WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural history research

  1. Short history of natural product research in the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available to develop the country's natural resource. This poster is a short summary of the research, including the identification of drug leads, characterisation of food spoilage organisms and toxin, especially mycotoxins, and rumen digestion. It describes some...

  2. A History of Research on Business and the Natural Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.; Georg, Susse

    Every field of inquiry goes through a life cycle; a new idea emerges, it develops into a growing body of literature and either continues to grow or enters a decline. A sure sign of the successful growth of a field is an effort to institutionalize its history, categorize its accomplishments and pr...

  3. Early modern natural history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...

  4. Classical Natural History: the importance of volunteers in collection management and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by

  5. Egyptian Journal of Natural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Egyptian Journal of Natural History publishes taxonomic and faunistic studies, or field-based research involving the natural history of the Egyptian fauna and flora. Both short and long papers are welcomed. We particularly encourage studies on Sinai.View the Instructions for authors All papers are reviewed by at least ...

  6. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  7. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  8. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  9. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  10. The natural history of spina bifida in children pilot project: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I; Thibadeau, Judy K; Swanson, Mark E; Marcus, David; Carris, Kari L; Siffel, Csaba; Ward, Elisabeth

    2013-01-25

    Population-based empirical information to inform health care professionals working with children with spina bifida currently is lacking. Spina bifida is a highly complex condition that not only affects mobility but many additional aspects of life. We have developed a pilot project that focuses on a broad range of domains: surgeries, development and learning, nutrition and physical growth, mobility and functioning, general health, and family demographics. Specifically, we will: (1) explore the feasibility of identifying and recruiting participants using different recruitment sources, (2) test a multidisciplinary module to collect the data, (3) determine the utility of different methods of retrieving the data, and (4) summarize descriptive information on living with spina bifida. The overall objective of the project was to provide information for a future multistate prospective study on the natural history of spina bifida. Families with a child 3 to 6 years of age with a diagnosis of spina bifida were eligible for enrollment. Eligible families were identified through a US population-based tracking system for birth defects and from a local spina bifida clinic. This is an ongoing project with first results expected in 2013. This project, and the planned multistate follow-up project, will provide information both to health care professionals experienced in providing care to patients with spina bifida, and to those who have yet to work with this population. The long-term purpose of this project is to increase the knowledge about growing up with spina bifida and to guide health care practices by prospectively studying a cohort of children born with this condition.

  11. The Case for Natural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living a...... people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.......Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living...... and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying a knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus...

  12. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    of the atopic diseases now seems to have reached a plateau in many Western countries, they are still on the increase in the developing world. This emphasizes continuing research aimed at identifying the causes, risk factors, and natural history of these diseases. Herein, the fundamental aspects of the natural...... history and epidemiology of the atopic diseases are reviewed....

  13. Computerizing natural history collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural History of Pseudoboine Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília P. Gaiarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.

  15. Natural history of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Darwin, Kristin; Nichols, Paige; Brocht, Alicia F D; Biglan, Kevin M; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the natural history of Huntington disease will inform patients and clinicians on the disease course and researchers on the design of clinical trials. To determine the longitudinal change in clinical features among individuals with Huntington disease compared with controls. Prospective, longitudinal cohort study at 44 research sites in Australia (n = 2), Canada (n =4), and the United States (n = 38). Three hundred thirty-four individuals with clinically manifest Huntington disease who had at least 3 years of annually accrued longitudinal data and 142 controls consisting of caregivers and spouses who had no genetic risk of Huntington disease. Change in movement, cognition, behavior, and function as measured by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and vital signs. Total motor score worsened by 3.0 points (95% CI, 2.5-3.4) per year and chorea worsened by 0.3 point per year (95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Cognition declined by 0.7 point (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per year on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Behavior, as measured by the product of frequency and severity score on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, worsened by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.0-1.2). Total functional capacity declined by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.5-0.7). Compared with controls, baseline body mass index was lower in those with Huntington disease (25.8 vs 28.8; P Huntington disease all declined in a monotonic manner. These data quantify the natural history of the disease and may inform the design of trials aimed at reducing its burden. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00313495.

  16. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have…

  17. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  18. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

    2012-07-21

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE.

  19. Natural history of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Loren; Franks, Jill; Chapman, Kimberly A; Gropman, Andrea; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Chakrapani, Anupam; Island, Eddie; MacLeod, Erin; Matern, Dietrich; Smith, Brittany; Stagni, Kathy; Sutton, V Reid; Ueda, Keiko; Urv, Tiina; Venditti, Charles; Enns, Gregory M; Summar, Marshall L

    2012-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an organic acidemia that can lead to metabolic acidosis, coma and death, if not treated appropriately in the acute setting. Recent advancements in treatment have allowed patients with propionic acidemia to live beyond the neonatal period and acute presentation. The natural history of the disease is just beginning to be elucidated as individuals reach older ages. Recent studies have identified the genomic mutations in the genes PCCA and PCCB. However, as of yet no clear genotype-phenotype correlations are known. As patients age, the natural progression of propionic acidemia illuminates intellectual difficulties, increased risk for neurological complications, including stroke-like episodes, cardiac complications, and gastrointestinal difficulties, as well as a number of other complications. This article reviews the available literature for the natural history of propionic acidemia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. History of acupuncture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong

    2013-01-01

    The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Journal of East African Natural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African region.

  2. Egyptian Journal of Natural History: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Natural History: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Natural History: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Natural history collections: A scientific treasure trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Natural history collections play an indispensable and often overlooked role in the conservation and management of our Nation’s flora and fauna. Scientific specimens housed in museum collections not only open an important window into the current and past diversity of life on Earth, but also play a vital role in fueling cutting-edge scientific research in many disciplines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) curates a collection of vertebrates from the Intermountain and Southwestern United States that is used by researchers from around the globe. As one of the largest Federal natural history collections in the western United States, the USGS specimen holdings offer unique opportunities to study the fauna of this incredibly diverse and unique region.

  4. THE COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONAL NEUROMUSCULAR RESEARCH GROUP DUCHENNE NATURAL HISTORY STUDY—A LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE ERA OF GLUCOCORTICOID THERAPY: DESIGN OF PROTOCOL AND THE METHODS USED

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Craig M.; Henricson, Erik K.; Abresch, R. Ted; Han, Jay J.; Escolar, Diana M.; Florence, Julaine M.; Duong, Tina; Arrieta, Adrienne; Clemens, Paula R.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary natural history data in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is needed to assess care recommendations and aid in planning future trials. Methods The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study (DMD-NHS) enrolled 340 individuals, aged 2–28 years, with DMD in a longitudinal, observational study at 20 centers. Assessments obtained every 3 months for 1 year, at 18 months, and annually thereafter included: clinical history; anthropometrics; goniometry; manual muscle testing; quantitative muscle strength; timed function tests; pulmonary function; and patient-reported outcomes/ health-related quality-of-life instruments. Results Glucocorticoid (GC) use at baseline was 62% present, 14% past, and 24% GC-naive. In those ≥6 years of age, 16% lost ambulation over the first 12 months (mean age 10.8 years). Conclusions Detailed information on the study methodology of the CINRG DMD-NHS lays the groundwork for future analyses of prospective longitudinal natural history data. These data will assist investigators in designing clinical trials of novel therapeutics. PMID:23677550

  5. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. The natural history of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    1979-09-01

    In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population.

  7. The natural history of anencephaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Obeidi, Nidaa

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Early elective termination of pregnancy is the most common outcome of a diagnosis of anencephaly in developed countries. Experience and expertise with management of ongoing pregnancies is limited. We aimed to investigate the natural history of these pregnancies from diagnosis to delivery and to determine timing of death. METHOD: A retrospective review of cases of anencephaly diagnosed between 2003 and 2009 in tertiary-referral university teaching hospitals in Cork. RESULTS: The majority of cases (25\\/26; 96%) were diagnosed prenatally at a median gestation of 21(+2) weeks (range 13(+4)-32(+4)). The median maternal age was 30 years (range 17-41) and 50% were primigravidae. Seven pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and four deliveries were complicated by shoulder dystocia. The median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks (range 22(+5)-42(+6)); 69% of labours were induced at a median gestation of 34 weeks. Six women (6\\/26; 23%) had a pre-labour intrauterine fetal death and nine women (9\\/26; 35%) had an intrapartum fetal death. Median neonatal survival time was 55 min (range 10 min to 8 days). Six parents donated neonatal organs for transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The majority of these infants die prior to delivery but short-term survival is possible.

  8. The natural history of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    1979-01-01

    In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population. PMID:114662

  9. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  10. The Natural History of IBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weimers, Petra; Munkholm, Pia

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing diseases with unknown etiologies. The purpose of this review is to present the natural disease course evidenced in the latest epidemiology data. RECENT...... to the general population. Though the disease course of IBD is unpredictable, the rate of surgical treatment has declined potentially as a consequence of the introduction of immunomodulators and new biologic treatment options. Treatments with biological agents and/or immunosuppressive drugs as well as disease...... monitoring with eHealth devices seem to have a positive impact on the disease course. However, long-term follow-up studies are still lacking and therefore no reliable conclusions can be drawn as of yet. Medical compliance is paramount in the treatment of IBD, and continuous research focusing on approaches...

  11. Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...

  12. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Natural History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Natural History. Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Natural History. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 6 of ...

  13. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    longitudinal. It was unable to distinguish among varied "natural histories." It assessed primarily the FEV(1), and the natural history of other features of COPD is largely undescribed. With advances in understanding the clinical features of COPD and with the development of evaluating new tools to assess......Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...... English men over 8 years, was used to construct a proposed life-long natural history. Although this is a classic study that has greatly advanced understanding of COPD, it has a number of limitations. Its duration is relatively short compared with the duration of COPD, so it is more cross-sectional than...

  14. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  15. Epidemiology, natural history, and risk factors: panel report from the Ninth International Research Conference on Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Kathleen A; Hoffman, Howard J; Kvaerner, Kari Jorunn

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Recent Advances in Otitis Media Research Conference Panel Report provides an update on otitis media (OM) research published from 2003 to 2007. This report summarizes important trends in disease incidence and prevalence, describes established and newly identified risk factors for acute...

  16. Epidemiology and natural history of vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2012-01-01

    This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma. A treatm......This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma....... A treatment strategy based on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing also is discussed....

  17. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  18. Science literacy and natural history museums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-10-15

    Oct 15, 2010 ... Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in ...

  19. Science literacy and natural history museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Correas, Ana M

    2010-12-01

    It appears that developed countries, such as the US, the UK and Italy, are losing the race against irrationalism and arbitrary thinking in regard to nature and human interactions. The incidence of misguided beliefs and the detachment from and, in some cases, outright hostility toward science are on the rise. Paradoxically, this is probably the period in the history of advanced countries in which increasing public and personal efforts have been directed toward the dissemination of scientific knowledge to increase public understanding of science. This article vindicates the role of natural history museums in consolidating rational and critical scientific thinking while briefly examining scientific illiteracy in developed countries. It also discusses methods to improve the involvement of natural history museums in the promotion of rational thinking, the only appropriate avenue for objective knowledge.

  20. The natural history of strawberry naevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R

    1998-01-01

    The field of dermatology was developed by clinicians with keen observational skills, who identified the natural history of clinical conditions through morphologic features. This article reviews the 1938 article published by Lister in which the natural history of hemangiomas are reviewed. Lister concluded "that drastic measures for the destruction of these naevi are inadvisable and treatment should be expectant and conservative." With the advent of new laser treatments for hemangiomas, early aggressive treatment is suggested for a subgroup of these problems. However, it still holds true in 1997 that for many of these smaller lesions, treatment should be "expectant and conservative."

  1. Kant on the history of nature: the ambiguous heritage of the critical philosophy for natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Phillip R

    2006-12-01

    This paper seeks to show Kant's importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon's distinctions of 'abstract' and 'physical' truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of 'varieties' from 'races' in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the 'history' of nature [Naturgeschichte] over 'description' of nature [Naturbeschreibung]. Following Kant's confrontations with Johann Herder and Georg Forster in the late 1780s, Kant weakened the epistemic status of the 'history of nature' and gave theoretical preference to 'description of nature'. As a result, Kant's successors, such as Goethe, could draw from Kant either a justification for a developmental history of nature, or, as this paper argues, a warrant from the critical philosophy for denying the validity of the developmental history of nature as anything more than a 'regulative' idea of reason.

  2. Journal of East African Natural History: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Author Guidelines. Submission: manuscripts should be submitted as a Word document in an email attachment, to the Editor-in-Chief, Journal of East African Natural History at office@naturekenya.org. The manuscript should be accompanied by a covering letter from the author, or in the case of multiple ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT HISTORY OF NATURAL SOURCES DOSIMETRY LABORATORY AT THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV: 1970–1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lisachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the initial development stage of the Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene natural sources dosimetry laboratory the experts focused at establishment of equipment and methodology. The following period of the lab activity was rather related to theoretical and experimental research which finally led to creation of a new in radiation hygiene field of work on standard protection of population irradiation caused by natural sources of ionizing radiation. The article describes the main results of the laboratory research of construction materials natural radioactivity and the subsequent substantiation of specifications on natural radionuclides content in them. There was parallel research of natural radionuclides transfer in the system “fertilizers→soil→plants” and further along the nutrition chain into the human body. In these works there were first obtained the quantitative data on coefficients of natural radionuclides transfer from fertilizers into agricultural plants, data on the natural radionuclides content in phosphate fertilizers of the main manufacturers, and the reference data on the natural radioactivity of arable soils. This research provided substantiation of a standard of natural radionuclides content in phosphate fertilizers. Important results were also received in a large-scale research of natural environment radioactivity and of technological processes of production, processing and use of mineral raw materials. During this research for the first time there were obtained the tool data on irradiation levels and structure of doses of non-uranium industries enterprises’ employees and on natural radionuclides balance parameters in different technologies.For the last two years of the considered period the laboratory was practically not engaged in its primary activity – the efforts of all laboratory and the Institute experts were focused at analysis of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences, research of man

  4. The natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Hee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advances in the conservative and surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the last few decades. The challenge for the physician is the decision for the optimal time to institute therapy for the individual child. This makes an understanding of the natural history and risk factors for curve progression of significant importance. Reported rates of curve progression vary from 1.6% for skeletally mature children with a small curve magnitude to 68% for skeletally immature children with larger curve magnitudes. Although the patient′s age at presentation, the Risser sign, the patient′s menarchal status and the magnitude of the curve have been described as risk factors for curve progression, there is evidence that the absolute curve magnitude at presentation may be most predictive of progression in the long term. A curve magnitude of 25º at presentation may be predictive of a greater risk of curve progression. Advances in research may unlock novel predictive factors, which are based on the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder.

  5. Climate and Human History of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sune

    2015-01-01

    consequences of man’s actions on nature from developing into genuine knowledge of the undesirable and long-term effects of human activity on natural habitats. It was not until the 19th century that the existence of long-term anthropogenic effects on the environment were recognised by geographer George P. Marsh......The paper investigates the ideas that have prevented environmental knowledge from developing into action and change. According to Clarence J. Glacken throughout European history design ideas about the relation between man and nature have prevented the many local observations of the negative...... expose some ecological ideas – that nature itself is a perpetual equilibrium and that man lived in harmony with nature until the emergence of modernity (industrialisation, capitalism, and technology) – as illusions. Such ‘new’ ecological ideas can be seen as disguised versions of the old design idea...

  6. Putting teachers-to-be in the field and the lab: Hands-on research at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Ebel, D. S.; Harlow, G. E.; Landman, N. H.; Pagnotta, A.; Sessa, J.; Shara, M.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Webster, J. D.; Blair, D.; Shumer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) is halfway through a pilot program designed to prepare Earth Science teachers for grades 7-12 in high-needs schools in New York. The program was implemented to address a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers throughout the state as well as to reach student populations that traditionally have limited science exposure and hands-on learning opportunities. This Master of Arts in Teaching is unique amongst teacher preparation programs, not only in that it is housed at a world-class research museum and places the teacher candidates in a year-long teaching residency, but also in that it accepts only students with a strong background in Earth Science via a degree in geology, meteorology, oceanography, astronomy, or a related discipline. Following a year of graduate courses in science and pedagogy, as well as teaching residencies, and only months before embarking on teaching career, candidates begin a seven-week science practicum. This exercise combines field and lab work under the tutelage of AMNH science curators and postdoctoral research fellows to provide experience with the scientific process, from field work and data collection to interpretation and public presentation of results. In the science practicum, teaching candidates begin by selecting one of four topics on which to focus their research: astrophysics, experimental petrology, mineralogy, or paleontology. An introduction to lab materials, techniques, and instrumentation is followed by two weeks in the field, both upstate and in New York City, where rocks of all types are encountered and discussed. Nights are devoted to astronomical observing and data collection to supplement the geology-oriented daytime sessions. Following the trips, candidates are back at AMNH analyzing data and samples in preparation for a short, scientific-style manuscript and presentation of results in an AGU-style talk. Three research groups have already discovered potentially

  7. Natural History Specimen Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vollmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.

  8. The Natural History of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Kuhns

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI is a clinical syndrome resulting from abnormal hip joint morphology and is a common cause of hip pain in young adults. FAI has been posited as a precursor to hip osteoarthritis, however, conflicting evidence exists and the true natural history of the disease is unclear. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of how FAI damages the hip joint by highlighting its pathomechanics and etiology. We then review the current evidence relating FAI to osteoarthritis. Lastly, we will discuss the potential of hip preservation surgery to alter the natural history of FAI, reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis and the need for future arthroplasty.

  9. The "History" of Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Huxley, Spencer and the "End" of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated. PMID:25032228

  11. Natural history of uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Mortensen, Neil J; Ris, Frederic; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    While diverticular disease is extremely common, the natural history (NH) of its most frequent presentation (i.e., sigmoid diverticulitis) is poorly investigated. Relevant information is mostly restricted to population-based or retrospective studies. This comprehensive review aimed to evaluate the NH of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. While there is a clear lack of uniformity in terminology, which results in difficulties interpreting and comparing findings between studies, this review demonstrates the benign nature of simple sigmoid diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate is relatively low, ranging from 13% to 47%, depending on the definition used by the authors. Among different risk factors for recurrence, patients with C-reactive protein > 240 mg/L are three times more likely to recur. Other risk factors include: Young age, a history of several episodes of acute diverticulitis, medical vs surgical management, male patients, radiological signs of complicated first episode, higher comorbidity index, family history of diverticulitis, and length of involved colon > 5 cm. The risk of developing a complicated second episode (and its corollary to require an emergency operation) is less than 2%-5%. In fact, the old rationale for elective surgery as a preventive treatment, based mainly on concerns that recurrence would result in a progressively increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy, is not upheld by the current evidence. PMID:26649154

  12. The natural history of flail chest injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kamil; Hanbali, Layth; Bates, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Flail chest (FC) injuries represent a significant burden on trauma services because of its high morbidity and mortality. Current gold standard conservative management strategies for FC, are now being challenged by renewed interest in surgical rib fixation. This retrospective epidemiological study sets out to evaluate FC patients, and quantify the natural history of this injury by studying the injury patterns, epidemiology and mortality of patients sustaining FC injuries admitted to a major trauma centre (MTC). A retrospective cohort analysis has been conducted at an MTC with full trauma service. All patients (age > 16 years) sustaining FC were included. Patient demographics, injury characteristics and inpatient stay information were extracted. Two hundred and ninety-three patients were identified, with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 28.9 (range 9-75), average age of 56.1 years (range of 16-100), and a male predominance (78%). Road traffic accidents accounted for 45% (n = 132) of injuries, whilst 44% were fall or jump from height (n = 129). Associated lung contusion was present in 133 patients (45%) while 76% of patients were found to have 5 or more ribs involved in the flail segment (n = 223) with 96% (n = 281) having a unilateral FC. Inpatient treatment was required 19.9 days (range 0-150 days) with 59% of patients (n = 173) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) level care for 8.4 days (range 1-63) with 61.8% requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 107) for 10.5 days (range 1-54), and 7.8% underwent rib fixation with rib plates (n = 23). The mortality rate was found to be 14% (n = 42). A non-significant trend towards improved outcomes in the conservative group was found when compared with the fixation group; ventilation days (6.94 vs 10.06, p = 0.18) intensive treatment unit (ITU) length of stay (LOS) (12.56 vs 15.53, p = 0.28) and hospital LOS (32.62 vs 35.24, p = 0.69). This study has successfully described the natural history of flail

  13. Spinocellular carcinoma from warts in a HPV infection natural history lasting 49 years. Virus strategy or host choice? Implications for researches and therapeutic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, S M

    2011-11-01

    There is a very strong evidence that progression (also to cancer) in variable percentages of cases infected by HPV, HBV, HCV, and HIV depends on host immune response. A large number of observations demonstrate that virus set up a postulated "active strategy" to modify host reactions or to avoid it. But in all those infections it also seems that antigen load (viral RNA or DNA), chronic activation of immune response and time elapsing from the primary infection play a pivotal role in determining clearing or persisting outcomes. My wife's HPV and cancer natural history, lasting 49 years, started at the age of 10 years with facial warts and progressed to CIN 2/3, cervical in situ carcinoma, perineal warts, perianal carcinoma, inguinal lymph nodes, and invasion of bones and muscular structures, until death is paradigmatic: a progressive immune failure was detected in her scaling up all those clinical features, ending in a massive apoptosis of her lymphocytes collected by leukapheresis and cultured with HPV antigens E6/E7, with the aim of obtaining antigen presenting cells and CD8+ specific T lymphocytes. From this experience, a concept of "host choice to reach a tolerance (mainly by a Tregs mediated anergy) or symbiotic-like state" arises, underlining all the affected host's immune-responses to virus persistence (and to consequent tumors). It might be then postulated as the hallmark of a long-term host/parasites co-evolution, and considered a "normal" reaction when the host faces overwhelming numbers of non-self cancer cells (high antigen loads) preceded by persistent virus infections (chronic activation). This happens in patients who do not clear HPV or other viruses soon enough after infection. These observations may lead to a better understanding of many phenomena that are actually difficult to explain or still are open questions. The auto-limiting host's immune-responses are likely to be aimed to avoid risks arising mainly in the protection of "self" (autoimmunity

  14. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.

  15. Journal of East African Natural History: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African ...

  16. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  17. Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis: Natural History and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, S.; Printza, N.; Dotis, J.; Matis, A.; Koliouskas, D.; Gombakis, N.; Papachristou, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nephroblastomatosis (NB) has been considered as a precursor of Wilms tumor (WT). The natural history of NB seems to present significant variation as some lesions may regress spontaneously, while others may grow and expand or relapse and develop into WT later in childhood. Although, most investigators suggest adjutant chemotherapy, the effect and duration of treatment are not well established. Children with diffuse perilobar NB, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and hemihypertrophy seem to particularly benefit from treatment. We discuss our experience on two cases of NB and we review the literature for the management of this rare condition. PMID:25114825

  18. Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis: Natural History and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stabouli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephroblastomatosis (NB has been considered as a precursor of Wilms tumor (WT. The natural history of NB seems to present significant variation as some lesions may regress spontaneously, while others may grow and expand or relapse and develop into WT later in childhood. Although, most investigators suggest adjutant chemotherapy, the effect and duration of treatment are not well established. Children with diffuse perilobar NB, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and hemihypertrophy seem to particularly benefit from treatment. We discuss our experience on two cases of NB and we review the literature for the management of this rare condition.

  19. Nature and history today: the ecological crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano ESPINOSA RUBIO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, the Nature-History relations are the ecological ones: we are living in a global eco-bio-techno-noos-sphere and that means that ecological crisis is a crisis of civilization too. Above all, the climate change and its social and political consequences will have a great impact in our lives, and we must respond without losing our rights. In the intellectual way, we need new narrations in order to affront the situation and perhaps the theory of the lesser evil is one of the better answers that we can find.

  20. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  1. Maxillary sinus carcinoma: Natural history and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jhani, Ali S.; Nooh, Nasser S.; Al-Rajhi, Nasser M.; El-Sebaie, Medhat M.; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Mahasen, Ziyad Z.; Otieschan, Abdullah T.

    2004-01-01

    To assess natural history, treatment outcome and pattern of relapse in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. A review was conducted of the medical records of all adult patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, who were treated at King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1990 and December 1999. A total of 60 patients were identified for analysis, 36 men and 24 women; the median age was 58-years (range 23-95). Major presenting symptoms were facial swelling 55%, facial pain 50%, and nasal obstruction 43.4%, with a median duration of 5-months (range 1-24). Histology was quamous cell carcinoma in 71.7% and adenoid cystic in 16.7%. They were restaged according to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification 1997 as II, III and IV in 1, 10 and 49. Thirty patients received treatment with curative intent (surgery in 4 patients, radiotherapy in 2, and combined modality in 24), 6 patients refused treatment and 24 were treated palliatively. With a median follow up of 50-months (range 2-128) in surviving patients treated with a curative intent, 12/30 failed locally, 4/30 in the regional neck nodes and 2/30 had systemic relapse. The actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and local control rate (LC) were 55%, 39% and 51%. Treatment modality was the only significant prognostic factor for outcome, with 5 year OS, RFS and LC of 72%, 49% and 61%, for combined modality using surgery followed by radiotherapy compared to 0% for single approach (p=0.0003, p=0.0052 and p=0.0098). This study indicates that the majority of our patients presented with advanced disease, resulting in poor outcome to conventional treatment modalities. Efforts should be directed to minimize the delay in diagnosis at the primary care level. Combined modality treatment should be offered to all patients with locally advanced disease. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery need to

  2. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basko-Plluska JL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  3. the history of the natural sources dosimetry laboratory in st. petersburg research institute of radiation hygiene after professor p.v. ramzaev: 1. 1956–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lisachenk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev celebrates 60-th anniversary since its’ foundation. Mindful of the Institute as the research organization 60 years is not too much but it was exactly that time period which spanned radiation hygiene’s origination and development as science. The Institute was established only just 11 years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, against the backdrop of nuclear weapons tests when the awareness of ionizing radiation’s disastrous consequences for population and environment was not just confined to a narrow circle of specialists. By that time the famous F-1 reactor had already been in operation and new perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful use were lying ahead. There had been an urgent need for scientific studies on personnel and population safety, for development of research hardware, for special personnel in-service training etc. So the Institute’s creation was necessitated by life itself, by objectives unthinkable without a specialized scientific research organization. Since the very beginning, the Institute specialists mostly aimed at studying technogenic radiation sources. That was the very purpose of the Institute’s creation. Nevertheless almost simultaneously with that the Institute had initiated studies on natural  radioactivity. New devices had been created in order to identify natural and technogenic radionuclides at such levels which are hardly achievable even these days. It will be demonstrated below that some of the 1970s and 1980s hardware  developments retained their uniqueness. Mindful of the upcoming jubilee we consider it expedient to think back to the most outstanding scientists who had made a profound contribution into the establishment of the Institute as the contemporary scientific school of radiation hygiene and domestic hygienic science. This publication describes the infancy of the natural sources dosimetry laboratory

  4. From natural history to science: display and the transformation of American museums of science and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Rader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how and why many American museums of science and nature moved away from the traditional content and methods of natural history in the period from 1930 to 1980. It explores diverse motivations for the shift from dead, stuffed displays to live, interactive exhibits, and the consequences of that shift for museums as both educational institutions and as institutions of research. Ultimately, it argues that debates over museums’ content and display strategies drew strength from and reinforced a profound transformation in the institutional history of twentieth-century American science and technology: namely, the separation of research and public education. By the late 1960s, the American museum landscape had been transformed by this development. Older natural history museums competed for visitors and resources with ‘new’ style science museums, and although both remained popular cultural institutions, neither had achieved a coherent new institutional identity because debates about the role of the museum in science continued. Thus, we suggest, in the mid-twentieth century natural history and science museums were more important in both the history of biology and the history of science’s public culture than has previously been acknowledged.

  5. Natural history of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing KE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is X-linked recessive hereditary disease. DMD gene mutations result in dystrophin deficiency, which causes not only muscle movement disorders but also scoliosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary tract diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Most patients die in early adult for respiratory and circulatory failure. Early multidisciplinary therapies will significantly delay disease progression and improve patients' quality of life. However, DMD diagnosis and treatment exist significantly time delay now. In this study, we review the natural history of DMD, including motor, cognitive, respiratory and heart function, for improving DMD early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, so as to benefit DMD patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.004

  6. Natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    The author examined the natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy using CT or MR imaging. Twenty patients with intracranial meningioma received radiotherapy from a high-energy linear accelerator (4-10 MV X rays) from 1980 to 1996. The total doses were 50 Gy to the tumor bed in single doses of 2 Gy in 5 weekly fractions. Meningiomas in 10 of 20 patients were reduced within 1 to 38 months after radiotherapy, the average being 11 months. The tumors were controlled for a median of 60 months after radiotherapy (range 19-126 months). Four other patients have shown no change in tumor size after radiotherapy. The tumors were controlled for a median of 70 months after radiotherapy (range 37-127 months). The other six patients have shown tumor growth within 3 to 25 months after radiotherapy, after which the tumors stopped growing for a median of 71 months (range 2-181 months). Neither tumor size nor histological type was related to response. The growth of tumors was controlled by radiotherapy for a median duration of 43 months in the meningothelial type, 52 months in the fibroblastic type, and 61 months in the transitional type. The median duration for all benign tumors was 52 months. A moderate correlation was noted between tumor response and functional outcome after radiotherapy in 9 patients with neurological deficits. The natural histories of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy were grouped into three categories. Some tumors showed no change in size over a long period. This was a characteristic response after radiotherapy that differed from that of other brain tumors. The results of this study provide important information for the follow-up of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.

  8. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

  9. Who teaches History? Possibility of the history research in education in history

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 智

    2013-01-01

    Who teaches History? - Possibility of the history research in education in history Recent days, education has been actively. Above all, discussion on historical education has been deepened. Ryuichi Narita's "KINGENDAI-NIHONSHI TO REKISHIGAKU" is one of the most thought-provoking work in this field. In this paper, I re-consider his study and state my own view about this problem. Narita divides Japan's modern history research into three periods and points out that the Japanese history textbook ...

  10. Researching the History of Women in Chanoyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Corbett

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At the time of writing I am living in Kyoto, conducting research for my PhD thesis on the History of Women in chanoyu (tea-ceremony, supported by a Japan Foundation Fellowship. This research combines my academic and personal interests in Japanese history and chanoyu. In this paper I would like to discuss how I came to choose this subject for my doctoral research, before going on to describe this research and how I believe it will contribute to the fields of Tea history and Japanese women’s history.

  11. A brief history of stratospheric ozone research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is one of the most important trace species in the atmosphere. Therefore, the history of research on ozone has also received a good deal of attention. Here a short overview of ozone research (with a focus on the stratosphere is given, starting from the first atmospheric measurements and ending with current developments. It is valuable to study the history of ozone research, because much can be learned for current research from an understanding of how previous discoveries were made. Moreover, since the 1970s, the history of ozone research has also encompassed also the history of the human impact on the ozone layer and thus the history of policy measures taken to protect the ozone layer, notably the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments. The history of this development is particularly important because it may serve as a prototype for the development of policy measures for the protection of the Earth's climate.

  12. The natural history of flail chest injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Naidoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Flail chest (FC injuries represent a significant burden on trauma services because of its high morbidity and mortality. Current gold standard conservative management strategies for FC, are now being challenged by renewed interest in surgical rib fixation. This retrospective epidemiological study sets out to evaluate FC patients, and quantify the natural history of this injury by studying the injury patterns, epidemiology and mortality of patients sustaining FC injuries admitted to a major trauma centre (MTC. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis has been conducted at an MTC with full trauma service. All patients (age > 16 years sustaining FC were included. Patient demographics, injury characteristics and inpatient stay information were extracted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-three patients were identified, with a mean injury severity score (ISS of 28.9 (range 9–75, average age of 56.1 years (range of 16–100, and a male predominance (78%. Road traffic accidents accounted for 45% (n = 132 of injuries, whilst 44% were fall or jump from height (n = 129.Associated lung contusion was present in 133 patients (45% while 76% of patients were found to have 5 or more ribs involved in the flail segment (n = 223 with 96% (n = 281 having a unilateral FC. Inpatient treatment was required 19.9 days (range 0–150 days with 59% of patients (n = 173 requiring intensive care unit (ICU level care for 8.4 days (range 1–63 with 61.8% requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 107 for 10.5 days (range 1–54, and 7.8% underwent rib fixation with rib plates (n = 23.The mortality rate was found to be 14% (n = 42. A non-significant trend towards improved outcomes in the conservative group was found when compared with the fixation group; ventilation days (6.94 vs 10.06, p = 0.18 intensive treatment unit (ITU length of stay (LOS (12.56 vs 15.53, p = 0.28 and hospital LOS (32

  13. Gender and Atopy Influences on the Natural History of Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Karmaus, Wilfried; Arshad, S Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review Rhinitis is a common condition associated with significant under-recognized morbidity and impaired quality of life. The natural history of rhinitis is poorly characterized. Better understanding of its natural history and associated risk factors would improve the ability to effectively manage rhinitis in clinical practice. This review focuses on current research findings on the natural history of rhinitis and how that is influenced by atopy and gender. Recent Findings Recent work from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort Study has demonstrated that the prevalence of atopic rhinitis increases steadily in the first 18-years of life in both sexes. However, non-atopic rhinitis behaves differently during adolescence. Its prevalence decreases in boys but continues to increase in girls resulting in a female predominance after puberty. Numerous recent studies have proposed potential roles for sex and adipose related hormonal changes in influencing the course of allergic disease. Further research is needed to establish mechanisms that could underlie such findings. Summary Rhinitis becomes increasingly common through childhood, with prevalence during adolescence being mediated by differential effects of gender and atopy. Mechanisms to explain these findings await elucidation. PMID:22157156

  14. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Hudson

    Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  15. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  16. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny-Walsh, E

    2012-02-03

    The natural history of HCV infection remains ill-defined. The knowledge accumulated on the progression of HCV to date is important, however. It is now abundantly clear that the progression of disease is generally slow, and the development of cirrhosis and its complications is a possibility, not a probability as hitherto thought. Predicting the outcome remains a quandary for clinicians. Ultimately it will be possible to define the natural history of hepatitis C infection through a combination of research in the fields of virology, immunology, and molecular biology and by monitoring the biochemical and histologic progress of the disease. Only then will it be possible to intervene appropriately and develop new therapies to prevent the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Research on history of Chinese seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Wu, Yuxia

    2010-06-01

    The history of Chinese seismology can be traced back to four thousand years before and divided into four stages, i.e., primitive knowledge, worship of nature, perceptual knowledge and scientific research. The second stage ran in the whole Qin-Han dynasties, and the fourth stage began from Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty and continued to the present. So far China has made four great contributions to seismological development of the world, i.e., the invention of Heng Zhang’s seismoscope, great amount of historical records of earthquakes of four thousand years, most abundant anomaly data before earthquakes, and successful practice of earthquake prediction in Haicheng. However, the seismological research in China at present is still on the junior and developing stage. Now we have been carrying on some recessively historical load in our mind such as the subconsciousness of absolute obedience, habit of phenomenological study as well as the methods of philosophical analysis without sincerity. For constructing a high-level Chinese culture in seismological research, we need to pay attention to combining the phenomenological research with experiment, observation and theory study. It is also suggested to take the appropriated measures matched with the present research level in seismology, as well as to promote coexisting and merging of multi-cultures.

