL graph-searching query language, then sent to a server we developed, called OQAFMA, that queries the FMA and returns output as XML. Preliminary evaluation shows that GAPP has the potential to be used in the evaluation of the FMA by domain experts in anatomy.

  13. Natural language processing and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science.

  14. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Learning Unification-Based Natural Language Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, M

    1999-01-01

    When parsing unrestricted language, wide-covering grammars often undergenerate. Undergeneration can be tackled either by sentence correction, or by grammar correction. This thesis concentrates upon automatic grammar correction (or machine learning of grammar) as a solution to the problem of undergeneration. Broadly speaking, grammar correction approaches can be classified as being either {\\it data-driven}, or {\\it model-based}. Data-driven learners use data-intensive methods to acquire grammar. They typically use grammar formalisms unsuited to the needs of practical text processing and cannot guarantee that the resulting grammar is adequate for subsequent semantic interpretation. That is, data-driven learners acquire grammars that generate strings that humans would judge to be grammatically ill-formed (they {\\it overgenerate}) and fail to assign linguistically plausible parses. Model-based learners are knowledge-intensive and are reliant for success upon the completeness of a {\\it model of grammaticality}. Bu...

  17. TSNLP Test Suites for Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, S; Regnier-Prost, S; Netter, K; Lux, V; Klein, J; Falkedal, K; Fouvry, F; Estival, D; Dauphin, E; Compagnion, H; Baur, J; Baur, J; Balkan, L; Arnold, D; Lehmann, Sabine; Oepen, Stephan; Regnier-Prost, Sylvie; Netter, Klaus; Lux, Veronika; Klein, Judith; Falkedal, Kirsten; Fouvry, Frederik; Estival, Dominique; Dauphin, Eva; Compagnion, Herve; Baur, Judith; Baur, Judith; Balkan, Lorna; Arnold, Doug

    1996-01-01

    The TSNLP project has investigated various aspects of the construction, maintenance and application of systematic test suites as diagnostic and evaluation tools for NLP applications. The paper summarizes the motivation and main results of the project: besides the solid methodological foundation, TSNLP has produced substantial multi-purpose and multi-user test suites for three European languages together with a set of specialized tools that facilitate the construction, extension, maintenance, retrieval, and customization of the test data. As TSNLP results, including the data and technology, are made publicly available, the project presents a valuable linguistic resourc e that has the potential of providing a wide-spread pre-standard diagnostic and evaluation tool for both developers and users of NLP applications.

  18. A Korean language translation of the Questions About Behavior Function: initial psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dennis R; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L

    2013-06-01

    Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The factor structure was examined in a sample of 153 QABF-K assessments, which yielded a five-factor-solution identical to the original English version. In terms of reliability, internal consistency was good with Chronbach's alpha ranging from 0.80 to 0.87 and test-retest reliability was found to be good with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.91. Based upon the present results, the QABF-K appears to be a promising tool for use with informants whose primary language is Korean.

  19. The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

  20. In Search of the Right Questions: Language Background Profiling at Ontario Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Slavkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition and early second language acquisition, which can lead to bilingual or multilingual outcomes early on in life. This serves as a backdrop for a study of language profiling practices in public schools across the province of Ontario. Student registration forms from 44 district school boards were analysed with regard to the number, type and combination patterns of language background questions. The findings indicate that school boards are aware of the potentially diverse linguistic backgrounds of incoming students, but may not be conceptually or methodologically equipped to recognize the full spectrum of linguistic complexity involved. Some degree of standardization of language background profiling across different districts is recommended as a measure that may benefit the province. Résumé Cet article examine certains défis auxquels la notion d’un locuteur natif (monolingue fait face dans un contexte mondial où il existe une reconnaissance croissante que le bilinguisme et le multilinguisme représentent la norme plutôt que l’exception. L’article aborde également la distinction entre deux contextes d’acquisition de la langue chez les enfants, ceux-ci étant l'acquisition bilingue de la langue première et l’acquisition précoce de la langue seconde, qui peuvent mener à des résultats bilingues ou multilingues tôt dans la vie. Ceci sert de toile de fond pour une étude des pratiques de profilage linguistique dans des écoles publiques à travers la province de l’Ontario. Des formulaires d’inscription d’élèves provenant de 44 conseils scolaires ont été analysés en termes du

  1. Paired structures in logical and semiotic models of natural language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The evidence coming from cognitive psychology and linguistics shows that pairs of reference concepts (as e.g. good/bad, tall/short, nice/ugly, etc.) play a crucial role in the way we everyday use and understand natural languages in order to analyze reality and make decisions. Different situations...... languages through logical models usually assumes that reference concepts are just each other complement. In this paper, we informally discuss more deeply about these issues, claiming in a positional manner that an adequate logical study and representation of the features and complexity of natural languages...... relationships holding between the pair of reference concepts from which the valuation structure emerges. Different relationships may enable the representation of different types of neutrality, understood here as an epistemic hesitation regarding the references. However, the standard approach to natural...

  2. Computing an Ontological Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    The key objective of the research that has been carried out has been to establish theoretically sound connections between the following two areas: • Computational processing of texts in natural language by means of logical methods • Theories and methods for engineering of formal ontologies We have...... tried to establish a domain independent “ontological semantics” for relevant fragments of natural language. The purpose of this research is to develop methods and systems for taking advantage of formal ontologies for the purpose of extracting the meaning contents of texts. This functionality...... is desirable e.g. for future content–based search systems in contrast to today’s keyword based search systems (viz., Google) which rely chiefly on recognition of stated keywords in the targeted text. Logical methods were introduced into semantic theories for natural language already during the 60’s in what...

  3. Extraction of Robot Primitive Control Rules from Natural Language Instructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Hong Wang; Ping Jiang; Zu-Ren Feng

    2006-01-01

    A support vector rule based method is investigated for the construction of motion controllers via natural language training. It is a two-phase process including motion control information collection from natural language instructions, and motion information condensation with the aid of support vector machine (SVM) theory. Self-organizing fuzzy neural networks are utilized for the collection of control rules, from which support vector rules are extracted to form a final controller to achieve any given control accuracy. In this way, the number of control rules is reduced, and the structure of the controller tidied, making a controller constructed using natural language training more appropriate in practice, and providing a fundamental rule base for high-level robot behavior control. Simulations and experiments on a wheeled robot are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  5. Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

  6. Animation of Natural Language Specifications of Authentication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabroka A. Mayouf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A few visualization tools have been created for protocol design and analysis. Although these tools provide an environment for designing security protocols, each one has its own protocol definition language (its also called informal specification language. The problem is that the user should understand the language which related to the used tool in order to define an exist protocol or design a new one. For specification, a language needs to be intuitive as well as easily usable and understandable by the security protocol engineer. It must be able to precisely and unambiguously specify the behavior of security protocol. Approach: In this study, we propose an approach for protocol specification based on the Natural language definitions of protocol semantics. By using programmatic semantics together with animations, representational flexibility of different protocol demonstration is retained for as long as it is needed. Result: This study provides an environment that can be used by protocols designers to develop and investigate different scenarios of security protocols especially authentication protocols. Natural Language Protocol Specifications (NLPS approach is used to define the protocol. The environment accepts the natural language text of protocol specifications and converts it to animations of protocol behavior. Conclusions/Recommendations: NLPS environment can really help protocol designer to consider and investigate the behavior of security protocols. It can also be used for teaching-learning security protocol concepts. In further, we will consider the possibility of analyzing security protocols using our NLPS environment and animation techniques in order to improve the correctness; that is determining whether or not the intended security properties of a protocol do hold.

  7. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2012-01-01

    A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters, but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science.

  8. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.

  9. Spinoza II: Conceptual Case-Based Natural Language Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Roger C.; And Others

    This paper presents the theoretical changes that have developed in Conceptual Dependency Theory and their ramifications in computer analysis of natural language. The major items of concern are: the elimination of reliance on "grammar rules" for parsing with the emphasis given to conceptual rule based parsing; the development of a conceptual case…

  10. Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisl, Hermann

    It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

  11. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  12. Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlez, Eva M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big…

  13. Ontology Based Queries - Investigating a Natural Language Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Hielkema, F.; Mellish, C.; Doherty, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look at what may be learned from a comparative study examining non-technical users with a background in social science browsing and querying metadata. Four query tasks were carried out with a natural language interface and with an interface that uses a web paradigm with hyperlinks.

  14. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  15. Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

    2003-01-01

    CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

  16. Generating natural language descriptions using speaker-dependent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Paraboni, Ivandré

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of human variation in natural language referring expression generation. We introduce a model of content selection that takes speaker-dependent information into account to produce descriptions that closely resemble those produced by each individual, as seen in a number

  17. Advanced Natural Language Processing and Temporal Mining for Clinical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    There has been vast and growing amount of healthcare data especially with the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) as a result of the HITECH act of 2009. It is estimated that around 80% of the clinical information resides in the unstructured narrative of an EHR. Recently, natural language processing (NLP) techniques have offered…

  18. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  19. Learning by Communicating in Natural Language with Conversational Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur; Li, Haiying; Forsyth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Learning is facilitated by conversational interactions both with human tutors and with computer agents that simulate human tutoring and ideal pedagogical strategies. In this article, we describe some intelligent tutoring systems (e.g., AutoTutor) in which agents interact with students in natural language while being sensitive to their cognitive…

  20. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  1. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  2. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  3. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  4. Reasoning under uncertainty in natural language dialogue using Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In which uncertainty in natural language dialogue is introduced as the central problem in the research described in this thesis. The idea of using of Bayesian networks is hypothesised as a possible solution to this problem. Dialogue acts are presented as the central notion in our approach to dialogu

  5. Prototypes and Idealizations in Natural Language Shape Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidorn, P. Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes a graphic modeling, natural language processing system, VerbalImage, which mimics features of human shape reasoning. Subjects read the same text description and were able to recognize the image generated by the computer from among a series of other computer-generated images. Performance on task was as good as for a control group…

  6. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  7. Intelligent Voice Prosthesis Converting Icons into Natural Language Sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P; Vaillant, Pascal; Checler, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Intelligent Voice Prosthesis is a communication tool which reconstructs the meaning of an ill-structured sequence of icons or symbols, and expresses this meaning into sentences of a Natural Language (French). It has been developed for the use of people who cannot express themselves orally in natural language, and further, who are not able to comply to grammatical rules such as those of natural language. We describe how available corpora of iconic communication by children with Cerebral Palsy has led us to implement a simple and relevant semantic description of the symbol lexicon. We then show how a unification-based, bottom-up semantic analysis allows the system to uncover the meaning of the user's utterances by computing proper dependencies between the symbols. The result of the analysis is then passed to a lexicalization module which chooses the right words of natural language to use, and builds a linguistic semantic network. This semantic network is then generated into French sentences via hierarchizat...

  8. Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Shirley Anne

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

  9. Language Planning and Questions of National Security: An Overview of Planning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines ways in which language planning has been used to address issues of security. It gives an overview of a range of areas of security in which government-level language planning has had a role as a way of developing a typology of language planning work in this area. It examines the nexus between language, communication and security…

  10. The ways of decision of language question of modern Ukraine on condition of the «Russian factor»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Krasnoseletskiy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article research of language question is reflected in Ukraine on the modern stage. From the first years of independence Ukrainian language proclaimed state with corresponding normatively-legal soil. However, requirements of lawful legislation quite often disregard. Local authorities in east and south regions allowed language processes on a drift, that resulted in deepening a language, and after him and political «dissidence» in Ukraine. A situation became sharp interference with the matter of the political elite of Russia, interested in liquidation of sovereignty of former «prisoner». In the conditions of anti-terror operation, it is extremely important to decide of correct an open of the language question, of that try are offered in the article. Sociological and political science researches, positions of politicians, lawyers, historians, linguists, are analysed for this purpose. It is stated herein that Ukrainian language must remain an only official language. Maintenance of integrity of Ukraine is possible only at such condition. Besides at that rate possible consolidation of Ukrainian society that in force of informative opposition between Russia and Ukraine found oneself on verge of social dissidence». Composition and quantity of population of our state depend on it.

  11. A semantic-based approach for querying linked data using natural language

    KAUST Repository

    Paredes-Valverde, Mario Andrés

    2016-01-11

    The semantic Web aims to provide to Web information with a well-defined meaning and make it understandable not only by humans but also by computers, thus allowing the automation, integration and reuse of high-quality information across different applications. However, current information retrieval mechanisms for semantic knowledge bases are intended to be only used by expert users. In this work, we propose a natural language interface that allows non-expert users the access to this kind of information through formulating queries in natural language. The present approach uses a domain-independent ontology model to represent the question\\'s structure and context. Also, this model allows determination of the answer type expected by the user based on a proposed question classification. To prove the effectiveness of our approach, we have conducted an evaluation in the music domain using LinkedBrainz, an effort to provide the MusicBrainz information as structured data on the Web by means of Semantic Web technologies. Our proposal obtained encouraging results based on the F-measure metric, ranging from 0.74 to 0.82 for a corpus of questions generated by a group of real-world end users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  13. Extraction of Textual Causal Relationships based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Jamshidi-Nejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a highly important subcategory in the wide area of artificial intelligence. Employing appropriate computational algorithms on sophisticated linguistic operations is the aim of natural language processing to extract and create computational theories from languages. In order to achieve this goal, the knowledge of linguists is needed in addition to computer science. In the field of linguistics, the syntactic and semantic relation of words and phrases and the extraction of causation is very significant which the latter is an information retrieval challenge. Recently, there is an increased attention towards the automatic extraction of causation from textual data sets. Although, previous research extracted the casual relations from uninterrupted data sets by using knowledge-based inference technologies and manual coding. Recently, finding comprehensive approaches for detection and extractions of causal arguments is a research area in the field of natural language processing.In this paper, a three-stepped approach is established through which, the position of words with syntax trees is obtained by extracting causation from causal and non-causal sentences of Web text. The arguments of events were extracted according to the dependency tree of phrases implemented by Python packages. Then potential causal relations were extracted by the extraction of specific nodes of the tree. In the final step, a statistical model is introduced for measuring the potential causal relations. Experimental results and evaluations with Recall, Precision and F-measure metrics show the accuracy and efficiency of the suggested model.

  14. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  15. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  16. Ideas on Learning a New Language Intertwined with the Current State of Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, in conjunction with doing research in natural language processing and attending a global conference on computational linguistics, the author decided to learn a new foreign language, Greek, that uses a non-English character set. This paper/session will present/discuss an overview of the current state of natural language processing and…

  17. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  18. Communicative Method of Teaching of Foreign Language: Nature and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janat A. Karmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance and nature of the communicative method of teaching of foreign language in modern pedagogy. Analysis of modern techniques and methods known in the history shows that certain aspects of communicativeness present the methodology more clearly, making the trend of methodological science and practice of education development obligatory. Communicative method refers to the category of comprehensive concepts, so communicativeness should be shown in its relation to all major aspects of the educational process. It will help to determine the content of the principles of the communicative method, and, therefore, formulate them. In this situation specific approach aims to study the specific language principles and mechanisms of interaction between the significance of different linguistic means, lexical, grammatical, syntactical, involved in the construction of statement, i.e. determine specific language conditions and means that ultimately define the convey of a meaning.

  19. Managing Fieldwork Data with Toolbox and the Natural Language Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Robinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how fieldwork data can be managed using the program Toolbox together with the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK for the Python programming language. It provides background information about Toolbox and describes how it can be downloaded and installed. The basic functionality of the program for lexicons and texts is described, and its strengths and weaknesses are reviewed. Its underlying data format is briefly discussed, and Toolbox processing capabilities of NLTK are introduced, showing ways in which it can be used to extend the functionality of Toolbox. This is illustrated with a few simple scripts that demonstrate basic data management tasks relevant to language documentation, such as printing out the contents of a lexicon as HTML.

  20. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language (Tentative Design, version 0.95) -- Language Summary with annotations concerning questions and doubts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This is version 0.95 of the official summary of the Tentative Design of CASL, the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with questions and doubts concerning the meaning of constructs and the semantics of the interaction of constructs, and with notes...

  1. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  2. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  3. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) has emerged as a popular type of service meeting a wide range of information needs. Such services enable users to ask and answer questions and to access existing question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain very large volumes of valuable user-generated content...... and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users...... techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming baseline methods significantly....

  4. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  5. Acquiring Word-Meaning Mappings for Natural Language Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a system, WOLFIE (WOrd Learning From Interpreted Examples), that acquires a semantic lexicon from a corpus of sentences paired with semantic representations. The lexicon learned consists of phrases paired with meaning representations. WOLFIE is part of an integrated system that learns to transform sentences into representations such as logical database queries. Experimental results are presented demonstrating WOLFIE's ability to learn useful lexicons for a database interface in four different natural languages. The usefulness of the lexicons learned by WOLFIE are compared to those acquired by a similar system, with results favorable to WOLFIE. A second set of experiments demonstrates WOLFIE's ability to scale to larger and more difficult, albeit artificially generated, corpora. In natural language acquisition, it is difficult to gather the annotated data needed for supervised learning; however, unannotated data is fairly plentiful. Active learning methods attempt to select for annotation...

