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Sample records for natural gas fuel cells

  1. A natural-gas fuel processor for a residential fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Lee, S. H. D.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Bendert, J. C.; Kanner, S. A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    A system model was used to develop an autothermal reforming fuel processor to meet the targets of 80% efficiency (higher heating value) and start-up energy consumption of less than 500 kJ when operated as part of a 1-kWe natural-gas fueled fuel cell system for cogeneration of heat and power. The key catalytic reactors of the fuel processor - namely the autothermal reformer, a two-stage water gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor - were configured and tested in a breadboard apparatus. Experimental results demonstrated a reformate containing ∼48% hydrogen (on a dry basis and with pure methane as fuel) and less than 5 ppm CO. The effects of steam-to-carbon and part load operations were explored.

  2. Hydrogen generation from natural gas for the fuel cell systems of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew L.

    In most cases hydrogen is the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages. It is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. When catalytic steam reforming is used to generate hydrogen from natural gas, it is essential that sulfur compounds in the natural gas are removed upstream of the reformer and various types of desulfurisation processes are available. In addition, the quality of fuel required for each type of fuel cell varies according to the anode material used, and the cell temperature. Low temperature cells will not tolerate high concentrations of carbon monoxide, whereas the molten fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes contain nickel on which it is possible to electrochemically oxidise carbon monoxide directly. The ability to internally reform fuel gas is a feature of the MCFC and SOFC. Internal reforming can give benefits in terms of increased electrical efficiency owing to the reduction in the required cell cooling and therefore parasitic system losses. Direct electrocatalysis of hydrocarbon oxidation has been the elusive goal of fuel cell developers over many years and recent laboratory results are encouraging. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen, namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation; it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

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  5. Fuel cells: new technology of natural gas for energetical building; Pilas de combustible: nueva tecnologia de gas natural para edificios energeticamente autoabastecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells have emerged in the last decade as one of the most promising new and sustainable natural gas technologies for meeting the energy needs of all the economy sectors into the 21st century. Fuel Cells are an environmentally clean, quiet, and highly efficient method for generating electricity and heat from natural gas. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to usable energy (electricity and heat) without combustion. For this reason, the application and use of the fuel cell technology may be the most important technological advancement of the next century. At the beginning of the 2000 year Sociedad de Gas de Euskadi, s. a. started a demonstration project in favour of the high-temperature planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for domestic micro-CHP utilization. This type is certainly most exacting from the materials standpoint, and it offers the advantage of uncomplicated fuel pretreatment. (Author)

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

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  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

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  8. The utilization of natural gas in the electricity production through fuel cell; A utilizacao do gas natural na geracao distribuida atraves de celulas combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2004-07-01

    In function of the necessity of electric energy as input of vital importance for the development of the country, this work aims at to offer plus an energy alternative for Brazil. The exploitation of the natural gas reserves recently discovered can be made through modern methods that give as priority the distributed generation and the low ambient impact. All these aspects can be gotten with the use of fuel cell, working with the remodelled natural gas. Increased to the factor of a low ambient impact in the proper generation, the project suggests that the generating source can be located next the consumer, diminishing still more the problems generated for transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. The fuel cell has received a great attention in the international community and some models, some already in commercial period of training, they have shown excellent possibilities of capsize to be one of the future technologies in the generation of electric energy with low ambient impact. (author)

  9. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  10. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  11. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  12. Natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, A I; Vasiliev, Y N; Jankiewicz, A [VPO ' Soyuzgastekhnologiya' All-Union Scientific Research Inst. of Natural gases (VNIIGAS) (SU)

    1990-02-01

    The review presented covers mass production of gas-petrol and gas-diesel automobiles in the USSR, second generation auto gas filling compressor stations, principal exhaust toxicants, and tests indicating natural gas fired autos emit >5 times less NO{sub x} and 10 times less hydrocarbons excluding methane. The switch over to gas as auto fuel and ensuing release of petrol and diesel for other uses are discussed. (UK).

  13. Pre-reforming of natural gas in solid oxide fuel-cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.; Riensche, E.; Cremer, P. [Institute for Materials and Processes Systems IWV 3: Energy Process Engineering, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Several measures concerning fuel processing in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system offer the possibility of significant cost reduction and higher system efficiencies. For SOFC systems, the ratio between internal and pre-reforming has to be optimized on the basis of experimental performance data. Furthermore, anode gas recycling by an injector in front of the pre-reformer can eliminate the steam generator and the corresponding heat of evaporation. A detailed study is carried out on pre-reforming in a reformer of considerable size (10 kW{sub el}). Simulating anode gas recycling with an injector, the influence of carbon dioxide on reactor performance was studied. Also, the dependence of the methanol conversion on mass flow and temperature will be discussed. In addition, some results concerning the dynamic behaviour of the pre-reformer are given. (orig.)

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  15. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  16. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

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  18. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  19. Power, heat and chilliness with natural gas - fuel cells and air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krein, Stephan; Ruehling, Karin

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative concept of the supply with power, heat and chilliness will realise in the new Malteser-hospital in Kamenz. The core of this demonstration-plant are a fuel cell, an adsorption cooling machine as well as multi-solar collectors. The fuel cell has two goals. Primary it produces power for the own demand. The selected dimension guarantees, that the power will consume nearly continuously. Secondly the produced heat of the fuel cell (and the solar-heat too) will use for heating and preparation of warm water. In the summer, the heat will use for the adsorption cooling machine, which produces chilliness for air-conditioning. The advantage in the face of common concepts of combining power and heat is the high-efficiently use of the fuel-energy for electric power generation on the one hand. Fuel cells work with high efficiency also at partial load. On the other hand, with the adsorption cooling machine the produced heat of fuel cell and multi-solar collectors can be used also in the summer. First experiences with this concept show, that an optimised co-operation of the components with an adaptive, self-learning control system based on the weather forecast as well as various storages for heat and chilliness can be achieve. A continuously operation, high fuel utilisation and reduced environmental pollution can be demonstrated. (author)

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  1. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

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  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

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  4. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  5. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  6. Energetic-economical analysis of a stationary for energy generation with fuel cells and natural gas reforming; Analise energetico-economica de um sistema estacionario de geracao de energia com celulas a combustivel e reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Silva Junior, Fernando Rodrigues; Silva, Cristiane Abrantes da; Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Lopes, Francisco da Costa; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economicity of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  7. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  8. World`s first fuel cell in a single-family home - The VNG natural gas house: Low-emission energy meets all household needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    VNG - Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft of Leipzig, Germany, has pioneered the development of a decentral home energy system combining very high efficiencies with extremely low emissions. The company has installed the world`s first fuel cell total energy system using natural gas as an energy source to generate both heat and power in a single-family home. It replaces the gas-fired mini power station operated as part of the VNG natural gas house project which was instrumental in the rapid advancement of small-scale co-generation technology. The objective of VNG and its project partners is to collect reliable data for advancing fuel cell technology development, allowing appliance manufacturers to design a competitive system for introduction on the market within a few years. Discerning consumers will then be able to opt for an innovative, highly efficient system to meet all their household energy needs. (orig.)

  9. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  10. Performance evaluation of a fuel cell with NiO-YSV anode operating with natural gas; Avaliacao do desempenho de uma celula a combustivel com anodo de NiO YSZ operando com gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Vasconcelos, Carmel Suzarte Ayres; Lima, Luiz Rogerio Pinho de Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBa), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais]. E-mail: shayennedn@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy into electric energy. The natural gas, for its proven improvement in the income of the equipment in relation to other energy ones, has been very used to feed the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the generation of electric power. Ceramics of Yttria-stabilized zirconia had been used as electrolyte and when supported with nickel oxide they act as anode in the solid oxide fuel cell, due to raised ionic conductivity that these materials present in high temperatures, while lanthanum with strontium and manganite are used as cathode. In the composition of the anode, the concentration of Ni O, acting as catalytic in the YSZ confers high electric conductivity and high electrochemical activity of the reactions, providing the internal reform in the SOFC. In this work, the solid oxide fuel cell, formed by Yttria- stabilized zirconia, nickel oxide, and lanthanum with strontium and manganite were tested in the reform had been prepared samples of electrode/electrolyte for use in SOFC of the natural gas in the presence of low water text, similar condition to the operation of the SOFC, operating in temperatures range from 700 to 800 deg C. This cell also was characterized using the impedance spectroscopy technique. These results allowed the development of components of the current versus voltage. (author)

  11. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  12. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  13. Has the natural gas fueled bus any future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Helsinki City Transport has decided to operate public transport in the center of the city with tramways and gas-fuelled busses. The decision is that there will be about 100 natural gas fueled busses in Helsinki by the year 2003. European exhaust gas emission (NO x and particulates) regulations have tightened strongly during the past few years. The regulations have forced to search for new fuels by the side of development of diesel engines. Alcohols, in spite of favourable fuel properties, are too expensive, so the use of them needs large subsidies for transportation sector. Gaseous fuels, both LPG and natural gas are suitable fuels for Otto cycle-cycle engines. After the previous oil crisis the interest in gas-fuelled engines has steadily decreased, but at present it is increasing again because of the objectives to decrease emissions of heavy vehicles at the level of gasoline-fuelled vehicles, equipped with three-way catalyst. From the point of view of emissions natural gas and LPG are seen as equivalent alternatives. The price of LPG varies on the basis of demand and on the basis of the prices of other oil products. Refuelling of a vehicle and storage of LPG in liquid form in the tank of the vehicle is easier than refuelling and fuel storage of natural gas. Investments to refuelling equipment of LPG are only 20% of those of the natural gas refuelling systems. The problem of natural gas is also the fact that is not easy to carry in the vehicle. Even if natural gas is compressed to pressure of 200 bars, it requires six times larger tanks if the refuelling intervals are the same. Liquefaction of natural gas reduces the volume significantly, but this is complicated and hence expensive. The tank of a vehicle should be vacuum insulated because the temperature of the LNG is about 160 deg C. Tank volume of LPG is only about twice that of diesel oil. Safety of natural gas is high, because it is lighter than the air, nearly a half of the density of the air. Octane ratings

  14. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  15. In-situ study of the gas-phase composition and temperature of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode surface fed by reformate natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, F.; Silva Mosqueda, D. M.; Pumiglia, D.; Viceconti, E.; Conti, B.; Boigues Muñoz, C.; Bosio, B.; Ulgiati, S.; McPhail, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative experimental setup is used for in-depth and in-operando characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodic processes. This work focuses on the heterogeneous reactions taking place on a 121 cm2 anode-supported cell (ASC) running with a H2, CH4, CO2, CO and steam gas mixture as a fuel, using an operating temperature of 923 K. The results have been obtained by analyzing the gas composition and temperature profiles along the anode surface in different conditions: open circuit voltage (OCV) and under two different current densities, 165 mA cm-2 and 330 mA cm-2, corresponding to 27% and 54% of fuel utilization, respectively. The gas composition and temperature analysis results are consistent, allowing to monitor the evolution of the principal chemical and electrochemical reactions along the anode surface. A possible competition between CO2 and H2O in methane internal reforming is shown under OCV condition and low current density values, leading to two different types of methane reforming: Steam Reforming and Dry Reforming. Under a current load of 40 A, the dominance of exothermic reactions leads to a more marked increase of temperature in the portion of the cell close to the inlet revealing that current density is not uniform along the anode surface.