  18. The Naturalized Nation: Anchoring, Objectification and Naturalized Social Representations of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eemeli Hakoköngäs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the connection between social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of elementary concepts of social representations theory: anchoring, objectification and naturalization. The aims of the study are to arrive at a conceptual clarity of this connection and demonstrate how to apply basic concepts of social representations theory to the study of collective memory. The study also focuses on the naturalized characteristics of Finnish history. The data consist of the covers of twenty Finnish history books between the years 1965 and 2014. All the covers are embellished with typography or visual images. The covers were analysed using a semiotic approach in which the interest is in the description (denotation, the associations (connotation and the meaning system these construe (myth. The analysis shows how national history is concretized with visual images (objectification, how the meaning of representation is conveyed (anchoring and how collective memory is maintained (naturalization, transmitted and shaped during the years. The results show how the stable collective memories and changing social representations of history are interacting. The most frequently used visual element was the colour blue, which alludes to the Finnish flag, a symbol of the nation that represents the core of Finnish history. The study suggests that it is possible to conceptualize collective memories as naturalized social representations of history. It shows how processes of anchoring and objectification serve as tools of collective memory and how the naturalized conceptions are subtly changed. In addition, the study develops the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research.

  19. History of occupational exposure to natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.

    1993-01-01

    From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Annona muricata: Is the natural therapy to most disease conditions including cancer growing in our backyard? A systematic review of its research history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Wamunyokoli, Fred; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2017-09-01

    Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant, the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, its extracts and phytochemicals have been characterized as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic to cancer cells. In vivo studies have revealed anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimalarial, antidepressant, gastro protective, wound healing, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, anticancer and anti-tumoral activities. In silico studies have also been reported. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic as well as some anticancer activities. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, and mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, more clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant. Some studies were also found to have successfully regenerated the plant in vitro, but with limited success. The reported toxicity notwithstanding, A. muricata extracts seem to be

  1. The Natural Link between Teaching History and Computer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, because both history and computers are information based, there is an natural link between the two. Argues that history teachers should exploit the technology to help students to understand history while they become computer literate. Points out uses for databases, word processing, desktop publishing, and telecommunications in…

  2. Word Generation in Boston Public Schools: Natural History of a Literacy Intervention. The Senior Urban Education Research Fellowship Series. Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Lawrence, Joshua F.

    2011-01-01

    When the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP) began working with Boston Public Schools (BPS) in 2005, the most pressing need articulated by the district was research and development in the area of middle school literacy. Thus SERP researchers undertook to specify more precisely what the middle school literacy problem in BPS was by…

  3. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  4. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... The primary aims of this research project are to identify risk factors for chronic pain following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize its natural history, and examine its impact...

  5. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bibliography of natural history travel narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The travel narratives listed here encompass all aspects of the natural world in every part of the globe, but are especially concerned with its fauna, flora and fossil remains. Such eyewitness accounts have always fascinated their readers, but they were never written solely for entertainment:

  7. Science literacy and natural history museums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-10-15

    Oct 15, 2010 ... It appears that developed countries, such as the US, the UK and Italy, are losing the race against irrationalism and arbitrary thinking in regard to nature and human interactions. The incidence of misguided beliefs and the detachment from and, in some cases, outright hostility toward science are on the rise.

  8. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  9. Making "Nature" the history of a scientific journal

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...

  10. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The natural history of night terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, F J; Emery, E S

    1987-10-01

    Night terrors are a sleep disorder, resulting from a partial arousal during slow-wave sleep. They usually occur within 2 hours of sleep onset and are characterized by agitation and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Nineteen children (ten males, nine females) with onset of night terrors before age 7.5 years were studied by means of a questionnaire. Mean observation time (time from onset age to age at survey) was 8.5 years, but longer than 10 years in nine subjects. Seventy percent of the children had their initial frequency of night terrors as their peak frequency, with a tendency for shorter duration of the parasomnia in this group. Children with onset age less than 3.5 years may be expected to attain a peak frequency of at least one episode per week. Children with onset after 3.5 years, but before 7.5 years, may expect to attain a peak frequency of 1-2 episodes per month. There was a mean duration of 3.9 years, with a tendency for longer duration in children with positive family histories of sleep walking. Fifty percent stopped by age 8 years; 36 percent continued into adolescence. No common abnormal behavioral profile or psychopathology was found. Common precipitants of attacks were not identified.

  12. Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Dobson, Andy; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Lubroth, Juan; Dixon, Matthew A; Bennett, Malcolm; Aldrich, Stephen; Harrington, Todd; Formenty, Pierre; Loh, Elizabeth H; Machalaba, Catherine C; Thomas, Mathew Jason; Heymann, David L

    2012-12-01

    More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are responsible for a substantial burden of disease, with endemic and enzootic zoonoses causing about a billion cases of illness in people and millions of deaths every year. Emerging zoonoses are a growing threat to global health and have caused hundreds of billions of US dollars of economic damage in the past 20 years. We aimed to review how zoonotic diseases result from natural pathogen ecology, and how other circumstances, such as animal production, extraction of natural resources, and antimicrobial application change the dynamics of disease exposure to human beings. In view of present anthropogenic trends, a more effective approach to zoonotic disease prevention and control will require a broad view of medicine that emphasises evidence-based decision making and integrates ecological and evolutionary principles of animal, human, and environmental factors. This broad view is essential for the successful development of policies and practices that reduce probability of future zoonotic emergence, targeted surveillance and strategic prevention, and engagement of partners outside the medical community to help improve health outcomes and reduce disease threats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... The primary aims of this research were to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history, and examine...

  14. The History of Rock Art Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The History of Rock Art Research. Rock art in South India was discovered as early as 1891.The earliest discovery of petroglyphs on the Koppagallu hill in Bellary district was made by Fred Fawcett (1892) who with the ... Fawcett, as Archibald Carlylle in Central India, recognized the prehistoric antiquity of the Rock art.

  15. The History of Rock Art Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The History of Rock Art Research. Rock art in South India was discovered as early as 1891.The earliest discovery of petroglyphs on the Koppagallu hill in Bellary district was made by Fred Fawcett (1892) who with the assistance of H.T.Knox and Robert Sewell ...

  16. Egyptian Journal of Natural History: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  17. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  18. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  19. Initial report of the osteogenesis imperfecta adult natural history initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Laura L; Oetgen, Matthew E; Floor, Marianne K; Huber, Mary Beth; Kennelly, Ann M; McCarter, Robert J; Rak, Melanie F; Simmonds, Barbara J; Simpson, Melissa D; Tucker, Carole A; McKiernan, Fergus E

    2015-11-14

    A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation established the Adult Natural History Initiative (ANHI) in 2010 to give voice to the health concerns of the adult OI community and to begin to address existing knowledge gaps for this condition. Using a web-based platform, 959 adults with self-reported OI, representing a wide range of self-reported disease severity, reported symptoms and health conditions, estimated the impact of these concerns on present and future health-related quality of life (QoL) and completed a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) survey of health issues. Adults with OI report lower general physical health status (p report generally similar mental health status. Musculoskeletal, auditory, pulmonary, endocrine, and gastrointestinal issues are particular future health-related QoL concerns for these adults. Numerous other statistically significant differences exist among adults with OI as well as between adults with OI and the referent PROMIS® population, but the clinical significance of these differences is uncertain. Adults with OI report lower general health status but are otherwise more similar to the general population than might have been expected. While reassuring, further analysis of the extensive OI-ANHI databank should help identify areas of unique clinical concern and for future research. The OI-ANHI survey experience supports an internet-based strategy for successful patient-centered outcomes research in rare disease populations.

  20. Natural history of ovarian endometrioma in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Katie; Moro, Francesca; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Foo, Xulin; Hoo, Wee-Liak; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-10-15

    Ovarian endometriomas are classified as benign ovarian lesions. During pregnancy endometriomas may undergo major morphological changes which are referred to as 'decidualisation'. Decidualised ovarian endometrioma may resemble malignant ovarian tumours on ultrasound examination. The aim was to study variations in the morphology and size of ovarian endometriomas diagnosed on ultrasound during pregnancy. We searched our database to identify pregnant women who were diagnosed with ovarian endometriomas on ultrasound in order to study the effect of pregnancy on their morphological characteristics. In women who underwent serial scans during pregnancy we examined the changes in the size of endometriomas with advancing gestation. Twenty four patients with a total of 34 endometriomas were included in the analysis. All women were managed expectantly during pregnancy. On the first ultrasound scan 29/34 (85.3%, 95% CI 73.4 - 97.2) endometriomas appeared unilocular with fine internal echoes ('ground glass' contents) and they were poorly vascularised on Doppler examination. 1/34 (2.9% 95% CI 0.0 - 8.5) endometrioma was multilocular, with regular margins, 'ground glass' contents and it was also poorly vascularised. 4/34 (11.8%, 95% CI 1.0 - 22.6) had sonographic features suggestive of decidualisation such as thick and irregular inner wall, papillary projections and highly vascular on Doppler examination. The endometriomas showed a tendency to decrease in size during pregnancy. Pregnancy has a major effect on the size and morphological appearances of ovarian endometriomas. Rapid regression of decidualised endometriomas is a helpful feature which could be used to confirm their benign nature.

  1. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P D; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  2. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  3. NATURAL HISTORY OF THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT IN ORAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S C Mohapatra; V K Srivastava; P Mohapatra; J NP Gupta; J Tandon

    1995-01-01

    The natural history of a diseases is greatly influenced by the course of therapeutic management. Just after the tissue stage of the disease is aver. The cure rate of diseases, particularly those of cancers, could probably be modified to a greater extent, if the natural history of the therapeutic manage­ment is understood properly, so that the community education programme be organised in the proper direction, to trigger early diagnosis. Home remedy urn the first preference of 76.8% of oral ca...

  4. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  5. Nodding syndrome: origins and natural history of a longstanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nodding syndrome: origins and natural history of a longstanding epileptic disorder in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Conclusion: Historical accounts of head nodding (amesinzia kichwa, Swahili) among the Wapogoro tribe fit the August 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of probable Nodding Syndrome.

  6. Natural history of ventricular septal defects in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of patients are confined to long-term medical management because of the high cost of surgery (which is usually done ... The diagnosis was based on typical historical and physical findings. Further evaluation comprised a plain ..... 18. Hrahsheh AS, Hijazi IS. Natural and modified history of ventricular septal defects in infants.

  7. Wings of the Night: The Natural History of Bats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Wings of the Night: The Natural History of Bats. Uttam Saikia. General Article Volume 12 Issue 11 November 2007 pp 63-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/11/0063-0076 ...

  8. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Deborah D. Rudis

    1986-01-01

    Describes natural history profiles of New England wildlife species and their associations with forested and nonforested habitats. Provides a database that will enable forest managers or wildlife biologists to describe the species or groups to be found in a given habitat. Comprised of 14 pdf files.

  9. Natural history of cardiovascular manifestations in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Karnebeek, C. D.; Naeff, M. S.; Mulder, B. J.; Hennekam, R. C.; Offringa, M.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the natural history of mitral valve and aortic abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Fifty two patients with Marfan syndrome were followed for a mean of 7.9 years. Occurrence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes was measured

  10. Natural History of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often continue to progress spontaneously towards end stage renal disease (ESRD). In this report we studied the natural history of progression of CKD in a cohort of patients with stage 4 and 5 CKD. Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients in stage 4 ...

  11. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapalme-Remis, S.; Lewis, E.C.; De Meulemeester, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Gibson, K.M.; Torres, C.; Guberman, A.; Salomons, G.; Jakobs, C.; Ali-Ridha, A.; Parviz, M.; Pearl, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following

  12. The natural history of HIV infection | Venter | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The natural history of HIV infection. WDF Venter ...

  13. Cervical degenerative disc disease: epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kollintzas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease (CDDD is a common diagnosis for patients with neck and arm pain. Abnormal MRI or x-ray findings are not enough to establish diagnosis and propose therapeutic intervention. Epidemiology, natural history and clinical syndromes related with CDDD are presented in detail.

  14. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  15. The Natural History of Placenta Praevia in a Nigerian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the natural history of placenta praevia detected by transabdominal ultrasound scan at 12-14 weeks gestation till delivery. Study Design: A prospective longitudinal study of antenatal women with placenta praevia detected by transabdominal ultrasound scan at 12-14 weeks gestation at the antenatal ...

  16. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  17. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, María

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Tabanidae (Diptera) of the American Museum of Natural History Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    2016-07-11

    A checklist of Tabanidae in the American Museum of Natural History was compiled. Over 9,000 specimens were studied. The currently accepted taxa names have been listed based on general catalogs and recent publications. Where possible, modern locality names are given and determiners of each species are provided. A total of 882 species are listed in alphabetical order; including 52 primary and 219 secondary types. The collection includes a substantial global representation of species records for this family.

  20. Is natural history really dead?: Toward the rebirth of natural history ¿Está realmente muerta la historia natural?: Hacia el renacimiento de la Historia Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY F WILLSON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural history has been derided by some scientists as an old-fashion endeavor that does not follow the model of "hard" science and therefore should be considered "dead" and replaced by modern ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. We contend that natural history has much to offer to contemporary scientists and that it has a primary role in the creative process of generating novel hypotheses and designing significant field experiments and observationsEn años recientes, la historia natural ha sido desacreditada por científicos que la consideran un modelo obsoleto de ciencia y que, en consecuencia, se trataría de una disciplina "muerta" que ha sido reemplazada por la ecología moderna, la biología evolutiva y la biología de la conservación. Argumentamos aquí que la historia natural tiene mucho que ofrecer a los científicos contemporáneos y que juega un rol principal en el proceso de creación de hipótesis y en el diseño acertado de observaciones y experimentos de campo

  1. Research in Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-31

    of the lexical material to explain how many actions there were, how many actors , etc., and the nature of the map from actor onto action, etc. For...direction and make a measurement there, or may scan from the current focus in a specified " direccion " (or by some other specification of a trajectory

  2. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP, eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP, animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP. The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP, and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%, respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4% and non-RCT (13.9%. Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review

  3. Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne

    2005-11-01

    Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows.

  4. Connecting health and natural history: a failed initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909-1922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie K

    2014-10-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health-the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation-to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH's Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures-a "Living Museum"-and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and "inglorious end" in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions.

  5. REGIONAL NATURAL HISTORY IN ENGLAND: PHYSICO-THEOLOGY AND THE EXPLORATION OF NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David BECK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available First the article offers a contextual discussion of more widespread Latitudinarian views of nature and the relationship between the landscape and God. Secondly, it argues that the regional natural history should be seen as a contribution to debates regarding physico-theological belief, through an examination of comments regarding the origin and nature of fossils. This section demonstrates the reciprocal nature of religious and natural thought in the period: fossils informed the regional natural historians’ views of the biblical narrative, and the Bible informed their understanding of fossils. The final section turns to the relationship between the world that God created and both morality and health, finding that in more “scientific” fields regional natural historians were acting “empirically” in reporting isolated instances without wider theorising. The disjuncture between open conjecture upon religious implications and the relative lack thereof upon natural philosophical matters suggests, I argue, that natural theology should be the key in our understanding of regional natural histories in this period.

  6. The Biology and Natural History of Aphaenogaster rudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lubertazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers from the genus Aphaenogaster are among the most abundant ants in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. The biology of these so-called rudis-group ant species, including details about their sociometry, productivity, natural history, and behavior, are synthesized here using published and newly collected data. The latter was collected, in part, using an artificial field nest, and its construction and use are explained. Ants of the rudis group occur in high densities in forest habitats (0.5–1.3 nests m2, have moderate sized colonies (population means from 266 to 613 workers per nest, and are keystone seed dispersers. Many aspects of their life history and behavior follow an annual cycle that tracks seasonal changes. These include foraging, reproduction, the production of new workers and nest migrations. This synthesis highlights what is known about these ants and reveals gaps in our knowledge that require further study.

  7. Initiating and continuing participation in citizen science for natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary

    2016-07-22

    Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.

  8. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... The primary aims of this research project are to identify risk factors for chronic pain following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize its natural history, and examine its impact...

  9. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dworkin, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... from substantial reductions in quality of life. The primary aims of this research project are to identify risk factors for these chronic pain syndromes following surgical procedures for breast cancer, characterize their natural history...

  10. Natural history of post-stroke apathy during acute rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Juliana M.; Granato, Dora A.; Goldfine, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the natural history of post-stroke apathy, the authors tested 96 patients undergoing acute rehabilitation for stroke using the Apathy Inventory (AI). 28% of patients had apathy, and their AI scores improved on average 1 point by week 2 and 2 points by week 3 with the majority apathetic at discharge. Apathy severity correlated with aphasia, weakness, and impaired cognition, but not with depression. The findings suggest that acute rehabilitation is an optimal setting for clinical trials for post-stroke apathy because apathy is associated with poor outcomes and shows only a small degree of spontaneous improvement. PMID:26185903

  11. Natural History of Poststroke Apathy During Acute Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Juliana M; Granato, Dora A; Goldfine, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the natural history of poststroke apathy, the authors tested 96 patients undergoing acute rehabilitation for stroke using the Apathy Inventory. A total of 28% of patients had apathy. Their Apathy Inventory scores improved a mean of 1 point by week 2 and 2 points by week 3, with the majority of patients remaining apathetic at discharge. Apathy severity correlated with aphasia, weakness, and impaired cognition but did not correlate with depression. These findings suggest that acute rehabilitation is an optimal setting for clinical trials for poststroke apathy, because apathy is associated with poor outcomes and shows only a small degree of spontaneous improvement.

  12. Why we should care about evolution and natural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    to take the discussion of science and religion beyond our own professional circles. Peter Harrison's The Territories of Science and Religion gives us an opportunity to do so. We can use his book to understand why people consistently get the relation wrong. However, we need to take the next step ourselves......, involve historians in the common academic goal, across disciplines, to make sense of the world around us and make that combined knowledge truly useful. Evolution and natural history might help to that effect....

  13. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  14. Alaska research natural areas: 1. Mount Prindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Juday

    1988-01-01

    The 2412-hectare Mount Prindle Research Natural Area is located in central Alaska on the border of the Steese National Conservation Area and White Mountains National Recreation Area. It is managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Steese-White Mountains District. Mount Prindle was selected as a Research Natural Area (RNA) because it...

  15. The Nature of US Natural Hazards Research, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelman, R., III

    2009-04-01

    Numerous academic disciplines have contributed to the body of published research on natural hazards and disasters. Geologists, engineers, geographers, and sociologists have participated since the topic first emerged as a formal research agenda in the early 1950s. In more recent decades, psychologists, political scientists, economists, historians, archeologists, anthropologists, architects, computer scientists, and artists have added to our understanding of environmental risk, hazard, and disaster. When examined in-print, what are the discipline-demographics of natural hazards? Who contributes and who tends to have the greater influence on scholarly discourse related to the topic? Are there clear trends in methods, techniques, or paradigmatic approaches? To what degree does this inherently interdisciplinary topic render interdisciplinary research? This paper will present initial findings from a larger data set on natural hazards and social science research. We will describe the discipline-demographics of natural hazards scholarship by examining college-level texts, peer-reviewed journal publications, federally-funded reports, and federally-funded research grants relating to natural hazards or disasters from 1988 to 2008. The citation frequency of sampled references will also be examined as a surrogate for influence on the scholarly discourse of natural hazards. In this paper, we will focus attention on the contributions of social scientists during this period, including an assessment of temporal trends relative to specific disaster events.

  16. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  17. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Soriano, V; Mayorga, L; Mayor, M

    2005-02-01

    The natural history of stings, the clinical reaction of the patient and in vivo and in vitro tests are necessary parameters to assess before initiating Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. In the decision to initiate immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venom, it is not usual to evaluate the natural history of the disease, which seems to be self-limiting and therefore of variable clinical significance. Our aim was to determine the natural history of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity over 4 consecutive years in a rural Mediterranean population. An epidemiological study of Hymenoptera sting reactions and possible sensitivity was carried out in 145 randomly selected subjects out of a rural Mediterranean population of 600. Seventy-two subjects, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, completed the 4-year study. The nature of their clinical reactions, age, sex, history of atopy, profession, family history of reactions to Hymenoptera insects, time elapsed since the last sting, number of stings and specific IgE and IgG were determined (the latter, to the three most important insects in the area: Apis mellifera, Polistes dominulus, and Vespula germanica). Of the 72 subjects, four subjects had systemic reactions (SR), 23 had large local reaction (LLR) and all the others (117) was minor local reactions. None who had experienced an SR had a repeat SR when re-stung over the 4-year study. Of those with LLR, 12 subjects had the same type of reaction and 11 experienced more mild local reactions when re-stung. In the SR and local reaction groups, IgE to honey bee (Hb) increased significantly during the study period, whereas in those with only LLR, specific IgE to wasp (Polistes) decreased. Specific IgG to Polistes and Vespula (wasps) decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in the specific IgG to Hb in any of the groups. The number of stings per year decreased at the end of the study in all groups, but positive-specific IgG was higher in subjects with the greatest number of

  18. Natural history and pregnancy outcome in patients with placental chorioangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the natural history and outcome of pregnancies in patients with placental chorioangioma. A total of 16 placentas with a histologic diagnosis of chorioangioma were identified, and the natural history and outcome of pregnancy were evaluated. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees of our unit, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Thirteen of the 16 cases were associated with a wide variety of fetal complications. Two-thirds of the cases developed complications that either required elective delivery because of fetal distress (n = 4), fetal heart failure (n = 1), oligohydramnion (n = 1), and premature labor of dichorionic twins (n = 1) or resulted in intrauterine fetal death and termination of pregnancy (n = 2). Placental chorioangioma was associated with the development of polyhydramnios, fetal growth restriction, and fetal distress in a significant number of cases. The size, vascularity, and location of the chorioangioma may be three independent factors of maternal and fetal complications. Any of these three factors can influence the outcome of pregnancy. Close antenatal examination should be routinely practiced to allow the timely diagnosis of early fetal heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What can bioinformatics do for Natural History museums?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra, José María

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose the founding of a Natural History bioinformatics framework, which would solve one of the main problems in Natural History: data which is scattered around in many incompatible systems (not only computer systems, but also paper ones. This framework consists of computer resources (hardware and software, methodologies that ease the circulation of data, and staff expert in dealing with computers, who will develop software solutions to the problems encountered by naturalists. This system is organized in three layers: acquisition, data and analysis. Each layer is described, and an account of the elements that constitute it given.

    Se presentan las bases de una estructura bioinformática para Historia Natural, que trata de resolver uno de los principales problemas en ésta: la presencia de datos distribuidos a lo largo de muchos sistemas incompatibles entre sí (y no sólo hablamos de sistemas informáticos, sino también en papel. Esta estructura se sustenta en recursos informáticos (en sus dos vertientes: hardware y software, en metodologías que permitan la fácil circulación de los datos, y personal experto en el uso de ordenadores que se encargue de desarrollar soluciones software a los problemas que plantean los naturalistas. Este sistema estaría organizado en tres capas: de adquisición, de datos y de análisis. Cada una de estas capas se describe, indicando los elementos que la componen.

  20. Connecting Health and Natural History: A Failed Initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909–1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City’s American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health—the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation—to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH’s Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures—a “Living Museum”—and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and “inglorious end” in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions. PMID:24205997

  1. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake... Natural History, 1390 E. Presidents Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, telephone (801) 581-3876, before...

  2. 76 FR 48179 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound has completed an... contact the Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound. Disposition of the human remain...

  3. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New... following sentence: Officials of the American Museum of Natural History have determined that, pursuant to 25...

  4. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Museum of Natural History... human remains may contact the American Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains to...

  5. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…

  6. What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2018-01-08

    Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.

  7. Strawberry hemangiomas; the natural history of the untreated lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JACOBS, A H

    1957-01-01

    A review of the literature on the natural history of strawberry hemangiomas revealed over-whelming evidence of the satisfactory spontaneous involution of over 95 per cent of these lesions without the scarring and danger of other sequelae inherent in the various forms of treatment. In a study of 105 strawberry nevi observed for more than one year, 97 per cent of the lesions had either completely disappeared or were regressing satisfactorily.A cross-section study of 1,735 consecutively examined children in routine pediatric practice showed hemangiomas to be present in 10.1 per cent of all infants from birth to one year of age but that this incidence drops to 1.5 per cent in children over five years of age, confirming the fact of spontaneous involution.

  8. Natural history of muscle cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, James B; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Griffin, Leah P; Cartwright, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Muscle cramping is a common symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that lacks efficacious treatment. The natural history of this symptom is unknown, which hampers efforts to design optimal clinical trials. We surveyed early stage ALS patients about their experience with cramps each month by phone for up to 21 months. Cramps developed in 95% of patients over the course of their disease. The number of cramps experienced by an individual varied widely from month-to-month and trended lower after the first year of illness (P = 0.26). Those with limb-onset and age >60 years had more cramps than bulbar-onset (P cramps experienced suggests that clinical trials will need to use crossover designs or large numbers of participants, even when the treatment effect is substantial. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Natural History of Muscle Cramps in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, James B.; Ciarlone, Stephanie L.; Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Griffin, Leah P.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Muscle cramping is a common symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without efficacious treatment. The natural history of this symptom is unknown, which hampers efforts to design optimal clinical trials. Methods We surveyed early stage ALS patients about their experience with cramps each month by phone for up to 21 months. Results Cramps developed in 95% of patients over the course of their disease. The number of cramps experienced by an individual varied widely from month-to-month and trended lower after the first year of illness (P = 0.26). Those with limb-onset and age >60 years had more cramps than bulbar-onset (Pcramps experienced suggests that clinical trials will need to use crossover designs or large numbers of participants, even when the treatment effect is substantial. PMID:26332705

  10. Tension in the Natural History of Human Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Henrike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tomasello has greatly expanded our knowledge of human cognition and how it differs from that of other animals. In this commentary to his recent book A Natural History of Human Thinking, I first critique some of the presuppositions and arguments of his evolutionary story about how homo sapiens’ cognition emerged. For example, I question the strategy of relying on the modern chimpanzee as a model for our last shared ancestor, and I doubt the idea that what changed first over evolutionary time was hominin behavior, which then in turn brought about changes in cognition. In the second half of the commentary I aim to show that the author oscillates between an additive and a transformative account of human shared intentionality. I argue that shared intentionality shapes cognition in its entirety and therefore precludes the possibility that humans have the same, individual intentionality (as shown in, e.g. their instrumental reasoning as other apes.

  11. The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function rem...... function and may lead to more rapid declines in lung function. Better understanding of the natural history of COPD may lead to better definitions of specific COPD phenotypes, better interventions and improved outcomes........ Exacerbations of COPD are additional important indicators of both quality of life and outcomes in COPD patients. Definitions of exacerbations can vary, ranging from an increase in symptoms to COPD-related hospitalisations and death. COPD exacerbations are more common in patients with lower levels of lung...

  12. Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure. The encoded Env protein (Syncytin is involved in hominoid placental physiology. Results In order to infer the natural history of this domestication process, a comparative genomic analysis of the human 7q21.2 syntenic regions in eutherians was performed. In primates, this region was progressively colonized by LTR-elements, leading to two different evolutionary pathways in Cercopithecidae and Hominidae, a genetic drift versus a domestication, respectively. Conclusion The preservation in Hominoids of a genomic structure consisting in the juxtaposition of a retrotransposon-derived MaLR LTR and the ERVWE1 provirus suggests a functional link between both elements.

  13. The Natural History and Treatment Options for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Joshua E.; Gayle, Shaneze C.; Duffis, E. Jesus; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in angiographic technique have raised our awareness of the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). However, the appropriate management for these lesions remains controversial. To optimize patient outcomes, the physician must weigh aneurysmal rupture risk associated with observation against the complication risks associated with intervention. In the case that treatment is chosen, the two available options are surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. Our paper summarizes the current body of literature in regards to the natural history of UIAs, the evolution of the lesion if it progresses uninterrupted, as well as the safety and efficacy of both treatment options. The risks and benefits of treatment and conservative management need to be evaluated on an individual basis and are greatly effected by both patient-specific and aneurysm-specific factors, which are presented in this paper. Ultimately, this body of data has led to multiple sets of treatment guidelines, which we have summated and presented in this paper. PMID:22500236

  14. The Natural History and Treatment Options for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E. Loewenstein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in angiographic technique have raised our awareness of the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs. However, the appropriate management for these lesions remains controversial. To optimize patient outcomes, the physician must weigh aneurysmal rupture risk associated with observation against the complication risks associated with intervention. In the case that treatment is chosen, the two available options are surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. Our paper summarizes the current body of literature in regards to the natural history of UIAs, the evolution of the lesion if it progresses uninterrupted, as well as the safety and efficacy of both treatment options. The risks and benefits of treatment and conservative management need to be evaluated on an individual basis and are greatly effected by both patient-specific and aneurysm-specific factors, which are presented in this paper. Ultimately, this body of data has led to multiple sets of treatment guidelines, which we have summated and presented in this paper.

  15. Natural history of snoring in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel K; Chan, Chung-Hong; Ng, Eugene P

    2014-08-01

    To determine the natural history of snoring in children when they reached adolescence and the underlying risk factors for persistence of habitual snoring. A follow-up telephone survey was conducted to determine the natural history of snoring in children who reached adolescence. The targeted interviewees of the follow-up survey were parents of 3047 children. Adolescents who were snoring ≥6 nights a week were defined as habitual snorers. Potential risk factors for persistent and incident habitual snoring were studied, including age, gender, allergic rhinitis, asthma, body mass index (BMI), sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Of the 3047 subjects, 2005 (65.8%) were successfully interviewed by phone. The prevalence of habitual snorers was 12.7%. Ninety-one adolescents were persistent habitual snorers. Allergic rhinitis, male gender and higher BMI at follow-up were identified as significant risk factors for persistent habitual snoring. A further 163 children were identified as incident habitual snorers. The risk factors for incident habitual snoring included male gender, asthma, higher BMI at follow-up and younger age at the first survey. In the current study, the mean sleep duration was 7.6 ± 1.0 h. Overall, 90% of the current cohort slept less than the lower limit of international recommendations for sleep duration. Around 40.6% of habitually snoring children continued to snore habitually as adolescents in the current study, while 9.2% of the initial non-habitual snorers became habitual snorers. Male gender and higher BMI were significant risk factors for both persistent and incident habitual snoring. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Natural history of infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Stephen J; Coffey, Christopher S; Yankey, Jon W; Krosschell, Kristin; Arnold, W David; Rutkove, Seward B; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Reyna, Sandra P; Sakonju, Ai; Darras, Basil T; Shell, Richard; Kuntz, Nancy; Castro, Diana; Parsons, Julie; Connolly, Anne M; Chiriboga, Claudia A; McDonald, Craig; Burnette, W Bryan; Werner, Klaus; Thangarajh, Mathula; Shieh, Perry B; Finanger, Erika; Cudkowicz, Merit E; McGovern, Michelle M; McNeil, D Elizabeth; Finkel, Richard; Iannaccone, Susan T; Kaye, Edward; Kingsley, Allison; Renusch, Samantha R; McGovern, Vicki L; Wang, Xueqian; Zaworski, Phillip G; Prior, Thomas W; Burghes, Arthur H M; Bartlett, Amy; Kissel, John T

    2017-12-01

    Infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality, typically resulting in death preceding age 2. Clinical trials in this population require an understanding of disease progression and identification of meaningful biomarkers to hasten therapeutic development and predict outcomes. A longitudinal, multicenter, prospective natural history study enrolled 26 SMA infants and 27 control infants aged <6 months. Recruitment occurred at 14 centers over 21 months within the NINDS-sponsored NeuroNEXT (National Network for Excellence in Neuroscience Clinical Trials) Network. Infant motor function scales (Test of Infant Motor Performance Screening Items [TIMPSI], The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test for Neuromuscular Disorders, and Alberta Infant Motor Score) and putative physiological and molecular biomarkers were assessed preceding age 6 months and at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months with progression, correlations between motor function and biomarkers, and hazard ratios analyzed. Motor function scores (MFS) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) decreased rapidly in SMA infants, whereas MFS in all healthy infants rapidly increased. Correlations were identified between TIMPSI and CMAP in SMA infants. TIMPSI at first study visit was associated with risk of combined endpoint of death or permanent invasive ventilation in SMA infants. Post-hoc analysis of survival to combined endpoint in SMA infants with 2 copies of SMN2 indicated a median age of 8 months at death (95% confidence interval, 6, 17). These data of SMA and control outcome measures delineates meaningful change in clinical trials in infantile-onset SMA. The power and utility of NeuroNEXT to provide "real-world," prospective natural history data sets to accelerate public and private drug development programs for rare disease is demonstrated. Ann Neurol 2017;82:883-891. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  17. A joint history of the nature of genetic variation and the nature of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kendler, KS

    2014-01-01

    This essay traces the history of concepts of genetic variation and schizophrenia from Darwin and Mendel to the present. For Darwin, the important form of genetic variation for evolution is continuous in nature and small in effect. Biometricians led by Pearson agreed and developed statistical genetic approaches utilizing trait correlations in relatives. Mendel studied discontinuous traits and subsequent Mendelians, led by Bateson, assumed that important genetic variation was large in effect pr...