  6. The Theoretical Status of Ontologies in Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J A

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of `ontologies' in Natural Language Processing. It classifies various kinds of ontologies that have been employed in NLP and discusses various benefits and problems with those designs. Particular focus is then placed on experiences gained in the use of the Upper Model, a linguistically-motivated `ontology' originally designed for use with the Penman text generation system. Some proposals for further NLP ontology design criteria are then made.

  7. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  8. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  9. Language related differences of the sustained response evoked by natural speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Christina Siu-Dschu; Zhu, Xingyu; Dosch, Hans Günter; von Stutterheim, Christiane; Rupp, André

    2017-01-01

    In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli. AEF were elicited by spoken meaningful and meaningless syllables, by vowels, and by a French horn tone. Speech sounds were recorded from a native speaker and showed frequency-modulations according to the pitch-contours of Mandarin. The sustained field (SF) evoked by natural speech signals was significantly larger for Chinese than for German listeners. In contrast, the SF elicited by a horn tone was not significantly different between groups. Furthermore, the SF of Chinese subjects was larger when evoked by meaningful syllables compared to meaningless ones, but there was no significant difference regarding whether vowels were part of the Chinese phonological system or not. Moreover, the N100m gave subtle but clear evidence that for Chinese listeners other factors than purely physical properties play a role in processing meaningful signals. These findings show that the N100 and the SF generated in Heschl's gyrus are influenced by language experience, which suggests that AC activity related to specific pitch contours of vowels is influenced in a top-down fashion by higher, language related areas. Such interactions are in line with anatomical findings and neuroimaging data, as well as with the dual-stream model of language of Hickok and Poeppel that highlights the close and reciprocal interaction between

  10. New Hybrid Algorithm for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With technical advancement, Question Answering has emerged as the main area for the researchers. User is provided with specific answers instead of large number of documents or passages in question answering. Question answering proposes the solution to acquire efficient and exact answers to user question asked in natural language rather than language query. The major goal of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm for question answering. For this task different question answering systems for different languages were studied. After deep study, we are able to develop an algorithm that comprises the best features from excellent systems. An algorithm developed by us performs well.

  11. Predicting Garden Path Sentences Based on Natural Language Understanding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jia-li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural language understanding (NLU focusing onmachine reading comprehension is a branch of natural language processing (NLP. The domain of the developing NLU system covers from sentence decoding to text understanding and the automatic decoding of GP sentence belongs to the domain of NLU system. GP sentence is a special linguistic phenomenon in which processing breakdown and backtracking are two key features. Ifthe syntax-based system can present the special features of GP sentence and decode GP sentence completely and perfectly, NLU system can improve the effectiveness and develop the understanding skill greatly. On the one hand, by means of showing Octav Popescu’s model of NLU system, we argue that the emphasis on the integration of syntactic, semantic and cognitive backgrounds in system is necessary. On the other hand, we focus on the programming skill of IF-THEN-ELSE statement used in N-S flowchart and highlight the function of context free grammar (CFG created to decode GP sentence. On the basis of example-based analysis, we reach the conclusion that syntaxbased machine comprehension is technically feasible and semantically acceptable, and that N-S flowchart and CFG can help NLU system present the decoding procedure of GP sentence successfully. In short, syntax-based NLU system can bring a deeper understanding of GP sentence and thus paves the way for further development of syntax-based natural language processing and artificial intelligence.

  12. Exploring culture, language and the perception of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    One dimension of early Canadian education is the attempt of the government to use the education system as an assimilative tool to integrate the First Nations and Me´tis people into Euro-Canadian society. Despite these attempts, many First Nations and Me´tis people retained their culture and their indigenous language. Few science educators have examined First Nations and Western scientific worldviews and the impact they may have on science learning. This study explored the views some First Nations (Cree) and Euro-Canadian Grade-7-level students in Manitoba had about the nature of science. Both qualitative (open-ended questions and interviews) and quantitative (a Likert-scale questionnaire) instruments were used to explore student views. A central hypothesis to this research programme is the possibility that the different world-views of two student populations, Cree and Euro-Canadian, are likely to influence their perceptions of science. This preliminary study explored a range of methodologies to probe the perceptions of the nature of science in these two student populations. It was found that the two cultural groups differed significantly between some of the tenets in a Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Cree students significantly differed from Euro-Canadian students on the developmental, testable and unified tenets of the nature of scientific knowledge scale. No significant differences were found in NSKS scores between language groups (Cree students who speak English in the home and those who speak English and Cree or Cree only). The differences found between language groups were primarily in the open-ended questions where preformulated responses were absent. Interviews about critical incidents provided more detailed accounts of the Cree students' perception of the nature of science. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed in relation to the challenges related to research methodology, further areas for investigation, science

  13. The greek infinitive in variable deliberative, principally dependent questions: an interpretation in terms of naturalness theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper I investigate the use of the infinitive in dependent delibera­ tive clauses in Greek, a phenomenon occurring in several (modern languages, cf. Slovene Nisem vedel, kaj storiti. 'I didn't know what to do?', English I didn't know what to do., German Was tun? 'What to do?'l. In the first part I present the development of deliberative infinitive clauses in Post-Classical Greek with a special emphasis on the use of this form in two Early Byzantine prose writings (in Pratum Spirituale and in Vita Theodori Syceotae, both belonging to the 6th;7th century AD, where some peculiarities are observed. In the second part an attempt is made to interpret the basic characteristics of the Greek infinitive in dependent deliberative clauses from the perspective of Naturalness Theory.

  14. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  15. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  16. Yes-No Questions that Convey a Critical Stance in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Hansun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Despite certain important critiques, much of the work on teacher questions has centered on the distinction between referential and display questions as well as their roles in creating more or less communicative classrooms. With some notable exceptions, few have delved into the specificity of how questions work in the details of classroom…

  17. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded Wh-Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.

  18. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536

  19. In Search of the Right Questions: Language Background Profiling at Ontario Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges that the notion of a (monolingual) native speaker faces in a global context of increasing awareness that bilingualism and multilingualism are the norm rather than the exception. It also discusses the distinction between two child language acquisition environments, bilingual first language acquisition…

  20. Small Answers to the Big Question: Learning from Language Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores why the learning posited as an intrinsic dimension of evaluation practice and use has been difficult to achieve, and how it might be more effectively realized. In recent decades language programme evaluation has evolved from focused studies of teaching methods inspired by language learning theories to a curriculum management…

  1. Question-order Effects in the Domains of Language and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta-Kaye Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of question-order on respondents’ choices is well-studied and well established, but these effects are not always present and are sometimes contradictory. The question of whether prior involvement in an issue alters the question-order effect also exists. We examined the effect of question-order, or context, on the stated values of participants by exploiting the saliency effect through the use of framing questions. Although our results showed some influence of question order, we encountered a ceiling effect. Our ceiling may have been caused by the same factor observed by Rimal and Real (2005: high-involvement mitigates question-order effect. Nevertheless, for those interested in educational campaigns, studying how context influences an individual’s values and preferences is a subject worthy of further pursuit.

  2. Questions You May Want to Ask Your Child's Speech-Language Pathologist = Preguntas que usted le podria hacer al patologo del habla y el lenguaje de su hijo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…

  3. Discovery of Kolmogorov Scaling in the Natural Language

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    Maurice H. P. M. van Putten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the rate R and variance σ 2 of Shannon information in snippets of text based on word frequencies in the natural language. We empirically identify Kolmogorov’s scaling law in σ 2 ∝ k - 1 . 66 ± 0 . 12 (95% c.l. as a function of k = 1 / N measured by word count N. This result highlights a potential association of information flow in snippets, analogous to energy cascade in turbulent eddies in fluids at high Reynolds numbers. We propose R and σ 2 as robust utility functions for objective ranking of concordances in efficient search for maximal information seamlessly across different languages and as a starting point for artificial attention.

  4. Roget's Thesaurus as a Lexical Resource for Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    WordNet proved that it is possible to construct a large-scale electronic lexical database on the principles of lexical semantics. It has been accepted and used extensively by computational linguists ever since it was released. Inspired by WordNet's success, we propose as an alternative a similar resource, based on the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. Peter Mark Roget published his first Thesaurus over 150 years ago. Countless writers, orators and students of the English language have used it. Computational linguists have employed Roget's for almost 50 years in Natural Language Processing, however hesitated in accepting Roget's Thesaurus because a proper machine tractable version was not available. This dissertation presents an implementation of a machine-tractable version of the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus - the first implementation of its kind to use an entire current edition. It explains the steps necessary for taking a machine-readable file and transform...

  5. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  6. A Principled Framework for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces To Temporal Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsopoulos, Ion

    1996-09-01

    Most existing natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) were designed to be used with ``snapshot'' database systems, that provide very limited facilities for manipulating time-dependent data. Consequently, most NLIDBs also provide very limited support for the notion of time. The database community is becoming increasingly interested in _temporal_ database systems. These are intended to store and manipulate in a principled manner information not only about the present, but also about the past and future. This thesis develops a principled framework for constructing English NLIDBs for _temporal_ databases (NLITDBs), drawing on research in tense and aspect theories, temporal logics, and temporal databases. I first explore temporal linguistic phenomena that are likely to appear in English questions to NLITDBs. Drawing on existing linguistic theories of time, I formulate an account for a large number of these phenomena that is simple enough to be embodied in practical NLITDBs. Exploiting ideas from temporal logics, I then define a temporal meaning representation language, TOP, and I show how the HPSG grammar theory can be modified to incorporate the tense and aspect account of this thesis, and to map a wide range of English questions involving time to appropriate TOP expressions. Finally, I present and prove the correctness of a method to translate from TOP to TSQL2, TSQL2 being a temporal extension of the SQL-92 database language. This way, I establish a sound route from English questions involving time to a general-purpose temporal database language, that can act as a principled framework for building NLITDBs. To demonstrate that this framework is workable, I employ it to develop a prototype NLITDB, implemented using ALE and Prolog.

  7. Questions of professional-oriented teaching of foreign language for students of economic specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibul Victoria Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of the content of professional-oriented teaching of a foreign language to students of non-linguistic specialties, which is particularly relevant from the viewpoint of the increasing role of foreign language communication in the professional activity of modern professionals. The purpose of foreign language teaching in non-linguistics universities is to achieve a level that is sufficient for practical use of a foreign language in future career. Thus, if foreign language at linguistic university is a special base, at non-linguistic universities it is an application to general professional knowledge base and skills, so at non-linguistic universities the statement of ultimate goal requires specification. Thus, it is sufficient to consider the contents of foreign language teaching at non-linguistic faculties as the totality of what students should learn in the education process, the quality and level of foreign language should correlate with their needs and goals, as well as the goals and objectives of this level of training. Selection of the content is intended to promote the broad development of the student’s personality, its preparation for future careers.

  8. Multifractal correlations in natural language written texts: Effects of language family and long word statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigeorgiou, M.; Constantoudis, V.; Diakonos, F.; Karamanos, K.; Papadimitriou, C.; Kalimeri, M.; Papageorgiou, H.

    2017-03-01

    During the last years, several methods from the statistical physics of complex systems have been applied to the study of natural language written texts. They have mostly been focused on the detection of long-range correlations, multifractal analysis and the statistics of the content word positions. In the present paper, we show that these statistical aspects of language series are not independent but may exhibit strong interrelations. This is done by means of a two-step investigation. First, we calculate the multifractal spectra using the word-length representation of huge parallel corpora from ten European languages and compare with the shuffled data to assess the contribution of long-range correlations to multifractality. In the second step, the detected multifractal correlations are shown to be related to the scale-dependent clustering of the long, highly informative content words. Furthermore, exploiting the language sensitivity of the used word-length representation, we demonstrate the consistent impact of the classification of languages into families on the multifractal correlations and long-word clustering patterns.

  9. 'Fly Like This': Natural Language Interface for UAV Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Meghan; Meszaros, Erica L.; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing presence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in everyday environments, the user base of these powerful and potentially intelligent machines is expanding beyond exclusively highly trained vehicle operators to include non-expert system users. Scientists seeking to augment costly and often inflexible methods of data collection historically used are turning towards lower cost and reconfigurable UAVs. These new users require more intuitive and natural methods for UAV mission planning. This paper explores two natural language interfaces - gesture and speech - for UAV flight path generation through individual user studies. Subjects who participated in the user studies also used a mouse-based interface for a baseline comparison. Each interface allowed the user to build flight paths from a library of twelve individual trajectory segments. Individual user studies evaluated performance, efficacy, and ease-of-use of each interface using background surveys, subjective questionnaires, and observations on time and correctness. Analysis indicates that natural language interfaces are promising alternatives to traditional interfaces. The user study data collected on the efficacy and potential of each interface will be used to inform future intuitive UAV interface design for non-expert users.

  10. Speech, language and aided communication: connections and questions in a developmental context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martine

    2006-02-15

    This discussion paper focuses on four potential complexities in the language development of children with severe congenital speech impairments, who use graphic symbols as a primary means of expression. Some of the literature in relation to language development in aided communication is reviewed. Four potentially significant connections are discussed, relating to: (i) the features of graphic symbols; (ii) the complexity of multi-modal communication; (iii) the impact of selection and production on the process of developing a language system; and (iv), the connection between development and learning. It is proposed that the connections outlined are of fundamental significance in guiding intervention planning and in supporting language development in ways that have theoretical coherence.

  11. Deviations in the Zipf and Heaps laws in natural languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, Vladimir V.; Lerner, Eduard Yu; Shevlyakova, Anna V.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is devoted to verifying of the empirical Zipf and Hips laws in natural languages using Google Books Ngram corpus data. The connection between the Zipf and Heaps law which predicts the power dependence of the vocabulary size on the text size is discussed. In fact, the Heaps exponent in this dependence varies with the increasing of the text corpus. To explain it, the obtained results are compared with the probability model of text generation. Quasi-periodic variations with characteristic time periods of 60-100 years were also found.

  12. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  13. AceWiki: Collaborative Ontology Management in Controlled Natural Language

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    AceWiki is a prototype that shows how a semantic wiki using controlled natural language - Attempto Controlled English (ACE) in our case - can make ontology management easy for everybody. Sentences in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic, OWL, or SWRL. AceWiki integrates the OWL reasoner Pellet and ensures that the ontology is always consistent. Previous results have shown that people with no background in logic are able to add formal knowledge to AceWiki without being instructed or trained in advance.

  14. Predicting Literacy Achievement in Young English Language Learners: A Question of Language Proficiency or of Learning Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Sara; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    In this article empirical research regarding the best predictors of literacy achievement for English language learning students (ELLs) in English-only classrooms is reviewed. These students comprise an ever-increasing population in these settings, but there is considerable confusion in differentiating between ELLs who are low-achievement readers…

  15. An Intelligent Natural Language Conversational System for Academic Advising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Latorre-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic advisors assist students in academic, professional, social and personal matters. Successful advising increases student retention, improves graduation rates and helps students meet educational goals. This work presents an advising system that assists advisors in multiple tasks using natural language. This system features a conversational agent as the user interface, an academic advising knowledge base with a method to allow the users to contribute to it, an expert system for academic planning, and a web design structure for the implementation platform. The system is operational for several hundred students from a university department. The system performed well, obtaining close to 80%, on the traditional language processing measures of precision, recall, accuracy and F1 score. Assessment from the constituencies showed positive and assuring reviews. This work provides an assessment and technological solution to the academic advising field, i.e., the first-known advising multi-task conversational system with adaptive measures for improvement. The evaluation in a real-world scenario shows its viability, and initiated the development of a corpus for academic advising, valuable for the academic and language processing research communities.