  16. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  17. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  18. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  19. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  20. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W.; Tertzakian, P.; Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J.; Graham, M.; Young, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tertzakian, P. [ARC Financial, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Graham, M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Young, P.J. [DYAD Consulting, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  2. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  4. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  5. Intermediate Temperature Hybrid Fuel Cell System for the Conversion of Natural to Electricity and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Theodore [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-22

    This goal of this project was to develop a new hybrid fuel cell technology that operates directly on natural gas or biogas to generate electrical energy and to produce ethane or ethylene from methane, the main component of natural gas or biogas, which can be converted to a liquid fuel or high-value chemical using existing process technologies. By taking advantage of the modularity and scalability of fuel cell technology, this combined fuel cell/chemical process technology targets the recovery of stranded natural gas available at the well pad or biogas produced at waste water treatment plants and municipal landfills by converting it to a liquid fuel or chemical. By converting the stranded gas to a liquid fuel or chemical, it can be cost-effectively transported to market thus allowing the stranded natural gas or biogas to be monetized instead of flared, producing CO2, a greenhouse gas, because the volumes produced at these locations are too small to be economically recovered using current gas-to-liquids process technologies.

  6. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center : Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities

  11. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  12. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  13. Sustitución de fuel oil por gas natural en ANDERCOL Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Puerto, José Miguel; Ayala Mendoza, Miguel Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. This article shows the evaluation of the demand and the tendencies of fuel in the plant of ANDERCOL-Medellín, the current and future trends of the prices for the fuels available (fuel oil and natural gas) and also the operation costs, the investments required for their substitution and the limitations and benefits of substituting fuel oil with natural gas. Objective. To evaluate the impact of substituting fuel oil with natural gas in the ANDERCOL´s plant in Medell...

  14. adaptation of natural gas for motor fuels in nigeria transport system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, as a result of limiting reserve of crude oil and the clamour for the deregulation of the petroleum sector of the nation's economy, there is need to look beyond liquid fuel (gasoline, diesel) as vehicular fuels. The viability of adapting natural gas for motor fuels had been presented. Natural gas as automobile fuel ...

  15. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  16. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  19. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(d) of the Act provides for a... proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary energy source; (2...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buses Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  1. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  2. The fuel of choice: forecasting natural gas availability and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines predictions set out in the US Energy Information Administration's 'International Energy Outlook 2001' concerning growth in energy consumption, the use of natural gas for electricity generation, and growth in worldwide natural gas consumption in industrialised and developing countries. The reported increase in global natural gas reserves is considered, and regional activity and natural gas reserves in North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, Asia, the Middle East and Asia are discussed

  3. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  4. The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Linwei; Geng, Jia; Li, Weqi; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript aims to systematically review the development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China and to draw policy implications for decision making. This manuscript presents a brief overview of natural gas development and the potential of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China, followed by an introduction to the development of various technology pathways for using natural gas as an automotive fuel, including CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles, LNG (liquefied natural gas) vehicles, and others. This material suggests, a large potential to increase the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, especially for CNG and LNG vehicles. The following activities will promote the development of natural gas vehicles: prioritizing vehicle use in the utilization of natural gas, supporting the construction of natural gas filling stations, developing a favorable pricing policy for natural gas used in vehicles, and enhancing the research and development to further improve the technology performance, especially for the technology of LNG vehicles. -- Highlights: •An overview of the natural gas development in China. •A systematic introduction of the development of natural gas vehicles in China. •A review of the technological performance of natural gas vehicles. •Policy suggestions to promote the development of natural gas vehicles in China

  5. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  6. Design and exergetic analysis of a novel carbon free tri-generation system for hydrogen, power and heat production from natural gas, based on combined solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, N.; Hofmann, Ph.; Spyrakis, S. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panopoulos, K.D. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) are able to operate in two modes: (a) the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) that produce electricity and heat and (b) the Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) that consume electricity and heat to electrolyse water and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The present paper presents a carbon free SOEC/SOFC combined system for the production of hydrogen, electricity and heat (tri-generation) from natural gas fuel. Hydrogen can be locally used as automobile fuel whereas the oxygen produced in the SOEC is used to combust the depleted fuel from the SOFC, which is producing electricity and heat from natural gas. In order to achieve efficient carbon capture in such a system, water steam should be used as the SOEC anode sweep gas, to allow the production of nitrogen free flue gases. The SOEC and SOFC operations were matched through modeling of all components in Aspenplus trademark. The exergetic efficiency of the proposed decentralised system is 28.25% for power generation and 18.55% for production of hydrogen. The system is (a) carbon free because it offers an almost pure pressurised CO{sub 2} stream to be driven for fixation via parallel pipelines to the natural gas feed, (b) does not require any additional water for its operation and (c) offers 26.53% of its energetic input as hot water for applications. (author)

  7. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  8. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  9. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  10. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied

  12. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a ;Geothermic Fuel Cell; (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  13. Development and test of 2 kW natural gas reformers for high and low temperature PEM fuel cells. Project report 2; Udvikling/afproevning af 2 kW naturgasreformere for hoej- og lavtemperatur PEM-braendselsceller. Projektrapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, J. de [Dansk Gasteknisk Center (Denmark); Bech-Madsen, J. [IRD (Denmark); Bandur, V. [DTU (Denmark); Bartholin, N. [DPS (Denmark)

    2005-11-15

    The use of fuel cells for combined heat and power generation has advantages as regards technology and usability compared to existing CHP technology. Special characteristics for a fuel cell plant are: 1) It can be constructed in modules over a wide power range, 2) The efficiency is significantly independent of size, 3) It is noiseless, 4) A flexible coupling between power and heat production, 5) As there is no movable parts, long service check intervals can be expected, 6) Low emissions. The fuel for fuel cells is hydrogen and optimal utilization and CO{sub 2} reduction will require a 'hydrogen society'. While waiting for a 'hydrogen society' to arise, it is possible to use central or on-site reformers that convert natural gas to hydrogen. There will be some CO{sub 2} emission connected to energy use. The objective of the present project has been development and test of on-site reformers (fuel processors) for hydrogen supply to respectively high and low temperature PEM fuel cells aiming at use in single family houses. Sulphur cleaning, reformers, and lab-scale coupling with fuel cell KV units have been developed and tested during the project, as well as development and test of periphery equipment. (BA)

  14. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  15. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine systems operating with various biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H.C.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V. [Process and Energy Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Section Energy Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) systems provide a thermodynamically high efficiency alternative for power generation from biofuels. In this study biofuels namely methane, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia are evaluated exergetically with respect to their performance at system level and in system components like heat exchangers, fuel cell, gas turbine, combustor, compressor, and the stack. Further, the fuel cell losses are investigated in detail with respect to their dependence on operating parameters such as fuel utilization, Nernst voltage, etc. as well as fuel specific parameters like heat effects. It is found that the heat effects play a major role in setting up the flows in the system and hence, power levels attained in individual components. The per pass fuel utilization dictates the efficiency of the fuel cell itself, but the system efficiency is not entirely dependent on fuel cell efficiency alone, but depends on the split between the fuel cell and gas turbine powers which in turn depends highly on the nature of the fuel and its chemistry. Counter intuitively it is found that with recycle, the fuel cell efficiency of methane is less than that of hydrogen but the system efficiency of methane is higher. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  18. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling

  19. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  20. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  1. ISO New England Dual Fuel Capabilities to Limit Natural Gas and Electricity Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adder, Justin M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Since 2000, natural gas has seen tremendous growth as a fuel source for electricity generation in the United States (U.S.) with annual installations exceeding 20 GW in all but four years. It also accounts for an increasingly significant share of the nation’s electricity generation, growing from around 15 percent in the early part of the 2000s to between 26 and 29 percent in the last three years. (1) Increasing reliance on natural gas has led to concerns that an extreme weather event – which may cause curtailments in gas delivery – or a natural gas infrastructure failure could lead to local or regional electric reliability issues. (2) These concerns stem from differences in delivery methods of natural gas to electric generating units (EGUs) contrasted with the fuel delivery and storage methods for traditional baseload power systems (i.e. coal and nuclear units).1 (3) Although it seems that there is an abundance of natural gas in a post-shale gas world, infrastructure limitations and differences in electric and natural gas markets persist that differentiate natural gas-fired generators from traditional baseload power generators. Such concerns can be partially mitigated by modifying natural gas EGUs for operation on secondary fuels and installing on-site fuel storage for the secondary fuel, thus ensuring continuity of operation in the case of a gas delivery problem.2 This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the

  2. Studies on the efficiency during reactivation of a generation system based on natural gas reformer and a 5 k W fuel cell; Estudos de eficiencia durante reativacao de um sistema de geracao baseado em reformador de gas natural e celula a combustivel de 5 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Francisco da Costa; Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Silva Junior, Fernando Rodrigues da; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fcl@cepel.br

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cell based power generation systems have been pointing as promising technology for stationary applications mainly to supply power to critical loads. Among several types of fuel cells the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are the main type used around the world. Nowadays reformers are widely employed to produce hydrogen for fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Laboratory of CEPEL has a power plant based on a 5 kW PEMFC and a natural gas reformer. For a long time the PEMFC was inoperable due to reformer malfunctioning and during this time the full power availability of PEMFC was lost due to deactivation of its catalytic sites. In most cases this deactivation is reversible. So it was started a reactivation process aiming to recover the full operational condition of the PEMFC unit. During this process the gas flow relationship and efficiency of the reformer were studied. An analysis of the PEMFC reactivation was conducted where it was noted that the reactivation took place as expected. During the reactivation process the PEMFC and the whole system efficiency were analyzed. The results suggest that the PEMFC can reach efficiency compatible with conventional power generation systems thus allowing PEMFC technology to compete with these energy sources in point of efficiency. (author)