  18. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  19. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Antonio; Tartaglione, Teresa; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    The natural history of chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is still poorly understood. The main reason is the asymptomatic onset and course in the majority of infected subjects. Moreover, in the presence of the very effective therapies now available it is impossible to follow people untreated in order to analyse the events and their timing and type of evolution. For these reasons, most studies are mainly retrospective, although studies on post-transfusion hepatitis could help in understanding the natural course of the infection. Another important phenomenon that makes this issue problematic is that chronic HCV infection is not linear in time, probably because many co-factors can change the speed of development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Data now available show that this disease can persist for about two decades with limited morbidity and mortality; problems may arise between the third and fourth decade after infection. Alcohol consumption is a very important factor of additional risk of progression, but there are several other factors (iron, steatosis, metabolic problems, etc.) that must be better analysed. In conclusion, only in a small group (no more than 15%) of all HCV-infected patients does the disease reduce quality and/or quantity of life.

  20. History of the Tinnitus Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James B

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the creation and accomplishments of the Tinnitus Research Consortium (TRC), founded and supported through philanthropy and intended to enrich the field of tinnitus research. Bringing together a group of distinguished auditory researchers, most of whom were not involved in tinnitus research, over the fifteen years of its life it developed novel research approaches and recruited a number of new investigators into the field. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight some of the significant accomplishments of the investigators supported by the TRC. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Tinnitus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific literacy: Role of natural history studies in constructing understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Martha Victoria Rosett

    2002-01-01

    Scientific literacy is a central goal of science education. One purpose of this investigation was to reevaluate the definition of 'scientific literacy.' Another purpose was to develop and implement new curriculum involving natural history experiments with insects, with the goal of allowing students opportunities to construct an understanding of the nature of science, a crucial aspect of scientific literacy. This investigation was a qualitative case study. Methods of data collection included direct observations, analysis of sketches and written products created by students and class-room teachers, and analysis of audio tapes. Major findings include: (1) Scientific literacy is generally defined by lists of factual information which students are expected to master. When asked to evaluate their knowledge of selected items on a list published in a science education reform curriculum guide, 15 practicing scientists reported lack of familiarity or comprehension with many items, with the exception of items within their areas of specialization. (2) Genuine natural history experiments using insects can be incorporated into the existing school schedule and need not require any increase in the budget for science materials. (3) Students as young as first through third grade can learn the manual techniques and conceptual skills necessary for designing and conducting original natural history experiments, including manipulating the insects, making accurate sketches, developing test able hypotheses, recording data, and drawing conclusions from their data. Students were generally enthusiastic both about working with live insects and also conducting genuine science experiments. (4) Girls appear both positive and engaged with natural history activities and may be more likely than boys to follow through on designing, conducting, and reporting on independent experiments. The results imply that a valid definition of scientific literacy should be based on the ability to acquire scientific

  2. Experimental Researches Regarding the Ecological Dyeing with Natural Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Ramona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘environmental awareness’ has recently had a major impact on the textile industry and on the fashion world as well. In this context, the use of natural fibres and the development of natural dyeing processes gradually became important goals of the textile industry. Of all natural textile fibres, hemp is considered to be one of the strongest and most durable. A wide range of natural extracts have been used for natural textile coloration and dyeing. Dyes deriving from natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. Ecofriendly, nontoxic, sustainable and renewable natural dyes and pigments have been used for colouring the food substrate, leather, wood, natural fibres and fabrics from the dawn of human history. The purpose of the research is to obtain ecologically coloured fabrics for textiles by using a method of dyeing that relies on natural ingredients extracted from red beet, onion leaves and black tea. The experiments are conducted on three different types of hemp fabrics. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the dyeing process of hemp fabrics with natural extracts, the colours of the dyed samples inspected with reflectance spectra and the CIE L*a*b* colour space measurements.

  3. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagona, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.

  4. At the Crossroads. Management and Business History in Entrepreneurship Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Gil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent calls for a historic turn in organization studies offer the opportunity to relaunch dialogue between management and business history research. Focusing on the specific domain of entrepreneurship research, this article illustrates the potential of mutual contributions from management and business history. In doing so, it demonstrates how historical approaches strongly influenced the early theoretical developments within entrepreneurship and demonstrates the potential to contribute to future scholarly debates. In sum, this article brings closer together business history and management studies stressing that their different perspectives and approaches are very valuable to enriching entrepreneurship research.

  5. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the…

  6. Approaches to estimating the universe of natural history collections data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo H. Ariño

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the problem of recognizing and measuring the universe of specimen-level data existing in Natural History Collections around the world, in absence of a complete, world-wide census or register. Estimates of size seem necessary to plan for resource allocation for digitization or data capture, and may help represent how many vouchered primary biodiversity data (in terms of collections, specimens or curatorial units might remain to be mobilized. Three general approaches are proposed for further development, and initial estimates are given. Probabilistic models involve crossing data from a set of biodiversity datasets, finding commonalities and estimating the likelihood of totally obscure data from the fraction of known data missing from specific datasets in the set. Distribution models aim to find the underlying distribution of collections’ compositions, figuring out the occult sector of the distributions. Finally, case studies seek to compare digitized data from collections known to the world to the amount of data known to exist in the collection but not generally available or not digitized. Preliminary estimates range from 1.2 to 2.1 gigaunits, of which a mere 3% at most is currently web-accessible through GBIF’s mobilization efforts. However, further data and analyses, along with other approaches relying more heavily on surveys, might change the picture and possibly help narrow the estimate. In particular, unknown collections not having emerged through literature are the major source of uncertainty.

  7. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fortune, Anne F

    2012-02-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.

  8. Adrenoleukodystrophy - neuroendocrine pathogenesis and redefinition of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephan; Huffnagel, Irene C; Linthorst, Gabor E; Wanders, Ronald J; Engelen, Marc

    2016-10-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which leads to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Virtually all men with ALD develop adrenal insufficiency and myelopathy. Approximately 60% of men develop progressive cerebral white matter lesions (known as cerebral ALD). However, one cannot identify these individuals until the early changes are seen using brain imaging. Women with ALD also develop myelopathy, but generally at a later age than men and adrenal insufficiency or cerebral ALD are very rare. Owing to the multisystem symptomatology of the disease, patients can be assessed by the paediatrician, general practitioner, endocrinologist or a neurologist. This Review describes current knowledge on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of ALD, and highlights gaps in our knowledge of the natural history of the disease owing to an absence of large-scale prospective cohort studies. Such studies are necessary for the identification of new prognostic biomarkers to improve care for patients with ALD, which is particularly relevant now that newborn screening for ALD is being introduced.

  9. Postoperative residual pleural spaces: characteristics and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, Panagiotis; Kokotsakis, John; Konstantinou, Marios; Skottis, Ion; Lioulias, Achilles

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to re-define the incidence and natural history of postresectional residual pleural spaces (PRS). From 1997 to 2005, 966 patients who were subjected to less than entire lung resections, were followed and any cases of PRS were recorded. The records of these patients were retrospectively analyzed for age, gender, type of resection, side, apical or basal location, size, PRS wall thickness, empyema as well as for bronchopleural fistula occurence, management, and outcome. Postresectional residual pleural spaces outcome was correlated with space characteristics. A total of 92 cases (9.5%) of PRS were documented which developed frequently ( p 70 years ( p < 0.001), air leak ( p < 0.001), empyema ( p < 0.001), and thickened pleura ( p < 0.001). Good prognosis of PRS was strongly correlated with male gender, apical location, right side, normal pleura thickness, and small size. Postresectional residual pleural spaces of small size without any associated complications should not prolong hospitalization time.

  10. Pathogeny and natural history of congenital dislocation of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seringe, R; Bonnet, J-C; Katti, E

    2014-02-01

    Based on a review of the literature, the authors have made a critical study of several etiological factors. Endogenous factors such as acetabular dysplasia, increased anteversion of the femoral neck, and capsular laxity support the genetic theory but are neither constant nor necessary and are only facilitating factors. The major factor seems to be a mechanical one linked to the position in the uterus: hyperflexion with adduction and external rotation constituting the dislocating foetal posture combined with abnormal pressure on the greater trochanter and leading to expulsion of the head upward and backward. This theory can explain the natural history of C D H which is first, at birth a hip instability followed by two possible evolutions: either persistent luxation becoming irreducible or spontaneous stabilisation leading sometimes to complete healing or to residual abnormalities (subluxation or dysplasia). This concept suggests practical conclusions: the importance of an early diagnosis, the selection of the signs of the hip at risk, the pattern of prevention, the role for non-clinical investigations, the principles of the treatment based on postures, the indications for the different types of treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. The importance of scientific collecting and natural history museums for comparative neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2011-05-01

    The comparative study of vertebrate brains is inherently dependent upon access to a sufficient number of species and specimens to perform meaningful comparisons. Although many studies rely on compiling published information, continued specimen collection, in addition to more extensive use of existing brain collections and natural history museums, are crucial for detailed neuroanatomical comparisons across species. This review highlights the importance of collecting species through a variety of means, details a marsupial brain collection, and stresses the potential of natural history museums as a resource for comparative neuroanatomy. By taking advantage of as many of these resources as possible, researchers can rapidly increase species coverage and generate a better understanding of how the brain evolves. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. [Conservation and natural history around 1900: the contribution of the Sarasin cousins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Some basic concepts for the creation of the Swiss National Park were derived from observations made in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and New Caledonia. European researchers feared that the study of "virgin nature" would no longer be possible, as various species would soon become extinct under the combined influences of colonial practices and profit-oriented capitalism. While the motives for protecting nature originated from experiences made in the southern hemisphere, their scientific concept of conservation was based on European natural history and the related theories of evolution. In the light of this approach, endangered zoological and botanical species as well as "primitive" varieties of man were appreciated as "documents" to be preserved within their original environment for future scientific reference and research. Museum collections and reservations (parks) were two types of repositories connected to each other by the same objective.

  13. Res, veluti per machinas, conficiatur: natural history and the 'mechanical' reform of natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits Bacon's persistent 'mechanical' imagery by which he described the 'aid' through which the human mind would be rendered adequate to framing axioms about nature's processes and properties that underlie all natural phenomena. It argues that the role Bacon ascribed to his own insights into the properties and motions of matter is crucial for grasping such instrumental imagery, because his own writings--both methodological and natural historical--need to be read as themselves comprising, at least in incipient form, the very instruments of which they speak. From that reflexive standpoint, this paper in particular focuses on the 'aid' to the senses that his natural histories were to have offered under the interpretative guidance offered by the Novum organum and other works. The 'hypothetical' status to which Bacon is often thought to have accorded his own natural philosophical insights does not adequately take into account the transformative power Bacon thought these insights should have through his own writings. The fact that Bacon was keenly sensitive to the psychological effects of textual authority in his intellectual milieu prompts new reflection concerning how he intended his own texts to be read, and how we should read them.

  14. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Bastos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using “gold-standard” methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted.

  15. Taking history seriously in comparative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Patrick; Petersen, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Methodological approaches that rely exclusively on medium- to large-N cross-sectional correlations among variables as the source of causal inference are generally not suitable for analyzing comparative research questions in which the main acting agents are collective actors, such as political par...... on electoral system choice in the period before 1939 shows, these methodological approaches are inadequate for the causal analysis of institutional change without complementary analyses of within-case variation....

  16. The natural history of fetal long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Bettina F; Strasburger, Janette F; Wakai, Ronald T

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), the magnetic analog of ECG, has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of fetal arrhythmias. In the past 15years, we have evaluated over 300 fetuses with arrhythmia by fMCG. We review the unique characteristics and natural history of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) rhythms. We reviewed the fMCGs of subjects referred with suspected LQTS based on either a positive family history or echo diagnosis of the LQTS rhythms (sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or 2:1 AV conduction) to the Biomagnetism laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics, UW-Madison. We recorded fMCGs using a 37-channel (Magnes, 4D Neuroimaging, Inc., San Diego, CA) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetometer, housed in a magnetically-shielded room for 1200-6000s. Signal processing was used to remove maternal interference. Cardiac intervals (R-R, p, QRS, QT) were measured and compared to published normals. We correlated fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns and effects of fetal movement on FHR and rhythm using actocardiography. Thirty-nine fetuses were studied at a mean of 28 (19-38) weeks of gestation. All had structurally normal hearts. One was on amiodarone for suspected supraventricular tachycardia and hydrops. Five had serial fMCGs. Isolated sinus bradycardia with a QTc >490ms was found in 35: 33 had a KCNQ1 mutation There was one false positive and one false negative LQTS diagnosis. Four fetuses had torsades de pointes (TdP) and 3 had periods of 2:1 conduction and either KCNH2 or SCN5A mutations. TdP was rarely initiated with a preceding long-short pattern and did not degenerate into ventricular fibrillation. One fetus with TdP died in utero, 2 with fetal TdP had postnatal cardiac arrest. Fetal LQTS is diagnosed by an fMCG QTc >490ms with an 89% sensitivity and specificity. TdP are seen with uncharacterized, KCNH2 or SCN5A R1623q mutations. Fetal TdP occurs when QTc ≥620ms. Identifying fetal LQTS and defining its rhythms by f

  17. Smoking cessation affects the natural history of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiu-Wu Bai,1 Xiao-xin Chen,2 Shengsheng Liu,3 Li Yu,1 Jin-Fu Xu11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Peoples Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 3Department of Tuberculosis, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients.Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into “death” or “survival” groups based on follow-up results and “quitting-smoking” or “continuing-smoking” groups based on whether they gave up smoking.Results: Patients in the death group had a longer smoking time, lower prevalence of quitting smoking, later onset of COPD symptoms, older age at quitting smoking, lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 % predicted, and lower ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity. Age, age at quitting smoking, and FEV1% predicted were independently associated with mortality from COPD. Compared to the continuing-smoking group, the quitting-smoking group had a lower mortality rate, longer course of COPD, earlier onset of COPD symptoms, and lower residual volume percent predicted. During the 5-year follow-up, 113 deaths were recorded (quitting-smoking group: n=92; 40 deaths; continuing-smoking group: n=112; 73 deaths. The mortality risk remained significantly higher in the continuing-smoking group than the quitting-smoking group (log-rank test, 13.59; P=0.0002.Conclusion: Smoking time may be related to the mortality rate from COPD. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD.Keywords: chronic

  18. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryogi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  19. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from several government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects in the area of forestry, fisheries, coastal resources and protected areas. Research support will be provided by a team based in the Cambodia CBNRM Learning Institute.

  20. Forest Service research natural areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheauchi Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Ecological descriptions of 98 research natural areas (of various statuses) in the Pacific Southwest Region of the USDA Forest Service are summarized in this report. These descriptions, basically based on ecological surveys conducted from 1975 through 2000, provide important but largely unknown information on the ecology of California. For each area, descriptions of...

  1. A Concise History of Mycotoxin Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, John I; Miller, J David

    2017-08-23

    Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals. In the historical context, ergotism from Claviceps purpurea in rye has been known probably for more than 2000 years and caused the deaths of many thousands of people in Europe in the last millennium. Known in Japan since the 17th century, acute cardiac beriberi associated with the consumption of moldy rice was found to be due to citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum. This toxin was believed to be only of historic importance until its reemergence in Brazil a few years ago. Other Penicillium toxins, including ochratoxin A, once considered to be a possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy, are treated in a historical context. The role of Fusarium toxins in human and animal health, especially T-2 toxin in alimentary toxic aleukia in Russia in the 1940s and fumonisins in equine leucoencephalomalasia, is set out in some detail. Finally, this paper documents the story of the research that led to our current understanding of the formation of aflatoxins in grains and nuts, due to the growth of Aspergillus flavus and its role, in synergy with the hepatitis B virus, in human liver cancer. During a period of climate change and greatly reduced crop diversity on a global basis, researchers tasked with monitoring the food system need to be aware of fungal toxins that might have been rare in their working careers that can reappear.

  2. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  3. Contemporary Natural History and Management of Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martin S; Rowin, Ethan J; Olivotto, Iacopo; Casey, Susan A; Arretini, Anna; Tomberli, Benedetta; Garberich, Ross F; Link, Mark S; Chan, Raymond H M; Lesser, John R; Maron, Barry J

    2016-03-29

    Left ventricular outflow tract gradients are absent in an important proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the natural course of this important patient subgroup remains largely unresolved. The authors systematically employed exercise (stress) echocardiography to define those patients without obstruction to left ventricular outflow at rest and/or under physiological exercise and to examine their natural history and clinical course to create a more robust understanding of this complex disease. We prospectively studied 573 consecutive HCM patients in 3 centers (44 ± 17 years; 66% male) with New York Heart Association functional class I/II symptoms at study entry, including 249 in whom left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was absent both at rest and following physiological exercise (<30 mm Hg; nonobstructive HCM) and retrospectively assembled clinical follow-up data. Over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 225 of 249 nonobstructive patients (90%) remained in classes I/II, whereas 24 (10%) developed progressive heart failure to New York Heart Association functional classes III/IV. Nonobstructive HCM patients were less likely to experience advanced limiting class III/IV symptoms than the 324 patients with outflow obstruction (1.6%/year vs. 7.4%/year rest obstruction vs. 3.2%/year provocable obstruction; p < 0.001). However, 7 nonobstructive patients (2.8%) did require heart transplantation for progression to end stage versus none of the obstructive patients. HCM-related mortality among nonobstructive patients was low (n = 8; 0.5%/year), with 5- and 10-year survival rates of 99% and 97%, respectively, which is not different from expected all-cause mortality in an age- and sex-matched U.S. population (p = 0.15). HCM patients with nonobstructive disease appear to experience a relatively benign clinical course, associated with a low risk for advanced heart failure symptoms, other disease complications, and HCM-related mortality, and

  4. Competition as a source of constraint on life history evolution in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A J

    2014-01-01

    Competition among individuals is central to our understanding of ecology and population dynamics. However, it could also have major implications for the evolution of resource-dependent life history traits (for example, growth, fecundity) that are important determinants of fitness in natural populations. This is because when competition occurs, the phenotype of each individual will be causally influenced by the phenotypes, and so the genotypes, of competitors. Theory tells us that indirect genetic effects arising from competitive interactions will give rise to the phenomenon of 'evolutionary environmental deterioration', and act as a source of evolutionary constraint on resource-dependent traits under natural selection. However, just how important this constraint is remains an unanswered question. This article seeks to stimulate empirical research in this area, first highlighting some patterns emerging from life history studies that are consistent with a competition-based model of evolutionary constraint, before describing several quantitative modelling strategies that could be usefully applied. A recurrent theme is that rigorous quantification of a competition's impact on life history evolution will require an understanding of the causal pathways and behavioural processes by which genetic (co)variance structures arise. Knowledge of the G-matrix among life history traits is not, in and of itself, sufficient to identify the constraints caused by competition.

  5. Natural History of Aging in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLINE, ANTONIE D.; GRADOS, MARCO; SPONSELLER, PAUL; LEVY, HOWARD P.; BLAGOWIDOW, NATALIE; SCHOEDEL, CHRISTIANNE; RAMPOLLA, JONI; CLEMENS, DOUGLAS K.; KRANTZ, IAN; KIMBALL, AMY; PICHARD, CARMEN; TUCHMAN, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype–phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  6. Retrospective natural history of thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garone, Caterina; Taylor, Robert W; Nascimento, Andrés; Poulton, Joanna; Fratter, Carl; Domínguez-González, Cristina; Evans, Julie C; Loos, Mariana; Isohanni, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Anu; Ram, Dipak; Hughes, M Imelda; McFarland, Robert; Barca, Emanuele; Lopez Gomez, Carlos; Jayawant, Sandeep; Thomas, Neil D; Manzur, Adnan Y; Kleinsteuber, Karin; Martin, Miguel A; Kerr, Timothy; Gorman, Grainne S; Sommerville, Ewen W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hofer, Monika; Karch, Christoph; Ralph, Jeffrey; Cámara, Yolanda; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Domínguez-Carral, Jana; Ortez, Carlos; Emperador, Sonia; Montoya, Julio; Chakrapani, Anupam; Kriger, Joshua F; Schoenaker, Robert; Levin, Bruce; Thompson, John L P; Long, Yuelin; Rahman, Shamima; Donati, Maria Alice; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio

    2018-03-30

    Thymine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial matrix protein encoded in nuclear DNA and phosphorylates the pyrimidine nucleosides: thymidine and deoxycytidine. Autosomal recessive TK2 mutations cause a spectrum of disease from infantile onset to adult onset manifesting primarily as myopathy. To perform a retrospective natural history study of a large cohort of patients with TK2 deficiency. The study was conducted by 42 investigators across 31 academic medical centres. We identified 92 patients with genetically confirmed diagnoses of TK2 deficiency: 67 from literature review and 25 unreported cases. Based on clinical and molecular genetics findings, we recognised three phenotypes with divergent survival: (1) infantile-onset myopathy (42.4%) with severe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, frequent neurological involvement and rapid progression to early mortality (median post-onset survival (POS) 1.00, CI 0.58 to 2.33 years); (2) childhood-onset myopathy (40.2%) with mtDNA depletion, moderate-to-severe progression of generalised weakness and median POS at least 13 years; and (3) late-onset myopathy (17.4%) with mild limb weakness at onset and slow progression to respiratory insufficiency with median POS of 23 years. Ophthalmoparesis and facial weakness are frequent in adults. Muscle biopsies show multiple mtDNA deletions often with mtDNA depletion. In TK2 deficiency, age at onset, rate of weakness progression and POS are important variables that define three clinical subtypes. Nervous system involvement often complicates the clinical course of the infantile-onset form while extraocular muscle and facial involvement are characteristic of the late-onset form. Our observations provide essential information for planning future clinical trials in this disorder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. HIV infection in Haiti: natural history and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, M M; Fitzgerald, D W; Pape, J W; Johnson, W D

    2000-11-10

    A study was conducted to define the natural history and disease progression of HIV infection in a developing country. A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Forty-two patients with documented dates of HIV seroconversion were followed in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Patients were seen at 3 month intervals or when ill. Patients were treated for bacterial, mycobacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections, but antiretroviral therapy was not available. Patients were followed until death or until 1 January 2000; median follow-up was 66 months. By Kaplan-Meier analyses, the median time to symptomatic HIV disease (CDC category B or C) was 3.0 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-5.0 years]. The median time to AIDS (CDC category C) was 5.2 years (95% CI 4.7-6.5 years), and the median time to death was 7.4 years (95% CI 6.2-10.2 years). Community-acquired infections, including respiratory tract infections, acute diarrhea, and skin infections were common in the pre-AIDS period. AIDS-defining illnesses included tuberculosis, wasting syndrome, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, candida esophagitis, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcal meningitis. Rapid progression to death was associated with anemia at the time of seroconversion hazards ratio (HR) 4.1 (95% CI 1.1-15.0), age greater than 35 years at seroconversion HR 4.4 (95% CI 1.1-16.6), and lymphopenia at seroconversion HR 11.0 (95% CI 2.3-53.0). This report documents rapid disease progression from HIV seroconversion until death among patients living in a developing country. Interventions, including nutritional support and prophylaxis of common community-acquired infections during the pre-AIDS period may slow disease progression and prolong life for HIV-infected individuals in less-developed countries.

  8. Molecular genetics, natural history and the demise of childhood leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, M

    1999-12-01

    The patterns of genetic change, clonal evolution, natural history and latency are very different in the paediatric leukaemias compared with adult epithelial cancers but are similar to those in other childhood cancers of mesenchymal stem cell origin. This distinction has a biological logic in the context of the selective pressures for clonal emergence in different developmental and cellular contexts and has a major impact on curability. Most childhood leukaemias and some other mesenchymal stem cell tumours are of fetal origin and can metastasize without corruption of restraints on cell proliferation or bypassing apoptosis. In marked contrast to most invasive or metastatic epithelial carcinomas in adults, these former cancers then retain sensitivity to therapeutic apoptosis. Moreover, their abbreviated and less complex evolutionary status is associated with less genetic diversity and instability, minimising opportunity for clonal selection for resistance. A minority of leukaemias in children and a higher fraction in adults do, however, have genetic alterations that bypass cell cycle controls and apoptosis imposition. These are the 'bad news' genotypes. The cellular and molecular diversity of acute leukaemia impacts also on aetiology. Paediatric acute leukaemias can be initiated prenatally by illegitimate recombination and fusion gene formation in fetal haemopoiesis. For acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, twin studies suggest that a secondary postnatal molecular event is also required. This may be promoted by an abnormal or delayed response to common infections. Even for a classic case of a cancer that is intrinsically curable by systematic chemotherapy i.e. childhood ALL, prevention may turn out to be the preferred option.

  9. Internal crystallography and thermal history of natural gold alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, R.; Cleverley, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    New studies of gold are revealing how metallography is a key component of our understanding of the deposition of precious alloys in primary ore systems. Alluvial gold nuggets once thought to be secondary in origin have now been shown to be the erosional residue of hypogene systems, i.e. primary. This has been achieved through analysis of the internal crystallography using electron back scattered diffraction of large area ion beam polished gold samples. Comparisons of the microstructure are also being made with experiments on gold alloys with the same Ag contents where real time heating and in-situ microstructure mapping reveal the structures are of high temperature origin. A new frontier in gold analysis in both hypogene and supergene systems is the nano domain. In hypogene settings gold at all scales can be metallic and particulate as has been directly observed in refractory ores, or the so called "invisible gold" in pyrite and arsenopyrite. Such nanoparticulate and colloidal transport of gold is a viable mechanism of dispersing the gold during weathering of ore deposits. These gold nanoparticles, long known about in materials sciences and manufacturing have now been seen in these natural environments. Such colloids are also likely to play an important role in gold transport in hydrothermal deposits. The regularly heterogeneous distribution, trace concentration and nanoparticulate grain size of metallic gold in all ore systems has made it difficult for direct observation. Yet, it is critical to be able to establish a broad view of the microstructural/microchemical residence of the actual gold in a given sample. New generation element mapping tools now allow us to 'see' this invisible gold component for the first time and to probe its chemistry and controls on deposition. These studies have the potential to provide a new approach and view of the formation, deposition and provenance history of the metal in all gold deposits.

  10. The Natural History of Scoliosis in Females With Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jennepher; Torode, Ian; Wong, Kingsley; Ellaway, Carolyn; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Christodoulou, John; Jacoby, Peter; Thomson, Margaret R; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; McPhee, Bruce I; Bridge, Corinne; Cundy, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-05-01

    Population-based longitudinal observational study. To describe the prevalence of scoliosis in Rett syndrome, structural characteristics and progression, taking into account the influences of age, genotype, and ambulatory status. Scoliosis is the most common orthopedic comorbidity in Rett syndrome yet very little is known about its natural history and influencing factors such as age, genotype, and ambulatory status. The infrastructure of the Australian Rett Syndrome Database was used to identify all cases with confirmed Rett syndrome in Australia and collect data on genotype and walking status. We identified radiological records and described the Cobb angle of each curve. Time to event analysis was used to estimate the median age of onset of scoliosis and the log-rank test to compare by mutation type. Latent class group analysis was used to identify groups for the trajectory of walking status over time and a multilevel linear model used to assess trajectories of scoliosis development by mutation type and walking status. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the probability of developing a scoliosis with a Cobb angle >60° at 16 years in relation to Cobb angle and walking status at 10 years of age. The median age of scoliosis onset was 11 years with earliest onset in those with a p.Arg255 mutation or large deletion. Scoliosis was progressive for all mutation types except for those with the p.Arg306Cys mutation. Scoliosis progression was reduced when there was capacity to walk independently or with assistance. Cobb angle and walking ability at age 10 can be reliably used to identify those who will develop a very severe scoliosis by age 16. These data on prognosis of scoliosis inform clinical decision making about the likelihood of progression to very severe scoliosis and the need for surgical management. 4.

  11. The prevalence and natural history of complex sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Smith, Jason; Chung, Eugene

    2009-06-15

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) may occasionally occur in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during titration with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. To determine the prevalence and the natural history of CPAP-emergent CSA. This is a retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSAwho underwent titration with a positive airway device during a 1-year period. Patients were seen in consultation and underwent full-night attended polysomnography followed by full-night attended CPAP titration. Four weeks after CPAP therapy, patients returned to the clinic for follow-up, and objective adherence to CPAP was recorded. In patients who had CSA on CPAP, a second full-night attended CPAP titration was recommended. Eighty-four of the 1286 patients developed a central apnea index (CAI) of 5 or greater per hour while on CPAP. The incidence of CSA varied from 3% to 10% monthly, with an overall incidence of 6.5%. Forty-two of the 84 patients returned for a second CPAP titration. In 33 patients, CSA was eliminated. In each of the remaining 9 patients, the CAI remained at 5 or greater per hour, with an average of 13 per hour. These patients characteristically had the most severe OSA, and 5 had a CAI of 5 or more per hour at baseline. Two of the 9 patients were on opioids In this large retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSA, 6.5% had CPAP-emergent or persistent CSA. However, CPAP-emergent CSA was generally transitory and was eliminated within 8 weeks after CPAP therapy. The prevalence of CPAP-persistent CSA was about 1.5%. Severity of OSA, a CAI of 5 or greater per hour, and use of opioids were potential risk factors.

  12. The natural history of hip development in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Terje

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a population-based radiographic hip surveillance programme for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to assess the natural history of hip displacement. The study comprised 335 children (188 males, 147 females), born during 2002 to 2006 in the 10 south-eastern counties in Norway. Their mean age at the first radiograph was 3 years (range 6mo-7y 11mo) and the mean age at the most recent follow-up was 5 years 5 months. Distribution according to CP type was spastic hemiplegia in 38%, diplegia in 27%, quadriplegia in 21%, dyskinesia in 10%, and ataxia in 3%; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V were, 44%, 14%, 8%, 11%, and 23% respectively. Migration percentage (MP), acetabular index, and pelvic obliquity were measured on the radiographs. Hip displacement (MP>33%) occurred in 26% of all children (subluxation in 22% and dislocation in 4%) and in 63% of those in GMFCS levels IV or V. Dislocation occurred in 14 children at a mean age of 4 years 5 months (range 1y 10mo-9y 7mo). The mean migration percentage was 20.4% at the initial radiographs and 34.0% at the last follow-up. Mean progression in migration percentage increased markedly with decreasing functional level, from 0.2% per year at GMFCS level I to 9.5% at level V. There is a pronounced trend towards hip displacement in nonambulant children. Close surveillance from age 1 to 2 years is needed to find the appropriate time for preventive surgery. Since 12% of the nonambulant children developed dislocation, our routines for hip surveillance need improvement. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  13. TOWARDS DEMAND DRIVEN PUBLISHING: APPROCHES TO THE PRIORITISATION OF DIGITISATION OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Chavan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural history collections represent a vast repository of biodiversity data of international significance. There is an imperative to capture the data through digitisation projects in order to expose the data to new and established users of biodiversity data. On the basis of review of current state of digitization of natural history collections, a demand driven approach is advocated through the use of metadata to promote and increase access to natural history collection data.

  14. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  15. The Natural History and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Conditions Resulting in Disability Among US Army Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    We describe the natural history of 13 musculoskeletal conditions requiring hospitalization and identify demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, occupational, and clinical characteristics most strongly...

  16. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  17. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  18. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: natural history and long term treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Marc A

    2006-03-01

    risks of major surgery, a 6 to 29% chance of requiring re-operation, and the remote possibility of developing a pain management problem. Knowledge of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis natural history and long-term treatment effects is and will always remain somewhat incomplete. However, enough is know to provide patients and parents the information needed to make informed decisions about management options.

  19. Collective Research Projects in the History of Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despeaux, Sloan Evans

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I will discuss a collective research project that I designed for my History of Mathematics course. My students, who are by and large pre-service teachers, explored online, digital versions of 18th-century British almanacs that contained question-and-answer sections for mathematics. In a multi-stage research process, they explored…

  20. A Research Project for Family Sociology Students on Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Alan E.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines a research project for family sociology students that uses student family histories to bridge the gap between course material and personal family experiences. Claims the project teaches students how information is transmitted across generations, as well as strengthening research, interviewing, and analytical skills. (Author/AEM)

  1. The history of Patuxent: America’s wildlife research story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2017-01-18

    This report, based on a symposium held on October 13, 2011, at the National Wildlife Visitor Center at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, MD, documents the history of the Patuxent Research Refuge and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, collectively known as Patuxent. The symposium was one of the many activities occurring at that time to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the creation of the Patuxent Research Refuge in 1936. The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is located at the refuge, and the research center director, Dr. Gregory J. Smith, with great enthusiasm, personally supervised all aspects of the celebration. The symposium was coordinated by Dr. Matthew C. Perry, the editor of this report, with Dr. Smith’s strong support. The refuge and the research center have been essentially synonymous for the almost 80 years of their history.

  2. History of Research on Lift-Generated Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Olson, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental program on the structure and possible modification of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic aircraft has been underway at NASA Ames Research Center since the late 1960's. The objectives of the program were to first obtain a better understanding of the hazard posed by the vortex wakes of subsonic transports, and then to develop methods on how to modify or design the wake-generating aircraft in order to make the vortices less hazardous. Some effort was also expended on the development of methods to avoid vortex wakes. The seminar will present a brief history of the research program beginning with the nature of vortex wakes and their relationship to the span loading on the wake-generating wing. Examples will then be presented to show how span-loading changes were used to influence the dynamics of the vortex wakes shed by subsonic transport aircraft. Video tape segments will be shown to illustrate the dynamics of vortex wakes and the flight tests carried out by NASA to find out how configurations developed in wind tunnels would perform on flight vehicles. The presentation will then summarize some recent results obtained in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center on the vortex wakes that trail from 0.03 scale models of a B-747 and of a DC-10 at downstream distances of 81 ft and 162 ft behind the wake-generating model; i.e., at scale distances of 0.5 and 1.0 mile. Lastly, a proposed vortex avoidance scheme based on the Global Positioning System will be described. All of the material to be presented is publically available in technical journals.

  3. Life lines: An art history of biological research around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Around 1800, the scientific "illustrator" emerged as a new artistic profession in Europe. Artists were increasingly sought after in order to picture anatomical dissections and microscopic observations and to translate drawings into artworks for books and journals. By training and technical expertise, they introduced a particular kind of knowledge into scientific perception that also shaped the common image of nature. Illustrations of scientific publications, often undervalued as a biased interpretation of facts and subordinate to logic and description, thus convey an 'art history' of science in its own right, relevant both for the understanding of biological thought around 1800 as well as for the development of the arts and their historiography. The article is based on an analysis of botanical treatises produced for the Göttingen Society of Sciences in 1803, during an early phase of microscopic cell research, in order to determine the constitutive role of artistic knowledge and the media employed for the visualization and conceptualization of biological issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...... into a deeper understanding of the underlying endophenotypes or improved disease management. We propose the need for a translational research approach based on long-term clinical studies of birth cohorts with comprehensive and objective assessments of intermediate phenotypes and environmental exposures combined...