  16. ERPs reveal atypical processing of subject versus object Wh-questions in children with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object (Who did the bear follow?) relative to subject (Who followed the tiger?) wh-questions. Aims To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD), show a more distinct unevenness, or asymmetry, in the comprehension of these questions. In addition, this study examined whether the sustained left-anterior negativity (LAN) in event-related potentials (ERP) could be used as a marker for atypical processing of these questions in children with SLI. The LAN effect signals the greater working memory processes for maintaining in memory the dislocated object in object wh-questions and reflects working memory capacity in adults. It was predicted that the amplitude of the LAN would be greater in children with SLI, reflecting the characteristic low working memory capacity in this population. The concomitance of these behavioural and electrophysiological effects would suggest that the subject–object asymmetry in SLI should be investigated in relation to poor working memory skills. Methods & Procedures Groups including 13 children with SLI, 17 same-age TD children and 18 normal adults completed an auditory sentence comprehension task requiring button responses while continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was collected. Accuracy for subject and object questions was calculated. The mean amplitude values of the ERP data for the wh-questions were examined to identify differential processing of subject and object questions. Outcomes & Results TD children demonstrated asymmetrical comprehension of subject and object wh-questions, whereas children with SLI comprehended both question types poorly and adults did not show subject–object asymmetry. ERP waveforms spanning the wh-dependency revealed a large and widespread sustained anterior positivity for object relative to subject questions in the TD group, indicating

  17. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Does textual feedback hinder spoken interaction in natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bigot, Ludovic; Terrier, Patrice; Jamet, Eric; Botherel, Valerie; Rouet, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of textual feedback on the content and outcome of spoken interaction with a natural language dialogue system. More specifically, the assumption that textual feedback could disrupt spoken interaction was tested in a human-computer dialogue situation. In total, 48 adult participants, familiar with the system, had to find restaurants based on simple or difficult scenarios using a real natural language service system in a speech-only (phone), speech plus textual dialogue history (multimodal) or text-only (web) modality. The linguistic contents of the dialogues differed as a function of modality, but were similar whether the textual feedback was included in the spoken condition or not. These results add to burgeoning research efforts on multimodal feedback, in suggesting that textual feedback may have little or no detrimental effect on information searching with a real system. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results suggest that adding textual feedback to interfaces for human-computer dialogue could enhance spoken interaction rather than create interference. The literature currently suggests that adding textual feedback to tasks that depend on the visual sense benefits human-computer interaction. The addition of textual output when the spoken modality is heavily taxed by the task was investigated.

  19. Event construal and temporal distance in natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-07-01

    Construal level theory proposes that events that are temporally proximate are represented more concretely than events that are temporally distant. We tested this prediction using two large natural language text corpora. In study 1 we examined posts on Twitter that referenced the future, and found that tweets mentioning temporally proximate dates used more concrete words than those mentioning distant dates. In study 2 we obtained all New York Times articles that referenced U.S. presidential elections between 1987 and 2007. We found that the concreteness of the words in these articles increased with the temporal proximity to their corresponding election. Additionally the reduction in concreteness after the election was much greater than the increase in concreteness leading up to the election, though both changes in concreteness were well described by an exponential function. We replicated this finding with New York Times articles referencing US public holidays. Overall, our results provide strong support for the predictions of construal level theory, and additionally illustrate how large natural language datasets can be used to inform psychological theory. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  1. Improved head-driven statistical models for natural language parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁里驰

    2013-01-01

    Head-driven statistical models for natural language parsing are the most representative lexicalized syntactic parsing models, but they only utilize semantic dependency between words, and do not incorporate other semantic information such as semantic collocation and semantic category. Some improvements on this distinctive parser are presented. Firstly, "valency" is an essential semantic feature of words. Once the valency of word is determined, the collocation of the word is clear, and the sentence structure can be directly derived. Thus, a syntactic parsing model combining valence structure with semantic dependency is purposed on the base of head-driven statistical syntactic parsing models. Secondly, semantic role labeling(SRL) is very necessary for deep natural language processing. An integrated parsing approach is proposed to integrate semantic parsing into the syntactic parsing process. Experiments are conducted for the refined statistical parser. The results show that 87.12% precision and 85.04% recall are obtained, and F measure is improved by 5.68% compared with the head-driven parsing model introduced by Collins.

  2. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  3. Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Yeon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

  4. Language Universals and Socio-Cultural Implications in Deviant Usage: Personal Questions in Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the address avoidance of second person personal pronouns in Swedish in terms of language universals and the relationship between deviation from a universal linguistic feature and social structural change. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author)

  5. Publishing Strategies of Young, Highly Mobile Academics: The Question of Language in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines links between publishing strategies and the academic mobility of multilingual entry-level scholars in the European context against the backdrop of European Union (EU) policies and research on academic labor market characteristics, skilled migration and scholarly publishing. An analysis of language of publication, patterns of…

  6. Mother Tongue Education and Minority Languages: A Question of Values and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Discusses three reasons for using mother tongue in education including preservation of cultural traditions, development of creative thought, and links between school and home. Describes creation of language-neutral materials developing graphic and symbolic skills other than writing as way to minimize cost. (Author/BK)

  7. Language Universals and Socio-Cultural Implications in Deviant Usage: Personal Questions in Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the address avoidance of second person personal pronouns in Swedish in terms of language universals and the relationship between deviation from a universal linguistic feature and social structural change. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author)

  8. City Literacies in Second Languages: New Questions for Policy and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the current research efforts of a research team at a Colombian university to explore the new forms of literacies in second languages in the city. The different research projects from this research team aim to break the social imaginaries, often perpetuated in policies, that people in cities are not using English as a…

  9. Escola versus Televisao: Uma Questao de Linguagem (School versus Television: A Question of Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Maria Luiza

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the increasing presence of technology in social life and its effects on the educational processes. Presents research results about cognitive abilities and the "audiovisual language" typical of the younger generations. Discusses how to adapt the practice of education to these new requirements or necessities of the children who…

  10. Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.M.W.

    1983-04-01

    Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

  11. Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  12. What baboons can (not) tell us about natural language grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletiek, Fenna H; Fitz, Hartmut; Bocanegra, Bruno R

    2016-06-01

    Rey et al. (2012) present data from a study with baboons that they interpret in support of the idea that center-embedded structures in human language have their origin in low level memory mechanisms and associative learning. Critically, the authors claim that the baboons showed a behavioral preference that is consistent with center-embedded sequences over other types of sequences. We argue that the baboons' response patterns suggest that two mechanisms are involved: first, they can be trained to associate a particular response with a particular stimulus, and, second, when faced with two conditioned stimuli in a row, they respond to the most recent one first, copying behavior they had been rewarded for during training. Although Rey et al. (2012) 'experiment shows that the baboons' behavior is driven by low level mechanisms, it is not clear how the animal behavior reported, bears on the phenomenon of Center Embedded structures in human syntax. Hence, (1) natural language syntax may indeed have been shaped by low level mechanisms, and (2) the baboons' behavior is driven by low level stimulus response learning, as Rey et al. propose. But is the second evidence for the first? We will discuss in what ways this study can and cannot give evidential value for explaining the origin of Center Embedded recursion in human grammar. More generally, their study provokes an interesting reflection on the use of animal studies in order to understand features of the human linguistic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-08-01

    A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

  14. Question Answering for Dutch: Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  15. A Korean Language Translation of the Questions about Behavior Function: Initial Psychometric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dennis R.; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The…

  16. Excess entropy in natural language: present state and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Dęowski, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the meaning of mutual information in natural language. Let us define words in a text as strings that occur sufficiently often. In a few previous papers, we have shown that a power-law distribution for so defined words (a.k.a. Zipf's or Herdan's law) is obeyed if there is a similar power-law growth of (algorithmic) mutual information between adjacent portions of texts of increasing length. Moreover, the power-law growth of information holds if texts describe a complicated infinite (algorithmically) random object in a highly repetitive way, according to an analogous power-law distribution. The described object may be immutable (like a mathematical or physical constant) or may evolve slowly in time (like cultural heritage). Here we reflect on the respective mathematical results in a less technical way. We also discuss feasibility of deciding to what extent these results apply to the actual human communication.

  17. Natural Language Processing methods and systems for biomedical ontology learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-02-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of Natural Language Processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  19. Detection of Blood Culture Bacterial Contamination using Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Michael E.; FitzHenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J.; Brown, Steven H.; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Dittus, Robert S.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%. PMID:20351890

  20. Detection of blood culture bacterial contamination using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Michael E; Fitzhenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J; Brown, Steven H; Fielstein, Elliot M; Dittus, Robert S; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-11-14

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%.

  1. Automatic Item Generation via Frame Semantics: Natural Language Generation of Math Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen

    This paper is an exploration of the conceptual issues that have arisen in the course of building a natural language generation (NLG) system for automatic test item generation. While natural language processing techniques are applicable to general verbal items, mathematics word problems are particularly tractable targets for natural language…

  2. Language and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云龙

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction If one asks about the relation between thought and language, people expect the issue to concern such matters as whether we think in language, whether creatures without language can "think", and the way language shapes our concepts. In my opinion, there is a much deeper question, which concerns the nature of linguistic communication.

  3. Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

  4. Constructing Concept Schemes From Astronomical Telegrams Via Natural Language Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Zhang, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A. J.; Mahabal, A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using hierarchical clustering of processed natural language. This allows us to automatically organize ATELs based on the vocabulary used. We conclude that we can use simple algorithms to process and extract meaning from astronomical textual data.

  5. On Natural Language Retrieval%论自然语言检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠玲

    2003-01-01

    With its advantages in information retrieval, such as simple in indexing and convenient in information re-trieval, natural language is now widely used in idonnafion retrieval and network retrieval. However, due to some charac-teristics of the natural language itself, its retrieval result is usually tmsafisfactory. This paper sumamrizes several main fac-tots that restrict natural language retrieval and introduces a concept space method to improve its retrieval efficiency.

  6. Dependency distances in natural mixed languages. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Haitao Liu et al.'s article [1] offers a comprehensive account of the diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages in terms of an important index of memory burden and syntactic difficulty - the dependency distance. Natural languages, a complex system, present overall shorter dependency distances under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization; however, there exist some relatively-long-distance dependencies, which reflect that language can constantly adapt itself to some deep-level biological or functional constraints.

  7. So Much More than Just a List: Exploring the Nature of Critical Questioning in Undergraduate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is…

  8. Second-language instinct and instruction effects: nature and nurture in second-language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho; Kimura, Naoki; Uchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Satoru; Miura, Naoki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instructed simplex sentences." The behavioral data show that they can acquire more knowledge than is instructed, suggesting the interweaving of nature (universal principles of grammar, UG) and nurture (instruction) in L2 acquisition. The comparison in the "uninstructed complex sentences" between post-instruction and pre-instruction using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a significant activation in Broca's area. Thus, this study provides new insight into Broca's area, where nature and nurture cooperate to produce L2 learners' rich linguistic knowledge. It also shows neural plasticity of adult L2 acquisition, arguing against a critical period hypothesis, at least in the domain of UG.

  9. A Comparison of Natural Language Processing Methods for Automated Coding of Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanana, Michael; Hallgren, Kevin A; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Srikumar, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an efficacious treatment for substance use disorders and other problem behaviors. Studies on MI fidelity and mechanisms of change typically use human raters to code therapy sessions, which requires considerable time, training, and financial costs. Natural language processing techniques have recently been utilized for coding MI sessions using machine learning techniques, rather than human coders, and preliminary results have suggested these methods hold promise. The current study extends this previous work by introducing two natural language processing models for automatically coding MI sessions via computer. The two models differ in the way they semantically represent session content, utilizing either 1) simple discrete sentence features (DSF model) and 2) more complex recursive neural networks (RNN model). Utterance- and session-level predictions from these models were compared to ratings provided by human coders using a large sample of MI sessions (N=341 sessions; 78,977 clinician and client talk turns) from 6 MI studies. Results show that the DSF model generally had slightly better performance compared to the RNN model. The DSF model had "good" or higher utterance-level agreement with human coders (Cohen's kappa>0.60) for open and closed questions, affirm, giving information, and follow/neutral (all therapist codes); considerably higher agreement was obtained for session-level indices, and many estimates were competitive with human-to-human agreement. However, there was poor agreement for client change talk, client sustain talk, and therapist MI-inconsistent behaviors. Natural language processing methods provide accurate representations of human derived behavioral codes and could offer substantial improvements to the efficiency and scale in which MI mechanisms of change research and fidelity monitoring are conducted.

  10. Human-Level Natural Language Understanding: False Progress and Real Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignoli, Perrin G.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) focuses on the study of how utterances composed of human-level languages can be understood and generated. Typically, there are considered to be three intertwined levels of structure that interact to create meaning in language: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Not only is a large amount of…

  11. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-07

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  13. Nine-month-olds extract structural principles required for natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn

    2004-10-01

    Infants' ability to rapidly extract properties of language-like systems during brief laboratory exposures has been taken as evidence about the innate linguistic state of humans. However, previous studies have focused on structural properties that are not central to descriptions of natural language. In the current study, infants were exposed to 3- and 5-syllable words from one of the two artificial languages that employed the same stress assignment constraints found in natural languages. Infants were able to generalize beyond the stress patterns encountered during familiarization to new patterns reflecting the same constraints. The results suggest that infants are able to rapidly extract the types of structural information required for human language.

  14. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  15. TO THE QUESTION OF THE USING OF INFORMATIONCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerimbaeva T. Botagoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is the using of informational-computer technologies in learning English language of future specialists very effectively, as the didactic function of these technologies is wide. This is due to the fact that computer technology allows obtaining information multichannel, and therefore increases significantly as the volume of information received, and the quality of its assimilation.Methods. Modern trends of modernization of educational programs demand introduction of modern methods of teaching. The increasing introduction of new information and computer technologies and application of the competence approach in educational process of Kh. A. Yasawi International Kazakh-Turkish University promotes increase of efficiency of process of English teaching. One of the urgent problems of training of specialists of international level is development of methods of using information technology in forming informational-communicative competence of future specialists.Results. The relevance of this issue is determined, firstly, by the fact that information and computer technology implies a future specialist of new knowledge, skills, style of thinking which will provide necessary social adaptation to changes and guarantee its competitiveness on the labour market; secondly, necessity of perfection of the methodical-didactic organization of the process of professionally oriented training of future; thirdly, objective requirement of modern society in preparing professionals able to integrate into the world information space; fourthly, tendencies of a national educational policy.Scientific novelty. One of the main challenges facing the system of training of future specialists is to improve the quality of professional training of students taking into account modern trends of development and use of information technology in professional activities. Worldwide there is a trend of using the computer as an integral means of studying

  16. "Speaking English Naturally": The Language Ideologies of English as an Official Language at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    This study explores language ideologies of English at a Korean university where English has been adopted as an official language. This study draws on ethnographic data in order to understand how speakers respond to and experience the institutional language policy. The findings show that language ideologies in this university represent the…

  17. Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

  18. A Question of Jurisdiction: Art. 267 TFEU Preliminary References of a CFSP Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Can the Court of Justice of the European Union assert jurisdiction and provide a national court with an interpretation of Union law in a case referred to it from a national court under an Art. 267 TFEU preliminary reference, when the subject matter is in regard to the Common Foreign and Security...... Policy (CFSP)? This was one of a number of questions referred to the Court of Justice from the High Court of England and Wales in Rosneft (judgment of 28 March 2017, case C-72/15). In March 2017, the Court of Justice meeting in a Grand Chamber formation, answered this jurisdictional question...... of case law to clarify its jurisdiction in CFSP, it is ultimately a question of constitutional importance for the EU’s external relations....

  19. A Systematic Review of Natural Language Processing in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaronke G. Iroju

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare system is a knowledge driven industry which consists of vast and growing volumes of narrative information obtained from discharge summaries/reports, physicians case notes, pathologists as well as radiologists reports. This information is usually stored in unstructured and non-standardized formats in electronic healthcare systems which make it difficult for the systems to understand the information contents of the narrative information. Thus, the access to valuable and meaningful healthcare information for decision making is a challenge. Nevertheless, Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques have been used to structure narrative information in healthcare. Thus, NLP techniques have the capability to capture unstructured healthcare information, analyze its grammatical structure, determine the meaning of the information and translate the information so that it can be easily understood by the electronic healthcare systems. Consequently, NLP techniques reduce cost as well as improve the quality of healthcare. It is therefore against this background that this paper reviews the NLP techniques used in healthcare, their applications as well as their limitations.

  20. Intelligent Performance Analysis with a Natural Language Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuso, Esko K.

    2017-09-01

    Performance improvement is taken as the primary goal in the asset management. Advanced data analysis is needed to efficiently integrate condition monitoring data into the operation and maintenance. Intelligent stress and condition indices have been developed for control and condition monitoring by combining generalized norms with efficient nonlinear scaling. These nonlinear scaling methodologies can also be used to handle performance measures used for management since management oriented indicators can be presented in the same scale as intelligent condition and stress indices. Performance indicators are responses of the process, machine or system to the stress contributions analyzed from process and condition monitoring data. Scaled values are directly used in intelligent temporal analysis to calculate fluctuations and trends. All these methodologies can be used in prognostics and fatigue prediction. The meanings of the variables are beneficial in extracting expert knowledge and representing information in natural language. The idea of dividing the problems into the variable specific meanings and the directions of interactions provides various improvements for performance monitoring and decision making. The integrated temporal analysis and uncertainty processing facilitates the efficient use of domain expertise. Measurements can be monitored with generalized statistical process control (GSPC) based on the same scaling functions.

  1. A common type system for clinical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-03

    One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  2. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs, thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.

  3. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time.