  3. Improvement performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas; Tennen gas dual fuel diesel kikan no seino haishutsu gas tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S; Okamoto, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper deals with a study on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas. Dual fueling systems tend to emit high unburned fuel especially at low load, resulting in a decreased thermal efficiency. This is because natural gas-air mixtures are too lean for flame to propagate under low load conditions. Intake charge heating and uncooled EGR are very useful to improve emissions and thermal efficiency at low load. Such favorable effects are supported by NO kinetic simulations. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Commercialization of residential fuel cell systems at Tokyo Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hisao; Kameyama, Hiromichi; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Nishizaki, Kunihiro

    2007-07-01

    Increased affluence at homes may inevitably bring about increased energy consumption with it and hence increased CO2 emission from the residential sector, which accounts for a substantial share in the overall CO2 emission. Technologies that can reduce CO2 emission without sacrificing comfort of living at home will be critically important to achieve economic prosperity and preservation of the global environment at the same time. The residential fuel cell system is one of those technologies. Tokyo Gas has been engaging in its development cooperating with the manufacturers and has been playing an important role in the design, development and promotion of fuel cell systems with its vast knowledge and experience of end users' energy consumption. The development, demonstration and promotion of fuel cell systems have been strongly supported by the Japanese Government. In 'the Large Scale Demonstration Project', more than 1000 units of polymer electrolyte fuel cells have been installed to existing homes and have demonstrated their energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential. This paper reports the status of the development of residential fuel cell systems in Japan and the role Tokyo Gas plays in it.

  5. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  6. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste—to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California.

  7. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  8. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  9. Comparative analysis between two systems to generate electric energy for isolated community in the interior of the Amazon state: fuel cells with natural gas reformer versus diesel generation; Analise comparativa entre dois sistemas de geracao de energia eletrica para a comunidade isolada no interior do estado do Amazonas: celula a combustivel com reformador para gas natural versus gerador diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Paula Duarte; Bergamini, Cristiane Peres; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Esteves, Gheisa Roberta Telles [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas e Estudos Ambientais; Silva, Ennio Peres da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2004-07-01

    Although great part of the domestic territory is already supplied with electric energy, still there are many regions where the system is precarious or nonexistent, generically called isolated communities. In the majority of the cases these communities are supplied with Diesel oil generators and the substitution of this fuel for available alternative energy in the localities has been object of study of some institutions of research spread throughout the country. Currently, the use of fuel cells has been strongly argued in the generation of electric energy associated with the local energy necessity, from the use of a regional fuel and this is due to the high efficiency of allied energy conversion to the low ambient impacts that this equipment offers. Most of the different types of fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel to produce electricity, and it is extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources of energy. Then, the article has the objective of comparing in first analysis the energy efficiency and the cost between the two systems: the ones used currently in the great majority of the isolated communities, constituted of a Diesel engine-generator system, with Natural Gas Reformer System/ Purifier of Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell/ and to analyze if such project presents characteristics that qualifies it to get the carbon credits proposed in the Mechanism of Clean Development. (author)

  10. Natural gas and quality of fuels for the reduction of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Occhio, L.; Andreetto, B.

    1998-01-01

    The production of atmospheric pollutants in combustion processes depends on plant characteristic, combustion conditions and fuel quality. The influence of fuel quality on the emission of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dust and carbon dioxide and on the emission of some toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is analysed. The comparison between the emission limits, fixed by the Italian legislation, and the uncontrolled pollutant emissions, produced by fossil fuel combustion in power plants and industrial use, shows that, in order to comply with the limits, a reduction of pollutant emissions is required through the use of abatement systems and cleaner fuels where natural gas has a primary role. The use of cleaner fuels is particularly required in heating plants and appliances for the residential sector, where the development of new gas technologies further increases the environmental advantages of natural gas in comparison with other fuels [it

  11. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians

  12. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  13. Natural Resource Canada`s fuel cell R and D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerli, M; Beck, N R [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    The rationale for focusing fuel cell technology on the Ballard Proton exchange Membrane (PEM) system is provided. As well, research into other fuel cell types supported by Natural Resources Canada are discussed. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert a fuel and an oxidant directly into electricity. Five fuel cell technologies use hydrogen as the fuel: (1) the alkaline fuel cell (AFC), (2) the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), (3) the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), (4) the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and (5) the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The PEMFC is suitable for transportation applications because it does not contain a liquid electrolyte and it operates at about 80 degrees C. Trials on municipal bus systems are currently underway in Vancouver and Chicago. PEMFC stacks are supplied by Ballard Power Systems of Burnaby, BC, a recognized world leader in PEMFC technology. Daimler-Benz is demonstrating the methanol reformer on its NECAR-3, powered with a Ballard PEMFC. Ballard is also designing and producing two prototype fuel cell engines for the Ford Motor Company which will integrate them into its P2000 prototype vehicle platform. The Ballard technology is also suitable for distributed power generation up to about five MW, as well as for cogeneration, when fuelled with natural gas. Stuart Energy Systems (SES) has developed an advanced UNICELL-CLUSTER{sup T}M, which permits a direct coupling of the PV array to the electrolyser, a project which demonstrates the use of solar-electrolytic hydrogen production. SES is also designing a refuelling system for the BC Transit System in Vancouver for refuelling their three Zero Emission urban transit buses powered by Ballard fuel cell engines.

  14. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  15. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  16. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  17. Liquefied natural gas, a maritime fuel: Initiatives for the energy transition now under way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdeau, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Usually considered to be a simple means for easily transporting natural gas over long distances, liquefied natural gas is rapidly gaining ground as a new maritime fuel. As it seeks to reduce its emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases, the maritime transportation industry is preferring this alternative to liquid petroleum fuels because of its low cost and environmental advantages. Developing this new fuel for maritime and river shipping runs up against several difficulties that, to be solved, call for, among other things, setting up a new supply chain - in which Gaztransport and Technigaz (GTT) wants to find its place

  18. Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas-hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akansu, S.O.; Kahraman, N. [Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey). Engineering Faculty; Dulger, Z. [Kocaeli University (Turkey). Engineering Faculty; Veziroglu, T.N. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). College of Engineering

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a survey of research papers on utilization of natural gas-hydrogen mixtures in internal combustion engines is carried out. In general, HC, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions decrease with increasing H{sub 2}, but NO{sub x} emissions generally increase. If a catalytic converter is used, NO{sub x} emission values can be decreased to extremely low levels. Consequently, equivalence zero emission vehicles (EZEV) standards may be reached. Efficiency values vary with H{sub 2} amount, spark timing, compression ratio, equivalence ratio, etc. Under certain conditions, efficiency values can be increased. In terms of BSFC, emissions and BTE, a mixture of low hydrogen percentage is suitable for using. (author)

  19. Fuel cell electric vehicle as a power plant and SOFC as a natural gas reformer : An exergy analysis of different system designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Woudstra, T.; van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delft University of Technology, under its "Green Village" programme, has an initiative to build a power plant (car parking lot) based on the fuel cells used in vehicles for motive power. It is a trigeneration system capable of producing electricity, heat, and hydrogen. It comprises three main

  20. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas....../liquid streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  1. Gas replacement system for fuel cell. Nenryo denchi no gas chikan hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T

    1990-02-14

    When stopping the operation of a fuel cell, the gas in the reaction gas system is purged using such an inert gas as nitrogen for inactivation. A gas source such as inert gas bomb must be prepared beforehand for the purpose. This invention relates to a method of production of inert gas from the air collected from atmosphere to use it as the purge gas. The air collected from the atmosphere is passed through an oxygen remover filled with oxidation catalyst to remove oxygen, and dehumidified by a dehumidifier filled with drying agent, the obtained inert drying gas with nitrogen as the main constituent being used as the purge gas. Copper system catalyst supported by silica is used as the oxidation catalyst, and silica gel as the drying agent. After the operation of the fuel cell is re-started, a part of the high temperature fuel gas extracted from the reaction gas system is introduced to the oxygen remover for the reduction of oxidation catalyst and for heat regeneration of dehumidifying agent by the contained hydrogen. 1 fig.

  2. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....

  3. Natural gas -- introduction on the market as a motor fuel without tax reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.; Weber, J.-C.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article reviews the history of efforts being made to promote the use of gas as a motor fuel in Switzerland and the work done in various institutions in Europe and Switzerland on natural gas driven vehicles, from small cars up to full sized trucks and hybrid vehicles. The reduction of airborne pollution as a result of using natural gas is looked at and the certification of vehicles according to European and American standards is commented. The motor fuel taxing situation in Switzerland and various parliamentary initiatives calling for the reduction of taxes on more environmentally friendly fuels such as natural gas are discussed. The use of biogas as a tax-exempted motor fuel and the technology necessary for its refinement is examined and its potential assessed. Pilot and demonstration projects in the natural gas fuels area are described and the gas industry's activities in their promotion are discussed. The article is concluded by a look at today's fiscal and technical situation; future trends and developments on the market are also discussed

  4. Natural gas as fuel - chances and risks; Erdgas als Kraftstoff-Chancen und Risiken.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackertapp, H.; Wember, G. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    By reducing the tax payable on natural gas as part of the ecological tax reform, the German government has created the economic framework for the break-through of the automotive fuel, natural gas. Consequently, natural gas has since become much more popular for driving motor engines. The gas industry sees its main task as the development of a natural gas filling station network. There are currently about 200 filling stations with natural gas fuelling facilities in Germany. (orig.) [German] Die Bundesregierung hat mit der in der oekologischen Steuerreform verankerten Mineraloelsteuerbeguenstigung fuer Erdgas die wirtschaftlichen Voraussetzungen fuer einen Durchbruch des neuen Kraftstoffs ''Erdgas'' geschaffen. Demzufolge hat der mobile Einsatz von Erdgas deutlich an Bedeutung gewonnen. Die Gaswirtschaft sieht den Aufbau der Betankungsinfrastruktur als ihre Hauptaufgabe an. Aktuell kann an etwa 200 Tankstellen Erdgas getankt werden. (orig.)