  5. Natural history of hepatitis C in HIV-negative patients with congenital coagulation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, EB; Kok, T; Schirm, J; Smid, WM; van der Meer, J

    Background/Aims: Knowledge of the natural history of hepatitis C is useful for counselling patients and planning treatment, More data are needed from unselected patient groups without concomitant disease, The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of hepatitis C, two decades after

  6. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT... lot of horse tack, a metal punch, 1 piece of worked wood, gunshot, two mirrors, a harness ring, an awl...

  7. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service...: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801... fragments, 13 pieces of horse tack, 3 saddle fragments, 1 knife sheath, 1 rifle and barrel, 1 lot of bullet...

  8. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  9. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.

  10. Evolution of natural risk: research framework and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hufschmidt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a conceptual framework for addressing temporal variation in natural risk. Numerous former natural risk analyses and investigations have demonstrated that time and related changes have a crucial influence on risk. For natural hazards, time becomes a factor for a number of reasons. Using the example of landslides to illustrate this point, it is shown that: 1. landslide history is important in determining probability of occurrence, 2. the significance of catchment variables in explaining landslide susceptibility is dependent on the time scale chosen, 3. the observer's perception of the geosystem's state changes with different time spans, and 4. the system's sensitivity varies with time. Natural hazards are not isolated events but complex features that are connected with the social system. Similarly, elements at risk and their vulnerability are highly dynamic through time, an aspect that is not sufficiently acknowledged in research. Since natural risk is an amalgam of hazard and vulnerability, its temporal behaviour has to be considered as well. Identifying these changes and their underlying processes contributes to a better understanding of natural risk today and in the future. However, no dynamic models for natural risks are currently available. Dynamic behaviour of factors affecting risk is likely to create increasing connectivity and complexity. This demands a broad approach to natural risk, since the concept of risk encapsulates aspects of many disciplines and has suffered from single-discipline approaches in the past. In New Zealand, dramatic environmental and social change has occurred in a relatively short period of time, graphically demonstrating the temporal variability of the geosystem and the social system. To understand these changes and subsequent interactions between both systems, a holistic perspective is needed. This contribution reviews available frameworks, demonstrates the need for further concepts, and gives

  11. Evolution of natural risk: research framework and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, G.; Crozier, M.; Glade, T.

    2005-05-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for addressing temporal variation in natural risk. Numerous former natural risk analyses and investigations have demonstrated that time and related changes have a crucial influence on risk. For natural hazards, time becomes a factor for a number of reasons. Using the example of landslides to illustrate this point, it is shown that: 1. landslide history is important in determining probability of occurrence, 2. the significance of catchment variables in explaining landslide susceptibility is dependent on the time scale chosen, 3. the observer's perception of the geosystem's state changes with different time spans, and 4. the system's sensitivity varies with time. Natural hazards are not isolated events but complex features that are connected with the social system. Similarly, elements at risk and their vulnerability are highly dynamic through time, an aspect that is not sufficiently acknowledged in research. Since natural risk is an amalgam of hazard and vulnerability, its temporal behaviour has to be considered as well. Identifying these changes and their underlying processes contributes to a better understanding of natural risk today and in the future. However, no dynamic models for natural risks are currently available. Dynamic behaviour of factors affecting risk is likely to create increasing connectivity and complexity. This demands a broad approach to natural risk, since the concept of risk encapsulates aspects of many disciplines and has suffered from single-discipline approaches in the past. In New Zealand, dramatic environmental and social change has occurred in a relatively short period of time, graphically demonstrating the temporal variability of the geosystem and the social system. To understand these changes and subsequent interactions between both systems, a holistic perspective is needed. This contribution reviews available frameworks, demonstrates the need for further concepts, and gives research

  12. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips-Castro, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).

  13. The History of Ethics (and Natural Law by Terence Irwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramis Barceló

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Review-Article tries to explain and contextualize the magnificent The Development of Ethics by Terence Irwin. It is a historiographical achievement in History of Ethics and this paper tries to present it to Spanish scholars. It is also a discussion of the main points of this work

  14. Reprint Series: Nature and History of Pi. RS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the history of the number pi; (2) what's new about pi; (3) the number pi; (4) pi and probability; and (5) from the…

  15. URBAN HISTORY IN 4 DIMENSIONS – SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Münster

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The new research group on the four-dimensional research and communication of urban history (Urban History 4D aims to investigate and develop methods and technologies to access extensive repositories of historical media and their contextual information in a spatial model, with an additional temporal component. This will make content accessible to different target groups, researchers and the public, via a 4D browser. A location-dependent augmented-reality representation can be used as an information base, research tool, and means of communicating historical knowledge. The data resources for this research include extensive holdings of historical photographs of Dresden, which have documented the city over the decades, and digitized map collections from the Deutsche Fotothek (German photographic collection platform. These will lay the foundation for a prototype model which will give users a virtual experience of historic parts of Dresden.

  16. Urban History in 4 Dimensions - Supporting Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.; Friedrichs, K.; Kröber, C.; Bruschke, J.; Henze, F.; Maiwald, F.; Niebling, F.

    2017-08-01

    The new research group on the four-dimensional research and communication of urban history (Urban History 4D) aims to investigate and develop methods and technologies to access extensive repositories of historical media and their contextual information in a spatial model, with an additional temporal component. This will make content accessible to different target groups, researchers and the public, via a 4D browser. A location-dependent augmented-reality representation can be used as an information base, research tool, and means of communicating historical knowledge. The data resources for this research include extensive holdings of historical photographs of Dresden, which have documented the city over the decades, and digitized map collections from the Deutsche Fotothek (German photographic collection) platform. These will lay the foundation for a prototype model which will give users a virtual experience of historic parts of Dresden.

  17. Research of the Nature of Leadership Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jankurová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Professional literature on leadership mostly states that a leader should be like (personality traits and describes different leadership styles and types. However, very little is known about what leaders do in their everyday practice, or how they do it. Leadership should be seen more widely and should be explored along the characteristics and style of leadership and how leaders are manifested externally through their work, which means to explore the nature of leadership work. The aim of the research project was to gain more knowledge about the activities undertaken by leaders to answer a simple, but yet not too clearly answered question: „What does a leader really do?“ This finding will help reveal important activities on which best leaders focus and determine which elements are really important for leadership. The research project was managed as a combination of interviews conducted with leaders, people on senior management positions along with a questionnaire survey.

  18. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  19. How a Small Natural History Museum Promotes GeoScience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damore, J.

    2004-12-01

    Established 23 years ago as a small aquarium, the Port Townsend Marine Science Center has grown to be a respected institution focused on marine education. Its recently opened Natural History Building highlights connections between marine ecology, the dynamic Washington shoreline, and the forces that shaped the region. An exhibit focal point is a hands-on Washington Geo-puzzle that demonstrates with sliding layers the tectonic forces that formed and continue to form our state. Another exhibit describes a local geologist's research concerning a seismic event 2300 years ago, evidence of which can be seen on a local beach. Last year when the Center received a grant of an AS-1 seismometer, earthquakes and plate tectonics became a natural direction to expand school programs and community involvement projects, especially with the Center's location in a seismically active part of the world. Public programs on earthquakes and tsunamis have generated strong community interest, and school programs and a youth summer camp with a seismology focus are planned. As an informal science center still actively engaged in program and exhibit design, we are eager to hear ideas from teachers and other educators on ways local museums can provide unique experiences that schools may not be able to offer. Port Townsend Marine Science Center, located in a popular state park on Washington's Olympic Peninsula is an important provider of marine and natural history education in the Puget Sound Basin. We offer classes for schools, teacher training workshops, summer camps, adult education, citizen science opportunities and many other programs.

  20. Biodiversity into your hands - A call for a virtual global natural history 'metacollection'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Michael; Schmidt, Stefan; Hausmann, Axel; Toussaint, Emmanuel Fa; Bergsten, Johannes; Buffington, Matthew; Häuser, Christoph L; Kroupa, Alexander; Hagedorn, Gregor; Riedel, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ubaidillah, Rosichon; Krogmann, Lars; Zwick, Andreas; Fikáček, Martin; Hájek, Jiří; Michat, Mariano C; Dietrich, Christopher; La Salle, John; Mantle, Beth; Ng, Peter Kl; Hobern, Donald

    2013-09-17

    Many scientific disciplines rely on correct taxon delineations and identifications. So does a great part of the general public as well as decision makers. Researchers, students and enthusiastic amateurs often feel frustrated because information about species remains scattered, difficult to access, or difficult to decipher. Together, this affects almost anyone who wishes to identify species or verify identifications. Many remedies have been proposed, but we argue that the role of natural history collections remains insufficiently appreciated. We suggest using state-of-the-art mass imaging technology and to join forces to create a global natural history metacollection on the internet, providing access to the morphology of tens of millions of specimens and making them available for automated digital image analysis. Robotic high-resolution imaging technology and fast (high performance) computer-based image stitching make it now feasible to digitize entire collection drawers typically used for arthropod collections, or trays or containers used for other objects. Resolutions of 500 megapixels and much higher are already utilized to capture the contents of 40x50 cm collection drawers, providing amazing detail of specimens. Flanked by metadata entry, this helps to create access to tens of thousands of specimens in days. By setting priorities and combining the holdings of the most comprehensive collections for certain taxa, drawer digitizing offers the unique opportunity to create a global, virtual metacollection.The taxonomic and geographic coverage of such a collection could never be achieved by a single institution or individual. We argue that by joining forces, many new impulses will emerge for systematic biology, related fields and understanding of biodiversity in general.Digitizing drawers containing unidentified, little-curated specimens is a contribution towards the beginning of a new era of online curation. It also will help taxonomists and curators to discover and

  1. Biodiversity into your hands - A call for a virtual global natural history ‘metacollection’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many scientific disciplines rely on correct taxon delineations and identifications. So does a great part of the general public as well as decision makers. Researchers, students and enthusiastic amateurs often feel frustrated because information about species remains scattered, difficult to access, or difficult to decipher. Together, this affects almost anyone who wishes to identify species or verify identifications. Many remedies have been proposed, but we argue that the role of natural history collections remains insufficiently appreciated. We suggest using state-of-the-art mass imaging technology and to join forces to create a global natural history metacollection on the internet, providing access to the morphology of tens of millions of specimens and making them available for automated digital image analysis. Discussion Robotic high-resolution imaging technology and fast (high performance) computer-based image stitching make it now feasible to digitize entire collection drawers typically used for arthropod collections, or trays or containers used for other objects. Resolutions of 500 megapixels and much higher are already utilized to capture the contents of 40x50 cm collection drawers, providing amazing detail of specimens. Flanked by metadata entry, this helps to create access to tens of thousands of specimens in days. By setting priorities and combining the holdings of the most comprehensive collections for certain taxa, drawer digitizing offers the unique opportunity to create a global, virtual metacollection. The taxonomic and geographic coverage of such a collection could never be achieved by a single institution or individual. We argue that by joining forces, many new impulses will emerge for systematic biology, related fields and understanding of biodiversity in general. Digitizing drawers containing unidentified, little-curated specimens is a contribution towards the beginning of a new era of online curation. It also will help taxonomists and

  2. An Island Studies Course at a Liberal Arts Institution: Pedagogy from a Natural History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sunderlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An intellectual treatment of islands and isolation lends itself to a foundation in a liberal arts education. The introductory undergraduate course on island studies can serve as a topical platform on which to develop critical thinking, research, analytical, and creative thinking skills for beginning college students. The paper analyzes the natural history perspective in island studies and its methods of inquiry as pedagogical strategies that enhance the development of academic curiosity. The success of this approach to early undergraduate education is documented in traditional assessment and the direction that student-driven inquiry followed throughout the course. A course in island studies is a natural fit into progressive curriculum design strategies that are currently under development at many colleges and universities.

  3. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  4. Determining Source Attenuation History to Support Closure by Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    second objective established the same trend for both source histories using a non-parametric statistical test ( Mann - Kendall ). 43 Both of the sub...less than 30%. The success criterion for the second sub-objective was also met. Specifically, the Mann - Kendall non-parametric test confirmed both...yielded identical Mann - Kendall tests statistics (0), Coefficient of Variation (0), and Confidence Factor (45.6%). Note that this type of non

  5. Student scientific research through the History of the spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bidot-Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The active participation of students in research practices which are included and monitored in teachers' searching is an effective strategy for student's academic and scientific training. Teaching contents, whether curricular or not, are highly benefitted from these students' scientific groups for future professional training. The possibilities offered by study plan D in Spanish Philology have allowed to motivate students to conduct research mainly of the Language History as a linguistic discipline. Consequently, the objective of the research hereby developed is the following: to demonstrate how to encourage students as to scientific research from the system of knowledge and skills of Language History, so as to improve professional training in the major of Spanish Philology.

  6. A joint history of the nature of genetic variation and the nature of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2015-02-01

    This essay traces the history of concepts of genetic variation and schizophrenia from Darwin and Mendel to the present. For Darwin, the important form of genetic variation for evolution is continuous in nature and small in effect. Biometricians led by Pearson agreed and developed statistical genetic approaches utilizing trait correlations in relatives. Mendel studied discontinuous traits and subsequent Mendelians, led by Bateson, assumed that important genetic variation was large in effect producing discontinuous phenotypes. Although biometricians studied 'insanity', schizophrenia genetics under Kraepelin and Rüdin utilized Mendelian approaches congruent with their anatomical-clinical disease model of dementia praecox. Fisher showed, assuming many genes of small effect, Mendelian and Biometrical models were consilient. Echoing prior conflicts, psychiatric genetics since then has utilized both biometrical models, largely in twins, and Mendelian models, based on advancing molecular techniques. In 1968, Gottesman proposed a polygenic model for schizophrenia based on a threshold version of Fisher's theory. Since then, rigorous studies of the schizophrenia spectrum suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia is more likely continuous than categorical. The last 5 years has seen increasingly convincing evidence from genome-wide association study (GWAS) and sequencing that genetic risk for schizophrenia is largely polygenic, and congruent with Fisher's and Gottesman's models. The gap between biometrical and molecular Mendelian models for schizophrenia has largely closed. The efforts to ground a categorical biomedical model of schizophrenia in Mendelian genetics have failed. The genetic risk for schizophrenia is widely distributed in human populations so that we all carry some degree of risk.

  7. AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON HISTORY OF CLUJ HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cluj-Napoca has a long and interesting history. The City of Cluj is considered the “capital of Transylvania” because it is an important academic, cultural and business center, an interesting tourist destination for various types of tourists. The present study makes an analysis regarding the hotels from Cluj during the 19th and 20th centuries. The analysis is focusing on history of the hotels, their market evolution and the stories related to those hotels. This period was chosen for this research because represent the beginnings of the Cluj hotels market. For the investigations it was used exploratory research, obtaining secondary data through different types of sources: history books, published studies, web sites and old pictures. The present research has two main objectives: the first one is to explore the Cluj history in order to identify the hotels present on the market during the 19th and 20th centuries; the second one is to revile some stories related to the hotels, owners and buildings. There were identified 11 hotels from Cluj during the 19th and 20th centuries. There were not included here the hotels build in the last part of the communist period. At present, the buildings in which were functioned the most important hotels, are on the list of historical monuments from Cluj County. It can be proposed some old pictures and interesting stories about the hotels, the buildings, the guests, in order to attract the tourists.

  8. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  9. North American freshwater mussels: natural history, ecology, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2012-01-01

    Interest in freshwater mussels is growing for two important reasons. First, freshwater mussels are among the most endangered organisms on Earth, and many species are already extinct or face imminent extinction. Their desperate conservation plight has gained intense interest from natural resource agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, academia, and...

  10. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building Up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forato, Thaís Cyrino de Mello; de Andrade Martins, Roberto; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the historiographic requirements of history of science and the pedagogical recommendations of science teaching. The research included the elaboration of a pilot course on the history of optics, with historical texts and educational activities, and its application in a high school. We used three episodes of the history of optics, addressing some epistemological points, especially criticizing the naive empirical-inductive view of science. It was possible to identify a series of obstacles in using history of science and conveying philosophical views. Their analysis resulted in devising strategies to surmount or to circumvent them. We implemented those strategies in the classroom and analyzed the data that was obtained. As a result, we substantiated several of our proposals and found that some solutions require improvement. We suggest some generalizations, which can be understood as initial parameters for guiding the use of history and philosophy of science in science teaching. We used a qualitative methodology of educational research to plan, to collect and to analyze the data, examining the interaction between students, teacher and knowledge.

  11. Natural History: the sense of wonder, creativity and progress in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Dayton

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the question of blending natural history and ecological wisdom into the genuine creativity exemplified by Prof. Ramon Margalef. Many have observed that modern biology is a triumph of precision over accuracy, and that ecology has sought maturity by striving toward this model in which the precision value of the tools has supplanted important questions. In pursuing a model of hard science, ecology has struggled with Popperian approaches designed to create a thin patina of real science over the vast seas of uncertainty so admired by the naturalists. We start with a discussion of the importance of natural history in ecology and conservation, and the present state of natural history in academic ecology. We then discuss the respect for natural history in human cultures, and conclude that an infatuation with authority has obfuscated the important truths to be found in nature. We consider some general processes associated with creativity, and finally we ask how natural history influences creativity in ecology. We conclude that the soaring creativity exemplified by Ramon Margalef is based on a joyful almost spiritual understanding of natural history and the courage to avoid authority.

  12. History of watershed research in the Central Arizona Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands have been the focus of a wide range of research efforts designed to learn more about the effects of natural and human induced disturbances on the functioning, processes, and components of the region's ecosystems. The watershed research spearheaded by the USDA Forest Service and its cooperators continues to lead to a comprehensive...

  13. DMD genotypes and loss of ambulation in the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Luca; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P; McDonald, Craig M; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2016-07-26

    To correlate time to loss of ambulation (LoA) and different truncating DMD gene mutations in a large, prospective natural history study of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with particular attention to mutations amenable to emerging molecular treatments. We analyzed data from the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study for participants with DMD single- or multi-exon deletions or duplications with defined exon boundaries (n = 186), or small mutations identified by sequencing (n = 26, including 16 nonsense point mutations). We performed a time-to-event analysis of LoA, a strong indicator of overall disease severity, adjusting for glucocorticoid treatment and genetic modifiers. Participants with deletions amenable to skipping of exon 44 had later LoA (median 14.8 years, hazard ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.69, p = 0.004). Age at LoA did not differ significantly in participants with deletions amenable to exon 45, 51, and 53 skipping, duplications, and small rearrangements. Nonsense mutation DMD also showed a typical median age at LoA (11.1 years), with a few outliers (ambulatory around or after 16 years of age) carrying stop codons within in-frame exons, more often situated in the rod domain. As exon 44 skipping-amenable DMD has a later LoA, mutation-specific randomization and selection of placebo groups are essential for the success of clinical trials. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  15. Natural History and Ecology of Soldier Beetles (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) in the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Cisteil X

    2018-02-27

    Until today, most information about the natural history and ecology of soldier beetles came from temperate zones, mainly from Holarctic areas, while tropical regions have been poorly studied. The aim of this contribution is to compile and synthesize information concerning the natural history and ecology of Cantharidae (Coleoptera) from the Mexican tropical dry forest (TDF), to serve as a starting point for more in-depth study of the group in one of the Mexico's most endangered ecosystems. All compiled data on the family have been organized into the following topics: distributional patterns and habitat preferences, feeding behavior and host plants, and daily and seasonal activity cycles. For the first time, it was provided a list of host plants for TDF Cantharidae genera and species, and it was also observed a high ecological diversity in the phenology and behavior of TDF Cantharidae assemblages. Further research concerning cantharids and other TDF insects needs to have a more comprehensive and integrated approach toward understanding the patterns of distribution and diversity, and elucidating the role that cantharids play in ecosystems, especially in TDF, which is one of the most endangered ecosystem in the world.

  16. Fish research project -- Oregon: Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin. Annual progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, B.C.; Carmichael, R.W.; Keefe, M.

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek

  17. The natural history of the Sinai Baton Blue: the smallest butterfly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the ecology and life history of endangered species is necessary for their successful conservation. In this chapter, I provide a detailed account of the natural history of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly. I review current knowledge of the genus Pseudophilotes, and explore the butterfly's phylogeny. This emphasises ...

  18. Representations of Nature of Science in Selected Histories of Science in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing; Li, Yue; Chen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the representations of nature of science (NOS) in the eight histories of science selected from three series of integrated science textbooks used in junior high school in China. Ten aspects of NOS were adopted in the analytical framework. It was found that NOS had not been well treated in the selected histories of…

  19. 78 FR 19299 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12395; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound... History, University of Puget Sound, has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation with the...

  20. Fish Research Project, Oregon, Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: September 1, 1996 - August 31, 1997; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian C. Jonasson; J. Vincent Tranquilli; MaryLouise Keefe; Richard W. Carmichael

    1998-01-01

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  1. Journal of East African Natural History: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  2. Natural history, treatment, and course of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGroot, L.J.; Kaplan, E.L.; McCormick, M.; Straus, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma in 269 patients managed at the University of Chicago, with an average follow-up period of 12 yr from the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized by clinical class; I, with intrathyroidal disease; II, with cervical nodal metastases; III, with extrathyroidal invasion; and IV, with distant metastases. Half of the patients had a history of thyroid enlargement known, on the average, for over 3 yr. In 15% of patients given thyroid hormone, the mass decreased in size. The peak incidence of cancer was when subjects were between 20-40 yr of age. Tumors averaged 2.4 cm in size; 21.6% had tumor capsule invasion, and 46% of patients had multifocal tumors. Sixty-six percent of the patients had near-total or total thyroidectomy. The overall incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was 8.4%, but the incidence was zero in 83 near-total or total thyroidectomies carried out by 1 surgeon. Twenty-five percent of the patients had continuing or recurrent disease, and 8.2% died from cancer. Deaths occurred largely in patients with class III or IV disease. Cervical lymph nodes were associated with increased recurrences, but not increased deaths. Extrathyroidal invasion carried an increased risk of 5.8-fold for death, and distant metastases increased this risk 47-fold. Age over 45 yr at diagnosis increased the risk of death 32-fold. Tumor size over 3 cm increased the risk of death 5.8-fold. Surgical treatment combining lobectomy plus at least contralateral subtotal thyroidectomy was associated, by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with decreased risk of death in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm and decreased risk of recurrence among all patients, including patients in classes I and II, compared to patients who underwent unilateral thyroid surgery or bilateral subtotal resections

  3. Natural history, treatment, and course of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroot, L.J.; Kaplan, E.L.; McCormick, M.; Straus, F.H. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have analyzed the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma in 269 patients managed at the University of Chicago, with an average follow-up period of 12 yr from the time of diagnosis. Patients were categorized by clinical class; I, with intrathyroidal disease; II, with cervical nodal metastases; III, with extrathyroidal invasion; and IV, with distant metastases. Half of the patients had a history of thyroid enlargement known, on the average, for over 3 yr. In 15% of patients given thyroid hormone, the mass decreased in size. The peak incidence of cancer was when subjects were between 20-40 yr of age. Tumors averaged 2.4 cm in size; 21.6% had tumor capsule invasion, and 46% of patients had multifocal tumors. Sixty-six percent of the patients had near-total or total thyroidectomy. The overall incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was 8.4%, but the incidence was zero in 83 near-total or total thyroidectomies carried out by 1 surgeon. Twenty-five percent of the patients had continuing or recurrent disease, and 8.2% died from cancer. Deaths occurred largely in patients with class III or IV disease. Cervical lymph nodes were associated with increased recurrences, but not increased deaths. Extrathyroidal invasion carried an increased risk of 5.8-fold for death, and distant metastases increased this risk 47-fold. Age over 45 yr at diagnosis increased the risk of death 32-fold. Tumor size over 3 cm increased the risk of death 5.8-fold. Surgical treatment combining lobectomy plus at least contralateral subtotal thyroidectomy was associated, by Cox proportional hazard analysis, with decreased risk of death in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm and decreased risk of recurrence among all patients, including patients in classes I and II, compared to patients who underwent unilateral thyroid surgery or bilateral subtotal resections.

  4. History of the Energy Research and Development Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, A.L.

    1982-03-01

    Congress created the Energy Research and Development Administration on October 11, 1974 in response to the Nation's growing need for additional sources of energy. The new agency would coordinate energy programs formerly scattered among many federal agencies, and serve as the focus point for a major effort by the Federal Government to expand energy research and development efforts. New ways to conserve existing supplies as well as the commercial demonstration of new technologies would hopefully be the fruit of the Government's first significant effort to amalgamate energy resource development programs. This history briefly summarizes the accomplishments of the agency.

  5. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African organic chemistry is deeply rooted in a rich history of natural product chemistry research with the secondary metabolites emanating from South Africa's unique floral kingdoms dominating this research for nearly a century. However, South Africa's terrestrial biodiversity is exceeded by an even greater diversity of ...

  6. 78 FR 50094 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... item under the control of the Field Museum of Natural History that meets the definition of sacred... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal...

  7. 77 FR 25738 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Museum of Natural History that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History... Museum of Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the...

  8. 78 FR 48902 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... Field Museum of Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal...

  9. 78 FR 19305 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Museum of Natural History that meets the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History... Museum of Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the...

  10. 77 FR 65015 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Resources, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024... after that date if no additional claimants come forward. The American Museum of Natural History is...

  11. 77 FR 11567 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... with the cultural items should contact the American Museum of Natural History at the address below by... American Museum of Natural History that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C...

  12. Long-term studies of the natural history of asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    limitation associated with asthma already existed at birth or developed along with symptoms. Likewise, the association between the infant's bronchial responsiveness and development of asthma and other wheezy disorders is unclear. Neither primary prevention through manipulation of environmental factors nor...... secondary prevention through the use of inhaled corticosteroids can effectively halt the long-term disease progression in childhood. In conclusion, the natural history of asthma and the associated airway changes is still poorly understood, and we have not managed to translate findings from long-term studies...... into a deeper understanding of the underlying endophenotypes or improved disease management. We propose the need for a translational research approach based on long-term clinical studies of birth cohorts with comprehensive and objective assessments of intermediate phenotypes and environmental exposures combined...

  13. The morphology and natural history of childhood cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Luis; Taylor, David; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Nischal, Ken K; Lengyel, Dora

    2003-01-01

    The morphology of congenital cataract reflects a combination of the timing and nature of the cause, the anatomy of the lens including its capsule, its development, and changes that take place with time. Morphology may variably affect prognosis, give a clue to the etiology and the age of onset and, in an isolated case, sometimes suggest heritability. The spectrum of morphological variations is enormous and can be complex. A comprehensive approach is to classify the variations according to the area of the lens involved, and sub-dividing them by a detailed description of the shape and appearance. Each specific morphological type is then analyzed determining the etiology, visual prognosis, and management. The use of gene markers has allowed many of these variations to be identified and categorized. Cataracts in childhood can involve the whole lens, in which case they are called total, Morgagnian, or disk-like. They can affect only the center of the lens: lamellar, nuclear, oil droplet, cortical, or coronary. They can be anterior: anterior polar, anterior subcapsular, or anterior lenticonus. The posterior aspect of the lens can also be affected in different fashions: Mittendorf's dot, posterior lenticonus, posterior cortical cataracts, or posterior subcapsular. There are five more forms that must be described separately: punctuate lens opacities, sutural cataracts, coralliform or crystalline, wedge-shaped, and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

  14. The natural history of the arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is the most dominant arboreal ant in the pine forests of the coastal plain of northern Florida. The majority of pine trees harbor a colony of these ants. The colonies inhabit multiple chambers abandoned by bark-mining caterpillars, especially those of the family Cossidae, in the outer bark of living pines. They also inhabit ground level termite galleries in the bark, often locating the queen in galleries. The density of chambers and ants is highest in the base of the tree and drops sharply with height on the trunk. Because chambers are formed in the inner layer of bark, they gradually move outward as more bark layers are laid down, eventually sloughing off the tree's outer surface. Chambers have a mean lifetime of about 25 yr. The abundant chambers in pine bark are excavated by a small population of caterpillars and accumulate over decades. Ant colonies also inhabit abandoned galleries of woodboring beetles in dead branches in the crowns of pines. Because newly mated queens found colonies in abandoned woodboring beetle galleries in the first dead branches that form on pine saplings, C. ashmeadi is dependent on cavities made by other insects throughout its life cycle, and does little if any excavation of its own. Mature colonies nest preferentially in chambers greater than 10 cm2 in area, a relatively rare chamber size. In natural pine forests, this does not seem to limit the ant's populations.

  15. Atom and life - History of a research issued from nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griset, Pascal; Picard, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    As many examples illustrate the commitment of the French CEA in biology (development of medical imagery technologies, of the first prion test for the detection of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), this book proposes an insight into those specific researches in life sciences performed within this institution initially devoted to nuclear sciences. This history comprises researches performed in Fontenay aux Roses at the initiative of Frederic Joliot on basic physiological processes, the development of a scientific library in Saclay where physicists, chemists and biologists worked together, the building of a medical department within the Saclay hospital, research activities in Grenoble, the regrouping of biology laboratories, the increasingly important mission of the Life Sciences Directorate within the CEA in four domains (radiobiology and radio-pathology, protein engineering and structural biology, medical imagery and pharmacology, eco-physiology and vegetal ecosystems). This research field is now characterized by its international dimension

  16. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  17. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  18. Prototypes, exemplars, and the natural history of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David

    2014-04-01

    The article explores-from a utility/adaptation perspective-the role of prototype and exemplar processes in categorization. The author surveys important category tasks within the categorization literature from the perspective of the optimality of applying prototype and exemplar processes. Formal simulations reveal that organisms will often (not always!) receive more useful signals about category belongingness if they average their exemplar experience into a prototype and use this as the comparative standard for categorization. This survey then provides the theoretical context for considering the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. In the article's final sections, the author reviews recent research on the performance of nonhuman primates and humans in the tasks analyzed in the article. Diverse species share operating principles, default commitments, and processing weaknesses in categorization. From these commonalities, it may be possible to infer some properties of the categorization ecology these species generally experienced during cognitive evolution.

  19. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  20. Evaluation of the natural history of patients who aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jonathan M; Varadarajan, Varun; Brawley, Mary C; Blumin, Joel H

    2017-12-01

    The natural clinical progression of aspiration to eventual pulmonary compromise is not well understood. We hypothesized that dietary modification recommendations, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) score, and dysphagia etiology would be associated with changes in time to first pulmonary event and overall survival for patients with documented aspiration on radiologic testing. This study identified a cohort of patients with detectable unsensed penetration or aspiration on videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), and followed this cohort over time for development of pulmonary events and death. We then evaluated the association of aspiration severity and dietary modification recommendations on incidence of these endpoints. Retrospective chart review. A total of 2,616 VFSS exam reports were reviewed from our institution performed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Aspiration or unsensed penetration (PAS of 5 or greater) was detected in 564 (21.5%) of these patients, who were then included in the study cohort. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for development of pulmonary events (pneumonia, pneumonitis, or other life-threatening pulmonary illness) and all-cause mortality for up to 54 months after initial VFSS. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression were performed for time to first pulmonary event and survival predicted by recommended diet, PAS score, and dysphagia etiology. Dysphagia etiology was highly associated with increased development of pulmonary events for some patients, especially those with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (hazard ratio [HZ] vs. stroke 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-5.69, P = .001) and esophageal dysphagia (HZ: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.17-6.02, P = .019). Dysphagia etiology was also associated with increased mortality for patients with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (HZ: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.0-5.52, P penetration or aspiration

  1. Hypertension in pregnancy: natural history and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, L; Tay, J; Lees, C C; McEniery, C M; Wilkinson, I B

    2015-05-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect approximately 5-10% of all maternities and are major contributors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of disorders encompasses chronic hypertension, as well as conditions that arise de novo in pregnancy: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The latter group is thought to be part of the same continuum but with arbitrary division. Research into the aetiology of hypertension in pregnancy have largely been focused on pre-eclampsia, with a majority of studies exploring either pregnancy-associated factors such as placental-derived or immunologic responses to pregnancy tissue, or maternal constitutional factors such as cardiovascular health and endothelial dysfunction. The evidence base for the pathophysiology and progression of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia, is reviewed. Clinical algorithms and pharmacological agents for the management of hypertension in pregnancy are summarised, with a brief focus on post-partum considerations and long-term health implications. Novel therapeutic options for the management of pre-eclampsia are also explored.

  2. [The art cabinet and its current significance. Museum establishment of natural history in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.

  3. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  4. The Scientific Self: Reclaiming Its Place in the History of Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Herman

    2017-07-18

    How can the history of research ethics be expanded beyond the standard narrative of codification-a story that does not reach back beyond World War II-without becoming so broad as to lose all distinctiveness? This article proposes a history of research ethics focused on the "scientific self," that is, the role-specific identity of scientists as typically described in terms of skills, competencies, qualities, or dispositions. Drawing on three agenda-setting texts from nineteenth-century history, biology, and sociology, the article argues that the "revolutions" these books sought to unleash were, among other things, revolts against inherited conceptions of scientific selfhood. They tried to redefine the scientific self in their respective fields of inquiry by advocating particular catalogs of virtues or character traits. These ideals of selfhood, their contested nature notwithstanding, translated into practice in so far as they influenced hiring and selection policies and found their way into educational systems. The project of reclaiming the scientific self as an important subject of study in the history of research ethics is not an antiquarian pursuit, but related to an ethical question faced by scientists today: How are their scientific selves being shaped by funding schemes, research evaluation protocols, and academic hiring policies?

  5. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ca/index_eng.asp. International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change. The International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change aims to help vulnerable populations in Canada and in developing countries adapt to ...

  6. Communication strategy of the National Museum of Natural History ”Grigore Antipa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the amplitude of the communication techniques in the public area in Western Countries and the spectacular development of publicity and public relations in this field, we find it interesting to analyze how and if this measure can be applied by Romanian public institutions and to Romanian public products. Thus, we discovered the sustained effort of the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” (cultural nonprofit institution which delivers goods as public cultural products towards the entire nation’s population to promote itself and to communicate its activities to the public by using various techniques, both publicity and public relations, elaborating and creating exhibitions, conferences, festivals with interactive activities for the public, to involve him and transform him from a passive visitor of the museum into a participant at the cultural act. In 2003, the National Museum of Natural History “Grigore Antipa” from Bucharest began the implementation of an intense program of integrated marketing communication. The notion involves a strategic communication plan which uses more channels, addresses to various types of public and regards results achievement (cognitive, affective and behavior like – plan borrowed from the commercial area and applied in order to replace itself in the public’s mind, to achieve a larger exposure and to convince the public that, besides the scientific and educational role it plays, Antipa Museum offers also a relaxing way of spending free time. In this matter, I have analyzed the strategic and integrated communication plans of the museum, following each step, starting from research and to the result evaluation.