  4. Natural language processing and visualization in the molecular imaging domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipano, P Karina; Tao, Ying; Millar, William S; Zanzonico, Pat; Kolbert, Katherine; Xu, Hua; Yu, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Lussier, Yves A; Friedman, Carol

    2007-06-01

    Molecular imaging is at the crossroads of genomic sciences and medical imaging. Information within the molecular imaging literature could be used to link to genomic and imaging information resources and to organize and index images in a way that is potentially useful to researchers. A number of natural language processing (NLP) systems are available to automatically extract information from genomic literature. One existing NLP system, known as BioMedLEE, automatically extracts biological information consisting of biomolecular substances and phenotypic data. This paper focuses on the adaptation, evaluation, and application of BioMedLEE to the molecular imaging domain. In order to adapt BioMedLEE for this domain, we extend an existing molecular imaging terminology and incorporate it into BioMedLEE. BioMedLEE's performance is assessed with a formal evaluation study. The system's performance, measured as recall and precision, is 0.74 (95% CI: [.70-.76]) and 0.70 (95% CI [.63-.76]), respectively. We adapt a JAVA viewer known as PGviewer for the simultaneous visualization of images with NLP extracted information.

  5. Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-03-01

    Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

  6. Natural Language Processing in aid of FlyBase curators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamanis Nikiforos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest in applying Natural Language Processing (NLP to biomedical text, whether this technology can facilitate tasks such as database curation remains unclear. Results PaperBrowser is the first NLP-powered interface that was developed under a user-centered approach to improve the way in which FlyBase curators navigate an article. In this paper, we first discuss how observing curators at work informed the design and evaluation of PaperBrowser. Then, we present how we appraise PaperBrowser's navigational functionalities in a user-based study using a text highlighting task and evaluation criteria of Human-Computer Interaction. Our results show that PaperBrowser reduces the amount of interactions between two highlighting events and therefore improves navigational efficiency by about 58% compared to the navigational mechanism that was previously available to the curators. Moreover, PaperBrowser is shown to provide curators with enhanced navigational utility by over 74% irrespective of the different ways in which they highlight text in the article. Conclusion We show that state-of-the-art performance in certain NLP tasks such as Named Entity Recognition and Anaphora Resolution can be combined with the navigational functionalities of PaperBrowser to support curation quite successfully.

  7. Framework and Resources for Natural Language Parser Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkonen, Tuomo

    2007-01-01

    Because of the wide variety of contemporary practices used in the automatic syntactic parsing of natural languages, it has become necessary to analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. This research is all the more necessary because there are currently no genre- and domain-independent parsers that are able to analyze unrestricted text with 100% preciseness (I use this term to refer to the correctness of analyses assigned by a parser). All these factors create a need for methods and resources that can be used to evaluate and compare parsing systems. This research describes: (1) A theoretical analysis of current achievements in parsing and parser evaluation. (2) A framework (called FEPa) that can be used to carry out practical parser evaluations and comparisons. (3) A set of new evaluation resources: FiEval is a Finnish treebank under construction, and MGTS and RobSet are parser evaluation resources in English. (4) The results of experiments in which the developed evaluation fra...

  8. Grassy Narrows Reserve: Mercury Pollution, Social Disruption, and Natural Resources: A Question of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsey, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Presents chronological socio-economic account of Grassy Narrows Reserve, focusing on the 1962-1970 mercury pollution that poisoned the reserve's river system and on resulting negotiations between the Ojibway people of Grassy Narrows, the government, and the polluting company. Examines the question of Grassy Narrows people gaining autonomy over the…

  9. A Model of a Generic Natural Language Interface for Querying Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Bais

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracting information from database is typically done by using a structured language such as SQL (Structured Query Language. But non expert users can’t use this later. Wherefore using Natural Language (NL for communicating with database can be a powerful tool. But without any help, computers can’t understand this language; that is why it is essential to develop an interface able to translate user’s query given in NL into an equivalent one in Database Query Language (DBQL. This paper presents a model of a generic natural language query interface for querying database. This model is based on machine learning approach which allows interface to automatically improve its knowledge base through experience. The advantage of this interface is that it functions independently of the database language, content and model. Experimentations are realized to study the performance of this interface and make necessary corrections for its amelioration

  10. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  11. TO A QUESTION ABOUT THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE POLICY AND ITS MEANING FOR THE IMAGE STRATEGY COMPLEX AND NATIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Tsyrakson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the current international situation, the most important are issues of national selfdetermination and identity. One of the most important elements of the «national norm» expression is the national language and the factors that determine its development. In this context, the national language may be an essential tool, both domestic and foreign policies of the state (the instrument of soft power. This issue is particularly acute for the national political and cultural elite at the present stage. Theoretical approaches to the formation of values and ethical guidelines of the Russian society can be based, to a certain extent, on the fundamental postulates of the main currents of Russian philosophy of the XIX century, especially paying attention to the concept of the "Russian idea". It is important to understand that in this case the national language becomes a political tool in the global sense and objective may be part of the whole complex of state branding policy. The tactics of the national language promotion in an international environment (methods and forms must be not aggressive in nature and create a pressure effect on the subconscious of citizens of that state for which this mechanism is provided. Image effect is achieved through the common moral and ethical attitudes, wearing ethnic, national determination by the country. On the other hand, the study of the impact on the public consciousness of a social system by means of the facts surrounding the use of the studied linguistic tools, allows you to view philosophy as a system of knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of application, vibrating between the different areas of social sciences.

  12. Context effects produced by question orders reveal quantum nature of human judgments

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, quantum probability theory has been used to explain a range of seemingly irrational human decision-making behaviors. The quantum models generally outperform traditional models in fitting human data, but both modeling approaches require optimizing parameter values. However, quantum theory makes a universal, nonparametric prediction for differing outcomes when two successive questions (e.g., attitude judgments) are asked in different orders. Quite remarkably, this prediction wa...

  13. ON THE QUESTION OF THE WAVE NATURE INNOVATION PROCESSES IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Fomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological and methodical basesof research of economic crises are stated the article. The main attention is paid to the cyclical nature of crises. The reasons that unbalance the world economy andlead to economic crises in the world and in Russia are explored. The relationship of the wave nature of the world economywith the cyclical nature of technologicaldevelopment are considered. The wayout of the economic crisis in Russia and a new systematic approach to transition toan innovative model of Russian economyare provided.

  14. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  15. Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, N. L.; Nowak, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The language acquisition period in humans lasts about 13 years. After puberty it becomes increasingly difficult to learn a language. We explain this phenomenon by using an evolutionary framework. We present a dynamical system describing competition between language acquisition devices, which differ in the length of the learning period. There are two selective forces that play a role in determining the critical learning period: (i) having a longer learning period increases the accuracy of language acquisition; (ii) learning is associated with certain costs that affect fitness. As a result, there exists a limited learning period which is evolutionarily stable. This result is obtained analytically by means of a Nash equilibrium analysis of language acquisition devices. Interestingly, the evolutionarily stable learning period does not maximize the average fitness of the population. PMID:11375108

  16. Automation of a problem list using natural language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular. We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients, but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem

  17. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

  18. Critical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  19. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring Natural Language Processing Methods for Finno-Ugric Langages

    OpenAIRE

    Poibeau, Thierry; Fagard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents some preliminary experiments concerning the automatic processing of Finno-Ugric languages with computers. We present symbolic methods as well as machine learning ones. Given the lack of corpora for some languages , we think finite-state transducers may sometimes be the best approach where only little data are available for learning. We also consider some machine learning approaches that could be valuably applied in this context, more specifically li...

  1. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  2. A Question of Jurisdiction: Art. 267 TFEU Preliminary References of a CFSP Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Can the Court of Justice of the European Union assert jurisdiction and provide a national court with an interpretation of Union law in a case referred to it from a national court under an Art. 267 TFEU preliminary reference, when the subject matter is in regard to the Common Foreign and Security...... in the affirmative. Given the significance of this judgment for the law of CFSP, and the Opinion of the Advocate General in 2016, this judgment was hotly anticipated given its implications for the “specific rules and procedures” that are applicable to the law of CFSP. As the Court of Justice continues in a line...... of case law to clarify its jurisdiction in CFSP, it is ultimately a question of constitutional importance for the EU’s external relations....

  3. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Che Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  4. Language of sociology: the problem of artificial and natural (everyday) concepts

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to considering and analysis of the language situation in sociology. There are two different approaches of construction of sociological concepts: 1) construction concepts from ordinary language of social actors – the tradition in sociology, and 2) construction concepts that are not present in natural language – artificial. Recently some sociologists, in particular poststructuralists, began to lobby the latter approach of construction concepts. But what brings sociolog...

  5. Schutz, Berger and Luckmann.The question of the natural attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Muzzetto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight different interpretations of the fundamental characteristics of the natural attitude, as formulated by Berger and Luckmann, and Alfred Schutz respectively. The first part of the paper explores the notion of taken-for-granted in the everyday life-world in The Social Construction of Reality by Berger and Luckmann and The Problem of Multiple Realities: Alfred Schutz and Robert Musil by Berger. The two essays show the presence of a articulated vision based on the same theoretical matrix. The second part of the paper analyses the essential characteristics of the natural attitude in the work of Husserl and Schutz. Although Berger and Luckmann are commonly viewed as being Schutzian scholars, their work actually presents significant differences, not only with respect to Husserl, but also to Schutz himself.

  6. To the question of peculiarities of thermal activation of natural siliceous raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of activity enhancement of natural siliceous raw material are given in the article. Fossil meal of Khotynetsky deposit, diatomite of Sharlovsky deposit, silica clay of Balasheika deposit were used as natural active mineral admixtures. The influence of heat-treating temperature and dispersion on activity of different types of siliceous raw material is studied. The increase of activity of fixation of Ca(OH2 in several times is traced after heat-treating at a certain temperature in the range from 100 to 800°C. The type of activity change is discovered. Explanation is given connected with the change of silica structure in the surface layer. Parameters of the highest activity are defined for every type of siliceous raw material.

  7. Genes, language, and the nature of scientific explanations: the case of Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Julien; Landau, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss two experiments of nature and their implications for the sciences of the mind. The first, Williams syndrome, bears on one of cognitive science's holy grails: the possibility of unravelling the causal chain between genes and cognition. We sketch the outline of a general framework to study the relationship between genes and cognition, focusing as our case study on the development of language in individuals with Williams syndrome. Our approach emphasizes the role of three key ingredients: the need to specify a clear level of analysis, the need to provide a theoretical account of the relevant cognitive structure at that level, and the importance of the (typical) developmental process itself. The promise offered by the case of Williams syndrome has also given rise to two strongly conflicting theoretical approaches-modularity and neuroconstructivism-themselves offshoots of a perennial debate between nativism and empiricism. We apply our framework to explore the tension created by these two conflicting perspectives. To this end, we discuss a second experiment of nature, which allows us to compare the two competing perspectives in what comes close to a controlled experimental setting. From this comparison, we conclude that the "meaningful debate assumption", a widespread assumption suggesting that neuroconstructivism and modularity address the same questions and represent genuine theoretical alternatives, rests on a fallacy.

  8. Dynamic changes in network activations characterize early learning of a natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Patterson, Dianne; Dailey, Natalie S; Kyle, R Almyrde; Fridriksson, Julius

    2014-09-01

    Those who are initially exposed to an unfamiliar language have difficulty separating running speech into individual words, but over time will recognize both words and the grammatical structure of the language. Behavioral studies have used artificial languages to demonstrate that humans are sensitive to distributional information in language input, and can use this information to discover the structure of that language. This is done without direct instruction and learning occurs over the course of minutes rather than days or months. Moreover, learners may attend to different aspects of the language input as their own learning progresses. Here, we examine processing associated with the early stages of exposure to a natural language, using fMRI. Listeners were exposed to an unfamiliar language (Icelandic) while undergoing four consecutive fMRI scans. The Icelandic stimuli were constrained in ways known to produce rapid learning of aspects of language structure. After approximately 4 min of exposure to the Icelandic stimuli, participants began to differentiate between correct and incorrect sentences at above chance levels, with significant improvement between the first and last scan. An independent component analysis of the imaging data revealed four task-related components, two of which were associated with behavioral performance early in the experiment, and two with performance later in the experiment. This outcome suggests dynamic changes occur in the recruitment of neural resources even within the initial period of exposure to an unfamiliar natural language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  10. A Fuzzy Set Approach to Modifiers and Vagueness in Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Harry M.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    1976-01-01

    The proposition that natural language concepts are represented as fuzzy sets, a generalization of the traditional theory of sets, of meaning components and that language operators--adverbs, negative markers, and adjectives--can be considered as operators on fuzzy sets was assessed empirically. (Editor/RK)

  11. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  12. Where humans meet machines innovative solutions for knotty natural-language problems

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems brings humans and machines closer together by showing how linguistic complexities that confound the speech systems of today can be handled effectively by sophisticated natural-language technology. Some of the most vexing natural-language problems that are addressed in this book entail   recognizing and processing idiomatic expressions, understanding metaphors, matching an anaphor correctly with its antecedent, performing word-sense disambiguation, and handling out-of-vocabulary words and phrases. This fourteen-chapter anthology consists of contributions from industry scientists and from academicians working at major universities in North America and Europe. They include researchers who have played a central role in DARPA-funded programs and developers who craft real-world solutions for corporations. These contributing authors analyze the role of natural language technology in the global marketplace; they explore the need f...

  13. Automatic derivation of programs for image processing from natural language descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fuji; Zaima, Yasumichi

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we describe AIDPG, an interactive prototype system, which derives computer programs from their natural language descriptions. AIDPG shows how to analyze natural language, resolve ambiguities using knowledge, and generates programs. AIDPG consists of a natural language input model, a natural language analysis model, a program generation model (PGG-Model) and a human machine interface control model. The PGG model has three sub-models, program structure manage sub-model, a data structure and type manage sub- model, and program base manage sub-model. We used an arithmetic problem, which, described in Japanese, was passed to AIDPG and got run-possible C programs. Although AIDPG is basic currently we got a significant result.

  14. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  15. Voice-enabled Knowledge Engine using Flood Ontology and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The IFIS is designed for use by general public, often people with no domain knowledge and limited general science background. To improve effective communication with such audience, we have introduced a voice-enabled knowledge engine on flood related issues in IFIS. Instead of navigating within many features and interfaces of the information system and web-based sources, the system provides dynamic computations based on a collection of built-in data, analysis, and methods. The IFIS Knowledge Engine connects to real-time stream gauges, in-house data sources, analysis and visualization tools to answer natural language questions. Our goal is the systematization of data and modeling results on flood related issues in Iowa, and to provide an interface for definitive answers to factual queries. The goal of the knowledge engine is to make all flood related knowledge in Iowa easily accessible to everyone, and support voice-enabled natural language input. We aim to integrate and curate all flood related data, implement analytical and visualization tools, and make it possible to compute answers from questions. The IFIS explicitly implements analytical methods and models, as algorithms, and curates all flood related data and resources so that all these resources are computable. The IFIS Knowledge Engine computes the answer by deriving it from its computational knowledge base. The knowledge engine processes the statement, access data warehouse, run complex database queries on the server-side and return outputs in various formats. This presentation provides an overview of IFIS Knowledge Engine, its unique information interface and functionality as an educational tool, and discusses the future plans

  16. Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which…

  17. Natural and Flexible Error Recovery for Generated Modular Language Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Soderberg, E.; Visser, E.

    2012-01-01

    Author's version of the work published in: ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS), 34 (4), 2012; doi:10.1145/2400676.2400678. Integrated development environments (IDEs) increase programmer productivity, providing rapid, interactive feedback based on the syntax and semantics

  18. Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

  19. Language-Centered Social Studies: A Natural Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Aleman, Magdalena

    1983-01-01

    Described is a newspaper project in which elementary students report life as it was in the Middle Ages. Students are involved in a variety of language-centered activities. For example, they gather and evaluate information about medieval times and write, edit, and proofread articles for the newspaper. (RM)

  20. A Goal-Oriented Model of Natural Language Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    be terminated. * The term "Dialogue-game" was adopted by analogy from Wittgenstein’s term "language game" ( Wittgenstein , 1958). However, Dialogue...comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cognitive Psychology, 1977, 9, 77-110. Wittgenstein , L Philosophical investigations (3rd ed

  1. Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

  2. Language-Centered Social Studies: A Natural Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Aleman, Magdalena

    1983-01-01

    Described is a newspaper project in which elementary students report life as it was in the Middle Ages. Students are involved in a variety of language-centered activities. For example, they gather and evaluate information about medieval times and write, edit, and proofread articles for the newspaper. (RM)

  3. The decoding and knowledge match in natural language communication%自然语言交际中的语码解读和知识匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰

    2001-01-01

    Following a brief review of the current theorizations of the mechanisms involved in natural language production and comprehension, we in this article argue that two significant properties of natural language communications have been largely neglected: (1) information lossin language encoding and information recovery by listeners in language comprehension; (2) theadvance knowledge match in language decoding. We emphasize that they are two fundamentalproperties of natural language communications, whichnatural language processing and language learning andhave a wide range of consequences overteaching.