  5. Performance and exhaust emissions in a natural-gas fueled dual-fuel engine; Tennen gas dual fuel kikan no seino oyobi haiki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M.; Ishiyama, T.; Shibata, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ikegami, M. [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, tests were made for some operational parameters and their combination on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the gas oil quantity should be increased and gas oil injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission at middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing should be retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. The unburned hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency are improved at the same load avoiding too lean natural gas premixture by restriction of intake charge air. However the improvement is limited because the ignition and initial combustion of pilot diesel fuel is deteriorated when the cylinder pressure is excessively lowered by throttling. The increase in pilot gas oil amount is effective for low-load operation and the adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation. (author)

  6. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  7. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  8. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  9. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  10. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  11. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  12. Assessing demand when introducing a new fuel: natural gas on Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, W.J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The Indonesian government is investing in a gas transmission system on Java. For the evaluation of this investment a forecast of the demand for natural gas by the manufacturing sector is needed. To obtain this forecast the manufacturing sector is divided into subsectors according to energy use in production processes. On the level of production processes the opportunities for natural gas are based on net present value evaluations of its future benefits in production. This results in the desired fuel mix for manufacturing subsectors, from which the gas intensity ratios per subsector for existing production and new investments are calculated. Gas demand can then be forecast by combining the gas intensity ratios with subsectoral (growth in) gross value-added. This approach leads to a flexible forecasting tool that can readily account for changes in economic structure and energy prices, as encountered by rapidly developing economies. (author)

  13. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  14. Cow Power: A Case Study of Renewable Compressed Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure—to fuel 42 heavy-duty milk tanker trucks operating in Indiana, Michigan, Tennessee, and Kentucky.

  15. FY 2000 report on the survey of the calculation of the overall conversion efficiency in case of using natural gas for fuel cells, etc.; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Tennengas wo nenryodenchi ni mochiita baai no sogo henkan koritsu no santei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of fuel cell including the fuel supply system, survey was made of drilling of gas resource, conversion to liquid base fuel, transportation, storage, etc., the energy conversion efficiency was studied considering reforming characteristics of various fuels. In the comparison between LNG, methanol, DME and GTL that originate in natural gas and LPG and naphtha that originate in oil, a big difference is that methanol, DME and GTL were made through the conversion process with the large energy consumption. Namely, by the time before the reforming into hydrogen, the oil base indicated a higher efficiency in secondary energy fuel production than the natural gas base. Further, the reforming efficiency is the highest in methanol and DME, and there is a little difference between the integrated fuel cell (normal pressure) and the hydrogen production use fuel cell (pressurized). Concerning city gas and GTL, the efficiency is lower, affected by S/C. The overall efficiency is determined considering the conversion efficiency in other stages since it is determined by the conversion efficiency of up to the raw fuel and the energy conversion efficiency at PEFC. (NEDO)

  16. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  17. Air quality and use of natural gas fuels: Assessment of improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Andreetto, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the ARICOM code in the evaluation of air pollution and air quality in the Italian district of Verona. The study compared the environmental effects resulting from the use of natural gas, diesel fuels and fuel oils in a variety of real and simulated consumption schemes involving different mixes of fuels for space heating, automobile operation and industrial processes. The Verona district was divided into one square kilometer sections and the exhaust emission data were utilized in a dispersion model to calculate ground level pollution concentration levels. Real condition scenario pollution concentration levels calculated with this code were validated by actual measurements taken with an air quality monitoring network. The results evidenced the reduction in sulfur oxide pollution levels which can be obtained with the increased use of natural gas

  18. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  19. Neural control systems for alternatively fuelled vehicles and natural gas fuel injection for DACIA NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatisky, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Ghelesel, A. [BC Gas International, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The elements of natural gas vehicle conversion technology are described as background to a discussion of the development of bi-fuel injection system for the Rumanian-manufactured DACIA-NOVA automobile. The bi-fuel injection system mirrors the fueling system installed by the original equipment manufacturer; it can also be easily installed on Ford, General Motors and DaimlerChrysler vehicles as well as on most imports.To meet emission standards after 2000, it is envisaged to install on the DACIA NOVA a neural control system (NCS) and a completely adaptive linear control system (ACLS). Details of natural gas vehicles development and the development of NCS and ACLS are discussed, including short-term and long-term objectives.

  20. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  1. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  2. Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. H.; Weaver, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NO(sub x) and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

  3. Reforming of natural gas—hydrogen generation for small scale stationary fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, A.; Vogel, B.; Hübner, P.

    The reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen for fuel cells is described, including the basic concepts (steam reforming or autothermal reforming) and the mechanisms of the chemical reactions. Experimental work has been done with a compact steam reformer, and a prototype of an experimental reactor for autothermal reforming was tested, both containing a Pt-catalyst on metallic substrate. Experimental results on the steam reforming system and a comparison of the steam reforming process with the autothermal process are given.

  4. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  5. Pressure-time characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Helwan Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both cases. A Ricardo E6 diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data are stored in a PC for off-line analysis. The effect of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, and pilot fuel quantity on combustion noise is examined for both diesel and dual engine. Maximum pressure rise rate and some samples of ensemble averaged pressure-crank angle data are presented in the present work. The combustion noise, generally, is found to increase for the dual fuel engine case as compared to the diesel engine case. (Author)

  6. Fuel cells for commercial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Gerhard; Weisse, Eckart; Bischoff, Manfred

    1990-04-01

    The development of various types of fuel cells is described. Advantges and drawbacks are considered for alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells. It is shown that their modular construction is particularly adapted to power heat systems. A comparison which is largely in favor of fuel cells, is made between coal, oil, natural gas power stations, and fuel cells. Safety risks in operation are also compared with those of conventional power stations. Fuel cells are particularly suited for dwellings, shopping centers, swimming pools, other sporting installations, and research facilities, whose high current and heat requirements can be covered by power heat coupling.

  7. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2006-01-01

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then-contrary to common practice-any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000 to 2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation

  8. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, Farshid; Fung, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  9. Experimental study on the natural gas dual fuel engine test and the higher the mixture ratio of hydrogen to natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S.; Lee, Y.S.; Park, C.K. [Cheonnam University, Kwangju (Korea); Masahiro, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-05-28

    One of the unsolved problems of the natural gas dual fuel engine is that there is too much exhaust of Total Hydrogen Carbon(THC) at a low equivalent mixture ratio. To fix it, a natural gas mixed with hydrogen was applied to engine test. The results showed that the higher the mixture ratio of hydrogen to natural gas, the higher the combustion efficiency. And when the amount of the intake air is reached to 90% of WOT, the combustion efficiency was promoted. But, like a case making the injection timing earlier, the equivalent mixture ratio for the nocking limit decreases and the produce of NOx increases. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

    Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

  11. Shock wave calibration of under-expanded natural gas fuel jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. R.; Milton, B. E.

    2008-10-01

    Natural gas, a fuel abundant in nature, cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines because of its low cetane number. However, it can be used as the primary fuel with ignition by a pilot diesel spray. This is called dual-fuelling. The gas may be introduced either into the inlet manifold or, preferably, directly into the cylinder where it is injected as a short duration, intermittent, sonic jet. For accurate delivery in the latter case, a constant flow-rate from the injector is required into the constantly varying pressure in the cylinder. Thus, a sonic (choked) jet is required which is generally highly under-expanded. Immediately at the nozzle exit, a shock structure develops which can provide essential information about the downstream flow. This shock structure, generally referred to as a “barrel” shock, provides a key to understanding the full injection process. It is examined both experimentally and numerically in this paper.

  12. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas as an alternative fuel: a regional-level social cost-benefit appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Paulo Pires; Caetano, Fernando J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The impact from traditional marine fuels has the potential of causing health and non-health damages and contributes to climate change. Here, the introduction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as an energy end-use fuel for marine purposes is analysed. The aim of this study is to verify LNG’s policy implementation feasibility as a step-change for a low carbon perspective for shipping by means of developing a social cost-benefit analysis on a regional basis. Emissions from the Portuguese merchant f...

  14. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  15. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  16. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    GTL plants in the world (two in both Malaysia and Qatar and one in South Africa). As recent developments are increasing the supply of natural gas...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The article (likely in cleaner form) will eventually be posted online at: http://www.tacticaldefensemedia.com/archive/dod_power.php The...there are approximately 1,400 CNG and 100 LNG (public and private) refueling stations, compared to about 150,000 retail fueling stations. While

  17. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  18. Realizing the dream: greenhouse gas free transportation through the application of Canada's fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) generate electrical power without combustion using electrochemical processes and therefore do not have to first convert the fuel to heat and shaft-power before electricity is produced. They are, therefore, high efficiency energy converters and unlike batteries are able to continuously provide electrical power as long as fuel and air are fed to the electrodes. Fuel cells are now of great interest to the automotive industry throughout the world. The most economic fuel for fuel cells is reformed natural gas that is favoured by the utility industry, but methanol (as well, ethanol is being proposed by a GM, Shell, Argonne study) is one contender for fuel cells being developed for transportation. Several different fuel cell technologies exist. Recent developments in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology suggest that SOFCs could more easily adapt to conventional gasoline and diesel fuels and are less prone to catalyst poisoning than other fuel cells such as the solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) type, often also called the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, being developed by Ballard in Canada. However, there remain significant development problems for SOFC technology related to the high operating temperatures (700 to 1000 deg C). In this paper, the range of fuel cell technologies now being developed will be reviewed since there is a convergence in the use of fuel cells for the production of power in distributed fixed systems and power sources for transportation. The factors that will determine the dominating technologies for automobile and truck propulsion in the future are the same as those currently in play. These factors are: performance, cost and convenience of the technologies. A common feature in these three factors is efficiency from which the environmental impact of the technology is largely determined-Electric propulsion in some form will ultimately be favoured over combustion systems because combustion systems are limited by fundamental

  19. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  20. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-01-01

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heat-recovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heatrecovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  3. Emission characterization and evaluation of natural gas-fueled cogeneration microturbines and internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Aldo; Chicco, Gianfranco; Genon, Giuseppe; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The increasing diffusion of small-scale energy systems within the distributed generation (DG) paradigm is raising the need for studying the environmental impact due to the different DG solutions in order to assess their sustainability. Addressing the environmental impact calls for building specific models for studying both local and global emissions. In this framework, the adoption of natural gas-fueled DG cogeneration technologies may provide, as a consequence of cogeneration enhanced overall energy efficiency and of natural gas relatively low carbon content, a significant reduction of global impact in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to the separate production of electricity and heat. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the DG alternatives should take into account as well the impact due to the presence of plants spread over the territory that could increase the local pollution, in particular due to CO and NO x , and thus could worsen the local air quality. This paper provides an overview on the characterization of the emissions from small-scale natural gas-fueled cogeneration systems, with specific reference to the DG technologies nowadays most available in the market, namely, microturbines and internal combustion engines. The corresponding local and global environmental impacts are evaluated by using the emission balance approach. A numerical case study with two representative machines highlights their different emission characteristics, also considering the partial-load emission performance

  4. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  6. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  7. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  8. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    logo, Direct FuelCell and “DFC” are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Applications •On-site self generation of combined heat... of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Fuels Resources for DFC • Natural Gas and LNG • Propane • Biogas (by Anaerobicnaerobic Digestion) - Municipal Waste...FUEL RESOURCES z NATURAL GAS z PROPANE z DFC H2 (50-60%) z ETHANOL zWASTE METHANE z BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency

  9. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Wang, Kai; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm 2 . The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for a relatively large sized fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  10. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  11. Rapid fuel switching from coal to natural gas through effective carbon pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. A. Grant; Staffell, Iain

    2018-05-01

    Great Britain's overall carbon emissions fell by 6% in 2016, due to cleaner electricity production. This was not due to a surge in low-carbon nuclear or renewable sources; instead it was the much-overlooked impact of fuel switching from coal to natural gas generation. This Perspective considers the enabling conditions in Great Britain and the potential for rapid fuel switching in other coal-reliant countries. We find that spare generation and fuel supply-chain capacity must already exist for fuel switching to deliver rapid carbon savings, and to avoid further high-carbon infrastructure lock-in. More important is the political will to alter the marketplace and incentivize this switch, for example, through a stable and strong carbon price. With the right incentives, fuel switching in the power sector could rapidly achieve on the order of 1 GtCO2 saving per year worldwide (3% of global emissions), buying precious time to slow the growth in cumulative carbon emissions.