  7. Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from 3 natural history models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A; Mariotto, Angela B; de Koning, Harry J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-06-15

    Black men in the United States have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which this incidence disparity is because prostate cancer is more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. The authors estimated 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of prostate-specific antigen screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005 and on prostate cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1975 through 2000. By using the estimated models, the natural history of prostate cancer was compared between black men and the general population. The models projected that from 30% to 43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28% to 56% higher than that in the general population. Among men who had preclinical disease onset, black men had a similar risk of diagnosis (range, 35%-49%) compared with the general population (32%-44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis was from 44% to 75% higher than that in the general population. Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. Cancer 2017;123:2312-2319. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Permanent grassland history researches in Maramureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Lacrimioara Botis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the main part of the 20th century, research on plant nutrition was focused on inorganic nutrients, its foundations being laid by the 19th century chemist Justus von Liebing who identified the essential nutrients responsible with plant growth and promoted the use of mineral fertilizers. Although in the middle of the 20th century plant nutrition was focused on mineral fertilizers, organic nutrients still have a long history of use in agriculture and research in this field established fundamental knowledge. Permanent grasslands in Maramureş were the object of study and research from old times because of the vast area and the richness in herbal and wood species – as a result of the influence of the ecological conditions. The research conducted in the area can be divided in three periods - independent on the type of fertilizers used in the process - studies carried out during the 19th century, studies held in the 20th century and the ones in the 21st century which are developed on the concepts of ecology and sustainability to support public policies and provide environmental benefits. Although the first two periods of research in Maramureş are rich in providing information on the flora in Rodna Mountains, ţibleş Mountains, Borşa etc. and on grassland development in the area, in the last century the research scale decreased making this space auspicious for developing new data in the field.

  9. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  10. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brings together an impressive set of action research studies [that] are clearly written and understandable. Both researchers and practitioners concerned with rural development will find the book to be a valuable source of lessons and inspiration.– Ruth Meinzen-Dick (Senior Research Fellow, International Food Policy ...

  11. Botanical reconnaissance of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua L. Royte; Daniel D. Sperduto; John P. Lortie

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the flora and natural communities of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area, Crawford Notch, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, was conducted during the summer and fall of 1992. Nancy Brook Research Natural Area is noted for being the largest virgin mountain spruce forest in New Hampshire, and one of the few remaining large examples in the...

  12. Public History and Research in Military History: What Difference Has It Made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that public history activities of the U.S. armed forces has had on military historiography since World War II. Contends that military history was preempted by official histories commissioned by government agencies or the military. Argues that this led to the legitimization of military history at the college level. (CFR)

  13. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  14. WEB MAPPING SERVICES FOR RESEARCH NATURAL HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Abdullin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of the use modern technologies of web mapping to explore natural hazards (primarily hydrometeorological. The examples of Russian and foreign cartographic web services created for solving tasks of monitoring and mapping of such phenomena and caused by them of emergency situations, and also objectives of their monitoring and forecasting.

  15. 75 FR 58425 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New York... History. No known individual was identified. This individual has been identified as Native American based...

  16. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...... spontaneously but the study was possibly confounded by use of hormone replacement therapy in the population. We did a similar analysis of data collected during an earlier period when few women were exposed to hormone replacement therapy....

  17. Reemergence of the Natural History of Otolaryngologic Infections: Lessons Learned from 2 American Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.

  18. The natural history of surgically treated but radiotherapy-naïve nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-11-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery is indicated for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) causing compressive symptoms. Previous studies attempting to define the rate of recurrence\\/regrowth of surgically treated but radiation-naïve NFPAs were somewhat limited by selection bias and\\/or small numbers and\\/or lack of consistency of findings between studies. A better understanding of the natural history of this condition could allow stratification of recurrence risk and inform future management. We aimed to define the natural history of a large, mainly unselected cohort with surgically treated, radiotherapy (RT)-naïve NFPAs and to try to identify predictors of recurrence\\/regrowth.

  19. Strengthening Research Capacity to Enhance Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of national agricultural research and extension systems (NARES) in Africa to apply participatory approaches and cutting-edge ideas to research for development. The project will involve a series of iterative steps including learning, practice, reflection and feedback, and focus on ...

  20. Geoscience Education Research: A Brief History, Context and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kastens, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    DBER combines knowledge of teaching and learning with deep knowledge of discipline-specific science content. It describes the discipline-specific difficulties learners face and the specialized intellectual and instructional resources that can facilitate student understanding (NRC, 2011). In the geosciences, content knowledge derives from all the "spheres, the complex interactions of components of the Earth system, applications of first principles from allied sciences, an understanding of "deep time", and approaches that emphasize the interpretive and historical nature of geoscience. Insights gained from the theory and practice of the cognitive and learning sciences that demonstrate how people learn, as well as research on learning from other STEM disciplines, have helped inform the development of geoscience curricular initiatives. The Earth Science Curriculum Project (1963) was strongly influenced by Piaget and emphasized hands-on, experiential learning. Recognizing that education research was thriving in related STEM disciplines a NSF report (NSF 97-171) recommended "... that GEO and EHR both support research in geoscience education, helping geoscientists to work with colleagues in fields such as educational and cognitive psychology, in order to facilitate development of a new generation of geoscience educators." An NSF sponsored workshop, Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (2002) brought together geoscience educators and cognitive scientists to explore areas of mutual interest, and identified a research agenda that included study of spatial learning, temporal learning, learning about complex systems, use of visualizations in geoscience learning, characterization of expert learning, and learning environments. Subsequent events have focused on building new communities of scholars, such as the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development workshops, extensive collections of online resources, and networks of scholars that have addressed teaching

  1. Research of the Nature of Leadership Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Jankurová; Ivana Ljudvigová; Klaudia Gubová

    2017-01-01

    Professional literature on leadership mostly states that a leader should be like (personality traits) and describes different leadership styles and types. However, very little is known about what leaders do in their everyday practice, or how they do it. Leadership should be seen more widely and should be explored along the characteristics and style of leadership and how leaders are manifested externally through their work, which means to explore the nature of leadership work. The aim of the...

  2. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, J W

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a "paucity" of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s.

  3. An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Dao, Julie; Isaac, Richard; LeBlanc, Yvonne C; Rhoades, Jenna; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program(SANREM CRSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the history and current program of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP). SANREM Objectives include increasing stakeholder income generation capacity, empowering stakeholders, particularly women, enhancing decentralized resource management, strengthening local institutions, improving market access for smallholders and communities, and promoting sustainable and environmentally sound developme...

  5. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  6. Predicting the natural mortality of marine fish from life history characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    the information necessary to estimate the scaling of natural mortality with size and asymptotic size. The estimated scaling is compared with output from multispecies fish stock models, with the empirical scaling of the maximum number of recruits per unit of spawning stock biomass with body size......, and with estimates from a comprehensive compilation of empirical data on the natural mortality of marine fishes. The comparisons are all in aggreement with the predictions from the model. We conclude that natural mortality scales with body length raised to a power around -1.6, with the asymptotic length......For fish much of the life history is determined by body size. Body size and asymptotic size significantly influences important life history processes such as growth, maturity, egg production, and natural mortality. Futhermore, for a population to persist, offspring must be able to replace...

  7. How religion influences morbidity and health: reflections on natural history, salutogenesis and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J S

    1996-09-01

    This paper surveys the field that has come to be known as the epidemiology of religion. Epidemiologic study of the impact of religious involvement, broadly defined, has become increasingly popular in recent years, although the existence, meaning and implications of an apparently salutary religious effect on health have not yet been interpreted in an epidemiologic context. This paper attempts to remedy this situation by putting the "epidemiology" into the epidemiology of religion through discussion of existing empirical findings in terms of several substantive epidemiologic concepts. After first providing an overview of key research findings and prior reviews of this field, the summary finding of a protective religious effect on morbidity is examined in terms of three important epidemiologic concepts: the natural history of disease, salutogenesis and host resistance. In addition to describing a theoretical basis for interpreting a religion-health association, this paper provides an enumeration of common misinterpretations of epidemiologic findings for religious involvement, as well as an outline of hypothesized pathways, mediating factors, and salutogenic mechanisms for respective religious dimensions. It is hoped that these reflections will serve both to elevate the status of religion as a construct worthy of social-epidemiologic research and to reinvigorate the field of social epidemiology.

  8. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  9. History and Philosophy of Science as a Guide to Understanding Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Niaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature of science (NOS is considered to be a controversial topic by historians, philosophers of science and science educators. It is paradoxical that we all teach science and still have difficulties in understanding what science is and how it develops and progresses. A major obstacle in understanding NOS is that science is primarily ‘unnatural’, that is it cannot be learned by a simple observation of phenomena. In most parts of the world history and philosophy of science are ‘inside’ science content and as such can guide our understanding of NOS. However, some science educators consider the ‘historical turn’ as dated and hence neglect the historical approach and instead emphasize the model based naturalist view of science. The objective of this presentation is to show that the historical approach is very much a part of teaching science and actually complements naturalism. Understanding NOS generally requires two aspects of science: Domain general and domain specific. In the classroom this can be illustrated by discussing the atomic models developed in the early 20th century which constitute the domain specific aspect of NOS. This can then lead to an understanding of the tentative nature of science that is a domain general aspect of NOS. A review of the literature in science education reveals three views (among others of understanding NOS: a Consensus view: It attempts to include only those domain-general NOS aspects that are the least controversial (Lederman, Abd-El-Khalick; b Family resemblance view: Based on the ideas of Wittgenstein, this view promotes science as a cognitive system (Irzik, Nola; c Integrated view: this view postulates that both domain general and domain specific aspects of NOS are not dichotomous but rather need to be integrated and are essential if we want students to understand ‘science in the making’ (Niaz. The following framework helps to facilitate integration: i Elaboration of a theoretical framework

  10. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global resurgence of TB and the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease. Plant natural products have a proven global history of treating diseases and ailments.

  12. From Pythagoras to Sauveur: Tracing the History of Ideas about the Nature of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to supplement the scant literature on the history of ideas about the nature of sound. It presents how notions about the production and propagation of sound developed from antiquity up to the 17th century, i.e. from the time of Pythagoras to the time of Sauveur. It will highlight and examine the principles of sound that were…

  13. Natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia : a review of prognostic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, Margot M.; Kruitwagen, Roy F. P. M.; Nijman, Hans W.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Van Gorp, Toon; Kruse, Arnold-Jan

    The natural history of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is largely unpredictable and current histopathological examination is unable to differentiate between lesions that will regress and those that will not. Therefore, most high-grade lesions are currently treated by surgical

  14. A photographic catalog of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photographic catalog of all determined species of Platygastroidea, including primary types, in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online. Following examination of this collection we make the following taxonomic acts: Leptacis piniellaMacGown ...

  15. Teaching Science Rhetorically: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Natural History, 1948-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…

  16. Natural Reforestation Reclaims a Watershed: A Case History from West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...

  17. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  18. CORE EXPERIMENTS, NATURAL HISTORIES AND THE ART OF EXPERIENTIA LITERATA: THE MEANING OF BACONIAN EXPERIMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana JALOBEANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiment, as a new form of knowledge, was aBaconian creation. It was in Bacon’s project of Great Instauration and inBacon’s reformed natural history that experiment and experimentationceased to be illustrations of theories and become relatively autonomousdevices for the production of knowledge and for setting the mind straightin its attempts to gain knowledge. This paper explores the way in whichBacon’s Latin natural history transformed experiment and experimentationin such devices. More precisely, I investigate the way in which Bacon’sLatin natural histories were put together from a limited number ofsignificant experiments listed in the Novum Organum under the general title“instances of special power” or “instances of the lamp.” Contrary to thereceived view, my claim is that Bacon’s natural histories are based on alimited number of ‘core experiments’ and are generated through a specificmethodological procedure known under the name of experientia literata. Thispaper is an attempt to reconstruct the procedure of putting such naturalhistories together and a more in-depth exploration of their epistemologicaland therapeutic character.

  19. Fossil Platygastroidea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platygastroid wasps preserved in Dominican amber and oil shale from the Kishenehn formation (Montana, USA) in the National Museum of Natural History are catalogued. Compression fossils in Kishenehn oil shale yield a specimen of Fidiobia, a specimen of Telenominae, and a specimen with a Scelio-type o...

  20. Objects and Objectivity: The Evolution Controversy at the American Museum of Natural History, 1915-1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchick, Julie

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of this essay, I examine how evolutionary theory was treated and responded to in the American Museum of Natural History's Hall of the Age of Man during the early 1900s. Specifically, I examine how the curatorial work of the museum's president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, relied on the purported use of objectivity as a means by which to…

  1. Agency and industry : Charles C. Gillispie’s "The Natural History of Industry," then and now

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Charles Coulston Gillispie’s “The Discovery of the Leblanc Process” and “The Natural History of Industry” (Isis 48 (1957): 152–70, 398–407) were unique, yet characteristic of their era. Together, they engaged with discussions of the historical relationship between science and industry. While

  2. Natural history of 107 cases of fetal aortic stenosis from a European multicenter retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardiner, H. M.; Kovacevic, A.; Tulzer, G.; Sarkola, T.; Herberg, U.; Dangel, J.; Öhman, A.; Bartrons, J.; Carvalho, J. S.; Jicinska, H.; Fesslova, V.; Averiss, I.; Mellander, M.; Bulock, Frances; Shebani, Suhair; Clur, Sally Ann; Daehnert, Ingo; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Heying, Ruth; Gewillig, Marc; Grijseels, Els; Koopmann, Laurens; Makikallio, Kaarin; Tekay, Aydin; Leskinen, Markku; Manning, Nicky; Archer, Nick; Oberhoffer, Renate; Romeo, Cristina; Sørensen, Keld Ejvind; Richens, Trevor; Schmidt, Klaus; Seale, Anna; Jowett, Victoria; Tissot, Cecile; Tomek, Viktor; Uhlemann, Frank; Vejlstrup, Niels; Weil, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FV) aims to prevent fetal aortic valve stenosis progressing into hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), which results in postnatal univentricular (UV) circulation. Despite increasing numbers of FVs performed worldwide, the natural history of the disease in fetal life

  3. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  4. Type specimens of Maastrichtian fossils in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.

    2002-01-01

    The type specimens of Maastrichtian invertebrate fossils from Limburg, The Netherlands, present in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, are listed. The Upper Cretaceous plant type specimens from Limburg of Miquel that were once part of the Staring collection present in the Palaeobotanical

  5. Access and Ensuring Accessibility in the Regional Museum of Natural History (RMNH), Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, B.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies five types of museum accessibility: (1) physical; (2) socio-cultural; (3) economic; (4) sensory; and (5) intelligence/learning accessibility. Considers ways to coordinate museum services to ensure accessibility for potential museum patrons who are disabled. Describes various programs launched by the National Museum of Natural History in…

  6. The natural history of levator avulsion one year following childbirth: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, K. van; Thakar, R.; Sultan, A.H.; Hout, J. in't; Kluivers, K.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the natural history of levator avulsion in primipara 1 year postpartum and correlate this to pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: District General University Hospital. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Nullipara at 36 weeks of gestation,

  7. Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience a Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of…

  8. Spinal tuberculosis, natural history of disease, classifications and principles of management with historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kush

    2016-08-01

    To describe the natural history spinal tuberculosis, classifications and principles of management based upon the grading of the neurological deficit. Review of literature was conducted with the aim to provide the clinico-radiological correlation of the natural history of spinal tuberculosis in different stages. Management strategy is developed based upon the severity of the neurological deficit. A five stage natural history of spinal tuberculosis is described. Stage of neurological involvement is further divided into 4 grades, predominantly on the basis of progressively increasing motor deficits as negligible, mild, moderate and severe with sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. Suitable principles of management with role of rest, braces, chemotherapy and surgery are discussed. Neurological deficit grading based management is developed. Grade 1 and 2, conservative treatment, grade 3, gray zone and grade 4, operative treatment is emphasized. The five stages of natural history of tuberculosis of spine have been developed from the clinician's point of view. Management of tuberculosis of spine, in general, it is no different than management of soft tissue tuberculosis, in HIV negative or positive patients. Role of surgery is very limited. Management of tubercular paraplegia, based upon the grading of paraplegia is simple, logical, efficient and easy to understand and remember by any orthopedic surgeon.

  9. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  10. The Natural History of Insomnia: Acute Insomnia and First-onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason G.; Perlis, Michael L.; Bastien, Célyne H.; Gardani, Maria; Espie, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: While many studies have examined the association between insomnia and depression, no studies have evaluated these associations (1) within a narrow time frame, (2) with specific reference to acute and chronic insomnia, and (3) using polysomnography. In the present study, the association between insomnia and first-onset depression was evaluated taking into account these considerations. Design: A mixed-model inception design. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four individuals (acute insomnia [n = 33], normal sleepers [n = 21]) with no reported history of a sleep disorder, chronic medical condition, or psychiatric illness. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed at baseline (2 nights of polysomnography and psychometric measures of stress and mood) and insomnia and depression status were reassessed at 3 months. Individuals with acute insomnia exhibited more stress, poorer mood, worse subjective sleep continuity, increased N2 sleep, and decreased N3 sleep. Individuals who transitioned to chronic insomnia exhibited (at baseline) shorter REM latencies and reduced N3 sleep. Individuals who exhibited this pattern in the transition from acute to chronic insomnia were also more likely to develop first-onset depression (9.26%) as compared to those who remitted from insomnia (1.85%) or were normal sleepers (1.85%). Conclusion: The transition from acute to chronic insomnia is presaged by baseline differences in sleep architecture that have, in the past, been ascribed to Major Depression, either as heritable traits or as acquired traits from prior episodes of depression. The present findings suggest that the “sleep architecture stigmata” of depression may actually develop over the course transitioning from acute to chronic insomnia. Citation: Ellis JG; Perlis ML; Bastien CH; Gardani M; Espie CA. The natural history of insomnia: acute insomnia and first-onset depression. SLEEP 2014;37(1):97-106. PMID

  11. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.

  12. Making history relevant to students by connecting past, present and future : a framework for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, Dick; Wilschut, Arie; Oostdam, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Teaching history usually focuses on understanding the past as an aim in itself. Research shows that many students have difficulty in seeing the point of this and often perceive history as useless, or, even if they think history is useful, do not know very well how to make use of it. Yet history

  13. Listmania. How lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourgo, James; Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2012-12-01

    Anthropologists, linguists, cultural historians, and literary scholars have long emphasized the value of examining writing as a material practice and have often invoked the list as a paradigmatic example thereof. This Focus section explores how lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. Drawing on examples from the early modern period, the contributors argue that attention to practices of list making reveals important relations between mercantile, administrative, and scientific attempts to organize the contents of the world. Early modern lists projected both spatial and temporal visions of nature: they inventoried objects in the process of exchange and collection; they projected possible trajectories for future endeavor; they publicized the social identities of scientific practitioners; and they became research tools that transformed understandings of the natural order.

  14. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural history of β-cell adaptation and failure in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Gregg, Brigid; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cras-Méneur, Corentin; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by β-cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. The current evidence suggests that genetic predisposition, and environmental factors can impair the capacity of the β-cells to respond to insulin resistance and ultimately lead to their failure. However, genetic studies have demonstrated that known variants account for less than 10% of the overall estimated T2D risk, suggesting that additional unidentified factors contribute to susceptibility of this disease. In this review, we will discuss the different stages that contribute to the development of β-cell failure in T2D. We divide the natural history of this process in three major stages: susceptibility, β-cell adaptation and β-cell failure and provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved. Further research into mechanisms will reveal key modulators of β-cell failure and thus identify possible novel therapeutic targets and potential interventions to protect against β-cell failure. PMID:25542976

  16. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  17. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  18. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  19. The whip spider collection (Arachnida, Amblypygi held in the Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present data and remarks on the history and contents of the whip spider collection housed in the Natural History Museum of Vienna, Austria. The collection comprises a total of 167 specimens from 4 families, 10 genera and 27 species. It includes types of four species: Charinus ioanniticus (Kritscher, 1959, Damon brachialis Weygoldt, 1999, Phrynus parvulus (Pocock, 1902 and Paraphrynus mexicanus (Bilimek, 1867. Short notes on interesting objects and former curators are provided as well as an appendix with a list of species kept alive by Michael Seiter.

  20. The History of Research and Development Islands Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Kosolapov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the discovery, research and development of the islands of Russian pioneers in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan from the middle of the XIX century. The paper used in scientific papers and journalistic materials researchers Islands Peter the Great Bay, unpublished sources: Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, Primorsky Region State Archives, Archives of Primorsky regional department of the All-Russian public organization "Russian Geographical Society" Society for the Study of the Amur region. The methodological basis of the work was the principle of historicism and objectivity, allowed to consider the issue of research and development of the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great on a broad documentary basis in the process of development in the specific historical conditions. The history of hydrographic discoveries of natural and geographical studies. It touches upon the issues concerning the construction of Vladivostok fortress. In the periodical press materials recreated pages agricultural and industrial development of the islands. Examples of business entrepreneurs first edge (A.D. Startsev, M.I. Jankowski, O.V. Lindgolm. The Toponymic notes link the island territories with the names of their discoverers, explorers, industrialists. The authors conclude that the historical conditionality of development of the islands is linked mainly with the military interests of Russia on its southeastern edge, using the resources of the sea and the unique natural conditions suitable for the development of agricultural, industrial, recreation and tourism.

  1. The Royal Society, natural history and the peoples of the 'New World(s)', 1660-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, John

    2009-12-01

    This paper focuses on the response of the Royal Society to the increasing contact with parts of the globe beyond Europe. Such contact was in accord with the programme of Baconian natural history that the early Royal Society espoused, but it also raised basic questions about the extent and nature of the pursuit of natural history. In particular, the paper is concerned with the attention paid to one particular branch of natural history, the study of other peoples and their customs. Such scrutiny of other peoples in distant lands raised basic questions about what methods natural history should employ and the extent to which it could serve as a foundation for more general and theoretical claims. By taking a wide sweep from the beginnings of the Royal Society until the end of the eighteenth century it is hoped light will be shed on the changing understanding of natural history over this period.

  2. Operations research at CSIR: A brief history through cases | Ittmann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The OR group at CSIR did, however, continue and today the group still exists. This paper presents a brief history of this group and endeavours to provide a glimpse of some of the projects conducted over the many years since its establishment. Keywords: History of OR, OR applications, case studies. ORiON Vol. 23 (1) 2007: ...

  3. Research and Publications in New York State History, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, Briane C., Comp.

    This 1979 edition contains briefly annotated references to all New York state history-related works which were either published, completed, or in progress during 1979. Entries were selected on the basis of presenting a new historical viewpoint or making available new knowledge on any aspect of New York history. Entries include books, pamphlets,…

  4. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  5. The Development of a Regional Nursing History Collection: Its Relevance to Practice, Education, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Linda F.; Linebach, Laura M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nursing History Collection at the University of Missouri-Kansas City preserves artifacts and memorabilia of regional nursing history. Such collections are essential to practice, education, and research in nursing. (SK)

  6. Our Natural Resources: Basic Research Needs in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Task Force on Basic Research in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    This report examines basic research needs in forestry and renewable natural resources and determines benefits to be gained from greater investments in basic research. It was prepared by a group of 17 research scientists, each an accomplished investigator in one or more fields. Each contributor reflected on research needs within his own discipline…

  7. Olmesartan-associated enteropathy: new insights on the natural history? Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepatti, Annalisa; Biagi, Federico; Cumetti, Davide; Luinetti, Ombretta; Sonzogni, Aurelio; Mugellini, Amedeo; Corazza, Gino R

    2016-01-01

    The association between olmesartan and an enteropathy histologically indistinguishable from untreated celiac disease has recently been described. However, pathogenetic mechanisms leading to villous atrophy, prevalence, natural history and genetic background of this condition have not yet been defined. We describe here two cases of olmesartan-associated enteropathy and discuss some aspects of the natural history of this condition. In both patients, an infectious episode seems to have triggered the severe malabsorption syndrome which led them to hospitalization. High titer positive antinuclear antibodies with homogeneous pattern were found. Our reports add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that olmesartan-associated enteropathy should be considered in the presence of villous atrophy and negative celiac serology and in the diagnostic algorithm of non-responsive celiac disease.

  8. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  9. [Impact of antiviral therapy on the natural history of hepatitis C virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodriguez, Conrado M; Gutierrez Garcia, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection affects around 150 million persons, and 350,000 persons worldwide die of this disease each year. Although the data on its natural history are incomplete, after the acute infection, most patients develop chronic forms of hepatitis C with variable stages of fibrosis. In these patients, continual inflammatory activity can cause significant fibrosis, cirrhosis, decompensation of the liver disease, or hepatocarcinoma. In the next few years, it is expected that hepatitis C virus infection and its complications will significantly increase, as will the incidence of hepatocarcinoma in Spain. This review presents the data on the natural history of hepatitis C virus infection and discusses the potential impact of antiviral therapy on the distinct stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. Connecting the Senses: Natural History and the British Museum in the Stereoscopic Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Davidson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the connection between touch and sight by examining one of the early photographic ventures at the British Museum and efforts to mediate between popular and specialist access to the natural history collections. Part of the Victorians' fascination for natural history came from its appeal to the senses. Acknowledging the link between tactile and visual experiences as a component of intellectual discovery was an essential part of this, and the contemporary craze for stereoscopic photographs offered a chance to exploit this association. The article analyses the role of the tactile in the presentation of museum objects by addressing the 'impression' of touch - conjured optically and in the mind's eye - and compares the relative merits of the stereoscope to create the illusion of immersion for the viewer and to effectively convey the tactile qualities of the objects portrayed.

  11. Natural history of Brugada syndrome: insights for risk stratification and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Silvia G; Napolitano, Carlo; Gasparini, Maurizio; Pappone, Carlo; Della Bella, Paolo; Giordano, Umberto; Bloise, Raffaella; Giustetto, Carla; De Nardis, Roberto; Grillo, Massimiliano; Ronchetti, Elena; Faggiano, Giovanna; Nastoli, Janni

    2002-03-19

    Treatment of patients with Brugada syndrome is complicated by the incomplete information on the natural history of the disease related to the small number of cases reported. Furthermore, the value of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) for risk stratification is highly debated. The objective of this study was to search for novel parameters to identify patients at risk of sudden death. Clinical data were collected for 200 patients (152 men, 48 women; age, 41+/-18 years) and stored in a dedicated database. Genetic analysis was performed, and mutations on the SCN5A gene were identified in 28 of 130 probands and in 56 of 121 family members. The life-table method of Kaplan-Meier used to define the cardiac arrest-free interval in patients undergoing PES failed to demonstrate an association between PES inducibility and spontaneous occurrence of ventricular fibrillation. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, family history of sudden death, and SCN5A mutations, the combined presence of a spontaneous ST-segment elevation in leads V1 through V3 and the history of syncope identifies subjects at risk of cardiac arrest (HR, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.9 to 21; Pinformation on the natural history of patients obtained in this study allowed elaboration of a risk-stratification scheme to quantify the risk for sudden cardiac death and to target the use of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

  12. [Natural history and eighteenth-century ideas regarding generation and heredity: Buffon and Bonnet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, L A

    1995-01-01

    The intellectual course of natural history reveals three conceptual approaches. The first was the taxonomic point of view, where naturalists worked to name and classify the living beings created by God. The second approach was provided by the eighteenth century's philosophical doctrine of mechanism, which lent natural history its method of endeavoring to comprehend the workings of organisms, inasmuch as the world "ran". Calling into question the adequacy of prior message, the third approach argued that living things display characteristics quite distinct from those of non-living matter, making it necessary to understand processes rather than simply decompose phenomena to then analyze them. This inadequacy became apparent at the moment when ideas of generation and heredity ascribed a reproductive history to living things, a history where the act of one fellow creature being formed by another plays an important role in coming to understand the workings of life. The paper analyzes these conceptual approaches from the perspective of Buffon's and Bonnet's ideas on reproduction and heredity, which represented opposite schools of thought: epigenesis and preformation.

  13. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.

  15. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  16. 75 FR 52013 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice...

  17. 76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History... to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice...

  18. 75 FR 9925 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... intent to repatriate a cultural item in the possession of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH, that meets the definition of a ``sacred object'' under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This notice is... The Cleveland Museum of Natural History have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (3)(C), the...

  19. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribución a la historia natural de los tigres marcianos [Contribution to the Natural History of Martian tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En las coordenadas conceptuales que efectivamente pautan el desarrollo de las ciencias biológicas podemos encontrar claves capaces de guiar al pensamiento cuando éste enfrenta escenarios contrafactuales alternativos a lo efectivamente ocurrido. En lo que respecta a ese tópico, la distinción entre una entidad individual y la función que esa entidad puede venir a desempeñar en un determinado proceso o sistema, merece ser destacada como uno de los mayores rendimientos que puede darnos el examen de los marcos teóricos que efectivamente guían el desarrollo de la Biología. A primera vista, estos pueden parecer estrechos, y demasiado apegados a la concreción como para poder enfrentar una Historia Natural de los mundos posibles, pero no lo son. Todo lo que puede caber en esa historia contrafáctica, ya tiene su correlato en la Historia Natural efectiva del mundo que nos rodea; y el pensamiento biológico se desarrolló para enfrentar los desafíos que eso conlleva.   [In the conceptual framework, that effectively guides the development of biological sciences, we can find keys able for guiding thought when it faces alternative counterfactual scenarios to what has actually occurred. Concerning this issue, the distinction between an individual entity and the function which that that may come to play in a particular process or system, deserves to be highlighted as one of the conceptual resulting from the examination of the theoretical backgrounds that effectively guide the development of Biology. At first glance, these theoretical backgrounds may seem narrow and too attached to the concreteness, to be able for face a Natural History of possible worlds, but they are not. All that can fit in that counterfactual History already has its correlate in the actual Natural History of the world surrounding us; and biological thinking growth to face the challenges that this entails.

  2. Sustainable geothermal utilization - Case histories; definitions; research issues and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Gudni

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development by definition meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The Earth's enormous geothermal resources have the potential to contribute significantly to sustainable energy use worldwide as well as to help mitigate climate change. Experience from the use of numerous geothermal systems worldwide lasting several decades demonstrates that by maintaining production below a certain limit the systems reach a balance between net energy discharge and recharge that may be maintained for a long time (100-300 years). Modelling studies indicate that the effect of heavy utilization is often reversible on a time-scale comparable to the period of utilization. Thus, geothermal resources can be used in a sustainable manner either through (1) constant production below the sustainable limit, (2) step-wise increase in production, (3) intermittent excessive production with breaks, and (4) reduced production after a shorter period of heavy production. The long production histories that are available for low-temperature as well as high-temperature geothermal systems distributed throughout the world, provide the most valuable data available for studying sustainable management of geothermal resources, and reservoir modelling is the most powerful tool available for this purpose. The paper presents sustainability modelling studies for the Hamar and Nesjavellir geothermal systems in Iceland, the Beijing Urban system in China and the Olkaria system in Kenya as examples. Several relevant research issues have also been identified, such as the relevance of system boundary conditions during long-term utilization, how far reaching interference from utilization is, how effectively geothermal systems recover after heavy utilization and the reliability of long-term (more than 100 years) model predictions. (author)

  3. Research needs for programs that provide natural environments for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1977-01-01

    The major emphases of selected Symposium papers are underscored, and some personal thoughts are presented on how childrens' understanding of natural environments will eventually affect the quality of this Nation's environment. Special emphasis is given to research needs for insuring the establishment, protection, and management of natural environments for...

  4. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  5. Approaches to Climate Literacy at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the

  6. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  7. The use of radiotracers in natural rubber research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.F.; Singh, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Five main areas where radiotracers have been used in research on natural rubber are on studies on the uptake of plant nutrients by Hevea brasiliensis using 32 P, 86 Rb and 45 Ca as tracers; biosynthesis of Hevea rubber using 14 C or 3 H labelled intermediates; translocation and metabolism of 14 C. Ethephon in Hevea brasiliensis; use of radiotracers as analytical tools and adsorption of labelled fatty acid soaps on natural rubber lattices. These studies are discussed to show the powerful tool that radiotracers provide in agricultural, biochemical and chemical research on natural rubber. (author)

  8. The natural history of ankylosing spondylitis in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Campana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeleton and evolves in stiffnes followed by ankylosis and disability. However, it may be difficult to exactly establish the natural history of the disease and the influence of risk factors of progression, since most patients are treated with various pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic agents, which may potentially influence the natural progression of the disease. In this context, we report here a very interesting case of a 40 year old man, presented to our outpatient clinic, 28 years after the onset of AS. Previously for personal reasons, did not choose not to undergo any treatment. This case allows us to evaluate the natural radiological progression of the disease and the influence of predictive risk factors.

  9. History of Education Research in Australia: Some Current Trends and Possible Directions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The history of education as a distinct field has been the focus of study, research and writing in Australia for over a century. It achieved maturity with the establishment of the Australian and New Zealand History of Education Society in 1970 and the subsequent establishment of the Society's journal, "History of Education Review." Since…

  10. Interactive effects of land use history and natural disturbance on seedling dynamics in a subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comita, Liza S; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Jonckheere, Inge; Canham, Charles D; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2010-07-01

    Human-impacted forests are increasing in extent due to widespread regrowth of secondary forests on abandoned lands. The degree and speed of recovery from human disturbance in these forests will determine their value in terms of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem function. In areas subject to periodic, severe natural disturbances, such as hurricanes, it has been hypothesized that human and natural disturbance may interact to either erase or preserve land use legacies. To increase understanding of how interactions between human and natural disturbance influence forest regeneration and recovery, we monitored seedlings in a human- and hurricane-impacted forest in northeastern Puerto Rico over a approximately 10-yr period and compared seedling composition and dynamics in areas that had experienced high- and low-intensity human disturbance during the first half of the 20th century. We found that land use history significantly affected the composition and diversity of the seedling layer and altered patterns of canopy openness and seedling dynamics following hurricane disturbance. The area that had been subject to high-intensity land use supported a higher density, but lower diversity, of species. In both land use history categories, the seedling layer was dominated by the same two species, Prestoea acuminata var. montana and Guarea guidonia. However, seedlings of secondary-successional species tended to be more abundant in the high-intensity land use area, while late-successional species were more abundant in the low-intensity area, consistent with patterns of adult tree distributions. Seedlings of secondary-forest species showed greater increases in growth and survival following hurricane disturbance compared to late-successional species, providing support for the hypothesis that hurricanes help preserve the signature of land use history. However, the increased performance of secondary-forest species occurred predominantly in the low-intensity land use area

  11. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Bringing dinosaurs back to life: exhibiting prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.