  4. Reprint of "Does Functional Neuroimaging Solve the Questions of Neurolinguistics?" [Brain and Language 98 (2006) 276-290

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Neurolinguistic research has been engaged in evaluating models of language using measures from brain structure and function, and/or in investigating brain structure and function with respect to language representation using proposed models of language. While the aphasiological strategy, which classifies aphasias based on performance modality and a…

  5. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed and more abstract language is used to characterize phenomena that are more distant from the self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness is unknown. In four studies, we tested whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), time points further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social-media users, we determined that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance, and we discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of this relationship. We also demonstrated that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are nearly identical, which suggests uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  7. The written language of signals as a means of natural literacy of deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Fracari Hautrive

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking the theme literacy of deaf children is currently directing the eye to the practice teaching course that demands beyond the school. Questions moving to daily practice, became a challenge, requiring an investigative attitude. The article aims to problematize the process of literacy of deaf children. Reflection proposal emerges from daily practice. This structure is from yarns that include theoretical studies of Vigotskii (1989, 1994, 1996, 1998; Stumpf (2005, Quadros (1997; Bolzan (1998, 2002; Skliar (1997a, 1997b, 1998 . From which, problematizes the processes involved in the construction of written language. It is as a result, the importance of the instrumentalization of sign language as first language in education of deaf and learning of sign language writing. Important aspects for the deaf student is observed in the condition to be literate in their mother tongue. It points out the need for a redirect in the literacy of deaf children, so that important aspects of language and its role in the structuring of thought and its communicative aspect, are respected and considered in this process. Thus, it emphasizes the learning of the writing of sign language as fundamental, it should occupy a central role in the proposed teaching the class, encouraging the contradictions that put the student in a situation of cognitive conflict, while respecting the diversity inherent to each humans. It is considered that the production of sign language writing is an appropriate tool for the deaf students record their visual language.

  8. The use of natural language processing on narrative medication schedules to compute average weekly dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao-Chin; Leng, Jianwei; Cannon, Grant W; Zhou, Xi; Egger, Marlene; South, Brett; Burningham, Zach; Zeng, Qing; Sauer, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    Medications with non-standard dosing and unstandardized units of measurement make the estimation of prescribed dose difficult from pharmacy dispensing data. A natural language processing tool named the SIG extractor was developed to identify and extract elements from narrative medication instructions to compute average weekly doses (AWDs) for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the SIG extractor. This agreement study utilized Veterans Health Affairs pharmacy data from 2008 to 2012. The SIG extractor was designed to extract key elements from narrative medication schedules (SIGs) for 17 select medications to calculate AWD, and these medications were categorized by generic name and route of administration. The SIG extractor was evaluated against an annotator-derived reference standard for accuracy, which is the fraction of AWDs accurately computed. The overall accuracy was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88%, 90%]. The accuracy was ≥85% for all medications and route combinations, except for cyclophosphamide (oral) and cyclosporine (oral), which were 79% (95%CI 72%, 85%) and 66% (95%CI 58%, 73%), respectively. The SIG extractor performed well on the majority of medications, indicating that AWD calculated by the SIG extractor can be used to improve estimation of AWD when dispensed quantity or days' supply is questionable or improbable. The working model for annotating SIGs and the SIG extractor are generalized and can easily be applied to other medications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Generating executable knowledge for evidence-based medicine using natural language and semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlawsky, Tara; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

    2006-01-01

    With an increase in the prevalence of patients having multiple medical conditions, along with the increasing number of medical information sources, an intelligent approach is required to integrate the answers to physicians' patient-related questions into clinical practice in the shortest, most specific way possible. Cochrane Scientific Reviews are currently considered to be the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine (EBM), because of their well-defined systematic approach to assessing the available medical information. In order to develop semantic approaches for enabling the reuse of these Reviews, a system for producing executable knowledge was designed using a natural language processing (NLP) system we developed (BioMedLEE), and semantic processing techniques. Though BioMedLEE was not designed for or trained over the Cochrane Reviews, this study shows that disease, therapy and drug concepts can be extracted and correlated with an overall recall of 80.3%, coding precision of 94.1%, and concept-concept relationship precision of 87.3%.

  10. An Arabic Natural Language Interface System for a Database of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Nasser ElSayed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the time being, the need for searching in the words, objects, subjects, and statistics of words and parts of the Holy Quran has grown rapidly concurrently with the grow of number of Moslems and the huge usage of smart mobiles, tablets and lab tops. Because, databases are used almost in all activities of our life, some DBs have been built to store information about words and surah of Quran. The need for accessing Quran DBs became very important and wide uses, which could be done through database applications or using SQL commands, directly from database site or indirectly by a special format through LAN or even through the WEB. Most of peoples are not experienced in SQL language, but they need to build SQL commands for their retrievals. The proposed system will translate their natural Arabic requests such as questions or imperative sentences into SQL commands to retrieve answers from a Quran DB. It will perform parsing and little morphological processes according to a sub set of Arabic context-free grammar rules to work as an interface layer between users and Database.

  11. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  12. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  13. Rimac: A Natural-Language Dialogue System that Engages Students in Deep Reasoning Dialogues about Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sandra; Jordan, Pamela; Litman, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The natural-language tutorial dialogue system that the authors are developing will allow them to focus on the nature of interactivity during tutoring as a malleable factor. Specifically, it will serve as a research platform for studies that manipulate the frequency and types of verbal alignment processes that take place during tutoring, such as…

  14. Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Posters Virus Ecology Graphic Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals Language: English Español ... Tweet Share Compartir How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola ...

  15. Semantic similarity from natural language and ontology analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harispe, Sébastien; Janaqi, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence federates numerous scientific fields in the aim of developing machines able to assist human operators performing complex treatments---most of which demand high cognitive skills (e.g. learning or decision processes). Central to this quest is to give machines the ability to estimate the likeness or similarity between things in the way human beings estimate the similarity between stimuli.In this context, this book focuses on semantic measures: approaches designed for comparing semantic entities such as units of language, e.g. words, sentences, or concepts and instances def

  16. The Language Faculty that Wasn't: A Usage-Based Account of Natural Language Recursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten H Christiansen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking—perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerge gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty.

  17. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Chater, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking-perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerges gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty.

  18. Computer simulation as an important approach to explore language universal. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Exploring language universal is one of the major goals of linguistic researches, which are largely devoted to answering the ;Platonic questions; in linguistics, that is, what is the language knowledge, how to get and use this knowledge. However, if solely guided by linguistic intuition, it is very difficult for syntactic studies to answer these questions, or to achieve abstractions in the scientific sense. This suggests that linguistic analyses based on the probability theory may provide effective ways to investigate into language universals in terms of biological motivations or cognitive psychological mechanisms. With the view that ;Language is a human-driven system;, Liu, Xu & Liang's review [1] pointed out that dependency distance minimization (DDM), which has been corroborated by big data analysis of corpus, may be a language universal shaped in language evolution, a universal that has profound effect on syntactic patterns.

  19. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key.

  20. Visual statistical learning is related to natural language ability in adults: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltrozzo, Jerome; Emerson, Samantha N; Deocampo, Joanne; Singh, Sonia; Freggens, Marjorie; Branum-Martin, Lee; Conway, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Statistical learning (SL) is believed to enable language acquisition by allowing individuals to learn regularities within linguistic input. However, neural evidence supporting a direct relationship between SL and language ability is scarce. We investigated whether there are associations between event-related potential (ERP) correlates of SL and language abilities while controlling for the general level of selective attention. Seventeen adults completed tests of visual SL, receptive vocabulary, grammatical ability, and sentence completion. Response times and ERPs showed that SL is related to receptive vocabulary and grammatical ability. ERPs indicated that the relationship between SL and grammatical ability was independent of attention while the association between SL and receptive vocabulary depended on attention. The implications of these dissociative relationships in terms of underlying mechanisms of SL and language are discussed. These results further elucidate the cognitive nature of the links between SL mechanisms and language abilities.

  1. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of sense of natural language constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisikalo Oleg V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of evaluating uncertainty in the measurement of sense in natural language constructions (NLCs was researched through formalization of the notions of the language image, formalization of artificial cognitive systems (ACSs and the formalization of units of meaning. The method for measuring the sense of natural language constructions incorporated fuzzy relations of meaning, which ensures that information about the links between lemmas of the text is taken into account, permitting the evaluation of two types of measurement uncertainty of sense characteristics. Using developed applications programs, experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed method to tackle the identification of informative characteristics of text. The experiments resulted in dependencies of parameters being obtained in order to utilise the Pareto distribution law to define relations between lemmas, analysis of which permits the identification of exponents of an average number of connections of the language image as the most informative characteristics of text.

  2. Classroom Questioning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小林

    2013-01-01

      Interaction has been playing a more and more important role in language research since the early 1970s,when the communicative teaching method was widely applied in language teaching. Questioning is the most common classroom interaction. This thesis analyzed the influence on students' immediate oral production by applying different teacher questioning strategies including teacher's question types,teacher question modification and teacher feedback.

  3. Reading Strategies and Literature Instruction: Teaching Learners to Generate Questions to Foster Literary Reading in the Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Per

    2012-01-01

    Reading and discussing literary texts in a second language (L2) is a significant component of intermediate and advanced level collegiate language education. However, in spite of more attention to the role of literary texts in L2 instruction, the function of reading strategy instruction to teaching literary reading in the L2 has remained…

  4. Linguistic fundamentals for natural language processing 100 essentials from morphology and syntax

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies-who did what to whom-from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual a

  5. Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan; Liang, Junying

    2017-07-01

    Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones. Human languages, as complex systems, seem to have evolved to come up with diverse syntactic patterns under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization. However, there always exist a small number of long-distance dependencies in natural languages, which may reflect some other biological or functional constraints. Language system may adapt itself to these sporadic long-distance dependencies. It is these universal constraints that have shaped such a rich diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages.

  6. FVQA: Fact-based Visual Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den

    2017-09-19

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) has attracted much attention in both computer vision and natural language processing communities, not least because it offers insight into the relationships between two important sources of information. Current datasets, and the models built upon them, have focused on questions which are answerable by direct analysis of the question and image alone. The set of such questions that require no external information to answer is interesting, but very limited. It excludes questions which require common sense, or basic factual knowledge to answer, for example. Here we introduce FVQA (Fact-based VQA), a VQA dataset which requires, and supports, much deeper reasoning. FVQA primarily contains questions that require external information to answer. We thus extend a conventional visual question answering dataset, which contains image-question-answer triplets, through additional image-question-answer-supporting fact tuples. Each supporting-fact is represented as a structural triplet, such as .

  7. Definitions of Natural-Language Spatial Relations: Combining Topology and Directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Because SQL for querying data from spatial databases is ineffective, the query based on natural or visual language becomes an attractive research field gradually. However, how to define and represent natural languages related to spatial data are still gigantic problems. Because existing models of direction relations can't describe by use of some common concepts. First of all, detailed direction relations are proposed to describe the directions related to the interior of spatial objects, such as "east part of a region","east boundary of a region", and so on. Secondly, by integrating the detailed directions with exterior direction relations and topological relations, several NLSRs are defined, such as "a road goes across the east part of a lake", "a river goes along the east boundary of a province", etc. Finally, based on the NLSRs abovementioned, a natural spatial query language (NSQL) is formed to retrieve data from spatial databases.

  8. A Note on Zipf's Law, Natural Languages, and Noncoding DNA regions

    CERN Document Server

    Niyogi, P; Niyogi, Partha; Berwick, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    In Phys. Rev. Letters (73:2, 5 Dec. 94), Mantegna et al. conclude on the basis of Zipf rank frequency data that noncoding DNA sequence regions are more like natural languages than coding regions. We argue on the contrary that an empirical fit to Zipf's ``law'' cannot be used as a criterion for similarity to natural languages. Although DNA is a presumably an ``organized system of signs'' in Mandelbrot's (1961) sense, an observation of statistical features of the sort presented in the Mantegna et al. paper does not shed light on the similarity between DNA's ``grammar'' and natural language grammars, just as the observation of exact Zipf-like behavior cannot distinguish between the underlying processes of tossing an $M$ sided die or a finite-state branching process.

  9. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp. MILROY, Lesley. Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account of Sociolinguistic Method. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987. 230pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Werlang Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language. Lesley Milroy's Observing and Analysing Natural Language is a recent addition to an ever growing number of publications in the field of Sociolinguistics. It carries the weight of one of the experienced authors in the current days in the specified field and should offer basic information to both newcomers and established investigators in natural language.

  10. An algorithm to transform natural language into SQL queries for relational databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent interface, to enhance efficient interactions between user and databases, is the need of the database applications. Databases must be intelligent enough to make the accessibility faster. However, not every user familiar with the Structured Query Language (SQL queries as they may not aware of structure of the database and they thus require to learn SQL. So, non-expert users need a system to interact with relational databases in their natural language such as English. For this, Database Management System (DBMS must have an ability to understand Natural Language (NL. In this research, an intelligent interface is developed using semantic matching technique which translates natural language query to SQL using set of production rules and data dictionary. The data dictionary consists of semantics sets for relations and attributes. A series of steps like lower case conversion, tokenization, speech tagging, database element and SQL element extraction is used to convert Natural Language Query (NLQ to SQL Query. The transformed query is executed and the results are obtained by the user. Intelligent Interface is the need of database applications to enhance efficient interaction between user and DBMS.

  11. Automated detection using natural language processing of radiologists recommendations for additional imaging of incidental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayon; Long, William J; Brown, David F M; Reisner, Andrew T

    2013-08-01

    As use of radiology studies increases, there is a concurrent increase in incidental findings (eg, lung nodules) for which the radiologist issues recommendations for additional imaging for follow-up. Busy emergency physicians may be challenged to carefully communicate recommendations for additional imaging not relevant to the patient's primary evaluation. The emergence of electronic health records and natural language processing algorithms may help address this quality gap. We seek to describe recommendations for additional imaging from our institution and develop and validate an automated natural language processing algorithm to reliably identify recommendations for additional imaging. We developed a natural language processing algorithm to detect recommendations for additional imaging, using 3 iterative cycles of training and validation. The third cycle used 3,235 radiology reports (1,600 for algorithm training and 1,635 for validation) of discharged emergency department (ED) patients from which we determined the incidence of discharge-relevant recommendations for additional imaging and the frequency of appropriate discharge documentation. The test characteristics of the 3 natural language processing algorithm iterations were compared, using blinded chart review as the criterion standard. Discharge-relevant recommendations for additional imaging were found in 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5% to 5.5%) of ED radiology reports, but 51% (95% CI 43% to 59%) of discharge instructions failed to note those findings. The final natural language processing algorithm had 89% (95% CI 82% to 94%) sensitivity and 98% (95% CI 97% to 98%) specificity for detecting recommendations for additional imaging. For discharge-relevant recommendations for additional imaging, sensitivity improved to 97% (95% CI 89% to 100%). Recommendations for additional imaging are common, and failure to document relevant recommendations for additional imaging in ED discharge instructions occurs

  12. The Dynamics of Slovak-Hungarian Relations – The Shift from Language Issues to Legal and Symbolic Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihálik Jaroslav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Language practice and its official recognition are considered crucial markers of national identities in the region of Central/Eastern Europe. The issue of language rights used to be a vital aspect of the agenda in national movements in the former Austrian (Austrian- Hungarian Monarchy, together with the process of territorializing and constructing of national identities in the region since the nineteenth century. The protection, persistence, preservation and further development of the national language was introduced as part of the moral obligations and commitments of the members of a community to the constructed national community.

  13. Stochastic model for the vocabulary growth in natural languages

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core-words which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used; and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore-words which have lower frequency and once used reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the google-ngram database of books published in the last centuries and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf's and Heaps' law to two scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model the main change on historical time scales i...

  14. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  15. QATT: a Natural Language Interface for QPE. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas Robert-Graham

    1989-01-01

    QATT, a natural language interface developed for the Qualitative Process Engine (QPE) system is presented. The major goal was to evaluate the use of a preexisting natural language understanding system designed to be tailored for query processing in multiple domains of application. The other goal of QATT is to provide a comfortable environment in which to query envisionments in order to gain insight into the qualitative behavior of physical systems. It is shown that the use of the preexisting system made possible the development of a reasonably useful interface in a few months.

  16. Natural Language Processing and Fuzzy Tools for Business Processes in a Geolocation Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Truck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the geolocation field where high-level programs and low-level devices coexist, it is often difficult to find a friendly user interface to configure all the parameters. The challenge addressed in this paper is to propose intuitive and simple, thus natural language interfaces to interact with low-level devices. Such interfaces contain natural language processing (NLP and fuzzy representations of words that facilitate the elicitation of business-level objectives in our context. A complete methodology is proposed, from the lexicon construction to a dialogue software agent including a fuzzy linguistic representation, based on synonymy.