  12. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  13. Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakianitis, T.; Namasivayam, A.M.; Crookes, R.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel that has been used and investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Compared with conventional gasoline engines, SI engines using natural gas can run at higher compression ratios, thus producing higher thermal efficiencies but also increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, while producing lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). These engines also produce relatively less power than gasoline-fueled engines because of the convergence of one or more of three factors: a reduction in volumetric efficiency due to natural-gas injection in the intake manifold; the lower stoichiometric fuel/air ratio of natural gas compared to gasoline; and the lower equivalence ratio at which these engines may be run in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. High NO{sub x} emissions, especially at high loads, reduce with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, EGR rates above a maximum value result in misfire and erratic engine operation. Hydrogen gas addition increases this EGR threshold significantly. In addition, hydrogen increases the flame speed of the natural gas-hydrogen mixture. Power levels can be increased with supercharging or turbocharging and intercooling. Natural gas is used to power CI engines via the dual-fuel mode, where a high-cetane fuel is injected along with the natural gas in order to provide a source of ignition for the charge. Thermal efficiency levels compared with normal diesel-fueled CI-engine operation are generally maintained with dual-fuel operation, and smoke levels are reduced significantly. At the same time, lower NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as well as higher HC and CO emissions compared with normal CI-engine operation at low and intermediate loads are recorded. These trends are caused by the low charge temperature and increased ignition delay, resulting in low combustion temperatures. Another factor is

  14. The golden age of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The experts of energy policy agree to predict a brilliant future for natural gas. Among fossil energies, natural gas produces the least quantity of CO 2 . Geological reserves are estimated to 65 years for gas and 43 years for petroleum. Throughout the world, industrial infrastructures of gas production, transport and distribution are being developed, for instance 430000 km of gas pipeline are planned. In western Europe half the increase of gas demand by 2010 will be due to electricity production. Innovative techniques using natural gas are studied in various fields: cogeneration, transport, urban heating and fuel cells. The gas-fed fuel cell is based on a reversed electrolysis: hydrogen produced by the decomposition of natural gas interacts with oxygen and yields electricity. (A.C.)

  15. Emissions deterioration for three alternative fuel vehicle types: Natural gas, ethanol, and methanol vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebrake, J.J.; Deaton, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Although there have been several studies examining emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about the deterioration of these emissions over vehicle lifetimes and how this deterioration compares with deterioration from conventional vehicles (CVs). This paper analyzes emissions data from 70 AFVs and 70 CVs operating in the federal government fleet to determine whether AFV emissions deterioration differs significantly from CV emissions deterioration. The authors conduct the analysis on three alternative fuel types (natural gas, methanol, and ethanol) and on five pollutants (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides). They find that for most cases they studied, deterioration differences are not statistically significant; however, several exceptions suggest that air quality planners and regulators must further analyze AFV emissions deterioration in order to properly include these technologies into broader air quality management schemes

  16. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1999-01-01

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages [it

  17. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  18. Developing the market for natural gas and biogas as a vehicle fuel on a regional level (MADEGASCAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard (Austrian Energy Agency (Austria)); Baumgartner, Birgit (Graz Energy Agency, Graz (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    Although natural gas as a car fuel is a more environmentally clean alternative to gasoline or diesel and gas is considerable cheaper and much safer than other fuels, costumers are still suspicious of alternative fuels and vehicles. The main reasons are a lack of awareness and information on the consumer side, as well as a low information and acceptance level among car dealers and service stations. Therefore the MADEGASCAR project directly addresses major barriers by specific actions. The project MADEGASCAR (Market development for gas driven cars including supply and distribution of biogas), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the European commission, aims at developing the market for natural gas vehicles by addressing target groups at the demand side (private car owners, fleet managers) as well as strengthening the supply and distribution infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) municipalities, car dealers, owners of fuel stations, natural gas and biogas suppliers) in 10 participating partner countries. The Unique Selling Point of the MADEGASCAR project is deployment in several regional areas instead of sole basic research. Country specific action plans, which are developed and implemented in the project, will have direct impact on regional markets but also affect car manufacturers and national regulations, resulting in long term changes. The main ambition of the MADEGASCAR project is to increase the number of gas vehicles in the partner regions by 50%.

  19. Combustion characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen hybrid fuel turbulent diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghafour, S.A.A.; El-dein, A.H.E.; Aref, A.A.R. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Port-Said (Egypt)

    2010-03-15

    Combustion characteristics of natural gas - hydrogen hybrid fuel were investigated experimentally in a free jet turbulent diffusion flame flowing into a slow co-flowing air stream. Experiments were carried out at a constant jet exit Reynolds number of 4000 and with a wide range of NG-H{sub 2} mixture concentrations, varied from 100%NG to 50%NG-50% H{sub 2} by volume. The effect of hydrogen addition on flame stability, flame length, flame structure, exhaust species concentration and pollutant emissions was conducted. Results showed that, hydrogen addition sustains a progressive improvement in flame stability and reduction in flame length, especially for relatively high hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen-enriched flames found to have a higher combustion temperatures and reactivity than natural gas flame. Also, it was found that hydrogen addition to natural gas is an ineffective strategy for NO and CO reduction in the studied range, while a significant reduction in the %CO{sub 2} molar concentration by about 30% was achieved. (author)

  20. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlowo, Olufemi O.; Bristow, Abigail L.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  1. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  2. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  3. Large-scale application of natural gas as an engine fuel in public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstegen, P.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Van Schagen, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Options and bottlenecks for the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in public transportation have been inventorized and discussed. Based on interviews with representatives of transportation businesses and their umbrella organizations the demands and wishes are listed in chapter one. In chapter two several types of natural gas storage cylinders, focusing on the weight and the costs of the cylinders and the consequences for the road tax. In chapter three attention is paid to the delivery possibilities of the bus manufacturers DAF, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo and MAN. Technical specifications and data on the energy consumption, emission and other aspects are presented. In chapter three the characteristics of fastfill stations and slowfill stations are assessed for implementing problems, costs and reliability. The costs for the use of CNG in buses, as discussed in chapter five, consist of additional costs for the bus, maintenance, road tax, filling station, safety provisions, and reduced costs for the fuel. In chapter six the regulations and legislation for the use of CNG in vehicles, filling stations and storage cylinders is dealt with. In the final chapters seven and eight the necessity of introductory courses and training is briefly discussed, and an overview of current projects in the Netherlands is given. 13 figs., 14 tabs., refs

  4. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  5. The fuel cell as a energy center. The chances of utilization of sewage gas; Die Brennstoffzelle als Energiezentrum. Die Chancen der Verwertung von Klaergas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, P. [CFC Solutions GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The basis of the fuel cell power station of the CFC Solutions GmbH (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) is the carbonate fuel cell, with which arbitrary gaseous fuels can be used for power generation. The reformation of the methane containing gaseous fuel to hydrogen in the fuel cell requires heat energy, which is obtained as waste heat of the cell reaction. Apart from the electricity by the fuel cell power station heat energy is produced. Thus the fuel cell power station also can be used for the production of process steam and production of coldness by means of an absorption refrigeration system. A further advantage is that for the fuel cell power station no hydrogen have to be manufactured. In comparison to the motoric heat and power cogeneration or small gas turbines thee are further advantages for fuel cell power stations: a) high electrical efficiency within the kilowatt range; b) high temperature useful heat; c) efficient cooling; d) Flexibility with the fuel (natural gas, fermentation gas, sewage gas); e) good extent of utilization of the power station; f) flexible interpretation and operation according to user requirement; g) premium power and USV applications; g) smallest emission to exhaust gas and noises.

  6. The competitiveness of synthetic natural gas as a propellant in the Swedish fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Farzad; Görling, Martin; Alvfors, Per

    2013-01-01

    The road transport sector today is almost exclusively dependent on fossil fuels. Consequently, it will need to face a radical change if it aims to switch from a fossil-based system to a renewable-based system. Even though there are many promising technologies under development, they must also be economically viable to be implemented. This paper studies the economic feasibility of synthesizing natural gas through methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water electrolysis. It is shown that the main influences for profitability are electricity prices, synthetic natural gas (SNG) selling prices and that the by-products from the process are sold. The base scenario generates a 16% annual return on investment assuming that SNG can be sold at the same price as petrol. A general number based on set conditions was that the SNG must be sold at a price about 2.6 times higher per kWh than when bought in form of electricity. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the running costs weigh more heavily than the yearly investment cost and off-peak production can therefore still be economically profitable with only a moderate reduction of electricity price. The calculations and prices are based on Swedish prerequisites but are applicable to other countries and regions. - Highlights: ► The production cost for synthetic natural gas corresponds to the current biogas price. ► High return on capital if the synthetic natural gas could be sold for the same price as petrol. ► Production can cost-effectively be run off-peak hence electricity is the major cost. ► This study is based on Swedish prerequisites but is applicable on other regions.