  13. The nature of qualitative construction partnering research : literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Venselaar; Hans Warmelink

    2017-01-01

    from the publisher's site: "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of qualitative construction partnering research. Design/methodology/approach. In total, 20 qualitative peer-reviewed papers about construction partnering research are reviewed. Findings: The results show four

  14. RESEARCH FOR NATURE CONSERVATION IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT; WIND, J

    1993-01-01

    Priorities for research aimed at nature management were determined for South-east Asia, and especially Indonesia, by means of pooled expert opinion A number of conservation specialists working in Indonesia were asked independently to rank a number of habitats and types of research to be conducted in

  15. A History of the Western Institute of Nursing and Its Communicating Nursing Research Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Paula A; Lindeman, Carol A

    The Western Institute of Nursing (WIN) celebrated its 60th anniversary and the 50th Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference in April 2017. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief history of the origin, development, and accomplishments of WIN and its Communicating Nursing Research conferences. Historical documents and conference proceedings were reviewed. WIN was created in 1957 as the Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing under the auspices of the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. The bedrock and enduring value system of the organization is the interrelated nature of nursing education, practice, and research. There was a conviction that people in the Western region of the United States needed nursing services of excellent quality and that nursing education must prepare nurses capable of providing that care. Shared goals were to increase the science of nursing through research and to produce nurses who could design, conduct, and supervise research-all to the end of improving quality nursing care. These goals were only achieved by collaboration and resource sharing among the Western region states and organizations. Consistent with the goals, the first research conferences were held between 1957 and 1962. Conference content focused on seminars for faculty teaching research, on the design and conduct of research in patient care settings, and on identification of priority areas for research. The annual Communicating Nursing Research conferences began in 1968 and grew over the years to a total 465 podium and poster presentations on a wide array of research topics-and an attendance of 926-in 2016. As WIN and its Communicating Nursing Research conferences face the next 50 years, the enduring values on which the organization was created will stand in good stead as adaptability, adjustments, and collaborative effort are applied to inevitable change for the nursing profession. It is the Western way.

  16. Fracture in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Natural History and Vitamin D Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Nadia; Sampaio, Hugo; Woodhead, Helen; Farrar, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the natural history of fracture and vitamin D levels in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, who are vulnerable to osteoporosis and fractures. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 48 Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients revealed that 43% of patients experienced ≥1 fracture. Fracture probabilities at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 years were 4%, 9%, 31%, and 60% respectively, accelerating around the time of ambulation loss (mean age 11.8 ± 2.7 years). Chronic corticosteroid therapy was utilized in 69% of patients and was associated with all vertebral fractures. A history of vitamin D deficiency occurred in 84%, and 35% were currently deficient. Despite chronic vitamin D supplementation, 38% remained deficient. These results demonstrate that osteoporosis and fracture remain major concerns in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Bone health should be optimized well before loss of ambulation, however current levels of vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate given high levels of deficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. History of black walnut genetics research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Victory; Keith Woeste; Olin E., Jr. Rhodes

    2004-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an economically and ecologically important hardwood species that has been used throughout the history of settlement in North America. It was a resource that helped Native Americans in their everyday life, it helped European settlers carve a living out of the wilderness, and it has helped rural farmers and...

  18. Marine Sciences: from natural history to ecology and back, on Darwin's shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Boero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.

  19. Chiari Malformation Type 1: A Systematic Review of Natural History and Conservative Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Benjamin; Phillips, Edward; Choi, David

    2017-08-01

    Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) is a variation of hindbrain development that can sometimes occur in asymptomatic individuals. Conventional treatment is surgical decompression, but little is known about the natural history of patients who do not undergo surgical management. This information is critical to determine how these patients should be managed. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the natural history of CM-1, particularly in patients who did not undergo surgery and in asymptomatic individuals, to help patients and physicians determine when surgery is likely to be beneficial. The literature search was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. In symptomatic patients who did not undergo surgery, headaches and nausea often improved, whereas ataxia and sensory disturbance tended not to improve spontaneously. Of patients, 27%-47% had an improvement in symptoms after 15 months, and 37%-40% with cough headache and 89% with nausea who were managed nonoperatively improved at follow-up. Most asymptomatic individuals with CM-1 remained asymptomatic (93.3%) even in the presence of syringomyelia. The natural history of mild symptomatic and asymptomatic CM-1 in adults is relatively benign and nonprogressive; the decision to perform surgical decompression should be based on severity and duration of a patient's symptoms at presentation. It is reasonable to observe a patient with mild or asymptomatic symptoms even in the presence of significant tonsillar descent or syringomyelia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural history of Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon (Squamata, Xenosauridae, a Knob-scaled Lizard from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We made observations on the natural history of a population of the lizard Xenosaurus phalaroanthereon from Oaxaca, Mexico. Females were larger than males (SVL. Most lizards were found completely inside rock crevices. Mean body temperature was 20.3°C. Body temperature wasrelated primarily to substrate temperature. Body temperature was not influenced by any crevice characteristic. Based on abdominal palpation, the size at maturity for females appears to be 117-119 mm SVL. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. We compare the ecology of this population to that of other Xenosaurus.

  1. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  2. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-04-17

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned.

  3. Forest products research in IUFRO history and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Youngs; John A. Youngquist

    1999-01-01

    When silviculture researchers in central Europe were gathering together to form IUFRO in 1892, forest products researchers were occupied with making useful forest products and conserving the forest resource through wise use. Forest products researchers did not become an active part of IUFRO until 50 years later. Research in forest products was stimulated by World War I...

  4. Early History of Heavy Isotope Research at Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn T. Seaborg

    1976-06-01

    I have had the idea for some time that it would be interesting and worthwhile to put together an account of the early work on heavy isotopes at Berkeley. Of a special interest is the discovery of plutonium (atomic number 94) and the isotope U{sup 233}, and the demonstration of their fission with slow neutrons. This work served as a prelude to the subsequent Plutonium Project (Metallurgical Project) centered at the University of Chicago, in connection with which I have also had the idea of putting together a history of the work of my chemistry group. I have decided that it would be an interesting challenge to write this account on a day-to-day basis in a style that would be consistent with the entries having been written at the end of each day. The aim would be to make this history as accurate as possible by going back to the original records and using them with meticulous care.

  5. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  6. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  7. Natural history of chondroid skull base lesions - case report and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidinger, A.; Rosahl, S.K.; Vorkapic, P.; Samii, M.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term follow-up reports on chondroid lesions of the skull base are rarely presented in the literature. There are virtually no data on natural growth rates of these tumors based on MRI obtained over a period of 10 years or longer. We followed a patient who has had such a lesion for more than 12 years. A non-progressive, slight abducens palsy has been the only associated symptom so far. Even though the patient was operated on for an additional intracranial arterio-venous malformation, clinical features and chromosomal testing excluded Maffucci's syndrome. The MRI follow-up in this case provides an extraordinary perspective on the natural history of chondroid skull base tumors. (orig.)

  8. Collaborations between Multicultural Educators and Archivists: Engaging Students with Multicultural History through Archival Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    When multicultural educators and archivists collaborate to design projects that engage students with multicultural history through archival research, students can learn in-depth research skills with primary source documents, creatively share their knowledge, and, on a broader level, engage with their local community history. The projects shared in…

  9. Natural history of minimal anterior displacements of the temporomandibular joint meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often provides more precise localization of the meniscus than other imaging modalities. Previous study of the distribution of meniscus position in a control population showed that anterior displacements of more than 10 0 were more than 2 standard deviations from the mean, but the clinical significance and natural history of minimal displacements remained uncertain. Twenty follow-up MR studies were performed after 1-2 years in subjects with minimal meniscus displacements drawn from an original series of 125 symptomatic patients and 50 asymptomatic volunteers. These were correlated with repeated clinical histories and clinical examinations. A significant increase in the amount of anterior displacement was found in 55% of the originally asymptomatic volunteers with minimal displacements, which was accompanied by new symptoms in 40%. This was seen exclusively among those with a history of orthodontia. Worsening anterior displacements were seen in 50% of the patient population, and 25% had associated worsening symptoms. These findings indicate that detection of even minimal displacements of the TMJ meniscus is necessary and warrants follow-up MR examinations. Routine follow-up MR images should be obtained following malocclusion treatment and after major dental procedures

  10. The Natural History of Flare-Ups in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): A Comprehensive Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolo, Robert J; Bedford-Gay, Christopher; Liljesthröm, Moira; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Shore, Eileen M; Rocke, David M; Kaplan, Frederick S

    2016-03-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) leads to disabling heterotopic ossification (HO) from episodic flare-ups. However, the natural history of FOP flare-ups is poorly understood. A 78-question survey on FOP flare-ups, translated into 15 languages, was sent to 685 classically-affected patients in 45 countries (six continents). Five hundred patients or knowledgeable informants responded (73%; 44% males, 56% females; ages: 1 to 71 years; median: 23 years). The most common presenting symptoms of flare-ups were swelling (93%), pain (86%), or decreased mobility (79%). Seventy-one percent experienced a flare-up within the preceding 12 months (52% spontaneous; 48% trauma-related). Twenty-five percent of those who had received an intramuscular injection reported an immediate flare-up at the injection site, 84% of whom developed HO. Axial flare-ups most frequently involved the back (41.6%), neck (26.4%), or jaw (19.4%). Flare-ups occurred more frequently in the upper limbs before 8 years of age, but more frequently in the lower limbs thereafter. Appendicular flare-ups occurred more frequently at proximal than at distal sites without preferential sidedness. Seventy percent of patients reported functional loss from a flare-up. Thirty-two percent reported complete resolution of at least one flare-up and 12% without any functional loss (mostly in the head or back). The most disabling flare-ups occurred at the shoulders or hips. Surprisingly, 47% reported progression of FOP without obvious flare-ups. Worldwide, 198 treatments were reported; anti-inflammatory agents were most common. Seventy-five percent used short-term glucocorticoids as a treatment for flare-ups at appendicular sites. Fifty-five percent reported that glucocorticoids improved symptoms occasionally whereas 31% reported that they always did. Only 12% reported complete resolution of a flare-up with glucocorticoids. Forty-three percent reported rebound symptoms within 1 to 7 days after completing a course of

  11. A Brief History of Publishing Papers on Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While some research had been done on K-12 and planetarium astronomy teaching from the 1930's to the 1980's, the growth of research on college physics education offered astronomy education researchers a model for examining techniques for teaching introductory college astronomy survey "Astronomy 101" courses as well. This early research…

  12. History of research reactor fuel fabrication at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, James B.

    1983-01-01

    B and W Research Reactor Fuel Element facility at Lynchburg, Virginia now produces national laboratory and university fuel assemblies. The Company's 201000 square foot facility is devoted entirely to supplying research fuel and related products. B and W re-entered the research reactor fuel market in 1981

  13. The Natural History of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis after Liver Transplantation – a Single-Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli J Moncrief

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD after liver transplant, the predictors of PSC and IBD recurrence, and the interaction of these disease processes.

  14. Sahagún's "Florentine codex," a little known Aztecan natural history of the Valley of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Henry M

    2006-01-01

    Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. The first English translation was issued in 13 volumes between 1950 and 1982, and the first facsimile was published in 1979. Book 11, "Earthly things," is a comprehensive natural history of the Valley of Mexico based on pre-Cortésian Aztec knowledge. Sahagún's work, largely unknown among English-speaking biologists, is an untapped treasury of information about Aztecan natural history. It also establishes the Aztecs as the preeminent pioneering naturalists of North American, and Sahagún and his colleagues as their documentarians.

  15. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  16. Carcinosarcoma of the Ovary: Natural History, Patterns of Treatment, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Erin M.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Burke, William M.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Wright, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ovarian carcinosarcomas (OCS) are rare tumors composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. We compared the natural history and outcomes of OCS to serous carcinoma of the ovary. Methods Patients with OCS and serous carcinomas registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1988-2007 were analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared using chi square tests while survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 27,737 women, including 1763 (6.4%) with OCS and 25,974 (93.6%) with serous carcinomas, were identified. Patients with carcinosarcomas tended to be older and have unstaged tumors (Pcarcinosarcomas were 72% more likely to die from their tumors (HR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.52-1.96). Five-year survival for stage I carcinosarcomas was 65.2% (95% CI, 58.0-71.4%) vs. 80.6% (95% CI, 78.9-82.2%) for serous tumors. Similarly, five-year survival for stage IIIC patients was 18.2% (95% CI, 14.5-22.4%) for carcinosarcomas compared to 33.3% (95% 32.1-34.5%) for serous carcinomas. Conclusions Ovarian carcinosarcomas are aggressive tumors with a natural history that is distinct from serous cancers. The survival for both early and late stage carcinosarcoma is inferior to serous tumors. PMID:23838036

  17. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  19. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L; DeShon, Heather R; Hornbach, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.

  20. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three

  1. Clinical and Polysomnographic Predictors of the Natural History of Poor Sleep in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Approximately 8-10% of the general population suffers from chronic insomnia, whereas another 20-30% of the population has insomnia symptoms at any given time (i.e., poor sleep). However, few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors of the natural history of poor sleep, and none have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 yr. Measurements: Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and telephone interview at follow-up. Results: The rate of incident poor sleep was 18.4%. Physical (e.g., obesity, sleep apnea, and ulcer) and mental (e.g., depression) health conditions and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol consumption) increased the odds of incident poor sleep as compared to normal sleep. The rates of persistent, remitted, and poor sleepers who developed chronic insomnia were 39%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Risk factors for persistent poor sleep were physical health conditions combined with psychologic distress. Shorter objective sleep duration and a family history of sleep problems were risk factors for poor sleep evolving into chronic insomnia. Conclusions: Poor sleep appears to be primarily a symptom of physical and mental health conditions, whereas the persistence of poor sleep is associated with psychologic distress. Importantly, sleep apnea appears to be associated with incident poor sleep but not with chronic insomnia. Finally, this study suggests that objective short sleep duration in poor sleepers is a biologic marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Karataraki M; Vela-Bueno A; Liao D. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of the natural history of poor sleep in the general population

  2. [THE PROFESSORS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND THE SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE SCIENCES OF WARSAW (1800-1832)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National Museum of Natural History played a crucial role in the formation of Polish scientific elites in the 19th century. Many Polish students were attending in Paris natural history, botany, zoology, chemistry and mineralogy courses. The Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning was the largest scientific society and one of the most important scientific institutions in Poland. It had also an impact on the political and cultural life of the country, occupied and deprived of freedom at that time. Amongst its founders and members, could be found listeners to the lectures of Lamarck, Haüy, Vauquelin, Desfontaines, Jussieu. Moreover, seven professors of the National Museum of Natural History were elected foreign members of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning: Cuvier, Desfontaines, Haüy, Jussieu, Latreille, Mirbel, Vauquelin. The article analyses this choice and underlines the relationship between these scientists and Warsaw's scientists. The results of this research allow to confirm that the National Museum of Natural History was the most important foreign institution in the 19th century for Polish science, and more specifically natural sciences.

  3. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  4. Yugonostalgia as Research Concept of Communication History: The Possible Research Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simeunović Bajić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yugoslavia no longer exists. There is only yugonostalgia i.e. nostalgia for all those things which are no longer in common state boundaries. There remains common corpus of historical memory which is imposed to researchers as a good basis for affirmation. After the tragic decomposition of Yugoslavia, nationalist tendencies, interruption of communication channels and national reawakening in all former republics, the period of transition has arrived. But in the minds of ordinary people, political, economical and social changes have not brought long-expected "better life". Therefore more and more collective memory of everyday life, culture and social relations in the former Yugoslavia was revitalized. Yugonostalgia for a Yugoslav Union that no longer exists as a concept of studying the history of communication, can contribute to better understanding of the past and the future. For this reason, this paper attempts to explore the role of the concept of yugonostalgia as an important factor in studying the history of communication in the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav context.

  5. History, Development and Future of TRIGA Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Due to its particular fuel design and resulting enhanced inherent safety features, TRIGA reactors (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) constitute a ‘class of their own’ among the large variety of research reactors built world-wide. This publication summarizes in a single document the information on the past and present of TRIGA research reactors and presents an outlook in view of potential issues to be solved by TRIGA operating organizations in the near future. It covers the historical development and basic TRIGA characteristics, followed by utilization, fuel conversion and ageing management of TRIGA research reactors. It continues with issues and challenges, introduction to the global TRIGA research reactor network and concludes with future perspectives. The publication is complemented with a CD-ROM to illustrate the historical developments of TRIGA research reactors through individual facility examples and experiences

  6. Natural computing for mechanical systems research: A tutorial overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Keith; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Hensman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    A great many computational algorithms developed over the past half-century have been motivated or suggested by biological systems or processes, the most well-known being the artificial neural networks. These algorithms are commonly grouped together under the terms soft or natural computing. A property shared by most natural computing algorithms is that they allow exploration of, or learning from, data. This property has proved extremely valuable in the solution of many diverse problems in science and engineering. The current paper is intended as a tutorial overview of the basic theory of some of the most common methods of natural computing as they are applied in the context of mechanical systems research. The application of some of the main algorithms is illustrated using case studies. The paper also attempts to give some indication as to which of the algorithms emerging now from the machine learning community are likely to be important for mechanical systems research in the future.

  7. Grayback Glades Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Bryan Wender; Rachel. Showalter

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 433-ha (1,070-ac) Grayback Glades Research Natural Area. The area supports high- elevation examples of white fir–Shasta red fir (Abies concolor[Gord. + Glend]–Abies magnifica var. shastensis) forest along the crest of the Siskiyou...

  8. Woodcock Bog Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Susan J. Fritts; Mark Mousseaux

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Woodcock Bog Research Natural Area (RNA), a 114-ha (281-ac) area located within the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion in southwestern Oregon. The RNA includes a hanging fen and stream segment on ultramafic rock and derived soils. Numerous plant species occur within the fens that are endemic to the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon and...

  9. Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ian. Grinter

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 3531-ha (8,725-ac) Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area located within the Northern Basin and Range ecoregion and managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview District (USDI BLM 2003).

  10. Forest Creeks Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ron Halvorson

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Forest Creeks Research Natural Area, a 164-ha (405-ac) area comprising two geographically distinct canyons and associated drainages. The two units have been established as examples of first- to third-order streams originating within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone. The two riparian areas also represent examples of...

  11. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim. Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  12. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  13. From Mentoring to Collaborating: Fostering Undergraduate Research in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Teacher, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The author of this essay argues that historians should join their colleagues in the sciences in creating supportive environments for undergraduate research. Despite the apparent hurdles to overcome, historians can devise effective undergraduate research experiences that mimic those occurring in the chemistry, biology, and psychology labs across…

  14. A brief history of primate research: Global health improvements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientists rapidly realized the value of primates as research models – their evolutionary proximity to humans making them better predictors, or models, of human biology. Systematic studies using primates began in the last century and massive demand for research subjects almost caused the extinction of some important ...

  15. Operations research at CSIR: A brief history through cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dedication to Emeritus Professor Gerhard Geldenhuys. There are few people in South Africa who have played a larger role in educating Operations. Researchers than Gerhard Geldenhuys. He almost hand-picked those that he encouraged and guided through their Operations Research (OR) studies. Many of these ...

  16. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  17. History of the Rare Cancer Network and past research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, twenty years ago, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland, to support the study of rare malignancies. The RCN has grown over the years and now includes 130 investigators from twenty-four nations on six continents. The network held its first international symposium in Nice, France, on March 21-22, 2014. The proceedings of that meeting are presented in two companion papers. This manuscript reviews the history of the growth of the RCN and contains the abstracts of fourteen oral presentations made at the meeting of prior RCN studies. From 1993 to 2014, 74 RCN studies have been initiated, of which 54 were completed, 10 are in progress or under analysis, and 9 were stopped due to poor accrual. Forty-four peer reviewed publications have been written on behalf of the RCN.

  18. Introducing History (and Philosophy) of Science in the Classroom: A Field Research Experience in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, Liborio; Morgese, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    For quite some time, many EU and Italian Ministry of Education official documents have warmly suggested the introduction of the history and the philosophy of science in the teaching of science disciplines at school. Accordingly, there is a shared agreement between pedagogists and science historians about the efficacy of this approach towards an understanding of the current curriculum content and the Nature of Science. What is missing, at least in Italy, is a concrete fieldwork in the classroom to show the validity of these declarations. This essay is a report of the experience of introducing history and philosophy of science into junior and senior high school classrooms in Apulia (Italy). The aims of this project are: (a) to build a model of research involving high school teachers and university lecturers in the design and construction of teaching units that use the story of science and epistemology for teaching science and (b) produce evidence that this approach is effective in getting more interest from students in science. We relied on many schools for carrying out the historical-scientific teaching modules. The modules were carried out through the case study approach. In the first phase, the participating teachers were trained by University tutors on the modalities of this particular teaching approach. In the second phase, the teachers carried out the modules in their classes and finally these modules were presented in a conclusive conference. Moreover, we evaluated the efficacy of the intervention through specifically created agreement questionnaires.

  19. Working with language learner histories from three perspectives: Teachers, learners and researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in SLA, such as learner-centredness, social constructivism, the postmethod era, and complexity perspectives, have highlighted the need for more localized, situated understandings of teaching and learning and greater recognition of learner individuality and diversity. In this article, I suggest an effective way of meeting these needs is to employ learner histories. This powerful form of writing allows learners to use their L2 to engage in authentic, personally meaningful communication with others about their identities, experiences, perceptions and emotions related to their language learning histories. As a text type, they are able to facilitate a more holistic perspective of the learner’s life and reveal the unique interconnections that an individual makes across various domains. They also enable the situated, contextualised and dynamic nature of their learning experiences to become apparent and provide learners with a genuine, motivating purpose for writing. Exploring data generated in Austria with tertiary-level EFL learners, I seek to illustrate some of the rich potential of these text types from three perspectives, namely, those of the teacher, learner and researcher.

  20. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.

    2009-12-01

    The arctic shoreline is, according to the CIA World Factbook, 45,389 km long. However, a more realistic length from the standpoint of detailed research is the 200,000 km proposed at the 1999 Arctic Coastal Dynamics Workshop. Highly varied in form and material it is dominated by a variety of processes, is relatively remote, is ice-bound much of the year, and has generally been neglected by the scientific community. Before the 20th century, most of the information about its geology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biology was recorded in ship's logs or in explorer's books and was for the most part incidental to the narrative being related. The paucity of specific research is indicated by the relatively few relevant papers included in the more than 100,000 annotated entries published in the 15 volumes of the Arctic Bibliography (1953-1971) and in the nearly as extensive 27 volume bibliography prepared by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) between 1952 and 1973. Nonetheless, there were some distinctive research endeavors during the early part of the 20th century; e.g., Leffingwell's 1919 Alaskan Arctic Coast observations, Nansen's 1921 strandflat studies, and Zenkovich's 1937 Murmansk research. During that period some organizations devoted to polar research, especially the USSR's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and the Scott Polar Research Institute (both in 1920) were established, although the amount of their research that could be considered coastal and arctic was limited. Specific research of the arctic's shoreline was mainly academic until after World War II when military, economic, industrial, and archaeological interests began demanding reliable, contemporary data. At the time numerous organizations with a primary focus on the Arctic were formed. Included are the Arctic Institute of North America (1945), the Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (latter to become CRREL) and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Research

  1. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  2. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-11-07

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a ‘fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a ‘slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of ‘slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of ‘slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of ‘fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500–300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. PMID:26511055

  4. Natural turf surfaces: the case for continued research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Victoria H; James, Iain T; Dixon, Sharon J; Guisasola, Igor N

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that health and social benefits can be attained through participation in sport and exercise. Participation, particularly in sports, benefits from appropriate surface provisions that are safe, affordable and high quality preferably across the recreational to elite continuum. Investment, construction and research into artificial sports surfaces have increased to meet this provision. However, not all sports (e.g. golf, rugby and cricket) are suited to training and match-play on artificial turf without compromising some playing characteristics of the games. Therefore, full sport surface provision cannot be met without the use of natural turf surfaces, which also have an important role as green spaces in the built environment. Furthermore, a significant number of people participate in outdoor sport on natural turf pitches, although this is a declining trend as the number of synthetic turf surfaces increases. Despite natural turf being a common playing surface for popular sports such as soccer, rugby and cricket, few biomechanical studies have been performed using natural turf conditions. It is proposed that if natural turf surfaces are to help meet the provision of sports surfaces, advancement in the construction and sustainability of natural turf surface design is required. The design of a natural turf surface should also be informed by knowledge of surface-related overuse injury risk factors. This article reviews biomechanical, engineering, soil mechanics, turfgrass science, sports medicine and injury-related literature with a view to proposing a multidisciplinary approach to engineering a more sustainable natural turf sport surface. The present article concludes that an integrated approach incorporating an engineering and biomechanical analysis of the effects of variations in natural turf media on human movement and the effects of variations in human movement on natural turf is primarily required to address the longer-term development of

  5. First record of Urotheca dumerilli (Bibron, 1840) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in Cauca state, Colombia and notes on natural history

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Pérez, Luis Enrique; Zúñiga-Baos, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Urotheca dumerilli has been rediscovered after 44 years through a single specimen collected at sector El Cóndor, Parque Nacional Natural Munchique, municipality of El Tambo, Cauca State, Colombia. Herein we present the coloration in life and description of fully everted hemipenis of the species for first time, with notes on geographical distribution and natural history.

  6. The history of historical earthquake research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grünthal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the history of collecting and evaluating information on earthquakes in Germany. A rich literature mentioning historical and contemporary earthquakes has existed since the 16th century. Early earthquake catalogues began to appear in the middle of the 16th century, some of which report earthquakes in Germany dating back to the 9th century. Modern seismological views were introduced in connection with intense philosophical analysis of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, which was largely observed in Central Europe. The 19th century was characterized by a tremendous increase in detailed earthquake studies as well as earthquake compilations in the form of catalogues. The most comprehensive non-parametric catalogues were created in the middle of the 20th century, while the first digital parametric catalogues were published in the 1980s. This was also the time when critical studies on the re-interpretation of historical earthquakes began. Only in the 1990s was such analysis made in a systematic manner resulting in numerous publications and the current development of a modern earthquake catalogue.

  7. Natural history of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection in men: the HIM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka S Hampras

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Little is known about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. A sub-cohort of 209 men with no NMSC history, initially enrolled in the HPV infection in men (HIM study, were followed for a median of 12.6 months. Epidemiological data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Cutaneous HPV DNA was measured in normal skin swabs (SS and eyebrow hairs (EB for 25 and 16 HPV types in genera β and γ, respectively. Any β HPV infection was more prevalent in SS (67.3% compared to EB (56.5%, p = 0.04. Incidence in SS was higher than 20 per 1,000 person-months for HPV types 4, 5, 23, 38 and 76. Median duration of persistence of β and γ HPV infection was 8.6 and 6.1 months in EB, respectively, and 11.3 months and 6.3 months, in SS, respectively. Older age (>44 years vs. 18-30 years was significantly associated with prevalent (SS OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.2-7.0 and persistent β HPV infection (EB OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 2.6-14.1. History of blistering sunburn was associated with prevalent (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8 and persistent (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6 β HPV infection in SS. Cutaneous HPV is highly prevalent in men, with age and blistering sunburn being significant risk factors for cutaneous β HPV infection.

  8. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  9. Natural history of G ynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae in galls of Ficus benjamina (Rosales, Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz S. Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls induced by thrips are simple structures when compared to those of other groups of arthropods, and little is known regarding many of their aspects. This study aimed to investigate aspects of the natural history of Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann, 1900 in galls of Ficus benjamina L., 1753 using seasonal sampling (summer and winter. Twenty trees were sampled and divided into quadrants. From each of them, five galls were collected, forming a total of 400 galls per collection. Thrips showed greater abundance at higher temperatures (25.7°C and no precipitation. Sex ratio was biased towards females (0.022 males per female, pointing to an inbred mating structure. Arthropod fauna associated with galls was more abundant (N=798 in winter, and it included representatives of the orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Araneae, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera and Blattodea.

  10. Applications of deep convolutional neural networks to digitized natural history collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Schuettpelz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural history collections contain data that are critical for many scientific endeavors. Recent efforts in mass digitization are generating large datasets from these collections that can provide unprecedented insight. Here, we present examples of how deep convolutional neural networks can be applied in analyses of imaged herbarium specimens. We first demonstrate that a convolutional neural network can detect mercury-stained specimens across a collection with 90% accuracy. We then show that such a network can correctly distinguish two morphologically similar plant families 96% of the time. Discarding the most challenging specimen images increases accuracy to 94% and 99%, respectively. These results highlight the importance of mass digitization and deep learning approaches and reveal how they can together deliver powerful new investigative tools.

  11. Abundance, Disposal Hypsiboas Espaciale lanciformis Natural History (Anura: Hylidae) southwest of the Venezuelan Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar Rodriguez, William; Chacon Ortiz, Andres; Duran, Rosa de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Hypsiboas lanciformis is a tree frog belonging to the albopunctatus group. Its distribution ranges from Bolivia, Brazil, Peru to Colombia and Venezuela. We studied the status of a population inhabiting the realms property of Complejo Uribante-Caparo, CORPOELEC, in Tachira state (southwestern Andean Venezuela), by monitoring their call and visual detection across transects, gathering information on their abundance; available space, and other natural history accounts. The abundance decreases as the dry season progresses, while individuals show an aggregate spatial arrangement. Individuals were vocalizing at the edges of secondary forest adjacent to disturbed areas. This species is sympatric with the hylids Hypsiboas pugnax and Scinax manriquei. Some individuals revealed the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites that might be affecting the species survivalship.

  12. Friedreich Ataxia Clinical Outcome Measures: Natural History Evaluation in 410 Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Sean R.; Wilcox, Nicholas; Friedman, Lisa S.; Seyer, Lauren; Schadt, Kim; Brigatti, Karlla W.; Perlman, Susan; Delatycki, Martin; Wilmot, George R.; Gomez, Christopher M.; Bushara, Khalaf O.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Subramony, S.H.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Ravina, Bernard; Brocht, Alicia; Farmer, Jennifer M.; Lynch, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, dysarthria, and areflexia. We report the progress of a large international non-interventional cohort (n = 410), tracking the natural history of disease progression using the neurological exam-based Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale. We analyzed the rate of progression with cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal analysis over a 2-year period. The Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale captured disease progression when used at 1 and 2 years following initial evaluation, with a lower ratio of standard deviation of change to mean change over 2 years of evaluation. However, modeling of disease progression identified substantial ceiling effects in the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale, suggesting this measure is most useful in patients before maximal deficit is approached. PMID:22752494

  13. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M

    2016-11-14

    In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  14. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-11-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and subjective NOS as measured using VNOS-D as pre- and post-test surveys. Social and cultural context of science was not accessible for the students. Students in second, third, and fourth grades were able to attain adequate views of empirical NOS, the role of observation and inference, creative and imaginative NOS, and subjective NOS. Students were not able to express adequate views of socially and culturally embedded NOS. Most gains in NOS eroded by the next school year, except for tentative NOS for both groups and creative NOS for the inquiry group.

  15. Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeffe Emmet B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection is not uncommon as a result of similar routes of infection. Patients who are coinfected represent a unique group with diverse serologic profiles. Combined chronic hepatitis B and C leads to more severe liver disease and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, coinfected patients represent a treatment challenge. No standard recommendations exist for treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection, and therefore treatment must be individualized based on patient variables such as serologic and virologic profiles, patient's prior exposure to antiviral treatment, and the presence of other parenterally transmitted viruses such as hepatitis D virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The natural history and treatment of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection is reviewed.

  16. [The Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome. Its natural history and levels of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez y Martínez, R; Martínez-Carboney, R

    1997-01-01

    We attempted here the delineation of the natural history of the disease and corresponding prevention levels (NHD and PL) of the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome according to the classical model of Leavell and Clark for infectious-contagious diseases. This proposal was based on our own series of 39 patients and our previous reports on the didactics of the NHD and PL model, as well as on the relevant literature; with this approach we obtained an useful model which includes the health-disease status, the analysis of risk factors and the integration of the clinical practice with socio-epidemiological medicine. Furthermore, the NHD and PL model allow the selection of the preventive management depending on the clinical stage, namely health or disease. This approach to a Mendelian condition emphasizes that the Leavell and Clark concepts can be advantageously applied to any genetic disease.

  17. The natural history of non-Hodgkin's lymphomata stages I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L M; Banker, F L; Butler, J J; Gamble, J F; Sullivan, M P

    1975-03-01

    Progress in the management of non-Hodgkin's lymphomata has been impeded by lack of information on the natural history of these diseases. Confusion about the significance of histopathology, extranodal presentations and routes of spread renders much of previously published data relatively uninterpretable. To evaluate the relative prognostic significance of presentation, histopathology and lymphography, a retrospective study was undertaken on 226 patients with Stage I and II disease, who were treated with intensive irradiation to the involve regions. The slides on these patients were reviewed and reclassified in terms of the Rappaport system. The results of this study demonstrated that a nodular histopathological pattern was the most important prognostic factor. The significance of this finding and other factors are discussed in terms of possible new approaches to treatment.

  18. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina N. Spiegel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  19. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  20. Introduction to the study of natural history edited and annotated by Christoph Irmscher

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book features Louis Agassiz’s seminal lecture course in which the Swiss-American scientist, a self-styled “American Humboldt,” summarized the state of zoological knowledge in his time. Though Darwin’s theory of evolution would soon dismantle his idealist science, Agassiz’s lectures are nonetheless modern in their insistence on the social and cultural importance of the scientific enterprise. An extensive, well-illustrated introduction by Agassiz’s biographer, Christoph Irmscher, situates Agassiz’s lectures in the context of his life and nineteenth-century science, while also confronting the deeply problematic aspects of his legacy. Profusely annotated, this edition offers fascinating insights into the history of science and appeals to anyone with an interest in zoology and natural history. “Christoph Irmscher provides a scholarly and insightful analysis of the intentions and beliefs of Louis Agassiz, a larger-than-life scientist of the mid-19th century and fierce opponent of Charles Darwi...