  17. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  18. On the Contract Nature of Language%论语言的契约本性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友仕; 高懿德

    2014-01-01

    语言的形式和意义及其二者之间的联系,皆是人们约定的结果。这是语言的契约本性,它构成了语言社会秩序的本质。语言的契约本性决定了语言的发展必须遵循民主契约的原则。试图通过探索语言和契约之间的内在联系来阐述语言从产生、发展到运行等诸多环节所蕴含的契约性。%Contract between people not only contributes to the born of form and meaning of language but also indicates the relationship between the two .The essence of language's social order refers to the contract nature of language ,which suggests that the development of language should be in line with the principle of democratic contract .The inner connection between language and contract implies the language's contract na-ture during the process of emerging ,development and operation .

  19. The nature and origins of ambient language influence on infant vocal production and early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; de Boysson-Bardies, B

    1994-01-01

    Phonological structure may be seen as emerging in ontogeny from the combined effects of performance constraints rooted in the neuromotor and perceptual systems, individual lexical development and the influence of the particular ambient language. We review here the nature and origins of the earliest ambient language influences. Global effects within the first year of life include both (1) loss of early appearing phonetic gestures not supported by the ambient language and (2) positive effects, reflecting infant attention to prosody and to cues available in the visual as well as the auditory modality. In the course of early lexical development more specific effects become manifest as individual children pursue less common phonetic paths to which the ambient language provides 'sufficient exposure'.

  20. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Molina; Javier Sanchez-Soriano; Oscar Corcho

    2015-01-01

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural...

  1. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  2. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  3. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  4. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  5. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  6. Visualizing Patient Journals by Combining Vital Signs Monitoring and Natural Language Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Hoppe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    monitoring vital signs and then combining these into Early Warning Scores (EWS). Hereafter, techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) are applied on the existing patient journal to extract all entries. Finally, the two methods are combined into an interactive timeline featuring the ability to see...

  7. AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2014-01-01

    AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

  8. BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

    2008-01-01

    BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

  9. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  10. Teaching Mathematics with Intelligent Support in Natural Language. Tertiary Education Students Working with Parametrized Modelling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojano, Teresa; García-Campos, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a study that seeks to investigate the role of feedback, by way of an intelligent support system in natural language, in parametrized modelling activities carried out by a group of tertiary education students. With such a system, it is possible to simultaneously display on a computer screen a dialogue window and…

  11. The Linguistic Correlates of Conversational Deception: Comparing Natural Language Processing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Nicholas D.; Hall, Charles; McCarthy, Philip M.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2010-01-01

    The words people use and the way they use them can reveal a great deal about their mental states when they attempt to deceive. The challenge for researchers is how to reliably distinguish the linguistic features that characterize these hidden states. In this study, we use a natural language processing tool called Coh-Metrix to evaluate deceptive…

  12. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  13. The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

  14. Discrimination of Coronal Stops by Bilingual Adults: The Timing and Nature of Language Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the timing and nature of interaction between the two languages of bilinguals. For this purpose, we compared discrimination of Canadian French and Canadian English coronal stops by simultaneous bilingual, monolingual and advanced early L2 learners of French and English. French /d/ is phonetically…

  15. Natural language in measuring user emotions: A qualitative approach to quantitative survey-based emotion measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonetto, L.M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to developing surveys that measure user experiences with the use of natural everyday language. The common approach to develop questionnaires that measure experience is to translate theoretical factors into verbal survey items. This theory-based approach can impair the

  16. The Rape of Mother Nature? Women in the Language of Environmental Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tzeporah

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the structure of language reflects and reproduces the dominant model, and reinforces many of the dualistic assumptions which underlie the separation of male and female, nature and culture, mind from body, emotion from reason, and intuition from fact. (LZ)

  17. The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condry, Kirsten F.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    What are the origins of abstract concepts such as "seven," and what role does language play in their development? These experiments probed the natural number words and concepts of 3-year-old children who can recite number words to ten but who can comprehend only one or two. Children correctly judged that a set labeled eight retains this label if…

  18. Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L

    1998-01-01

    Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported

  19. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): Its Nature and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    The nature and development of the recently released International English Language Testing System (IELTS) instrument are described. The test is the result of a joint Australian-British project to develop a new test for use with foreign students planning to study in English-speaking countries. It is expected that the modular instrument will become…

  20. Using natural language processing to improve biomedical concept normalization and relation mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis concerns the use of natural language processing for improving biomedical concept normalization and relation mining. We begin with introducing the background of biomedical text mining, and subsequently we will continue by describing a typical text mining pipeline, some key

  1. Using natural language processing to improve biomedical concept normalization and relation mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kang (Ning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis concerns the use of natural language processing for improving biomedical concept normalization and relation mining. We begin with introducing the background of biomedical text mining, and subsequently we will continue by describing a typical text mining pipeline, some key iss

  2. A Natural Language for AdS/CFT Correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Boston U.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC; Penedones, Joao; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Raju, Suvrat; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; van Rees, Balt C.; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2012-02-14

    We provide dramatic evidence that 'Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into 'left' and 'right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

  3. Visual sign phonology: insights into human reading and language from a natural soundless phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitto, L A; Langdon, C; Stone, A; Andriola, D; Kartheiser, G; Cochran, C

    2016-11-01

    Among the most prevailing assumptions in science and society about the human reading process is that sound and sound-based phonology are critical to young readers. The child's sound-to-letter decoding is viewed as universal and vital to deriving meaning from print. We offer a different view. The crucial link for early reading success is not between segmental sounds and print. Instead the human brain's capacity to segment, categorize, and discern linguistic patterning makes possible the capacity to segment all languages. This biological process includes the segmentation of languages on the hands in signed languages. Exposure to natural sign language in early life equally affords the child's discovery of silent segmental units in visual sign phonology (VSP) that can also facilitate segmental decoding of print. We consider powerful biological evidence about the brain, how it builds sound and sign phonology, and why sound and sign phonology are equally important in language learning and reading. We offer a testable theoretical account, reading model, and predictions about how VSP can facilitate segmentation and mapping between print and meaning. We explain how VSP can be a powerful facilitator of all children's reading success (deaf and hearing)-an account with profound transformative impact on learning to read in deaf children with different language backgrounds. The existence of VSP has important implications for understanding core properties of all human language and reading, challenges assumptions about language and reading as being tied to sound, and provides novel insight into a remarkable biological equivalence in signed and spoken languages. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:366-381. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1404 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Assessment of Young English Language Learners in Arizona: Questioning the Validity of the State Measure of English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…

  7. Reconceptualizing the Nature of Goals and Outcomes in Language/s Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Constant; Scarino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Transformations associated with the increasing speed, scale, and complexity of mobilities, together with the information technology revolution, have changed the demography of most countries of the world and brought about accompanying social, cultural, and economic shifts (Heugh, 2013). This complex diversity has changed the very nature of…

  8. Categorization of Natural Whistled Vowels by Naïve Listeners of Different Language Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands. To better understand the relation between whistled and spoken speech perception, we look herein at how Spanish, French, and Standard Chinese native speakers, knowing nothing about whistled speech, categorized four Spanish whistled vowels. The results show that the listeners categorized differently depending on their native language. The Standard Chinese speakers demonstrated the worst performance on this task but were still able to associate a tonal whistle to vowel categories. Spanish speakers were the most accurate, and both Spanish and French participants were able to categorize the four vowels, although not as accurately as an expert whistler. These results attest that whistled speech can be used as a natural laboratory to test the perceptual processes of language.

  9. Categorization of Natural Whistled Vowels by Naïve Listeners of Different Language Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands. To better understand the relation between whistled and spoken speech perception, we look herein at how Spanish, French, and Standard Chinese native speakers, knowing nothing about whistled speech, categorized four Spanish whistled vowels. The results show that the listeners categorized differently depending on their native language. The Standard Chinese speakers demonstrated the worst performance on this task but were still able to associate a tonal whistle to vowel categories. Spanish speakers were the most accurate, and both Spanish and French participants were able to categorize the four vowels, although not as accurately as an expert whistler. These results attest that whistled speech can be used as a natural laboratory to test the perceptual processes of language. PMID:28174545

  10. Mathematics and the Laws of Nature Developing the Language of Science (Revised Edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics and the Laws of Nature, Revised Edition describes the evolution of the idea that nature can be described in the language of mathematics. Colorful chapters explore the earliest attempts to apply deductive methods to the study of the natural world. This revised resource goes on to examine the development of classical conservation laws, including the conservation of momentum, the conservation of mass, and the conservation of energy. Chapters have been updated and revised to reflect recent information, including the mathematical pioneers who introduced new ideas about what it meant to

  11. Towards an Information-Based Procedural Grammar for Natural Language Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sévigny

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes a number of phenomena which must be taken into account in order to model aspects of information transmission/reception which occur during natural language processing. It presents a brief comparison with two prominent and similar approaches (Dynamic Syntax and Left-Associative Grammar followed by a detailed description of the model proposed—referred to as Discourse Information Grammar or DIG. It further provides an illustration of the model and a brief discussion of its potential applications to computer-assisted language learning, and concludes with a definition of what is understood by “information” in Discourse Information Grammar.

  12. The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

  13. Inequity in Mathematics Education: Questions for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglass, Julian

    2002-01-01

    Explores factors that affect student learning and the well-publicized achievement gap between students from different ethnic and socio-economic groups. Poses some questions and offers some thoughts on how beliefs, attitudes, values, and emotions about teaching and learning, nature of schools, culture, and language effect equity in mathematics…

  14. The Influence of Question Type, Text Availability, Answer Confidence and Language Background on Student Comprehension of an Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Miller, Julia; Habel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Reading is an essential activity for learning at university, but lecturers are not always experienced in setting appropriate questions to test understanding of texts. In other words, their assessments may not be "constructively aligned" with the learning outcomes they hope their students to exhibit. In examination conditions, questions…

  15. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  16. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  17. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities.

  18. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Golosio

    Full Text Available Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities.

  19. The enigmatic linguistic cerebellum: clinical relevance and unanswered questions on nonmotor speech and language deficits in cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Beaton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Clinical case descriptions and experimental evidence dating back to the early part of the 19th century from time to time documented a range of nonmotor cognitive and affective impairments following cerebellar pathology. However, a causal relationship between disruption of nonmotor cognitive and affective skills and cerebellar disease was dismissed for several decades and the classical view of the cerebellum as a mere coordinator of autonomic and somatic sensorimotor function prevailed for more than two centuries in behavioural neuroscience. The ignorance of early clinical evidence suggesting a much richer and complex role for the cerebellum than a pure sensorimotor one is remarkable given that in addition: 1) the cerebellum contains more neurons than the rest of the combined cerebral cortex and 2) no other structure has as many connections with other parts of the brain as the cerebellum. During the past decades, the long-standing view of the cerebellum as pure coordinator of sensorimotor function has been substantially modified. From the late 1970s onwards, major advances were made in elucidating the many functional neuroanatomical connections of the cerebellum with the supratentorial association cortices that subserve nonmotor language, cognition and affect. Combined with evidence derived from experimental functional neuroimaging studies in healthy subjects and neurophysiological and neuropsychological research in patients, the role of the cerebellum has been substantially extended to include that of a crucial modulator of cognitive and affective processes. In addition to its long-established role in coordinating motor aspects of speech production, clinical and experimental studies with patients suffering from etiologically different cerebellar disorders have identified involvement of the cerebellum in a variety of nonmotor language functions, including motor speech planning, language dynamics and verbal fluency, phonological and semantic word retrieval

  20. Semantic Restructuring of Natural Language Image Captions to Enhance Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraisak Kesorn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the volume of visual information can make the task of finding and accessing visual information of interest, overwhelming for users. Semantic analysis of image captions can be used in conjunction with image retrieval systems (IMR to retrieve selected images more precisely. To do this, we first exploit a Natural Language Processing (NLP framework in order to extract concepts from image captions. Next, an ontology-based framework is deployed in order to resolve natural language ambiguities. The novelty of the proposed framework is that the combination of LSI with the Ontology framework enables the combined framework to tolerate ambiguities and variations in the Ontology. A key feature is that the system can find indirectly relevant concepts in image captions and thus leverage these to represent the semantics of images at a higher level. Experimental results show that the use of LSI based NLP combined with an ontological framework significantly enhances image retrieval.

  1. STUDY ON NATURAL LANGUAGE INTERFACE OF NETWORK FAULT DIAGNOSIS EXPERT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Peiqi; Li Zengzhi; Zhao Yinliang

    2006-01-01

    The expert system is an important field of the artificial intelligence. The traditional interface of the expert system is the command, menu and window at present. It limits the application of the expert system and embarrasses the enthusiasm of using expert system. Combining with the study on the expert system of network fault diagnosis, the natural language interface of the expert system has been discussed in this article. This interface can understand and generate Chinese sentences. Using this interface, the user and field experts can use the expert system to diagnose the fault of network conveniently. In the article, first, the extended production rule has been proposed. Then the methods of Chinese sentence generation from conceptual graphs and the model of expert system are introduced in detail. Using this model, the network fault diagnosis expert system and its natural language interface have been developed with Prolog.

  2. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  3. NLP-SIR: A Natural Language Approach for Spreadsheet Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Derek; Caffery, Fergal Mc

    2009-01-01

    Spreadsheets are a ubiquitous software tool, used for a wide variety of tasks such as financial modelling, statistical analysis and inventory management. Extracting meaningful information from such data can be a difficult task, especially for novice users unfamiliar with the advanced data processing features of many spreadsheet applications. We believe that through the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques this task can be made considerably easier. This paper introduces NLP-SIR, a Natural language interface for spreadsheet information retrieval. The results of a recent evaluation which compared NLP-SIR with existing Information retrieval tools are also outlined. This evaluation has shown that NLP-SIR is a more effective method of spreadsheet information retrieval.

  4. Feature Selection for Natural Language Call Routing Based on Self-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, A.; Semenkina, M.; Sergienko, R.

    2017-02-01

    The text classification problem for natural language call routing was considered in the paper. Seven different term weighting methods were applied. As dimensionality reduction methods, the feature selection based on self-adaptive GA is considered. k-NN, linear SVM and ANN were used as classification algorithms. The tasks of the research are the following: perform research of text classification for natural language call routing with different term weighting methods and classification algorithms and investigate the feature selection method based on self-adaptive GA. The numerical results showed that the most effective term weighting is TRR. The most effective classification algorithm is ANN. Feature selection with self-adaptive GA provides improvement of classification effectiveness and significant dimensionality reduction with all term weighting methods and with all classification algorithms.

  5. Adapting existing natural language processing resources for cardiovascular risk factors identification in clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Meystre, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2 natural language processing shared task focused on identifying cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and smoking status among other factors found in health records of diabetic patients. In addition, the task involved detecting medications, and time information associated with the extracted data. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a natural language processing (NLP) application conceived for this i2b2 shared task. For increased efficiency, the application main components were adapted from two existing NLP tools implemented in the Apache UIMA framework: Textractor (for dictionary-based lookup) and cTAKES (for preprocessing and smoking status detection). The application achieved a final (micro-averaged) F1-measure of 87.5% on the final evaluation test set. Our attempt was mostly based on existing tools adapted with minimal changes and allowed for satisfying performance with limited development efforts.

  6. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-07-03

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions.

  7. Applying natural language processing toolkits to electronic health records - an experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    A natural language challenge devised by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) was to analyze free-text health data to construct a multi-class, multi-label classification system focused on obesity and its co-morbidities. This report presents a case study in which a natural language processing (NLP) toolkit, called NLTK, was used in the challenge. This report provides a brief review of NLP in the context of EHR applications, briefly surveys and contrasts some existing NLP toolkits, and reports on our experiences with the i2b2 case study. Our efforts uncovered issues including the lack of human annotated physician notes for use as NLP training data, differences between conventional free-text and medical notes, and potential hardware and software limitations affecting future projects.

  8. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  9. NLP-SIR: A Natural Language Approach for Spreadsheet Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Derek; McDaid, Kevin; McCaffery, Fergal

    2001-01-01

    Spreadsheets are a ubiquitous software tool, used for a wide variety of tasks such as financial modelling, statistical analysis and inventory management. Extracting meaningful information from such data can be a difficult task, especially for novice users unfamiliar with the advanced data processing features of many spreadsheet applications. We believe that through the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques this task can be made considerably easier. This paper introduces NLP-SIR,...

  10. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  11. Codeco: A Grammar Notation for Controlled Natural Language in Predictive Editors

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Existing grammar frameworks do not work out particularly well for controlled natural languages (CNL), especially if they are to be used in predictive editors. I introduce in this paper a new grammar notation, called Codeco, which is designed specifically for CNLs and predictive editors. Two different parsers have been implemented and a large subset of Attempto Controlled English (ACE) has been represented in Codeco. The results show that Codeco is practical, adequate and efficient.