  7. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  8. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  9. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  10. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Bi-fuel Natural Gas Vehicles Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    power vehicle electronics/accessories. Electronic control module (ECM) - (gasoline): The ECM controls ; safeguards the engine from abuse; and detects and troubleshoots problems. Electronic control module (ECM sensors: These monitor the pressure of the fuel supply and relay that information to the electronic

  12. Advanced gas-emission anode design for microfluidic fuel cell eliminating bubble accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Leung, Dennis Y C; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a low cost, easily fabricated energy device and is considered a promising energy supplier for portable electronics. However, the currently developed microfluidic fuel cells that are fed with hydrocarbon fuels are confronted with a bubble problem especially when operating at high current density conditions. In this work, a gas-emission anode is presented to eliminate the gas accumulation at the anode. This gas-emission anode is verified as a valid design for discharging gaseous products, which is especially beneficial for stable operation of microfluidic fuel cells. The electrochemical performance of a counter-flow microfluidic fuel cell equipped with a gas-emission anode was measured. The results indicate that the specific design of the gas-emission anode is essential for reducing the oxygen reduction reaction parasitic effect at the anode. Fuel utilization of 76.4% was achieved at a flow rate of 0.35 µ l min −1 . Current–voltage curves of single electrodes were measured and the parasitic effect at the anode was identified as the main performance limiting factor in the presented anode design. (paper)

  13. Ensuring Reliable Natural Gas-Fired Generation with Fuel Contracts and Storage - DOE/NETL-2017/1816

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, Paul T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Labarbara, Kirk A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Logan, Cecilia Elise [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-11-17

    This report finds that natural gas-fired power plants purchase fuel both on the spot market and through firm supply contracts; there do not appear to be clear drivers propelling power plants toward one or the other type. Most natural gas-fired power generators are located near major natural gas transmission pipelines, and most natural gas contracts are currently procured on the spot market. Although there is some regional variation in the type of contract used, a strong regional pattern does not emerge. Whether gas prices are higher with spot or firm contracts varies by both region and year. Natural gas prices that push the generators higher in the supply curve would make them less likely to dispatch. Most of the natural gas generators discussed in this report would be unlikely to enter firm contracts if the agreed price would decrease their dispatch frequency. The price points at which these generators would be unlikely to enter a firm contract depends upon the region that the generator is in, and how dependent that region is on natural gas. The Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) is more dependent on natural gas than either Eastern Interconnection or Western Interconnection. This report shows that above-ground storage is prohibitively expensive with respect to providing storage for an extended operational fuel reserve comparable to the amount of on-site fuel storage used for coal-fired plants. Further, both pressurized and atmospheric tanks require a significant amount of land for storage, even to support one day’s operation at full output. Underground storage offers the only viable option for 30-day operational storage of natural gas, and that is limited by the location of suitable geologic formations and depleted fields.

  14. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N; Omata, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  16. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savola, Tuula; Fogelholm, Carl-Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MW e combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO 2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO 2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  17. An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) has been regarded as one of the most important strategies to address the issues of energy dependence, air quality, and, more recently, climate change. Despite decades of effort, we still face daunting challenges to promote wider acceptance of AFVs by the general public. More empirical analyses are needed to understand the technology adoption process associated with different market structures, the effectiveness of regulations and incentives, and the density of infrastructure adequate to reach sustainable commercial application. This paper compares the adoption of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the US. It examines the major policies aimed at promoting the use of NGVs, instruments for implementing those policies and targeting likely stakeholders, and a range of factors that influence the adoption of NGVs. The findings in this paper should be applicable to other AFVs

  18. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  19. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  20. National blueprint for the deployment of liquefied natural gas as marine fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Based on a consultation of professional bodies, this blueprint expresses the strong commitment of the French State with economic actors towards an energy transition on the long term, and more particularly concerns the development of LNG (liquefied natural gas) as marine fuel. This objective complies with national and European environmental objectives for the reduction of greenhouse emissions and for a better air quality. This blueprint notably develops two European directives which addresses the sulphur content of marine fuels, and the deployment of an infrastructure for alternative fuels. In its first part, this document states the strong political support to the development of LNG: environmental objectives, existing financial levers for a progressive evolution towards LNG, adaptation of the regulatory framework for a sustainable emergence of a LNG sector, implementation of specific trainings of sea-based and ground-based personnel for the handling of LNG. It sketches the development of LNG for each French coastline (Manche-North Sea, Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea) by analysing the potential demand, and by presenting current projects. Some specific issues related to LNG development are then addressed and discussed: creation of global LNG sectors, inclusion of projects within a trans-national approach, taking of the LNG multimodal reality into account. A set of actions is finally defined: definition of a national framework, stronger support of actors in the search for relevant financing solutions, emergence of harmonized regulatory conditions, implementation of relevant training for LNG handling, support to the implementation of projects which will enable the emergence of a LNG sector for fuel supply in France

  1. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  3. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  4. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  5. Tuneable diode laser gas analyser for methane measurements on a large scale solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengden, Michael; Cunningham, Robert; Johnstone, Walter

    2011-10-01

    A new in-line, real time gas analyser is described that uses tuneable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) for the measurement of methane in solid oxide fuel cells. The sensor has been tested on an operating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in order to prove the fast response and accuracy of the technology as compared to a gas chromatograph. The advantages of using a TDLS system for process control in a large-scale, distributed power SOFC unit are described. In future work, the addition of new laser sources and wavelength modulation will allow the simultaneous measurement of methane, water vapour, carbon-dioxide and carbon-monoxide concentrations.

  6. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Energy...Overview of Combined Heat+Power PowerElectricity Natural Gas Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas ...Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Source: US DOE 10/2010 Biogas Benefits: Preliminary Analysis Stationary fuel

  7. Effects of ignition parameters on combustion process of a rotary engine fueled with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Baowei; Pan, Jianfeng; Liu, Yangxian; Zhu, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D simulation model based on the chemical reaction kinetics is established. • The tumble near the trailing spark plug is beneficial for the combustion rate. • The best position of the trailing spark plug is at the rear of the tumble zone. • An increase of the tumble effect time can improve the combustion rate. • Considering the rate of pressure rise, the best ignition timing is 50 °CA (BTDC). - Abstract: The side-ported rotary engine fueled with natural gas is a new, clean, efficient energy system. This work aims to numerically study the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a side-ported rotary engine fueled with natural gas under different ignition positions and ignition timings. Simulations were performed using multi-dimensional software ANASYS Fluent. On the basis of the software, a three-dimensional dynamic simulation model was established by writing dynamic mesh programs and choosing a detailed reaction mechanism. The three-dimensional dynamic simulation model, based on the chemical reaction kinetics, was also validated by the experimental data. Meanwhile, further simulations were then conducted to investigate how to impact the combustion process by the coupling function between ignition operating parameter and the flow field inside the cylinder. Simulation results showed that in order to improve the combustion efficiency, the trailing spark plug should be located at the rear of the tumble zone and the ignition timing should be advanced properly. This was mainly caused by the trailing spark plug being located at the rear of the tumble zone, as it not only allowed the fuel in the rear of combustion chamber to be burnt without delay, but also permitted the acceleration of the flame propagation by the tumble. Meanwhile, with advanced ignition timing, the time between ignition timing and the timing of the tumble disappearance increased, which led to an increase of the tumble effect time used to improve the combustion

  8. Dynamic modeling of gas turbines in integrated gasification fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James Davenport

    2009-12-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid systems for use in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems operating on coal will stretch existing fossil fuel reserves, generate power with less environmental impact, while having a cost of electricity advantage over most competing technologies. However, the dynamic performance of a SOFC-GT in IGFC applications has not been previously studied in detail. Of particular importance is how the turbo-machinery will be designed, controlled and operated in such applications; this is the focus of the current work. Perturbation and dynamic response analyses using numerical SimulinkRTM models indicate that compressor surge is the predominant concern for safe dynamic turbo-machinery operation while shaft over-speed and excessive turbine inlet temperatures are secondary concerns. Fuel cell temperature gradients and anode-cathode differential pressures were found to be the greatest concerns for safe dynamic fuel cell operation. Two control strategies were compared, that of constant gas turbine shaft speed and constant fuel cell temperature, utilizing a variable speed gas turbine. Neither control strategy could eliminate all vulnerabilities during dynamic operation. Constant fuel cell temperature control ensures safe fuel cell operation, while constant speed control does not. However, compressor surge is more likely with constant fuel cell temperature control than with constant speed control. Design strategies that provide greater surge margin while utilizing constant fuel cell temperature control include increasing turbine design mass flow and decreasing turbine design inlet pressure, increasing compressor design pressure ratio and decreasing compressor design mass flow, decreasing plenum volume, decreasing shaft moment of inertia, decreasing fuel cell pressure drop, maintaining constant compressor inlet air temperature. However, these strategies in some cases incur an efficiency penalty. A broad comparison of cycles

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  10. Diesel vs. compressed natural gas for school buses: a cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing emissions from school buses is a priority for both state and federal regulators. Two popular alternative technologies to conventional diesel (CD) are emission controlled diesel (ECD), defined here to be diesel buses equipped with continuously regenerating particle filters, and engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper uses a previously published model to quantify the impact of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions on population exposure to ozone and to primary and secondary PM, and to quantify the resulting health damages, expressed in terms of lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Resource costs include damages from greenhouse gas-induced climate change, vehicle procurement, infrastructure development, and operations. I find that ECD and CNG produce very similar reductions in health damages compared to CD, although CNG has a modest edge because it may have lower NO x emissions. However, ECD is far more cost effective ($400,000-900,000 cost per QALY saved) than CNG (around $4 million per QALY saved). The results are uncertain because the model used makes a series of simplifying assumptions and because emissions data and cost data for school buses are very limited

  11. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  12. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  13. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  14. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  15. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  16. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    DOE's natural gas mission, in partnership with its stakeholders, is to undertake and promote activities to maximize the Nation's ability to supply, transport, and use natural gas to encourage economic growth, enhance energy interests security, and improve the environment. In implementing this mission, DOE has been involved in promoting domestic natural gas as a clean, abundant, and reliable source of energy. In particular, DOE is interested in technologies capable of converting natural gas to other valuable resources, such as transportation fuels, hydrogen, and premium chemicals. The purpose of the proposed action is to further examine the potential of one such technology for natural gas conversion. Over the past five years, DOE's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has supported a research program to determine the feasibility of producing methyl chloride (CH 3 Cl), a key ingredient used in the silicone industry, directly from methane (the primary component of natural gas) via an oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) process. As a result of this research program the OHC process is now ready for further development. The proposed action would advance the OHC natural gas conversion technology to an integrated engineering-scale process at the Dow Corning plant in Carrollton, Kentucky

  17. Modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with variable distance gas flow in anode and cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shahbudin Masdar; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    A number of fundamental studies have been directed towards increasing our understanding of PEM fuel cell and their performance. Mathematical modeling is one of the way and very essential component in the development of this fuel cell. Model validation is presented, the validated model is then used to investigate the behavior of mole fraction of gases, current density, and the performances of stack using polarization curve depending on distance gases flow in channel. The model incorporates a complete cell with both the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the serpentine gas distributor channel. Finally, the parametric studies in single stack design are illustrated

  18. Gas composition modeling in a reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system using adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method for modeling the gas composition in a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system. The method is based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Inference-Systems which are trained on experimental data. The developed models are of the H2, CO2, CO and CH3OH mass flows of the reformed gas. The ANFIS......, or fuel cell diagnostics systems....