  1. The tree as evolutionary icon: TREE in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Nils Petter

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Darwin celebrations in 2009, the Natural History Museum in London unveiled TREE, the first contemporary artwork to win a permanent place in the Museum. While the artist claimed that the inspiration for TREE came from Darwin's famous notebook sketch of branching evolution, sometimes referred to as his "tree of life" drawing, this article emphasises the apparent incongruity between Darwin's sketch and the artist's design -- best explained by other, complementary sources of inspiration. In the context of the Museum's active participation in struggles over science and religion, the effect of the new artwork is contradictory. TREE celebrates Darwinian evolutionism, but it resonates with deep-rooted, mythological traditions of tree symbolism to do so. This complicates the status of the Museum space as one of disinterested, secular science, but it also contributes, with or without the intentions of the Museum's management, to consolidate two sometimes conflicting strains within the Museum's history. TREE celebrates human effort, secular science and reason -- but it also evokes long-standing mythological traditions to inspire reverence and remind us of our humble place in the world.

  2. Improving Undergraduate Nursing Research Education: The Effectiveness of Collecting and Analyzing Oral Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Nine oral histories of retired nurses were collected by 18 nursing students, whose attitudes toward nursing research were significantly more positive compared to 20 nonparticipants. Themes elicited from the histories showed the influence of World War II, technology, and intensive care on nursing practice in this century. (SK)

  3. A short history of radiopharmaceutical research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief summary is given of radiopharmaceuticals research carried out in Australia. Historically, a number of the larger hospital radiopharmacies have been, and still are, involved with 99m Tc-cold kit production. Originally, this scenario evolved because the nuclear medicine community was denied access to state-of-the-art products available overseas. Although the situation has improved in recent times, most such departments continue kit production, having made a large capital investment in sterile facilities, equipment and staff. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has a leading role in radiopharmaceutical research and some of the topics which have occupied its scientists over the last few years are outlined

  4. Natural history of frozen shoulder: fact or fiction? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C K; Levine, W N; Deo, K; Kesting, R S; Mercer, E A; Schram, G A; Strang, B L

    2017-03-01

    In 1940s, it was proposed that frozen shoulder progresses through a self-limiting natural history of painful, stiff and recovery phases, leading to full recovery without treatment. However, clinical evidence of persistent limitations lasting for years contradicts this assumption. To assess evidence for the natural history theory of frozen shoulder by examining: (1) progression through recovery phases, and (2) full resolution without treatment. MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO CINAHL and PEDro database searches augmented by hand searching. Cohort or randomised controlled trials with no-treatment comparison groups including adults with frozen shoulder who received no treatment and reporting range of motion, pain or function for ≥6 months. Reviewers assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data before reaching consensus. Limited early range-of-motion improvements and greater late improvements defined progression through recovery phases. Restoration of normal range of motion and previous function defined full resolution. Of 508 citations, 13 articles were reviewed and seven were included in this review. Low-quality evidence suggested that no treatment yielded some, but not complete, improvement in range of motion after 1 to 4 years of follow-up. No evidence supported the theory of progression through recovery phases to full resolution without treatment. On the contrary, moderate-quality evidence from three randomised controlled trials with longitudinal data demonstrated that most improvement occurred early, not late. Low-quality evidence revealed the weakness of longstanding assumptions about frozen shoulder. Contradictory evidence and a lack of supporting evidence shows that the theory of recovery phases leading to complete resolution without treatment for frozen shoulder is unfounded. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural history of lesions with the MR imaging appearance of multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsufayan, Reema [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Alcaide-Leon, Paula; De Tilly, Lyne Noel [University of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Mandell, Daniel M.; Krings, Timo [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN Division of Neuroradiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-09-15

    Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) have been recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors and has not been extensively reported upon in the radiological literature. We report the first radiological and the largest series of cases, aiming to highlight the natural history of lesions with the imaging appearance of MVNT with long follow-up time. In this retrospective study, we collected cases with the imaging appearance of MVNT. All lesions were evaluated by using routine MR imaging, with follow-up of up to 93 months. Patient demographics, clinical course, and MRI features of the lesions were recorded. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled, f/m = 16:8, age range 24-59 years, with a median age of 45 years. The patients' symptoms were often episodic and most frequently due to headaches in 12 (50%), visual symptoms in 6 (25%), seizures in 5 ± 1 (20-25%), paresthesia in 4 (∝17%), cognitive difficulties in 4 (∝17%), in addition to other variable neurological symptoms, or incidental. A total of 30 lesions identified, 77% of the lesions had gadolinium-enhanced MRI and only 13% showed enhancement. A 6.7% of the lesions that had MRI followed up showed progression, while the rest remained stable up to 93 months interval. All patients had intact neurological examinations (except one case that was diagnosed with optic neuritis), were managed conservatively, and did well. The natural history of lesions with imaging features of MVNT is overall stable from a clinical and imaging appearance over time. (orig.)

  6. The natural history of atopic dermatitis and its association with Atopic March.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanunt, Sinjira; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Pacharn, Punchama; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the first manifestation of Atopic March. The natural history of AD and predictive factors for Atopic March have not been widely studied in Asia. To study the natural history and associated factors of disease remission and risk of respiratory allergy in Thai children with AD. Medical records of AD patients attending Allergy clinic at Siriraj hospital from 2004-2014 were reviewed. Patients were further followed-up to obtain current symptoms and treatment. One hundred and two AD patients (60.8% female) were followed for 10.2±4.7 years. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 (0.1-12.0) years. The most common allergen sensitization was Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Forty-four percent of patients had complete remission at the median age of 6.3 (2.0-15.0) years. Forty-seven percent of early AD patients (onset < 2 years) had concomitant food allergy which egg and cow's milk were leading causes. The remission rate of AD was higher in early AD than later onset AD (p=0.02). Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma were diagnosed in 61.8% and 29.4% of the patients at the median age of 4.6 and 3.8 years, respectively. Early AD and food allergies were significantly associated with early asthma (onset < 3years) (OR=10.80, p< 0.01 and OR=8.70, p=0.01). Almost half of AD children had complete remission at school age with a better prognosis in early AD. At preschool age, two-thirds and one-third developed AR and asthma, respectively. Early AD and food allergy were risk factors of early asthma.

  7. Natural history of treatment-emergent central sleep apnea on positive airway pressure: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Gaurav; Riaz, Muhammad; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2018-01-01

    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TECSA) is observed in some patients when they are treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) after significant resolution of the preexisting obstructive events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies describing the natural history of TECSA. PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochran Library databases were searched through June 29, 2017. Five studies were identified that discussed the natural history of TECSA. TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients. Treatment-persistent central sleep apnea (TPCSA), representing protracted periods of PAP therapy-related central apneas, was noted in 14.3%-46.2% of patients with TECSA. Delayed-TECSA (D-TECSA) represents an anomalous TECSA entity appearing weeks to months after initial PAP therapy. D-TECSA was observed in 0.7%-4.2% of OSA patients undergoing PAP treatment (after at least 1 month). In patients with TECSA, a higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and central apnea index at their baseline study or a higher residual AHI at their titration study may be associated with an increased likelihood of conversion to TPCSA. Overall, TECSA developed in 3.5%-19.8% of PAP-treated patients with OSA. The vast majority will experience complete resolution of central apneas over a few weeks to months. Unfortunately, about a third of patients with TECSA may continue to exhibit persistence of central sleep apnea on reevaluation. A small proportion may experience D-TECSA after few weeks to several months of initial exposure to PAP therapy.

  8. Von Hippel-Lindau disease: an evaluation of natural history and functional disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletti, Alberto; Anglani, Mariagiulia; Scarpa, Bruno; Schiavi, Francesca; Boaretto, Francesca; Zovato, Stefania; Taschin, Elisa; Gardi, Mario; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Murgia, Alessandra; Pavesi, Giacomo; Opocher, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have been published about specific lesions characterizing von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) disease, none have dealt with the natural history of the whole disease and the consequent disabilities. We aim to define the comprehensive natural history of VHL disease and to describe the functional disabilities and their impact upon patients' quality of life, thereby tailoring the follow-up schedule accordingly. We performed a prospective analysis on 128 VHL-affected patients beginning in 1996. For each affected organ, we defined intervals between the first and subsequent VHL-related manifestations and compared them with current VHL surveillance protocols. We looked for any association of the number of involved organs with age, sex, type of VHL gene mutation, and functional domain mutation. Ultimately, we assessed the organ-specific disabilities caused by VHL disease. Hemangioblastomas show different patterns of progression depending on their location, whereas both renal cysts and carcinomas have similar progression rates. Surgery for pheochromocytoma and CNS hemangioblastoma is performed earlier than for pancreatic or renal cancer. The number of involved organs is associated with age but not with sex, type of VHL gene mutation, or functional domain mutation. A thorough analysis of functional disabilities showed that age is related to the first-appearing functional impairment, but it is not predictive of the final number of disabilities. Our study defines the disease progression and provides a comprehensive view of the syndrome over time. We analyzed for the first time the functional disability of VHL patients, assessing the progression for each function. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evolution of clinical research: A history before and beyond james lind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council′s (MRC trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials.

  10. 100 Years of Curriculum History, Theory, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews a collection of papers written by the American Educational Research Association's first 50 presidents that deal specifically with curricular issues. It characterizes the ways in which curricula were conceptualized, implemented, and assessed, with an eye toward the epistemological and methodological framings that the authors…

  11. The history of road safety research: A quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Bijleveld, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900's until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of

  12. The history of road safety research : a quantitative approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Bijleveld, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900’s until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of

  13. History of Discharge of Radionuclide from Nuclear Malaysia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar Othman; Ismail Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    After more than 40 years the operation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor, this is the first time, the discharge emission radionuclide to environment is recorded and analyzed in detail. Starting from 1984, radionuclide Ar-41 had been analyzed manually by Research Officers but their finding is not recorded in any Journal. That is responsible of Safety and Health Division to make sure the safety of the workers and public living around Malaysian Nuclear Agency receive safe dose. This paper will report dose that had been discharge to the environment starting from 1984 to 2012 and it detail calculations.After more than 40 years the operation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor, this is the first time, the discharge emission radionuclide to environment is recorded and analyzed in detail. Starting from 1984, radionuclide Ar-41 had been analyzed manually by Research Officers but their finding is not recorded in any Journal. That is responsible of Safety and Health Division to make sure the safety of the workers and public living around Malaysian Nuclear Agency receive safe dose. This paper will report dose that had been discharge to the environment starting from 1984 to 2012 and it detail calculations. (author)

  14. História natural da hepatite crônica B Natural history of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferraz da Fonseca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que existam 350 milhões de portadores crônicos do VHB distribuídos ao redor do mundo. Três fases de infecção crônica pelo VHB são reconhecidas: fase de imunotolerância (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT normal e não evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase imunoativa ou de hepatite crônica B (HBsAg e HBeAg positivos, altos títulos de HBV-DNA, ALT elevada e evidência de doença hepática ativa; fase de portador inativo do VHB ou assintomático (HBsAg no soro sem o HBeAg , títulos do HBV-DNA An estimated 350 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Three phases of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is are recognized: the immune tolerant phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, normal ALT, and no evidence of active liver diseases, the immune clearance phase or chronic hepatitis phase (HBeAg-positive, high levels of serum HBV-DNA, elevated ALT, and active liver disease , and the inactive carrier state or asymptomatic phase (HBsAg-positive in serum without HBeAg, HBV-DNA levels than < 10(5 copies/mL, and normal ALT levels. Chronic hepatitis B is classified into 2 major forms: HBeAg-positive disease (wild-type HBV and HBeAg negative disease (pre-core/core promoter HBV variant. Both forms can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and liver cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the principal aspects of natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

  15. An evidence-based systematic review of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Conquer, Julie; Flanagan, Kelly; Isaac, Richard; Rusie, Erica; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-03-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  16. An evidence-based systematic review of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; Giese, Nicole; Isaac, Richard; Liu, Angela; Liu, Yanze; Osho, Olufemi; Poon, Linda; Rusie, Erica; Stock, Tera; Weissner, Wendy; Windsor, Regina C

    2013-12-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  17. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  18. A Short History of Bioengineering Research in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel J; O'Brien, Fergal J; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2018-02-01

    In July 2018, Ireland will host the World Congress of Biomechanics in Dublin. This Congress is held once every 4 yr and is the premier meeting worldwide in its field, with over 3000 people expected to visit Dublin in July. The awarding of the 2018 Congress to Ireland is a reflection of the strength of biomechanics and bioengineering research in this country. To mark this event, herein we describe the development of biomechanics and bioengineering research in Ireland over the past 40 yr, which has grown in parallel with the medical device industry as well as the expansion of Government investment in science, innovation, and a knowledge-based economy. The growth of this activity has resulted in Ireland becoming established as a global hub in the field.

  19. Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. 1993 Command History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Executive Officer (Code OOS) Janelle S. Key, Secretary ( Stenography ) Special Assistants: (Code OOC) Roger A. Rich, HMCS(AW) USN, Senior Enlisted...Foster, MAJ USAR VC, Veterinarian (to Sep) Billy W. Howard, MAJ USA VC, Veterinarian (from Sep) Anna D. Johnson, Secretary ( Stenography ) Barry D...Secretary ( Stenography ) Jerry D. Holsapple, HMI USN, General Duty Corpsman (to Sep) Paul W. Kerr, Ph.D., Office of Naval Research Postdoctoral Fellow William

  20. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  1. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. The natural history of chronic urticaria in childhood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansakulporn, Somboon; Pongpreuksa, Sureerat; Sangacharoenkit, Preeda; Pacharn, Punchama; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Vichyanond, Pakit; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2014-10-01

    There are few prospective studies on the natural course of chronic urticaria (CU) in children. We sought to examine the natural history of CU in children and to identify predictors for remission. Children 4 to 15 years of age with CU were investigated with a complete blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, antinuclear antibody titer, complement CH50 level, thyroid studies, autologous serum skin test, skin-prick tests, food challenges, and stool examination for parasites. They were considered to be in remission if symptoms did not recur for at least 12 months without medication. In all, 92 children (53.3% female) with CU were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 4.3 years (range 2.5-5.8 years). Chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU) was identified in 40% of the patients. Food allergy was found in 8.7% and parasitic infestations in 5.4%. Remission rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after the onset of CU symptoms were 18.5%, 54%, and 67.7%, respectively. The remission rate did not differ in CAU compared with non-CAU. No predictor of CU remission was identified. The basophil histamine release assay was not performed. Children with CU have a favorable outcome. CAU did not have an intractable course. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858 on Phoenix palms in India (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Coelaenomenoderini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Koormath Mohammed; Prathapan, Kaniyarikkal Divakaran; Nasser, Mannankadiyan; Chaboo, Caroline Simmrita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Members of the Old World hispine tribe, Coelaenomenoderini, are documented on host plants of Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, and Zingiberales. A few species are renowned pests of oil palm, especially in Africa. The host plants and natural history of Javeta pallida Baly, 1858, the only Indian species of the tribe, is reported for the first time. These beetles can densely infest indigenous wild date palms, Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. (Arecaceae), and also use the introduced date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., which is an expanding crop in India. Javeta females lay single eggs and cover each with an ootheca. All larval stages mine the leaves and pupation occurs within the larval mine. Adults are exophagous, leaving linear feeding trenches. Natural and induced infestations of Javeta pallida on these two palms were observed and the potential of Javeta pallida as a pest of date palm in India is discussed. Javeta pallida completed development on Phoenix palms in 52–88 days (mean 66.38 days) with egg period 11–15 days (mean 12.8 days), larval period 21–54 days (mean 33.02 days) and pupal period 17–23 days (mean 20.52 days). Elasmus longiventris Verma and Hayat and Pediobius imbreus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitize the larva and pupa of Javeta pallida. PMID:27408585

  4. NATURAL LAW, HISTORY AND POLITICS LEY NATURAL, HISTORIA Y POLÍTICA LEI NATURAL, HISTÓRIA E POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Drane

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoningLa visión filosófica básica y los principios éticos de la Ley Natural Católica demandan universalidad. El pensamiento de la Ley Natural aspira a la objetividad y universalidad y, al mismo tiempo, está abierto a la continua influencia de la historia y la política. Los principios que yacen en la base de la ley positiva históricamente reciben el nombre de Ley Natural. El sufrimiento y la injusticia contribuyen a una visión, tanto de la estructura de la existencia humana como de lo que entendemos por una ley y una ética humanas. Cuando enfrentamos una crisis cultural, la Ley Natural no mira hacia el pasado sino que hacia el futuro. Es poca la gente que hoy en día habla de las dimensiones éticas de las realidades sociales en términos de Ley Natural. Esto vale tanto para la Iglesia como para el Estado. En bioética, los principios enraizados en la estructura universal de la vida humana tienen que proporcionar dirección y regulación en el campo de juego de la vida y

  5. An handwritten signature, previous owners and circulation of a copy of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo’s book ‘About the Natural History of the Indies’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Manuel Rodrigues Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research note aims to disclose a copy of Oviedo’s About the natural history of the Indies, also known as Summary of the natural history, published in Toledo in 1526 and currently under the custody of Municipal Library of Porto, Portugal. Special features of this copy are presented: author’s handwritten signature and some ownership marks that allow us to identify previous owners, the connections between them and to track book circulation.

  6. Outcomes of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Context of Universal Access to Healthcare: The U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    CCL3L1- CCR5 genotype influences durability of immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy of HIV -1- infected individuals. Nat Med 2008, 14:413...ResearchOutcomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the context of universal access to healthcare: the U.S. Military HIV Natural History... HIV Working Group (IDCRP) Abstract Background: To examine the outcomes of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for individuals with free

  7. The politics of comparative effectiveness research: lessons from recent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Gusmano, Michael K; Oliver, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Efforts to support and use comparative effectiveness research (CER), some more successful than others, have been promulgated at various times over the last forty years. Following a resurgence of interest in CER, recent health care reforms provided substantial support to strengthen its role in US health care. While CER has generally captured bipartisan support, detractors have raised concerns that it will be used to ration services and heighten government control over health care. Such concerns almost derailed the initiative during passage of the health care reform legislation and are still present today. Given recent investments in CER and the debates surrounding its development, the time is ripe to reflect on past efforts to introduce CER in the United States. This article examines previous initiatives, highlighting their prescribed role in US health care, the reasons for their success or failure, and the political lessons learned. Current CER initiatives have corrected for many of the pitfalls experienced by previous efforts. However, past experiences point to a number of issues that must still be addressed to ensure the long-term success and sustainability of CER, including adopting realistic aims about its impact, demonstrating the impact of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and communicating the benefits of CER, and maintaining strong political and stakeholder support.

  8. Pediatric burns research: A history or an evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Dermot T; Hyland, Ela J; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric burns research has increasingly been recognized as a sub-specialty of its own. The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the publication patterns of the pediatric burns literature over the last six decades. A search strategy for the Web of Science database was designed for pediatric burns publications, with output analyzed between two periods: 1945-1999 (period 1) and 2000-2013 (period 2). There were 1133 and 1194 publications for periods 1 (1945-1999) and 2 (2000-2013), respectively. The mean citation counts of the top 50 publications were 77 (range 45-278) and 49 (range 33-145) for periods 1 and 2, respectively. There were 26 and 20 authors with two or more publications in the top 50 list in periods 1 and 2, respectively. Of these there are two authors that have published 47 papers in both combined time-periods. There were 29 and 9 journals that have published 50% of the publications for time-period 1 and 2 respectively. In period 2, there were two burns journals that have published 37.2% of the total articles. Pediatric burns research has evolved from an associated, dispersed entity into a consolidated sub-specialty that has been successfully integrated into mainstream burns journals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. The Research of John Edmond: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.

    2001-12-01

    SIO "Rancho Corliss" housemate on Alvin dives to the Galapagos Ridge and turned the discovery of warm springs there into a major geochemical tour de force. Hot springs would have been discovered without John, but their profound geochemical influence would have taken much longer to be unraveled without his scientific insight and the versatile analytical capabilities of his laboratory. The rest is history: extrapolation of 20\\deg C warm springs to 350\\deg C using Mg-T plots, discovery of the 21\\deg N black smokers, and many explorations of ridge crest hydrothermal activity. Partly out of a growing tedium with "stamp collecting", John stopped working in this field after a productive run of more than a decade, and turned his explorations to another major influence on ocean chemistry: the input from rivers. A long series of studies from uncontaminated rivers systems from the Amazon, Orinoco, Siberian, to Himalyan rivers ensued; this work set the tone for evaluations of influence of rivers on the chemical and isotopic composition of the oceans and their relation to weathering and climate. He continued this work up until his untimely death. A brief abstract and AGU talk cannot do justice to the diversity and brilliance of John Edmond's science, but it can at least serve as a reminder of what we have lost.

  10. The emancipatory character of action research, its history and the present state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, B.

    2003-01-01

    Right from the start. action research was intended to be emancipatory research, and it still is. This article will underpin this by outlining its history and the present state of the art. Though a variety of action research approaches have developed along divergent theoretical pathways, it will be

  11. The Journal of Stored-Products Research: The living history of stored product protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year, the Journal of Stored Products Research (JSPR) completes 52 years of history with publications of research papers. With approx. one hundred articles annually, the JSPR is an important scientific forum for stored product researchers throughout the globe. The aims and scope of JSPR are focu...

  12. Research in Music Education History: One Historian's Experiences, Perspectives, and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the skills, attitudes, and work habits necessary for conducting research in music education. Describes the process used in a historical research study about the impact of Lowell Mason on music in U.S. history. Concludes with six practical suggestions on historical research. (CFR)

  13. History of research in Japan on electrocardiography in the racehorse

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRAGA, Atsushi; SUGANO, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since the first recording of electrocardiograms (ECGs) of a horse in Japan was carried out in 1944, studies on ECGs have been performed intensively. During the early stages of research from the 1950s to 1960s, leads to use for ECG recording were evaluated using several different approaches including unipolar leads, bipolar limb leads, and bipolar chest leads. Based on these studies, the AB lead, which is oriented along the long axis of the heart, became the standard reference method in Japan. Electrodes of the AB lead are placed on the upper 1/4th point along a straight line between the withers and the left shoulder blade (base: B), and 10 cm posterior to the left olecranon (apex: A). The incidence of equine arrhythmias among racehorses has been surveyed, and details of the electrocardiographic characteristics of several arrhythmias have been investigated. In particular, atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively studied, and papers have reported findings such as that paroxysmal AF occurs during racing and described electrocardiographic changes that occur at the onset of AF during exercise. Development of a radiotelemetry system for ECG recording enabled the first recording of equine ECGs during galloping in 1964, the detection of arrhythmias, and calculation of heart rate during exercise. Studies on comparative and developmental changes of ECGs have described characteristics of the equine ECGs. Future research on changes in cardiac function, including autonomic function, that occur with aging may lead to new developments in equine electrocardiography and contribute to improving the health and welfare of the horse. PMID:25829865

  14. History of research in Japan on electrocardiography in the racehorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Atsushi; Sugano, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Since the first recording of electrocardiograms (ECGs) of a horse in Japan was carried out in 1944, studies on ECGs have been performed intensively. During the early stages of research from the 1950s to 1960s, leads to use for ECG recording were evaluated using several different approaches including unipolar leads, bipolar limb leads, and bipolar chest leads. Based on these studies, the AB lead, which is oriented along the long axis of the heart, became the standard reference method in Japan. Electrodes of the AB lead are placed on the upper 1/4th point along a straight line between the withers and the left shoulder blade (base: B), and 10 cm posterior to the left olecranon (apex: A). The incidence of equine arrhythmias among racehorses has been surveyed, and details of the electrocardiographic characteristics of several arrhythmias have been investigated. In particular, atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively studied, and papers have reported findings such as that paroxysmal AF occurs during racing and described electrocardiographic changes that occur at the onset of AF during exercise. Development of a radiotelemetry system for ECG recording enabled the first recording of equine ECGs during galloping in 1964, the detection of arrhythmias, and calculation of heart rate during exercise. Studies on comparative and developmental changes of ECGs have described characteristics of the equine ECGs. Future research on changes in cardiac function, including autonomic function, that occur with aging may lead to new developments in equine electrocardiography and contribute to improving the health and welfare of the horse.

  15. [The history of sleep research in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J

    1995-12-12

    Not until the 19th century theories on sleep were based upon experimental findings in animal and humans. The so-called 'hypnotoxin theory' culminated, when Legendre and Piéron successfully induced sleep in a dog by transmission of cerebrospinal fluid from a dog deprived of sleep. The main discussion concerning the origin of sleep has been the question if sleep is a passive or an active state. Similarities with coma, the positive Babinski sign and pathoanatomical findings in patients who died after encephalitis lethargica were the arguments for the 'deafferentiation hypothesis'. Bremer's classical brainstem-transsections in cats confirmed this idea. Pavlov was the major representative of the idea that sleep was due to a general inhibition of the brain. Hess induced physiological sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the diencephalon, proving the active nature of sleep. The introduction of the EEG in animals by Caton and in humans by Berger allowed for the first time the measurement of sleep depth without waking the sleeper. After discovery of the REM sleep periods by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 and the demonstration of periodical sleep cycles by Dement and Kleitman, polysomnography with simultaneous whole night recording of EEG, EMG, electrooculogram and other physiological parameters was established as the major diagnostic tool in sleep disorders. One of the most important questions about the function of sleep is still unresolved. NREM sleep is believed to have a restorative function, whereas REM sleep might be involved in learning processes. According to the sleep interpretation of Sigmund Freud, the dream content represents endogenous wishes which cannot be expressed during wakefulness because of an internal 'sensor'. A more recent theory by Hobson explains the dreams by a very unspecific brainstem activity occurring during REM sleep which projects to the frontal brain and activates stored memory. The most important sleep disease of the 20th century is

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... 1Amref Health Africa, P.O Box 2773 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Kilimanjaro Reproductive Health Program, Moshi, Tanzania, 3Population Services. International, Nairobi .... testing, HIV testing history and HIV test results. ..... due to differences in the research designs, nature of population and sample size ...

  17. The natural history of the patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in Taiwan: A medical center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Wang, Chen-Hua; Chou, Po-Ching; Chen, Wan-Zi; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2017-08-25

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy and caused by DMD gene mutation. In addition to progressive proximal muscle weakness, respiratory, orthopedic, and gastrointestinal complications are often observed in DMD. The natural history of patients with DMD in Taiwan has not been reported thus far. Medical records of 39 patients who received a diagnosis of DMD between 1999 and 2016 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were reviewed. The diagnosis of DMD was confirmed through muscle biopsy or DMD genetic analysis. The mean onset age and mean follow-up period were 2.75 years and 6.76 years, respectively. Seventeen patients (43.5%) had a family history of DMD. The mean full intelligence quotient of the patients was 71.08, and the mean age of walking ability loss was 9.7 years (25 patients). The mean onset age of respiratory insufficiency was 10.64 years with a decline rate of 5.18% per year (25 patients). The mean onset age of cardiomyopathy was 14.69 years (seven patients). The mean onset age of scoliosis was 13.29 years with a progression rate of 11.48° per year (14 patients). Eleven (28.2%) and eight (20.5%) patients had deletions and duplications of DMD, respectively. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had point mutations or small deletions or insertions. Five patients received only multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and exhibited neither deletion nor duplication. No mutation was identified in one patient through both MLPA and exon sequencing. The clinical phenotypes and disease course in our cohort were consistent with that reported in previous studies. However, the proportion of point mutations or small deletions or insertions in our study was considerably higher than that in reports from other populations. Cardiac ejection fraction was found not a reliable biomarker for identifying cardiac problems, discovering a better parameter is necessary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  19. History of Pain Research and Management in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Scattered accounts of the treatment of pain by aboriginal Canadians are found in the journals of the early explorers and missionaries. French and English settlers brought with them the remedies of their home countries. The growth of medicine through the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe, was mirrored in the practice and treatment methods of Canadians and Americans. In the 19th century, while Americans learned about causalgia and the pain of wounds, Canadian insurrections were much less devastating than the United States Civil War. By the end of that century, a Canadian professor working in the United States, Sir William Osler, was responsible for a standard textbook of medicine with a variety of treatments for painful illnesses. Yet pain did not figure in the index of that book. The modern period in pain research and management can probably be dated to the 20 years before the founding of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Pride of place belongs to The management of pain by John Bonica, published in Philadelphia in 1953 and based upon his work in Tacoma and Seattle. Ideas about pain were evolving in Canada in the 1950s with Donald Hebb, Professor of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, corresponding with the leading American neurophysiologist, George H Bishop. Hebb's pupil Ronald Melzack engaged in studies of early experiences in relation to pain and, joining with Patrick Wall at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published the 1965 paper in Science that revolutionized thinking. Partly because of this early start with prominent figures and partly because of its social system in the organization of medicine, Canada became a centre for a number of aspects of pain research and management, ranging from pain clinics in Halifax, Kingston and Saskatoon - which were among the earliest to advance treatment of pain - to studying the effects of implanted electrodes for neurosurgery. Work in Toronto by Moldofsky

  20. Experiences of the museum of natural history in the integral formation of the students of forest engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Martínez Naranjo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Forest engineering developsthe curriculum strategies: environmental formation, based between their modes of action for evaluation and conservation in forest ecosystems, which has an irreplaceable role contributing to balance and improve the environment in general in this context where a close relationship with the Museum of Natural History is established .In this investigation the authors highlight the action plan arising from the strategy of cultural promotion of the activities of the Museum «Tranquilino Sandalio de Noda» directed to students of Forestry at the University of Pinar del Río.In the research theoretical methods were used: dialectic materialism; the historical and logical and modeling; among the techniques are the survey, in-depth interview and group interview. The results include a plan of action and the use of existing units in different rooms and teaching materials, taking as an example the birds that by their diversity have a systematic use in educational activities. These actions will increase the students' participation in museum activities and thus, cultural enrichment, their awareness and sensitivity on environmental issues will be facilitated by the appreciation of the natural heritage values that are represented there, with proposals departing from the exploration and use of the life experience of students, in which an active, transformer and autotransformer learning will be promoted.

  1. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6–7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species’ history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the “stress state” in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1 the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2 the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  2. Research of CO2 concentration in naturally ventilated lecture room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Marta; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    Naturally ventilated buildings especially dedicated for educational purposes need to be design to achieve required level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality. It is crucial in terms of both: health and productivity of the room users. Higher requirements of indoor environment are important due to the level of students concentration, their ability to acquire new knowledge and willingness to interact with the lecturer. The article presents the results of experimental study and surveys undertaken in naturally ventilated lecture room. The data is analysed in terms of CO2 concentration and its possible influence on users. Furthermore the outcome of the research is compared with the CO2 concentration models available in the literature.

  3. Lightning: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lightning, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -lightning measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading lightning detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), long range lightning detection systems, and the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - lightning observations from geostationary orbit.