  12. A Note on Zipf’s Law, Natural Languages, and Noncoding DNA Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    the lower 1 Indeed, as N. Chomsky points out (p.c.), if we take a col- lection of English sentences and define "words" by taking the strings...words in written English . American Journal of Psychology, 71, 209-218. [6] Mandelbrot, B. 1961. Word frequencies and Marko- vian models of discourse...similarity between DNA’s " gramar " and natural language grammars, just as the observation of exact Zipf-like behavior cannot distinguish between the

  13. The effect of teachers' language on students' conceptions of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Lederman, Norman G.

    Conveying an adequate conception of the nature of science to students is implicit in the border context of what has come to be known as scientific literacy. However, it has previously been demonstrated that possession of valid conceptions of the nature of science does not necessarily result in the performance of those teaching behaviors that are related to improved student conceptions. The present study examines the possibility that the language teachers use to communicate science content may provide the context (Realist or Instrumentalist orientations) in which students come to formulate a world view of science. Eighteen high school biology teachers and one randomly selected class from each of their sections (n = 409 students) were administered pre- and posttests at the beginning and end of the fall term using the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Composite scores of the student changes on the Testable, Developmental, and Creative subscales were used to compare those six classes that exhibited the greatest change with those six classes that had the least change on the NSKS. Intensive qualitative observations of each teacher were also conducted over the fall semester, resulting in complete transcripts of teacher-student interactions. Qualitative comparisons of classes with respect to six variables related to Realist and Instrumentalist conceptions of the nature of science were conducted. TEACHERS' ordinary language in the presentation of subject matter was found to have significant impact on students' conceptions of the nature of science. These variables represented different contexts (Realist-Instrumental) teachers used to express themselves, scientific information, and concepts. Determining the extent to which TEACHERS' language has an impact on changes in students' conception of the nature of science has direct bearing on all preservice and inservice science teacher education programs.

  14. 外语教育中语言本质的哲学思考%Philosophical Thinking on the Nature of Language in Foreign Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼明

    2015-01-01

    Humboldt's thinking on the nature of language provides a new way of thinking for the doctoral foreign language education, and also brings new energy to the study of language. In the thinking of language philosophy, the research on the doctoral foreign language education presents a diversified trend. Humboldt puts forward the concept of world view of language, and expounds that the essence of language lies in the continuous integration and development of nationality and creativity. Foreign language education has absorbed a wide range of language resources, and has realized the enrichment and development of language itself.%洪堡特对语言本质的思考为博士外语教育提供了新的思路和方法,也为语言研究带来新的活力。在语言哲学思考中,博士外语教育研究呈现多元化的研究态势。洪堡特提出语言世界观概念,阐述了语言本质在于民族性和创造性的不断融合与发展。外语教育广泛吸收多元化语言资源,实现语言自身的丰富与发展。

  15. The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

  16. The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

  17. From Natural Language Text to Visual Models: A survey of Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia OSMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, research groups focused on automating the process of extracting valuable information from Natural Language text in order to discover data and process models. In this context, several tools and approaches have been proposed. The overall objective of this survey is to examine existing literature works that transform textual specifications into visual models. This paper aims to give a comprehensive account of the existing tools meant to discover data and process models from natural language text. Our analysis focuses on approaches of these tools in the model extraction process and highlight issues of each proposed approach. In the case of object oriented software modelling of data models extraction we analyze the degree of automation, efficiency and completeness of the transformation process. Regarding process models extraction, the study is not limited only to business process discovery, but it also provides case studies from several fields such as medical or archaeological. Even if not all the tools developed are clearly depicting a Natural Language Processing technique, a review of each approach is presented.

  18. Agile sensor tasking for CoIST using natural language knowledge representation and reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braines, David; de Mel, Geeth; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Preece, Alun

    2014-06-01

    We describe a system architecture aimed at supporting Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities in a Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) using natural language-based knowledge representation and reasoning, and semantic matching of mission tasks to ISR assets. We illustrate an application of the architecture using a High Value Target (HVT) surveillance scenario which demonstrates semi-automated matching and assignment of appropriate ISR assets based on information coming in from existing sensors and human patrols operating in an area of interest and encountering a potential HVT vehicle. We highlight a number of key components of the system but focus mainly on the human/machine conversational interaction involving soldiers on the field providing input in natural language via spoken voice to a mobile device, which is then processed to machine-processable Controlled Natural Language (CNL) and confirmed with the soldier. The system also supports CoIST analysts obtaining real-time situation awareness on the unfolding events through fused CNL information via tools available at the Command and Control (C2). The system demonstrates various modes of operation including: automatic task assignment following inference of new high-importance information, as well as semi-automatic processing, providing the CoIST analyst with situation awareness information relevant to the area of operation.

  19. Mapping between fMRI responses to movies and their natural language annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodrahalli, Kiran; Chen, Po-Hsuan; Liang, Yingyu; Baldassano, Christopher; Chen, Janice; Yong, Esther; Honey, Christopher; Hasson, Uri; Ramadge, Peter; Norman, Kenneth A; Arora, Sanjeev

    2017-06-23

    Several research groups have shown how to map fMRI responses to the meanings of presented stimuli. This paper presents new methods for doing so when only a natural language annotation is available as the description of the stimulus. We study fMRI data gathered from subjects watching an episode of BBCs Sherlock (Chen et al., 2017), and learn bidirectional mappings between fMRI responses and natural language representations. By leveraging data from multiple subjects watching the same movie, we were able to perform scene classification with 72% accuracy (random guessing would give 4%) and scene ranking with average rank in the top 4% (random guessing would give 50%). The key ingredients underlying this high level of performance are (a) the use of the Shared Response Model (SRM) and its variant SRM-ICA (Chen et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2016) to aggregate fMRI data from multiple subjects, both of which are shown to be superior to standard PCA in producing low-dimensional representations for the tasks in this paper; (b) a sentence embedding technique adapted from the natural language processing (NLP) literature (Arora et al., 2017) that produces semantic vector representation of the annotations; (c) using previous timestep information in the featurization of the predictor data. These optimizations in how we featurize the fMRI data and text annotations provide a substantial improvement in classification performance, relative to standard approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling virtual organizations with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: a case for natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alexander; Murthy, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale of social data available presents new challenges which are not tackled by merely scaling up hardware and software. Rather, they necessitate new methods and, indeed, new areas of expertise. Natural language processing provides one such method. This paper applies LDA to the study of scientific virtual organizations whose members employ social technologies. Because of the vast data footprint in these virtual platforms, we found that natural language processing was needed to 'unlock' and render visible latent, previously unseen conversational connections across large textual corpora (spanning profiles, discussion threads, forums, and other social media incarnations). We introduce variants of LDA and ultimately make the argument that natural language processing is a critical interdisciplinary methodology to make better sense of social 'Big Data' and we were able to successfully model nested discussion topics from forums and blog posts using LDA. Importantly, we found that LDA can move us beyond the state-of-the-art in conventional Social Network Analysis techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Studying Associations Between Heart Failure Self-Management and Rehospitalizations Using Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Blackley, Suzanne; Lei, Victor; Lai, Kenneth; Zhou, Li

    2016-09-14

    This study developed an innovative natural language processing algorithm to automatically identify heart failure (HF) patients with ineffective self-management status (in the domains of diet, physical activity, medication adherence, and adherence to clinician appointments) from narrative discharge summary notes. We also analyzed the association between self-management status and preventable 30-day hospital readmissions. Our natural language system achieved relatively high accuracy (F-measure = 86.3%; precision = 95%; recall = 79.2%) on a testing sample of 300 notes annotated by two human reviewers. In a sample of 8,901 HF patients admitted to our healthcare system, 14.4% (n = 1,282) had documentation of ineffective HF self-management. Adjusted regression analyses indicated that presence of any skill-related self-management deficit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.1, 1.6]) and non-specific ineffective self-management (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = [1.2, 2]) was significantly associated with readmissions. We have demonstrated the feasibility of identifying ineffective HF self-management from electronic discharge summaries with natural language processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Automated identification of postoperative complications within an electronic medical record using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murff, Harvey J; FitzHenry, Fern; Matheny, Michael E; Gentry, Nancy; Kotter, Kristen L; Crimin, Kimberly; Dittus, Robert S; Rosen, Amy K; Elkin, Peter L; Brown, Steven H; Speroff, Theodore

    2011-08-24

    Currently most automated methods to identify patient safety occurrences rely on administrative data codes; however, free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach. To evaluate a natural language processing search-approach to identify postoperative surgical complications within a comprehensive electronic medical record. Cross-sectional study involving 2974 patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at 6 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers from 1999 to 2006. Postoperative occurrences of acute renal failure requiring dialysis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction identified through medical record review as part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the natural language processing approach to identify these complications and compared its performance with patient safety indicators that use discharge coding information. The proportion of postoperative events for each sample was 2% (39 of 1924) for acute renal failure requiring dialysis, 0.7% (18 of 2327) for pulmonary embolism, 1% (29 of 2327) for deep vein thrombosis, 7% (61 of 866) for sepsis, 16% (222 of 1405) for pneumonia, and 2% (35 of 1822) for myocardial infarction. Natural language processing correctly identified 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-91%) of acute renal failure cases compared with 38% (95% CI, 25%-54%) for patient safety indicators. Similar results were obtained for venous thromboembolism (59%, 95% CI, 44%-72% vs 46%, 95% CI, 32%-60%), pneumonia (64%, 95% CI, 58%-70% vs 5%, 95% CI, 3%-9%), sepsis (89%, 95% CI, 78%-94% vs 34%, 95% CI, 24%-47%), and postoperative myocardial infarction (91%, 95% CI, 78%-97%) vs 89%, 95% CI, 74%-96%). Both natural language processing and patient safety indicators were highly specific for these diagnoses. Among patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at VA medical centers

  3. 自然手语与文法手语的区别%A Brief Analysis of Differences Between Natural Sign Language and Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由婧涵

    2014-01-01

    Natural sign language and Chinese sign language are the two common ways for deaf people to communicate with deaf people and the hearing people. In 1960, Dr. More, the authority of American linguistic history, drew a conclusion that sign language is a language of a linguistics. Since then sign language is studied as a language. This article discusses the differences between natural sign language and Chinese sign language from the following three aspects: the scope of application differences, the characteristic differences and the grammatical differences. In order to get the facilitate intuitive experience of grammatical differences, many examples are used in the article.%自然手语和文法手语是聋人间及聋人与听人间交流的两种普遍方式。自从1960年美国语言学权威史多基博士得出了手语是一门语言学意义上的语言的结论后,手语便作为语言来研究。文章从两者的适用范围差异、特点上的差异、语法的差异这三方面进行论述,在语法的差异上,例举实例,便于直观地体会二者在语法上的差异。

  4. Automatic Determination of the Need for Intravenous Contrast in Musculoskeletal MRI Examinations Using IBM Watson's Natural Language Processing Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Hari; Mesterhazy, Joseph; Laguna, Benjamin; Vu, Thienkhai; Sohn, Jae Ho

    2017-09-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocoling can be time- and resource-intensive, and protocols can often be suboptimal dependent upon the expertise or preferences of the protocoling radiologist. Providing a best-practice recommendation for an MRI protocol has the potential to improve efficiency and decrease the likelihood of a suboptimal or erroneous study. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a machine learning-based natural language classifier that can automatically assign the use of intravenous contrast for musculoskeletal MRI protocols based upon the free-text clinical indication of the study, thereby improving efficiency of the protocoling radiologist and potentially decreasing errors. We utilized a deep learning-based natural language classification system from IBM Watson, a question-answering supercomputer that gained fame after challenging the best human players on Jeopardy! in 2011. We compared this solution to a series of traditional machine learning-based natural language processing techniques that utilize a term-document frequency matrix. Each classifier was trained with 1240 MRI protocols plus their respective clinical indications and validated with a test set of 280. Ground truth of contrast assignment was obtained from the clinical record. For evaluation of inter-reader agreement, a blinded second reader radiologist analyzed all cases and determined contrast assignment based on only the free-text clinical indication. In the test set, Watson demonstrated overall accuracy of 83.2% when compared to the original protocol. This was similar to the overall accuracy of 80.2% achieved by an ensemble of eight traditional machine learning algorithms based on a term-document matrix. When compared to the second reader's contrast assignment, Watson achieved 88.6% agreement. When evaluating only the subset of cases where the original protocol and second reader were concordant (n = 251), agreement climbed further to 90.0%. The classifier was

  5. The Relationship between Artificial and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…

  6. The Relationship between Artificial and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…

  7. Language and cognition in children with metachromatic leukodystrophy: onset and natural course in a nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Christiane; Groeschel, Samuel; Kustermann-Kuhn, Birgit; Bürger, Friederike; Köhler, Wolfgang; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Bley, Annette; Steinfeld, Robert; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2014-02-05

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, genetic neurodegenerative disease. It leads to progressive demyelination resulting in regression of development and early death. With regard to experimental therapies, knowledge of the natural course of the disease is highly important. We aimed to analyse onset and character of first symptoms in MLD and to provide detailed natural course data concerning language and cognition. Patients with MLD were recruited nationwide within the scope of the German research network LEUKONET. 59 patients' questionnaires (23 late-infantile, 36 juvenile) were analysed. Time from first symptoms (at a median age of 1.5 years in late-infantile and 6 years in juvenile MLD) to diagnosis took one year in late-infantile and two years in juvenile patients on average. Gait disturbances and abnormal movement patterns were first signs in all patients with late-infantile and in most with juvenile MLD. Onset in the latter was additionally characterized by problems in concentration, behaviour and fine motor function (p=0.0011, planguage acquisition. They showed a rapid language decline with first language difficulties at a median age of 2.5 years and complete loss of expressive language within several months (median age 32, range 22-47 months). This was followed by total loss of communication at a median age of around four years. In juvenile patients, language decline was more protracted, and problems in concentration and behaviour were followed by decline in skills for reading, writing and calculating around four years after disease onset. Our data reflect the natural course of decline in language and cognition in late-infantile and juvenile MLD in a large cohort over a long observation period. This is especially relevant to juvenile patients where the disease course is protracted and prospective studies are hardly feasible. Knowledge of first symptoms may lead to earlier diagnosis and subsequently to a better outcome following therapeutic

  8. Assistance and Feedback Mechanism in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Conversion of Natural Language into Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perikos, Isidoros; Grivokostopoulou, Foteini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Logic as a knowledge representation and reasoning language is a fundamental topic of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) course and includes a number of sub-topics. One of them, which brings difficulties to students to deal with, is converting natural language (NL) sentences into first-order logic (FOL) formulas. To assist students to overcome those…

  9. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  10. Tag questions Tag questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects

  11. The question of questions in Malaysian English

    OpenAIRE

    Asniah Alias; Radina Mohamad Deli

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the forms that interrogatives and tag questions can take when used by young Malaysian speakers of English language in oral communication. It offers a description of the features for both question forms as produced by the respondents compared to those of Singapore English (SE) and Standard British English (SBE). The influence of domains and the issue of mother tongue interference in relation to the subjects’ usage of such features will also be investigated. Data were obtain...

  12. The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors: a comparison across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Dean; De Raad, Boele

    2002-10-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors. The present study considers whether this result is similar or different in other languages. Instead of placing the usual emphasis on quantitative indices, this study examines the substantive nature of the factors. Six studies in European languages were used to develop a taxonomy of content categories. The English translations of the relevant terms were then classified under this taxonomy. The results support the generality of Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness). Factors IV (Emotional Stability) and V (Intellect) generally did not cohere. Factors I (Extraversion) and II (Agreeableness) tended to split when this was necessary to produce 5 factors. The analysis was extended to several additional studies.

  13. ONTOLOGY BASED MEANINGFUL SEARCH USING SEMANTIC WEB AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Palaniammal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The semantic web extends the current World Wide Web by adding facilities for the machine understood description of meaning. The ontology based search model is used to enhance efficiency and accuracy of information retrieval. Ontology is the core technology for the semantic web and this mechanism for representing formal and shared domain descriptions. In this paper, we proposed ontology based meaningful search using semantic web and Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques in the educational domain. First we build the educational ontology then we present the semantic search system. The search model consisting three parts which are embedding spell-check, finding synonyms using WordNet API and querying ontology using SPARQL language. The results are both sensitive to spell check and synonymous context. This paper provides more accurate results and the complete details for the selected field in a single page.