  19. Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Harun, Nor Farida; Hackett, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing...

  20. Control oriented modeling of ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxygen fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinhai; Li Yanzhong; Cai Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    A one-equation model is proposed for fuel ejector in anode gas recirculation solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Firstly, the fundamental governing equations are established by employing the thermodynamic, fluid dynamic principles and chemical constraints inside the ejector; secondly, the one-equation model is derived by using the parameter analysis and lumped-parameter method. Finally, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is employed to obtain the source data for determining the model parameters. The effectiveness of the model is studied under a wide range of operation conditions. The effect of ejector performance on the anode gas recirculation SOFC system is also discussed. The presented model, which only contains four constant parameters, is useful in real-time control and optimization of fuel ejector in the anode gas recirculation SOFC system.

  1. Analysis of Gas Leakage and Current Loss of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Screen Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chuan; Han, Minfang; Chen, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Two types of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) NiO-YSZ/YSZ/GDC/LSCF with the same structure and different manufacturing process were tested. Gas leakage was suspected for cells manufactured with screen printing technique. Effective leak current densities for both types of cells were...... calculated. Their performances of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were compared and distribution function of relaxation times (DRT) technique was also used to find the clue of gas leakage. Finally, thinning and penetrating holes were observed in electrolyte layer, which confirmed the occurrence...

  2. LNG [liquefied natural gas]: Fueling energy demand in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the supply and demand outlook for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the far east, and the basic elements of an LNG supply project in Japan. Power generation is the primary market for LNG in the far east, due to a preference for energy supply diversity, large undeveloped gas resources, drastic improvements in power generation technology, and environmental advantages of natural gas. India and mainland China represent huge potential markets, and projects are under discussion to bring gas by pipeline from Iran or Qatar to both Pakistan or India. The economics of LNG plant development in Japan, including large ($4 billion for field and plant development) capital costs, long-term contracts, government involvement, and gas prices are discussed. Falling yen/dollar exchange rates have substantially bettered the Japanese economy in terms of gas prices. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  4. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas as marine fuel. A challenge to take up collectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Jean-Francois; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Allais, Vincent; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2013-02-01

    This report is the first of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as marine fuel. Tougher sulfur oxides pollution regulations will lead to the progressive abandonment of heavy fuels in maritime propulsion. LNG can meet the future environmental imperatives but its introduction as marine fuel implies important naval and infrastructure investments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - ship fuels; 2 - LNG's advantages; 3 - the necessary adaptations in France for LNG development as marine fuel (infrastructures, regulation, existing examples, exemptions, European policies); 4 - economical actors involvement, industrial challenges, pilot projects, communication, investments financing and actors coordination

  5. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  7. Experimental investigation and combustion analysis of a direct injection dual-fuel diesel-natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlucci, A.P.; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D.; Naccarato, F. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, CREA, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG-air charge. The CNG was injected into the intake manifold via a gas injector on purpose designed for this application. The main performance of the gas injector, such as flow coefficient, instantaneous mass flow rate, delay time between electrical signal and opening of the injector, have been characterized by testing the injector in a constant-volume optical vessel. The CNG jet structure has also been characterized by means of shadowgraphy technique. The engine, operating in dual-fuel mode, has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load and speed. For all the tested operating conditions, the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure, together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection, were analyzed on the combustion development and, as a consequence, on the engine performance, in terms of specific emission levels and fuel consumption. (author)

  8. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  9. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO 2 per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment

  10. Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with light oil, natural gas and low calorific value gas; Entwicklung eines Mehrstoffbrenners fuer Heizoel-, Erdgas- und Schwachgasbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Anne; Tali, Eren [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In the course of the AiF research project 'Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with natural gas, light oil and low calorific value gas (MSB)' (IGF Grant No. 16202 N), various burner concepts based on the principle of continuously staged air were developed, analysed by means of computational fluid dynamics, built, investigated experimentally and finally tested at a real biomass gasifier (plant). This article describes the results of this research project. (orig.)

  11. Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Kandlikar, Milind

    2008-08-15

    Between 2001 and 2003, public transport vehicles in New Delhi were required to switch their fuel to natural gas in an attemptto reduce their air pollution impacts. This study examines the climatic impacts of New Delhi's fuel switching policy, and outlines implications for such efforts in rapidly industrializing countries. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Emitted aerosols (black carbon, particulate organic carbon, and sulfate) also cause radiative forcing. We find that methane and black carbon emissions are critical contributors to the change in carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2(e)] emissions. In New Delhi, the switch to natural gas results in a 30% increase in CO2(e) when the impact of aerosols is not considered. However, when aerosol emissions are taken into account in our model, the net effect of the switch is estimated to be a 10% reduction in CO2(e), and there may be as much as a 30% reduction in CO2(e). There is significant potential for emissions reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism for such fuel switching projects.

  12. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  13. The Role of Post Flame Oxidation on the UHC Emission for Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen Containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Kvist; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    In-cylinder post flame oxidation of unburned hydro-carbons from crevices in a lean burn spark ignition engine has been examined for natural gas and mixtures of natural gas and a hydrogen containing producer gas. For this purpose a model was developed to describe the mixing of cold unburned...... reactants from crevices and hot burned bulk gas and to describe the oxidation of the unburned fuel. The post oxidation was described by a single step chemical reaction mechanism instead of detailed chemical kinetics in order to reduce the calculation time. However, the exploited Arrhenius expressions used...... to describe the chemical reactions were deduced from a detailed reaction mechanism. Different detailed reaction mechanisms were compared with results from combustion reactor experiments. Experiments and simulations were compared at different pressures and excesses of air similar to the conditions present...

  14. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  15. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  16. Performance of PEM fuel cells stack as affected by number of cell and gas flow-rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syampurwadi, A.; Onggo, H.; Indriyati; Yudianti, R.

    2017-03-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising technology as an alternative green energy due to its high power density, low operating temperatures, low local emissions, quiet operation and fast start up-shutdown. In order to apply fuel cell as portable power supply, the performance investigation of small number of cells is needed. In this study, PEMFC stacks consisting of 1, 3, 5 and 7-cells with an active area of 25 cm2 per cell have been designed and developed. Their was evaluated in variation of gas flow rate. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was prepared by hot-pressing commercial gas diffusion electrodes (Pt loading 0.5 mg/cm2) on pre-treated Nafion 117 membrane. The stacks were constructed using bipolar plates in serpentine pattern and Z-type gas flow configuration. The experimental results were presented as polarization and power output curves which show the effects of varying number of cells and H2/O2 flow-rates on the PEMFC performance. The experimental results showed that not only number of cells and gas flow-rates affected the fuel cells performance, but also the operating temperature as a result of electrochemistry reaction inside the cell.

  17. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  18. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  19. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  20. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  1. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas as marine fuel. Progress report at 31 August 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maler, Philippe; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2014-09-01

    This report is the second of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as marine fuel. Tougher sulfur oxides pollution regulations will lead to the progressive abandonment of heavy fuels in maritime propulsion. LNG can meet the future environmental imperatives but its introduction as marine fuel implies important naval and infrastructure investments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - Progresses made by the coordination mission between February 2013 and July 2014 (multiplicity of intervening actors and communication problems); 2 - situation and perspectives of member countries policy having an impact on marine bunker fuels (fuel substitution directive project, marine CO 2 pollution monitoring project, EU's air quality policy and ships emissions, energy and environment policies by 2030, maritime transport and environmental pollution); 3 - rules and standards for LNG-fueled ships supply and exploitation (LNG-fueled ships, fuel supply, regulations, personnel training, European framework); 4 - ships and LNG facilities financing (European programs, financing); 5 - pilot project's situation (Dunkerque harbour, Brittany Ferries project, Montoir and Fos LNG terminals, big and decentralized harbours, Ministry's actions, French projects with European participation)

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  3. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  4. Modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Stefanescu, Ioan; Dorcioman, Gabriela; Serban, Nicolae; Axente, Emil; Sima, Felix; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ioan N.; Enculescu, Ionut

    2010-01-01

    Full text; In this paper there are presented the first results regarding the development of a modified gas diffusion layer for fuel cells consisting of a simple or teflonized carbon cloth deposited by pulsed laser with metal oxide nanostructures. These are designed to operate both as co-catalyst, and oxidic support for other electrochemically active catalysts. We selected TiO 2 , ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO which were uniformly distributed over the surface of gas diffusion layers in order to improve the catalytic activity, stability and lifetime, and reduce the production costs of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy that our depositions consisted of TiO 2 nanoparticles while in the case of ZnO and Al 2 O 3 doped (2 wt.%) ZnO transparent quasicontinuous films were synthesized. (authors)

  5. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  6. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...

  7. Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Seok; Chung, J.N.; Chen, Yen-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. → Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO 2 absorbent unit are investigated. → The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. → The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO 2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO 2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

  8. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Slodczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole, but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  9. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  10. Hydrogen from biomass gas steam reforming for low temperature fuel cell: energy and exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to analyze hydrogen production by biomass gasification, as well as electric power generation in small scale fuel cells. The proposed methodology is the thermodynamic modeling of a reaction system for the conversion of methane and carbon monoxide (steam reforming, as well as the energy balance of gaseous flow purification in PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption is used with eight types of gasification gases in this study. The electric power is generated by electrochemical hydrogen conversion in fuel cell type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Energy and exergy analyses are applied to evaluate the performance of the system model. The simulation demonstrates that hydrogen production varies with the operation temperature of the reforming reactor and with the composition of the gas mixture. The maximum H2 mole fraction (0.6-0.64 mol.mol-1 and exergetic efficiency of 91- 92.5% for the reforming reactor are achieved when gas mixtures of higher quality such as: GGAS2, GGAS4 and GGAS5 are used. The use of those gas mixtures for electric power generation results in lower irreversibility and higher exergetic efficiency of 30-30.5%.