  4. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard; Greenstein, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rectal cancer treated over a 34 year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty five patients had Ulcerative Colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's Disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In 2 of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent post-operative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median - 24 months). RESULTS: The 5 year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5 year rate of 86% for patients with Tis - T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in 3 patients (20%) receiving radiation therapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade

  5. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G.; Greenstein, Adrian J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with IBD and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with IBD and rectal cancer treated over a 34-year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty-five patients had ulcerative colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients, and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In two of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent postoperative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median 24 months). Results: The 5-year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease-free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5-year rate of 86% for patients with Tis-T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in three patients (20%) receiving pelvic irradiation ± chemotherapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade 4 gastrointestinal

  6. Natural history of intravascular ultrasound-detected edge dissections from coronary stent deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheris, S J; Canos, M R; Weissman, N J

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) performed immediately after stent deployment often reveals dissection at the stent margin that may not be appreciated by angiography. However, the natural history of these edge dissections is unknown. These intimal disruptions at the stent margins have been previously reported to occur in 5% to 23% of stent implantations. The short-term prognosis of these lesions appears to be good; however, the longer-term effect on restenosis and/or vessel remodeling is not known. We therefore studied a cohort of patients with the use of IVUS immediately after stent implantation and at 6 months to assess the incidence and prognosis of coronary edge dissections. One hundred fifty patients undergoing Palmaz-Shatz stent implantation were imaged with IVUS with the use of a motorized pullback, and the incidence of edge dissections was determined and graded according to depth and circumferential extent. Arterial and lesional morphometric parameters were assessed by digital planimetry. Six-month IVUS images were aligned with the poststent IVUS to determine the natural history of these lesions. Sixteen (10.7%) of 150 had edge tears. All were angiographically silent. Most lesions (n = 9) were superficial intimal tears. Vessel, lumen, and plaque area were similar in the nondissection and dissection groups in both the proximal and distal reference segments. Plaque eccentricity was likewise similar in both groups. At 6 months, lesions (n = 12) healed without a change in plaque burden, undergoing a "tacking down" process. Vessel area (19. 1 +/- 6.4 vs 18.4 +/- 7.1 mm(2), P = not significant), lumen area (8. 2 +/- 4.1 vs 9.2 +/- 4.0 mm(2), P = not significant), and plaque area (10.0 +/- 3.3 vs 9.8 +/- 3.3 mm(2), P = not significant) were unchanged when compared with the lesion site taken at stent deployment. Edge dissections as detected by IVUS do not necessarily proscribe an adverse prognosis at 6 months. This finding may provide reassurance to

  7. Natural History of Gutter-Related Type Ia Endoleaks after Snorkel/Chimney EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W.; Tran, Kenneth; Itoga, Nathan K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Lee, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Alternative endovascular strategies utilizing parallel or snorkel/chimney (ch-EVAR) techniques have been developed to address the lack of widespread availability and manufacturing limitations with branched/fenestrated aortic devices for the treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. Despite high technical success and mid-term patency of snorkel stent configurations, concerns remain regarding the perceived increased incidence of early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks following ch-EVAR. Methods Review of medical records and available imaging studies, including completion angiography and serial computed tomographic angiography, was performed for all patients undergoing ch-EVAR at our institution between September 2009 and January 2015. Only procedures involving ≥1 renal artery with or without visceral snorkel stents were included. Primary outcomes of the study were presence and persistence or resolution of early gutter-related type Ia endoleak. Secondary outcomes included aneurysm sac shrinkage and need for secondary intervention related to the presence of type Ia gutter endoleak. Results Sixty patients (mean age, 75.8 ± 7.6 years; male, 70.0%) underwent ch-EVAR with a total of 111 snorkel stents (97 renal [33 bilateral renal], 12 SMA, 2 celiac). A median of 2 (range, 1-4) snorkel stents were placed per patient. Early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks were noted on 30.0% (n=18) of initial postoperative imaging studies. Follow-up imaging revealed spontaneous resolution of these gutter endoleaks in 47.3% and 71.8% of patients at 6- and 12 months post-procedure, respectively. Long-term anticoagulation, degree of oversizing, stent type and diameter, and other clinical/anatomic variables were not significantly associated with presence of gutter endoleaks. Two patients (3.3%) required secondary intervention related to persistent gutter endoleak. At a mean radiologic

  8. A prospective study on the natural history of patients with profound combined immunodeficiency: An interim analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckmann, Carsten; Doerken, Sam; Aiuti, Alessandro; Albert, Michael H; Al-Herz, Waleed; Allende, Luis M; Scarselli, Alessia; Avcin, Tadej; Perez-Becker, Ruy; Cancrini, Caterina; Cant, Andrew; Di Cesare, Silvia; Finocchi, Andrea; Fischer, Alain; Gaspar, H Bobby; Ghosh, Sujal; Gennery, Andrew; Gilmour, Kimberly; González-Granado, Luis I; Martinez-Gallo, Monica; Hambleton, Sophie; Hauck, Fabian; Hoenig, Manfred; Moshous, Despina; Neven, Benedicte; Niehues, Tim; Notarangelo, Luigi; Picard, Capucine; Rieber, Nikolaus; Schulz, Ansgar; Schwarz, Klaus; Seidel, Markus G; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Stepensky, Polina; Strahm, Brigitte; Vraetz, Thomas; Warnatz, Klaus; Winterhalter, Christine; Worth, Austen; Fuchs, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Annette; Ehl, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance

  9. Ring and nodular multiple sclerosis lesions: a retrospective natural history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M; Auh, S; Riva, M; Richert, N D; Frank, J A; McFarland, H F; Bagnato, F

    2010-03-09

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) on postcontrast MRI are considered markers of the inflammatory responses associated with blood-brain barrier breakdown. Based upon shape, CELs may be defined as nodular (nCEL) or ring (rCEL) lesions. Several short-term studies pointed towards the assumption that rCELs represent areas of a more aggressive inflammatory process. In the present long-term (i.e., 2 years) retrospective natural history study, we used monthly imaging to follow rCEL and nCELs evolution in 16 patients with MS during the natural history. New CELs were identified monthly on month 4-9 MRIs, using month 1-3 MRIs to ensure that all CELs were not previously enhancing. Chronic black holes (cBHs) were counted monthly upon CEL disappearance up to the 24th MRI. Generalized estimating equation methods investigated within-patient differences between rCELs and nCELs in volume and likelihood to convert into cBHs. Kaplan-Meier survival curves estimated differences in the length of persistence between cBHs originating from nCELs and cBHs deriving from rCELs. Fifty-two new rCELs and 281 nCELs were identified. rCELs had larger mean (z = 5.06, p < or = 0.0001) volumes than nCELs. The proportion of cBHs from rCELs was similar (z = 1.81, p = 0.0710) to the proportion of cBHs from nCELs. Likewise, the length of persistence of cBHs deriving from rCELs was similar (chi(1)(2) = 2.339, p = 0.1262) to the duration of cBHs from nCELs. Our data suggest that worse radiologic characteristics associated with the acute phase of ring contrast-enhancing lesions and nodular contrast-enhancing lesions do not necessarily reflect a poorer lesion outcome over time.

  10. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  11. Natural history of Cesarean scar pregnancy on prenatal ultrasound: the crossover sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, G; Forlani, F; Timor-Tritsch, I E; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Minneci, G; D'Antonio, F

    2017-07-01

    Advances in prenatal imaging techniques have led to an increase in the diagnosis of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). However, antenatal counseling when CSP is diagnosed is challenging, and current evidence is derived mainly from small series reporting high rates of adverse maternal outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the performance of prenatal ultrasound in predicting the natural history of CSP using a new sonographic sign, the crossover sign (COS). This was a retrospective analysis of early first-trimester (6-8 weeks' gestation) ultrasound images in women with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) managed in the third trimester of pregnancy. The relationship between the gestational sac of the CSP, anterior uterine wall and Cesarean scar, defined as the COS, was analyzed to determine whether it could predict evolution in these cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between different types of COS (COS-1, COS-2+ or COS-2-) and the occurrence of MAP. Sixty-eight pregnancies with MAP were included. The risk of placenta percreta was significantly higher in pregnancies with COS-1 than in those with COS-2 (OR, 6.67 (95% CI, 1.3-33.3)). When evaluating the two variants of COS-2 separately, the risk of placenta percreta was significantly higher in pregnancies with COS-1 vs COS-2+ (OR, 5.83 (95% CI, 1.1-30.2)) and this risk was even higher when comparing cases with COS-1 vs COS-2- (OR, 12.0 (95% CI, 1.9-75.7)). Logistic regression analysis showed that COS-1 was associated independently with severe forms of MAP, such as placenta percreta and increta (OR, 12.85 (95% CI, 2.0-84.0)), while COS-2+ was associated independently with placenta accreta (OR, 4.37 (95% CI, 1.1-17.0)). Ultrasound assessment of the relationship between the gestational sac of a CSP and the endometrial line (the COS) may help to determine whether a CSP will progress towards a less severe form of MAP, amenable to postnatal

  12. Clergymen abiding in the fields: the making of the naturalist observer in eighteenth-century Norwegian natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Brita

    2011-06-01

    By the mid-eighteenth century, governors of the major European states promoted the study of nature as part of natural-resource based schemes for improvement and economic self-sufficiency. Procuring beneficial knowledge about nature, however, required observers, collectors, and compilers who could produce usable and useful descriptions of nature. The ways governments promoted scientific explorations varied according to the form of government, the makeup of the civil society, the state's economic ideologies and practices, and the geographical situation. This article argues that the roots of a major natural history initiative in Denmark-Norway were firmly planted in the state-church organization. Through the clergymen and their activities, a bishop, supported by the government in Copenhagen, could gather an impressive collection of natural objects, receive observations and descriptions of natural phenomena, and produce natural historical publications that described for the first time many of the species of the north. Devout naturalists were a common species in the eighteenth century, when clergymen and missionaries involved themselves in the investigation of nature in Europe and far beyond. The specific interest here is in how natural history was supported and enforced as part of clerical practice, how specimen exchange was grafted on to pre-existing institutions of gift exchange, and how this influenced the character of the knowledge produced.

  13. Robust Trapdoor Tarantula Haploclastus validus Pocock, 1899: notes on taxonomy, distribution and natural history (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Thrigmopoeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Mirza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.

  14. Molecular and life-history effects of a natural toxin on herbivorous and non-target soil arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A. E. Elaine; Gestel, Cornelis A. M. van; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    -expression of especially stress-related genes and sugar metabolism. The regulation of a gene encoding a precursor of follistatin, furthermore, implied the inhibition of reproduction and may be an important molecular target that can be linked to the observed adverse effect of life-history traits.......Natural toxins, such as isothiocyanate (ITC), are harmful secondary metabolites produced by plants. Many natural toxins occur in commercial crops, yet their possible negative repercussions on especially non-target soil organisms are largely unknown. This study examined life-history and gene...

  15. The Changing Chesapeake: An Introduction to the Natural History and Cultural History of the Chesapeake Bay. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Valerie

    This book is about changes in the Chesapeake Bay, its animals, plants, and the surrounding land during the last 15,000 years. Some changes were caused by natural forces while others were made by people. "Chesapeake Challenges" tests the student's thinking skills. "Family Action" lists things families can do to learn more about…

  16. Representativeness assessment of research natural areas on National Forest System lands in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven K. Rust

    2000-01-01

    A representativeness assessment of National Forest System (NFS) Research Natural Areas in Idaho summarizes information on the status of the natural area network and priorities for identification of new Research Natural Areas. Natural distribution and abundance of plant associations is compared to the representation of plant associations within natural areas. Natural...

  17. The Nature of Philosophy of History | Eresia-Eke | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    articulated argument ensures concerning what philosophy of history is, and its ability to direct the course of history in the areas of historical evidence and the extent to which objectivity is possible. The paper argues that philosophy of history is a ...

  18. The natural history of inflammatory pseudotumors in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almousa, Sulaiman A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2013-12-01

    Although pseudotumors have been reported in 32% of asymptomatic metal-on-metal hips, the natural history of asymptomatic pseudotumors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess changes over time in asymptomatic pseudotumors and the effect of revision on pseudotumor mass. Followup ultrasound was performed a mean of 25.8 months (range, 21-31 months) after the detection of 15 pseudotumors and five isolated fluid collections in a cohort of 20 asymptomatic patients (13 metal-on-metal, three metal-on-polyethylene, and four hip resurfacings) [42]. Changes in pseudotumors and fluid collections size and nature, and serum ion levels were determined. Among the 15 nonrevised patients, pseudotumors increased in size in six (four solid and two cystic) of 10 patients, three of which had clinically important increases (13-148 cm(3); 28-74 cm(3); 47-104 cm(3)). Three pseudotumors (one solid and two cystic) disappeared completely (the largest measured 31 cm(3)). One solid pseudotumor decreased in size (24 to 18 cm(3)). In five revised patients, pseudotumors completely disappeared in four patients. The fifth patient had two masses that decreased from 437 cm(3) to 262 cm(3) and 43 cm(3) to 25 cm(3). All revision patients had a reduction of chromium (40.42 μ/L to 2.69 μ/L) and cobalt ions (54.19 μ/L to 0.64 μ/L). Of five isolated fluid collections, four completely disappeared (two metal-on-metal and two metal-on-polyethylene) and one (metal-on-metal) increased from 26 cm(3) to 136 cm(3). Our observations suggest pseudotumors frequently increase in size in asymptomatic patients with occasional remission of small masses. Revision resulted in remission of pseudotumors.

  19. The Natural History of Depression in Parkinson’s Disease within 30-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. About 66.7% depressed patients at baseline were still depressed at follow-up, and 24.4% had incident depression among subjects without depression at baseline. Greater decline on MMSE (P=0.029, higher baseline UPDRS-II (P<0.001 score, change of UPDRS-II (P=0.026, and female (P<0.001 were associated with the worsening of HDRS scores. Higher baseline HDRS score (P<0.001 and greater decline on MMSE (P=0.001 were related to the occurrence of depression. In conclusion, cognitive decline is a disease related factor of worsening and the occurrence of depression. Activities of Daily Living (ADL symptoms in PD and female gender may be crucial factors of increasing depressive symptoms.

  20. The Natural History and Predictors for Intervention in Patients with Small Renal Mass Undergoing Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Bahouth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the natural history of small renal mass on active surveillance and identify parameters that could help in predicting the need for intervention in patients with small renal masses undergoing active surveillance. We also discuss the need for renal biopsy in the management of these patients. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 78 renal masses ≤4 cm diagnosed at our Urology Department at Bnai Zion Medical Center between September 2003 and March 2012. Results. Seventy patients with 78 small renal masses were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (47–89. The mean follow-up period was 34 months (12–112. In 54 of 78 masses there was a growth of at least 2 mm between imaging on last available follow-up and diagnosis. Eight of the 54 (15% masses which grew in size underwent a nephron-sparing surgery, of which two were oncocytomas and six were renal cell carcinoma. Growth rate and mass diameter on diagnosis were significantly greater in the group of patients who underwent a surgery. Conclusions. Small renal masses might eventually be managed by active surveillance without compromising survival or surgical approach. All masses that were eventually excised underwent a nephron-sparing surgery. None of the patients developed metastases.

  1. Temporal Trends in the Incidence and Natural History of Diverticulitis: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Ditah, Ivo; Fletcher, J. G.; Ewelukwa, Ofor; Pendlimari, Rajesh; Yawn, Barbara P.; Melton, L. Joseph; Schleck, Cathy; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Data on the incidence and natural history of diverticulitis are largely hospital-based and exclude the majority of diverticulitis patients, who are treated in an outpatient setting for uncomplicated diverticulitis. We assessed temporal trends in the epidemiology of diverticulitis in the general population. Methods Through the Rochester Epidemiology Project we reviewed the records of all individuals with a diagnosis of diverticulitis from 1980–2007 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Results In 1980–1989 the incidence of diverticulitis was 115/100,000 person-years, which increased to 188/100,000 in 2000–2007 (Pdiverticulitis episodes, 22% and 55% had a recurrence, respectively. This recurrence rate was greater in younger people (hazard ratio [HR] per decade 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59–0.66) and women (HR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58–0.80). Complications were seen in 12%; this rate did not change over time. Recurrent diverticulitis was associated with a decreased risk of complications (Pdiverticulitis was lower in older people (Pdiverticulitis did not change from 1980–2007. Conclusions The incidence of diverticulitis has increased by 50% in 2000–2007 compared to 1990–1999, and more so in younger people. Complications are relatively uncommon. Recurrent diverticulitis is frequent but typically uncomplicated. Younger people with diverticulitis had less severe disease, more recurrence, and better survival. PMID:26416187

  2. Genetic analysis of the early natural history of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Pothuri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality rate associated with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC reflects diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage, but improved early detection is hindered by uncertainty as to the histologic origin and early natural history of this malignancy.Here we report combined molecular genetic and morphologic analyses of normal human ovarian tissues and early stage cancers, from both BRCA mutation carriers and the general population, indicating that EOCs frequently arise from dysplastic precursor lesions within epithelial inclusion cysts. In pathologically normal ovaries, molecular evidence of oncogenic stress was observed specifically within epithelial inclusion cysts. To further explore potential very early events in ovarian tumorigenesis, ovarian tissues from women not known to be at high risk for ovarian cancer were subjected to laser catapult microdissection and gene expression profiling. These studies revealed a quasi-neoplastic expression signature in benign ovarian cystic inclusion epithelium compared to surface epithelium, specifically with respect to genes affecting signal transduction, cell cycle control, and mitotic spindle formation. Consistent with this gene expression profile, a significantly higher cell proliferation index (increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis was observed in histopathologically normal ovarian cystic compared to surface epithelium. Furthermore, aneuploidy was frequently identified in normal ovarian cystic epithelium but not in surface epithelium.Together, these data indicate that EOC frequently arises in ovarian cystic inclusions, is preceded by an identifiable dysplastic precursor lesion, and that increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and aneuploidy are likely to represent very early aberrations in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  3. [Assessment of the natural history and clinical presentation of acetonemic vomiting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowczyk, Helena; Machura, Edyta; Rusek-Zychma, Malgorzata; Chrobak, Ewelina; Ziora, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in children may result from physiological adaptation to situations like fasting, fat-rich diet, straining physical activity, as well as from serious endocrine or metabolic disorders. The most frequently diagnosed cause of ketoacidosis are states of acetonemia and acetonuria with vomiting, during airways infections. Assessment of the natural history and clinical presentation of acetonemic vomiting in children. 85 children from 18 months to 12 years of age with acetonemic vomiting were incorporated in this study. Detailed anamnesis, clinical examination, and chosen laboratory parameters were analyzed. In 18% of the children a familial pattern of the disease was observed, 75% of the parents declared that their children had fat-rich meals on a regular basis, in 47% there was a tendency to recurrent respiratory tract. The most frequently observed symptoms were incoercible vomiting with nausea (100%), abdominal pain (87%), headaches (35%) and febrile states (62%). Ketosis triggers were: infections with insufficient fluid and food intake (68%), and child overfeeding with fat-rich products (23%). Observed biochemical disturbances were ketosis (mean J3-hydroxybutyric acid serum concentration--1.03 mmol/l, SD +/- 0.83), acetonuria, hypoglycemia (15%), metabolic acidosis (17%) and dyselectrolytemia (14%). The treatment of the children consisted in intravenous and oral rehydration, managing acid-base and electrolyte disturbances. In some children acetonemic vomiting is recurrent, and thus prophylactic management is im- portant in children who are at risk.

  4. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clinical Features, Classification, Natural History, Management and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.

  5. Natural history of acute and chronic hepatitis B: The role of HBV genotypes and mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lin; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-06-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies reveal remarkable differences in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The frequency of mutants among HBV genotypes also varies. The role of HBV genotypes/mutants in the pathogenesis of HBV infection and natural history of HBV infection has been extensively investigated. The distribution of HBV genotypes in acute hepatitis B patients reflects the predominant genotypes in a given geographic area. In chronic hepatitis B patients, genotype C and D have a higher frequency of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutations than genotype A and B. HBV genotypes C, D and F carry a higher lifetime risk of cirrhosis and HCC development than genotype A and B. HBV pre-S/S gene mutations were associated with immune escape of hepatitis B immunoglobulin or vaccine-induced immunity. Mutations in the pre-S, core promoter and X regions correlate with an increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC. In summary, HBV genotypes and mutants are associated with the disease progression and long-term outcome of HBV infection. They may serve as viral genetic markers for risk stratification of chronic hepatitis B patients in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The natural history of skin-limited Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Humphrey, Stephen R; Kelly, Michael E; Chiu, Yvonne E; Galbraith, Sheila S

    2014-11-01

    Prior reports of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) suggest that isolated skin involvement is rare and often progresses to systemic disease. More rapid access to pediatric subspecialty care has likely led to more frequent representation of this condition. The purpose of this study is to characterize the natural history of skin-limited LCH in an era of increased access to pediatric subspecialty care. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients newly diagnosed with LCH between 2001 and 2012 at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Extensive review of laboratory, physical examination, and imaging reports was performed and data collected for patients with biopsy-proven skin LCH. Sixteen individuals with skin-limited LCH were identified. The median age at onset of skin eruption was birth (range, birth to 6 mo), and median duration of follow-up was 19.5 months (range, 2 wk to 10 y) from diagnosis. One patient (6%) developed pituitary disease and 1 patient (6%) had refractory skin involvement. All others experienced complete resolution. For patients without progressive or refractory disease, resolution of skin findings occurred within 7 months from onset. Progression of skin-limited to multisystem LCH likely may be less frequent than previously described.

  7. Multicentre observational study of the natural history of left-sided acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, G A; Arezzo, A; Serventi, A; Bonelli, L; Facchini, M; Prandi, M; Carraro, P S; Reitano, M C; Clerico, G; Garibotto, L; Aloesio, R; Sganzaroli, A; Zanoni, M; Zanandrea, G; Pellegrini, F; Mancini, S; Amato, A; Barisone, P; Bottini, C; Altomare, D F; Milito, G

    2012-02-01

    The natural history of acute diverticulitis (AD) is still unclear. This study investigated the recurrence rate, and the risks of emergency surgery, associated stoma and death following initial medical or surgical treatment of AD. The Italian Study Group on Complicated Diverticulosis conducted a 4-year multicentre retrospective and prospective database analysis of patients admitted to hospital for medical or surgical treatment of AD and then followed for a minimum of 9 years. The persistence of symptoms, recurrent episodes of AD, new hospital admissions, medical or surgical treatment, and their outcome were recorded during follow-up. Of 1046 patients enrolled at 17 centres, 743 were eligible for the study (407 recruited retrospectively and 336 prospectively); 242 patients (32·6 per cent) underwent emergency surgery at accrual. After a mean follow-up of 10·7 years, rates of recurrence (17·2 versus 5·8 per cent; P recurrence. There was no association between any of the investigated parameters and subsequent emergency surgery. The risk of stoma formation was below 1 per cent and disease-related mortality was zero in this group. The disease-related mortality rate was 0·6 per cent among patients who had surgical treatment. Long-term risks of recurrent AD or emergency surgery were limited and colectomy did not fully protect against recurrence. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Temporal Trends in the Incidence and Natural History of Diverticulitis: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Ditah, Ivo; Fletcher, J G; Ewelukwa, Ofor; Pendlimari, Rajesh; Yawn, Barbara P; Melton, L Joseph; Schleck, Cathy; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    Data on the incidence and natural history of diverticulitis are largely hospital-based and exclude the majority of diverticulitis patients, who are treated in an outpatient setting for uncomplicated diverticulitis. We assessed temporal trends in the epidemiology of diverticulitis in the general population. Through the Rochester Epidemiology Project we reviewed the records of all individuals with a diagnosis of diverticulitis from 1980 to 2007 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA. In 1980-1989, the incidence of diverticulitis was 115/100,000 person-years, which increased to 188/100,000 in 2000-2007 (Pdiverticulitis episodes, 22% and 55% had a recurrence, respectively. This recurrence rate was greater in younger people (hazard ratio (HR) per decade 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.66) and women (HR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58-0.80). Complications were seen in 12%; this rate did not change over time. Recurrent diverticulitis was associated with a decreased risk of complications (Pdiverticulitis was lower in older people (Pdiverticulitis did not change from 1980 to 2007. The incidence of diverticulitis has increased by 50% in 2000-2007 compared with 1990-1999, and more so in younger people. Complications are relatively uncommon. Recurrent diverticulitis is frequent but typically uncomplicated. Younger people with diverticulitis have less severe disease, more recurrence, and better survival.

  9. Maybe Aesop Was Right, the Tortoise Does Win: A Natural History of the Slow Reading Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jason Niedermeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, there has been a growing recognition that society’s emphasis on speed and efficiency came with some costs: a loss of the ability to appreciate activities and understand their meanings.  Recently, this meta-movement has made its way into the literature on literacy, causing the author to embark on an investigation into the veracity of the claims that slow reading might also mean better reading.  A natural history approach was adopted for the analysis to evaluate whether there was evolutionary justification for the movement, leading to the review of relevant work in the fields of ethology, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, and literacy. The findings reveal an evolutionary push toward both speed and understanding, two aims that eventually come to be at odds in expert readers. It is the conclusion of the author that, from an evolutionary perspective, there may be justification for the start of a slow reading movement, but that it must be paired with practices that develop the capacity to read fast.

  10. Nodding syndrome: origins and natural history of a longstanding epileptic disorder in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, P S; Palmer, V S; Jilek-Aall, L

    2013-06-01

    Repetitive involuntary head nodding was first reported in the 1960s in the Wapogoro tribe of Tanzania. We describe the natural history of head nodding in the Wapogoro tribe, with special reference to the earliest reported dates of onset. We analyzed clinical data from 150 historical patients seen between 1960 and 1971. Head nodding with or without grand mal convulsions was present in 33/150 (∼20%) cases, was mostly familial and equally distributed by gender. Age at onset of head nodding ranged from 2-22 years (mean: ∼10 years) in the period 1934-1962. Head nodding preceded onset of grand mal convulsions by up to 12 months, and motor and psychomotor deficits indicative of brain damage developed with time. Fourteen of the 33 cases died at 13-39 years of age (mean: ∼20 years) while nineteen aged 16-28 years (mean: ∼16 years) were still alive. Historical accounts of head nodding (amesinzia kichwa, Swahili) among the Wapogoro tribe fit the August 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of probable Nodding Syndrome. Reported to have existed in this population for at least 80 years, Nodding Syndrome is a progressive seizure disorder that leads to generalized convulsions (kifafa), brain damage and death.

  11. Scurvy on sea and land: political economy and natural history,c. 1780-c. 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2013-05-16

    From the late eighteenth century, the ways in which scurvy was understood changed in consequence of the abandonment of humoral pathology and the adoption of a new causal framework informed by nervous physiology. Although there was some narrowing of the etiological framework around dietary deficiency in the wake of the navy's success with the issue of citrus juices, this was rarely to the exclusion of predisposing causes such as fatigue, weather and flagging spirits. Within the navy, the persistence of a multi-factoral framework was relatively unproblematic, for the standard issue of citrus juices and improvements in victualling occurred at the same time as other important reforms in naval health. But outside the navy it was a different matter. In other institutional settings, the continuing belief in the importance of factors other than diet created tensions between medical officers and administrators who found such inclusive views politically inconvenient. After a brief survey of the principal changes in the physiology of scurvy, this article examines how the problem of scurvy was understood, not only in the navy but also in the armies of the East India Company and in British prisons. These were not the only contexts in which scurvy caused concern, but they serve to illustrate the fact that it remained a complex and controversial disease. The article shows how different medical cultures and institutional imperatives took the natural history of scurvy in different directions.

  12. The Natural History and Outcomes of the Patients with Carcinosarcoma Involving Kidney and Renal Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this paper was to examine the epidemiology, natural history, and prognostic factors of carcinosarcoma of the kidney and renal pelvis (CSKP using population-based registry. Patients and Methods. Forty-three patients with CSKP, diagnosed between January 1973 and December 2007, were identified from the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database and reviewed. Results. 79% of all patients with known SEER stage were classified as having regional or distant stage; almost all the patients with known histology grade had poorly or undifferentiated histology. The median cancer specific survival was 6 months (95% CI 4–9. The 1-year cancer-specific survival rate for entire cohort was 30.2%. There were no differences in terms of age at diagnosis, histological grade, tumor stage on presentation, and frequency of nephrectomy between carcinosarcoma of kidney (CSK or renal pelvis (CSP. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were found to be significant predictors for cancer-specific survival. Conclusion. CSKP commonly presented as high-grade, advanced stage disease, and was associated with a poor prognosis regardless of location.

  13. The natural history of thin melanoma and the utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Alison B; Schwartz, Jennifer L; Lowe, Lori; Zhao, Lili; Johnson, Andrew G; Harms, Kelly L; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Orsini, Amy P; McLean, Scott A; Bradford, Carol R; Cohen, Mark S; Johnson, Timothy M; Sabel, Michael S; Wong, Sandra L

    2017-12-01

    Current literature may overestimate the risk of nodal metastasis from thin melanoma due to reporting of data only from lesions treated with SLNB. Our objective was to define the natural history of thin melanoma, assessing the likelihood of nodal disease, in order to guide selection for SLNB. Retrospective review. The primary outcome was the rate of nodal disease. Clinicopathologic factors were evaluated to find associations with nodal disease. Five hundred and twelve lesions, follow up available for 488 (median: 48 months). Lesions treated with WLE/SLNB compared to WLE alone were more likely to have high-risk features. The rate of nodal disease was higher in the WLE/SLNB group (24 positive SLNB, five false-negative SLNB with nodal recurrence: 10.2%) compared to WLE alone (four nodal recurrences: 2.0%). Univariate analysis showed age ≤45, Breslow depth ≥0.85 mm, mitotic rate >1 mm 2 , and ulceration were associated with nodal disease. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of age ≤45 and ulceration. SLNB for melanoma 0.75-0.99 mm should be considered in patients age ≤45, Breslow depth ≥0.85 mm, mitotic rate >1 mm 2 , and/or with ulceration. Thin melanoma <0.85 mm without high-risk features may be treated with WLE alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider "second victim" after adverse patient events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S D; Hirschinger, L E; Cox, K R; McCoig, M; Brandt, J; Hall, L W

    2009-10-01

    When patients experience unexpected events, some health professionals become "second victims". These care givers feel as though they have failed the patient, second guessing clinical skills, knowledge base and career choice. Although some information exists, a complete understanding of this phenomenon is essential to design and test supportive interventions that achieve a healthy recovery. The purpose of this article is to report interview findings with 31 second victims. After institutional review board approval, second victim volunteers representing different professional groups were solicited for private, hour-long interviews. The semistructured interview covered demographics, participant recount of event, symptoms experienced and recommendations for improving institutional support. After interviews, transcripts were analyzed independently for themes, followed by group deliberation and reflective use with current victims. Participants experienced various symptoms that did not differ by sex or professional group. Our analysis identified six stages that delineate the natural history of the second victim phenomenon. These are (1) chaos and accident response, (2) intrusive reflections, (3) restoring personal integrity, (4) enduring the inquisition, (5) obtaining emotional first aid and (6) moving on. We defined the characteristics and typical questions second victims are desperate to have answered during these stages. Several reported that involvement in improvement work or patient safety advocacy helped them to once again enjoy their work. We now believe the post-event trajectory is largely predictable. Institutional programs could be developed to successfully screen at-risk professionals immediately after an event, and appropriate support could be deployed to expedite recovery and mitigate adverse career outcomes.

  15. NATURAL HISTORY OF HEPATOCELLULAR ADENOMA FORMATION IN GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Q.; Fiske, Laurie M.; Carreras, Caroline T.; Weinstein, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize the natural history and factors related to hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) development in glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I). Study design Retrospective chart review was performed for 117 patients with GSD I. Kaplan-Meier analysis of HCA progression among two groups of patients with GSD Ia (five-year mean triglyceride concentration ≤500 mg/dL and >500 mg/dL); analysis of serum triglyceride concentration, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS), and height SDS between cases at time of HCA diagnosis and age- and sex-matched controls. Results Logrank analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival curve demonstrated a significant difference in progression to HCA between the five-year mean triglyceride groups (p = 0.008). No significant difference was detected in progression to adenoma event between sexes. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly different at time of diagnosis of adenoma (737±422 mg/dL) compared with controls (335±195 mg/dL) (p = 0.009). Differences in height SDS (p = 0.051) and BMI SDS (p = 0.066) approached significance in our case-control analysis. Conclusion Metabolic control may be related to HCA formation in patients with GSD Ia. Optimizing metabolic control remains critical, and further studies are warranted to understand the pathogenesis of adenoma development. PMID:21481415

  16. The natural history of dental caries lesions: a 4-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G J; Katz, B P; Pereira de Oliveira, S; Capin, O R; Mau, M; Zero, D T

    2012-09-01

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous disease affecting all age groups and segments of the population. It is known that not all caries lesions progress to cavitation, but little is known regarding the progression pattern of caries lesions. This study's purpose was to evaluate the natural history of dental caries using a standardized, visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The study population consisted of 565 consenting children, who were enrolled and examined at baseline and at regular intervals over 48 months with ICDAS and yearly bitewing radiographs. Of these, 338 children completed all examinations. Not all lesions cavitated at the same rate, differing by surface type and baseline ICDAS severity score and activity status. With increasing severity, the percentage of lesions progressing to cavitation increased: 19%, 32%, 68%, and 66% for ICDAS scores 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Lesions on occlusal surfaces were more likely to cavitate, followed by buccal pits, lingual grooves, proximal surfaces, and buccal and lingual surfaces. Cavitation was more likely on molars, followed by pre-molars and anterior teeth. Predictors of cavitation included age, gender, surfaces and tooth types, and ICDAS severity/activity at baseline. In conclusion, characterization of lesion severity with ICDAS can be a strong predictor of lesion progression to cavitation.

  17. 'Not unlike mermaids': A report about the human and natural history of Southeast Africa from 1690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Cook

    Full Text Available In 1690, on the orders of Simon van der Stel, officials of the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC interviewed one Nicolao Almede, a 'free black man of Mozambique' who had recently arrived at the Cape as a sailor aboard the English ship John and Mary. Almede informed his interlocutors about the country inland from the coast between Mozambique and Delagoa Bay (now Maputo Bay, into which he had previously ventured as a merchant. Although he does not mention the legendary name of Monomotapa, he does offer early descriptions of the Changamire dynasty, as well as the animals and people of the region, including its fabulous wealth. Some of the place names he mentioned are well known, while others cannot now be traced, perhaps because he was using indigenous rather than Portuguese names. The record of the interview concludes with Almede's description of mermaids, and the fact that their teeth could be had in the market at Mozambique. Together with producing a transcription and translation of the document this article explores it through a close reading to offer some speculations about the interweaving of legend and fact in the human and natural history of southern Africa in reports such as that of Almede.

  18. Parametric study of effects of collagen turnover on the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J S; Baek, S; Humphrey, J D

    2013-02-08

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by significant changes in the architecture of the aortic wall, notably, loss of functional elastin and smooth muscle. Because collagen is the principal remaining load-bearing constituent of the aneurysmal wall, its turnover must play a fundamental role in the natural history of the lesion. Nevertheless, detailed investigations of the effects of different aspects of collagen turnover on AAA development are lacking. A finite-element membrane model of the growth and remodelling of idealized AAAs was thus used to investigate parametrically four of the primary aspects of collagen turnover: rates of production, half-life, deposition stretch (prestretch) and material stiffness. The predicted rates of aneurysmal expansion and spatio-temporal changes in wall thickness, biaxial stresses and maximum collagen fibre stretch at the apex of the lesion depended strongly on all four factors, as did the predicted clinical endpoints (i.e. arrest, progressive expansion or rupture). Collagen turnover also affected the axial expansion, largely due to mechanical changes within the shoulder region of the lesion. We submit, therefore, that assessment of rupture risk could be improved by future experiments that delineate and quantify different aspects of patient-specific collagen turnover and that such understanding could lead to new targeted therapeutics.

  19. Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy within a Natural History Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina M Boca

    Full Text Available Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate in their levels between DMD patients and healthy controls while adjusting for age and study site and allowing for an interaction between disease status and age. Increased metabolites included arginine, creatine and unknown compounds at m/z of 357 and 312 while decreased metabolites included creatinine, androgen derivatives and other unknown yet to be identified compounds. Furthermore, the creatine to creatinine ratio is significantly associated with disease progression in DMD patients. This ratio sharply increased with age in DMD patients while it decreased with age in healthy controls. Overall, this study yielded promising metabolic signatures that could prove useful to monitor DMD disease progression and response to therapies in the future.

  20. Insights from natural history collections: analysing the New Zealand macroalgal flora using herbarium data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy A; Dalen, Jennifer; Neill, Kate F

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria and natural history collections (NHC) are critical to the practice of taxonomy and have potential to serve as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. They are the repositories of vital reference specimens, enabling species to be studied and their distribution in space and time to be documented and analysed, as well as enabling the development of hypotheses about species relationships. The herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (WELT) contains scientifically and historically significant marine macroalgal collections, including type specimens, primarily of New Zealand species, as well as valuable exsiccatae from New Zealand and Australia. The herbarium was initiated in 1865 with the establishment of the Colonial Museum and is the only herbarium in New Zealand where there has been consistent expert taxonomic attention to the macroalgae over the past 50 years. We examined 19,422 records of marine macroalgae from around New Zealand collected over the past 164 years housed in WELT, assessing the records in terms of their spatial and temporal coverage as well as their uniqueness and abundance. The data provided an opportunity to review the state of knowledge of the New Zealand macroalgal flora reflected in the collections at WELT, to examine how knowledge of the macroalgal flora has been built over time in terms of the number of collections and the number of species recognised, and identify where there are gaps in the current collections as far as numbers of specimens per taxon, as well as with respect to geographical and seasonal coverage.