  14. An Investigation of the Role of Explicit and Implicit Instruction in Second Language Acquisition: A Case of English Embedded Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Jafarigohar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the facilitative effects of three types of input-based (explicit and implicit instruction on the intake and acquisition of the English embedded questions. The participants were 105 Iranian EFL learners from four intact classes who were randomly assigned to three treatment groups of processing instruction (PI, consciousness-raising tasks (C-R, textual input enhancement (TE, and one control group (CO. A quasi-experimental design with a pretest-treatment-posttest (immediate and delayed sequence was used. Assessment consisted of a grammar knowledge test which included interpretation and production tasks at sentence level and a timed grammaticality judgment test. The results of data analysis indicated that all treatment groups performed significantly better than the control group on the interpretation tests over time and the treatments were also effective in improving the intake of the target structure measured through grammaticality judgment test. Moreover, all types of instruction were effective in improving the learners’ production tests except the TE. Since PI was superior to other groups in all of the tests one reasonable pedagogical implication is that explicit instruction is a more effective technique in helping EFL learners to acquire target grammatical forms.

  15. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  16. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  17. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  18. Cross-language diversity, head-direction and grammars. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Richard

    2017-07-01

    This paper [4] - referred to below as 'LXL' - is an excellent example of cross-disciplinary work which brings together three very different disciplines, each with its different methods: quantitative computational linguistics (exploring big data), psycholinguistics (using experiments with human subjects) and theoretical linguistics (building models based on language descriptions). The measured unit is the dependency between two words, as defined by theoretical linguistics, and the question is how the length of this dependency affects the choices made by writers, as revealed in big data from a wide range of languages.

  19. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English (US) Español ( ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  20. Interactive Cohort Identification of Sleep Disorder Patients Using Natural Language Processing and i2b2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Kowatch, R; Lin, S; Splaingard, M; Huang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Nationwide Children's Hospital established an i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside) application for sleep disorder cohort identification. Discrete data were gleaned from semistructured sleep study reports. The system showed to work more efficiently than the traditional manual chart review method, and it also enabled searching capabilities that were previously not possible. We report on the development and implementation of the sleep disorder i2b2 cohort identification system using natural language processing of semi-structured documents. We developed a natural language processing approach to automatically parse concepts and their values from semi-structured sleep study documents. Two parsers were developed: a regular expression parser for extracting numeric concepts and a NLP based tree parser for extracting textual concepts. Concepts were further organized into i2b2 ontologies based on document structures and in-domain knowledge. 26,550 concepts were extracted with 99% being textual concepts. 1.01 million facts were extracted from sleep study documents such as demographic information, sleep study lab results, medications, procedures, diagnoses, among others. The average accuracy of terminology parsing was over 83% when comparing against those by experts. The system is capable of capturing both standard and non-standard terminologies. The time for cohort identification has been reduced significantly from a few weeks to a few seconds. Natural language processing was shown to be powerful for quickly converting large amount of semi-structured or unstructured clinical data into discrete concepts, which in combination of intuitive domain specific ontologies, allows fast and effective interactive cohort identification through the i2b2 platform for research and clinical use.

  1. Recognition of a person named entity from the text written in a natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin, A. V.; Rozaliev, V. L.; Orlova, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the semantic analysis of texts, which were written in a natural language. The main goal of the research was to compare latent Dirichlet allocation and latent semantic analysis to identify elements of the human appearance in the text. The completeness of information retrieval was chosen as the efficiency criteria for methods comparison. However, it was insufficient to choose only one method for achieving high recognition rates. Thus, additional methods were used for finding references to the personality in the text. All these methods are based on the created information model, which represents person’s appearance.

  2. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks.

  3. Systemic functional grammar in natural language generation linguistic description and computational representation

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Elke

    1999-01-01

    This volume deals with the computational application of systemic functional grammar (SFG) for natural language generation. In particular, it describes the implementation of a fragment of the grammar of German in the computational framework of KOMET-PENMAN for multilingual generation. The text also presents a specification of explicit well-formedness constraints on syntagmatic structure which are defined in the form of typed feature structures. It thus achieves a model of systemic functional grammar that unites both the strengths of systemics, such as stratification, functional diversification

  4. A natural language interface for real-time dialogue in the flight domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Ai, C.-S.; Ferber, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A flight expert system (FLES) is being developed to assist pilots in monitoring, diagnosisng and recovering from in-flight faults. To provide a communications interface between the flight crew and FLES, a natural language interface, has been implemented. Input to NALI is processed by three processors: (1) the semantic parser, (2) the knowledge retriever, and (3) the response generator. The architecture of NALI has been designed to process both temporal and nontemporal queries. Provisions have also been made to reduce the number of system modifications required for adapting NALI to other domains. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of NALI.

  5. Semi-supervised learning and domain adaptation in natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Søgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces basic supervised learning algorithms applicable to natural language processing (NLP) and shows how the performance of these algorithms can often be improved by exploiting the marginal distribution of large amounts of unlabeled data. One reason for that is data sparsity, i.e., the limited amounts of data we have available in NLP. However, in most real-world NLP applications our labeled data is also heavily biased. This book introduces extensions of supervised learning algorithms to cope with data sparsity and different kinds of sampling bias.This book is intended to be both

  6. Detecting inpatient falls by using natural language processing of electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyabe Shin-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incident reporting is the most common method for detecting adverse events in a hospital. However, under-reporting or non-reporting and delay in submission of reports are problems that prevent early detection of serious adverse events. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to promptly detect serious injuries after inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method and to determine which data source is the most suitable for this purpose. Methods We tried to detect adverse events from narrative text data of electronic medical records by using a natural language processing method. We made syntactic category decision rules to detect inpatient falls from text data in electronic medical records. We compared how often the true fall events were recorded in various sources of data including progress notes, discharge summaries, image order entries and incident reports. We applied the rules to these data sources and compared F-measures to detect falls between these data sources with reference to the results of a manual chart review. The lag time between event occurrence and data submission and the degree of injury were compared. Results We made 170 syntactic rules to detect inpatient falls by using a natural language processing method. Information on true fall events was most frequently recorded in progress notes (100%, incident reports (65.0% and image order entries (12.5%. However, F-measure to detect falls using the rules was poor when using progress notes (0.12 and discharge summaries (0.24 compared with that when using incident reports (1.00 and image order entries (0.91. Since the results suggested that incident reports and image order entries were possible data sources for prompt detection of serious falls, we focused on a comparison of falls found by incident reports and image order entries. Injury caused by falls found by image order entries was significantly more severe than falls detected by

  7. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  8. Disciplinary Literacy in English Language Arts: Exploring the Social and Problem-Based Nature of Literary Reading and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite many calls for K-12 disciplinary literacy instruction--instruction that teaches students the specialized ways of reading, writing, and reasoning of the academic disciplines--there are questions about what disciplinary literacy instruction means for the prominent school domain of English language arts. This article investigates the…

  9. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  10. Language of the Earth: Exploring Natural Hazards through a Literary Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.; Rhodes, F. H. T.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores natural hazards teaching and communications through the use of a literary anthology of writings about the earth aimed at non-experts. Teaching natural hazards in high-school and university introductory Earth Science and Geography courses revolves mostly around lectures, examinations, and laboratory demonstrations/activities. Often the results of such a course are that a student 'memorizes' the answers, and is penalized when they miss a given fact [e.g., "You lost one point because you were off by 50 km/hr on the wind speed of an F5 tornado."] Although facts and general methodologies are certainly important when teaching natural hazards, it is a strong motivation to a student's assimilation of, and enthusiasm for, this knowledge, if supplemented by writings about the Earth. In this paper, we discuss a literary anthology which we developed [Language of the Earth, Rhodes, Stone, Malamud, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008] which includes many descriptions about natural hazards. Using first- and second-hand accounts of landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions, through the writings of McPhee, Gaskill, Voltaire, Austin, Cloos, and many others, hazards become 'alive', and more than 'just' a compilation of facts and processes. Using short excerpts such as these, or other similar anthologies, of remarkably written accounts and discussions about natural hazards results in 'dry' facts becoming more than just facts. These often highly personal viewpoints of our catostrophic world, provide a useful supplement to a student's understanding of the turbulent world in which we live.

  11. The dynamic nature of motivation in language learning: A classroom perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Pawlak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When we examine the empirical investigations of motivation in second and foreign language learning, even those drawing upon the latest theoretical paradigms, such as the L2 motivational self system (Dörnyei, 2009, it becomes clear that many of them still fail to take account of its dynamic character and temporal variation. This may be surprising in view of the fact that the need to adopt such a process-oriented approach has been emphasized by a number of theorists and researchers (e.g., Dörnyei, 2000, 2001, 2009; Ushioda, 1996; Williams & Burden, 1997, and it lies at the heart of the model of second language motivation proposed by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998. It is also unfortunate that few research projects have addressed the question of how motivation changes during a language lesson as well as a series of lessons, and what factors might be responsible for fluctuations of this kind. The present paper is aimed to rectify this problem by reporting the findings of a classroom-based study which investigated the changes in the motivation of 28 senior high school students, both in terms of their goals and intentions, and their interest and engagement in classroom activities and tasks over the period of four weeks. The analysis of the data collected by means of questionnaires, observations and interviews showed that although the reasons for learning remain relatively stable, the intensity of motivation is indeed subject to variation on a minute-to-minute basis and this fact has to be recognized even in large-scale, cross-sectional research in this area.

  12. On the Rationality of More Display Questions than Referential Questions in Teacher-Student Interaction in the Context of Foreign Language Teaching%从外语教学语境看师生交互展示性问题多于参考性问题的合理性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐爱莲

    2012-01-01

    本文从外语教学语境与自然习得语境差别入手,结合二语习得过程研究和中国课堂输入输出模式及学习者中介语发展水平,分析外语课堂语境展示性问题多于参考性问题的合理性。%This paper,starting from the analysis of differences between foreign language teaching contexts and SLA contexts,based on theories of SLA processing,modes of input and output in language class in China and learner's inter-language level,expounds the view that in foreign language classroom contexts,display questions outnumber referential questions are proper and reasonable.

  13. Improved P300 speller performance using electrocorticography, spectral features, and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, William; Fried, Itzhak; Pouratian, Nader

    2013-07-01

    The P300 speller is a system designed to restore communication to patients with advanced neuromuscular disorders. This study was designed to explore the potential improvement from using electrocorticography (ECoG) compared to the more traditional usage of electroencephalography (EEG). We tested the P300 speller on two epilepsy patients with temporary subdural electrode arrays over the occipital and temporal lobes respectively. We then performed offline analysis to determine the accuracy and bit rate of the system and integrated spectral features into the classifier and used a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to further improve the results. The subject with the occipital grid achieved an accuracy of 82.77% and a bit rate of 41.02, which improved to 96.31% and 49.47 respectively using a language model and spectral features. The temporal grid patient achieved an accuracy of 59.03% and a bit rate of 18.26 with an improvement to 75.81% and 27.05 respectively using a language model and spectral features. Spatial analysis of the individual electrodes showed best performance using signals generated and recorded near the occipital pole. Using ECoG and integrating language information and spectral features can improve the bit rate of a P300 speller system. This improvement is sensitive to the electrode placement and likely depends on visually evoked potentials. This study shows that there can be an improvement in BCI performance when using ECoG, but that it is sensitive to the electrode location. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study on the customization of natural language interfaces to databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos R, Rodolfo A; Aguirre L, Marco A; González B, Juan J; Martínez F, José A; Pérez O, Joaquín; Verástegui O, Andrés A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the popularity of natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) has increased, because in many cases information obtained from them is used for making important business decisions. Unfortunately, the complexity of their customization by database administrators make them difficult to use. In order for a NLIDB to obtain a high percentage of correctly translated queries, it is necessary that it is correctly customized for the database to be queried. In most cases the performance reported in NLIDB literature is the highest possible; i.e., the performance obtained when the interfaces were customized by the implementers. However, for end users it is more important the performance that the interface can yield when the NLIDB is customized by someone different from the implementers. Unfortunately, there exist very few articles that report NLIDB performance when the NLIDBs are not customized by the implementers. This article presents a semantically-enriched data dictionary (which permits solving many of the problems that occur when translating from natural language to SQL) and an experiment in which two groups of undergraduate students customized our NLIDB and English language frontend (ELF), considered one of the best available commercial NLIDBs. The experimental results show that, when customized by the first group, our NLIDB obtained a 44.69 % of correctly answered queries and ELF 11.83 % for the ATIS database, and when customized by the second group, our NLIDB attained 77.05 % and ELF 13.48 %. The performance attained by our NLIDB, when customized by ourselves was 90 %.

  15. Natural Conversation Reconstruction Tasks: The Language Classroom as a Meeting Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ohashi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on Pratt’s notion of ‘transculturation’ and Bhabha’s ‘third space’, presents an example of language learning tasks that empower learners’ agency and promote their cross-cultural awareness and sensitivities to a different set of cultural expectations, using a naturally occurred Japanese thanking episodes. The paper discusses the merits of Natural Conversation Reconstruction Tasks (NCRTs as a practical method for helping L2 learners develop this ‘intercultural competence’. It is based on a qualitative study of the results of one NCRT created for use in the context of teaching Japanese as a L2 in a multicultural society. It suggests the NCRT encourages the learners to explore the intersection where language use, speaker intention and L1 and L2 cultural norms meet. Such a process helps the learners become aware of socially expected patterns of communication in L1 and L2 in terms of the choices of speech act, formulaic expressions, sequential organization and politeness orientation. The learners’ comments suggest that the NCRT helps learners transcend their cultural boundaries by overcoming their narrow understanding of ‘thanking’ as ‘expressions of gratitude and appreciation’ and by cross-culturally widening their views of what counts as thanking. The NCRT with rich contextual information promotes the learners’ intercultural awareness, sensitivity to context and intercultural exploration in the space between L1 and L2, where they have authority and freedom of making sense of conversations, and pragmatics is fully integrated into language pedagogy.

  16. Benchmarking natural-language parsers for biological applications using dependency graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2007-01-25

    Interest is growing in the application of syntactic parsers to natural language processing problems in biology, but assessing their performance is difficult because differences in linguistic convention can falsely appear to be errors. We present a method for evaluating their accuracy using an intermediate representation based on dependency graphs, in which the semantic relationships important in most information extraction tasks are closer to the surface. We also demonstrate how this method can be easily tailored to various application-driven criteria. Using the GENIA corpus as a gold standard, we tested four open-source parsers which have been used in bioinformatics projects. We first present overall performance measures, and test the two leading tools, the Charniak-Lease and Bikel parsers, on subtasks tailored to reflect the requirements of a system for extracting gene expression relationships. These two tools clearly outperform the other parsers in the evaluation, and achieve accuracy levels comparable to or exceeding native dependency parsers on similar tasks in previous biological evaluations. Evaluating using dependency graphs allows parsers to be tested easily on criteria chosen according to the semantics of particular biological applications, drawing attention to important mistakes and soaking up many insignificant differences that would otherwise be reported as errors. Generating high-accuracy dependency graphs from the output of phrase-structure parsers also provides access to the more detailed syntax trees that are used in several natural-language processing techniques.

  17. Linking sounds to meanings: infant statistical learning in a natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jessica F; Pelucchi, Bruna; Graf Estes, Katharine; Saffran, Jenny R

    2011-09-01

    The processes of infant word segmentation and infant word learning have largely been studied separately. However, the ease with which potential word forms are segmented from fluent speech seems likely to influence subsequent mappings between words and their referents. To explore this process, we tested the link between the statistical coherence of sequences presented in fluent speech and infants' subsequent use of those sequences as labels for novel objects. Notably, the materials were drawn from a natural language unfamiliar to the infants (Italian). The results of three experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between the statistics of the speech stream and subsequent mapping of labels to referents. Mapping was facilitated when the labels contained high transitional probabilities in the forward and/or backward direction (Experiment 1). When no transitional probability information was available (Experiment 2), or when the internal transitional probabilities of the labels were low in both directions (Experiment 3), infants failed to link the labels to their referents. Word learning appears to be strongly influenced by infants' prior experience with the distribution of sounds that make up words in natural languages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Knowledge Based Approach for Recognizing Textual Entailment for Natural Language Inference using Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arti Arya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE is a relatively new problem necessary for Natural Language Understanding (NLU and Automated Knowledge Discovery. Natural Language Inference has dealt with approaches like the bag of words approach, formal methods (First order Logic and pattern relation extraction which usually do not show satisfactory results. In this paper, Knowledge based approach has been proposed, utilizing data mining concepts on large text which is appropriately classified. Different Lexical resources like WordNet, VerbNet, ConceptNet have been integrated into a rich knowledge base, to provide semantics and structural informationon English words. The data mined is used by an Inference systemto give the output to the problem. The complete concept presented in the paper has been implemented in the form of a movie search engine wherein the knowledge based RTE concept has been employed on “summaries or plots of the movies” internally to get best possible classification of the movies. The experiments have shown encouraging results, reduced the time of search and provided more accurate results. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that RTE concept has been implemented to Information Search in the form of Movie Search Engine.

  19. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen's interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen's relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions.

  20. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen’s interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen’s relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379