  11. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  12. Electricity generation from synthesis gas by microbial processes: CO fermentation and microbial fuel cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Chang, In Seop

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological process was established to harvest electricity from the carbon monoxide (CO). A CO fermenter was enriched with CO as the sole carbon source. The DGGE/DNA sequencing results showed that Acetobacterium spp. were enriched from the anaerobic digester fluid. After the fermenter was operated under continuous mode, the products were then continuously fed to the microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity. Even though the conversion yield was quite low, this study proved that synthesis gas (syn-gas) can be converted to electricity with the aid of microbes that do not possess the drawbacks of metal catalysts of conventional methods.

  13. The Externe project. Assessment of the external costs of the natural gas fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed bottom-up methodology for assessment of the external costs of energy has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, pan-European team as part of the European Commissions's JOULE Programme. The consequences of the generation of electricity from fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, in terms of damages to human health, buildings and the wider environment, have been assessed within a consistent framework. The potential application of the results in cost-benefit analysis, power system optimisation, emissions charging, etc. is also now under investigation. The analysis starts with definition of the fuel cycle, and specification of the technologies and locations to be considered. Results to date show that for typical modern examples of power plants burning different fossil fuels, externalities (including possible global warming effects) are lowest for gas-burning plant. (R.P.)

  14. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  15. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  16. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  17. Radiation doses due to natural radon gas releases from the final disposal facility of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, K.; Arvela, H.

    1998-03-01

    Building an underground repository for the spent nuclear fuel increases releases of natural radon gas. In the report the radon releases, the resulting doses as well as the radon concentration in the repository air are investigated. There are four optional building locations for the underground repository and three different strategies of construction. Optional sites are Olkiluoto of Eurajoki, Romuvaara of Kuhmo, Haestholmen of Loviisa and Kivetty of Aeaenekoski. The most significant radon sources in the underground repository are the rockwalls and the groundwater leaking to the repository. High groundwater radon concentrations can increase significantly radon concentration in the repository air despite the groundwater leak rate is low. The radon source strength from the rockwalls, groundwater and macadam spreaded on the floor of the repository is estimated in this report. Using these results the radon concentration in the repository is calculated for several air exchange rates. Data from petrological studies performed at the optional building sites as well as the measurement data of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has been utilized. Rough approximations were needed when estimating the radon source strength. The estimated total radon source strength varies between 1 - 600 MBq/h depending on the repository construction strategy. Repository indoor air radon concentration with no air exchange varies between 0,7 - 120 kBq/m 3 . Using the most probable estimates on radon source strength, the allowed indoor radon concentration of 400 Bq/m 3 at workplaces is achieved by using the air exchange rate of 0,5 l/h in every optional repository. Repository exhaust air and the pile of macadam increases the radon levels in the environment. The radiation dose to the critical person depends on the open volume of the repository. The annual radiation dose calculated from the most probable radon source strength at the distance of 500 metres is below 0,005 mSv at all sites

  18. Direct synthesis of Pt-free catalyst on gas diffusion layer of fuel cell and usage of high boiling point fuels for efficient utilization of waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Ravi; Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Direct-grown boron-doped carbon nanotubes on gas-diffusion layer as efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for alcohol fuel cells, high boiling point fuels used to obtain hot fuels for the enhancement of cell performance that paves the way for the utilization of waste heat. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •One-step direct synthesis of boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) on gas diffusion layer (GDL). •Home built fuel-cell testing using BCNTs on GDL as Pt-free cathode catalyst. •BCNTs exhibit concentration dependent oxygen reduction reaction and the cell performance. •Effective utilization of waste heat to raise the fuel temperature. •Fuel selectivity to raise the fuel temperature and the overall performance of the fuel cells. -- Abstract: Gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrocatalysts are integral parts of fuel cells. It is, however, a challenging task to grow Pt-free robust electrocatalyst directly on GDL for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – a key reaction in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) grown directly on gas-diffusion layer (which avoid the need of ionomer solution used for catalyst loading) can be used as efficient Pt-free catalyst in alcohol fuel cells. Increase in boron concentration improves the electrochemical ORR activity in terms of onset and ORR peak positions, half-wave potentials and diffusion-limited current density that ensure the optimization of the device performance. The preferential 4e − pathway, excellent cell performance, superior tolerance to fuel crossover and long-term stability makes directly grown BCNTs as an efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for cost-effective fuel cells. The maximum power density of the fuel cell is found to increase monotonically with boron concentration. In addition to the application of BCNTs in fuel cell, we have introduced the concept of hot fuels so that waste heat can effectively be used and external power sources can be avoided. The fuel

  19. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  20. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  1. Natural gas as raw material for clean fuels and chemicals in the next decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colitti, M.

    1998-01-01

    Modern industry originates in a change of feedstock, the result of a never-ending quest for a better, cheaper raw material. In the origin, there was coal, a source of both energy and industrial feedstock, the so-called synthesis gas. Then, coal was replaced by liquid hydrocarbons, coming from a refinery or from wells of crude oil and gas. The passage from solid to liquids was part and parcel of a structural change which has produced an extraordinary acceleration of economic growth. We might hope that the same will happen when natural gas will comes in to displace the liquids. New feedstocks do not come in without a fight. It is not only a matter of price, but also of technology, and of the natural tendency of industries to protect their own investments in plants which are all of a sudden made to look old. Rather than repeat for the 'nth' time the list of technologies which can turn natural gas into a basic feedstock for oil and petrochemical industries, the author discusses how will companies decide upon this matter

  2. Balancing natural gas policy : Fueling the demands of a growing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002 a request was made to the National Petroleum Council by the United States Secretary of Energy to examine the potential implications of new supplies, technologies, perceptions of risk on natural gas demand, supplies, and delivery through 2025. In addition, the Secretary was looking for insight on energy market dynamics and an outlook on the longer-term sustainability of natural gas supplies. Ideas on ways to improve the productivity and efficiency of North American natural gas markets while ensuring adequate and reliable supplies of energy for consumers were also requested. Two options were examined by the National Petroleum Council (NPC). The reactive path involves public policies which remain in conflict, while the balanced future involves aligned public policies. It was discovered that 75 per cent of long-term American gas needs will be met by traditional North American producing areas which will be unable to meet projected demand. Production growth is desirable in the Rockies and deepwater Gulf of Mexico, as well as non conventional production. After careful examination, it was determined that demand flexibility and efficiency must be improved, along with an increase in supply diversity. Infrastructure must be enhanced and sustained, and efficient markets must be promoted. All these measures would result in higher economic growth, higher employment, and stronger industrial activity. figs

  3. Gas process technology for fuel cells. Desulfurization and other key problems; Gasprozesstechnik fuer Brennstoffzellen. Entschwefelung und andere Kernfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, A.; Kalk, T.; Kvasnicka, A.; Roes, J.; Steffen, M.; Witzany, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., (Germany). ZBT Duisburg

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells as Micro-CHP units for residential energy supply are one important technology option to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Starting from natural gas as energy carrier, hydrogen is generated by catalytic processes. Prototypes are operated in field test in the meanwhile, but there are still important technical and scientific questions to deal with, as there are e.g. the desulfurisation of natural gas, the optimisation of heat integration in order to improve the efficiency of the complete system, the realisation of a closed water loop and last but not least the formation and impact of ammonia. At the same time, cost aspects and production technology have to be considered. (orig.)

  4. Natural gas; Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank [DVGW-Forschungsstelle am KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Groeschl, Frank; Wetzel, Uwe [DVGW, Bonn (Germany); Heikrodt, Klaus [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Lemgo (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI Gastechnologisches Institut, An-Institut der TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Beestermoeller, Christina; Witschen, Bernhard [Team Consult G.P.E. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Albus, Rolf; Burmeister, Frank [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The reform of the EEG in Germany, a positive global development in natural gas, the decline in oil prices, questions about the security of supply in Europe, and not least the effect of the decision by E.on at the end of 2014 have moved the gas industry. Gas has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions of fossil fuels. Flexibility, storability, useful for networks and the diversity in the application make it an ideal partner for renewable energy. However, these complementary properties are valued at wind and photovoltaics internationally and nationally different. The situation in the gas power plants remains tense. LNG - liquefied natural gas - is on the rise. [German] Die Reform des EEG in Deutschland, eine positive Entwicklung beim Gas weltweit, der Verfall der Oelpreises, Fragen zur Versorgungssicherheit in Europa und nicht zuletzt die Auswirkung der Entscheidung von E.on Ende 2014 haben die Gaswirtschaft bewegt. Gas weist die geringsten CO{sub 2}-Emissioen der fossilen Energietraeger auf. Flexibilitaet, Speicherbarkeit, Netzdienlichkeit sowie die Vielfalt in der Anwendung machen es zum idealen Partner der erneuerbaren Energien. Allerdings werden diese komplementaeren Eigenschaften zu Wind und Photovoltaik international und national unterschiedlich bewertet. Die Lage bei den Gaskraftwerken bleibt weiter angespannt. LNG - verfluessigtes Erdgas - ist auf dem Vormarsch.

  5. Compressed natural gas (CNG) in fueled systems and the significance of CNG in vehicular transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, G. [Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    Most NG vehicles operate using compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG's popularity stems, in part, from its clean-burning properties. In addition, more than 85,000 CNG vehicles, including one out of every five transit buses, are operating successfully today. This compressed gas is stored in similar fashion to a car's gasoline tank, attached to the rear, top, or undercarriage of the vehicle in a tube-shaped storage tank. A CNG tank can be filled in a similar manner, and in a similar amount of time, to a gasoline tank. (author)

  6. Variation in excess oxidant factor in combustion products of MHD generator. [Natural gas fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkhasik, M S; Mironov, V D; Zakharko, Yu A; Plavinskii, A I

    1977-12-01

    Methods and difficulties associated with determining the excess oxidant factor for natural gas-fired MHD generators are discussed. The measurement of this factor is noted to be essential for the optimization of the combustion chamber and operation of MHD generators. A gas analyzer of electrochemical type is considered as a quick - response sensor capable of analyzing the composition of the combustion products and thus determining accurately the excess oxidant factor. The principle of operation of this sensor is discussed and the dependence of the electrochemical sensor emf on excess oxidant factor is shown. Three types of sensors are illustrated and tables of test results are provided.

  7. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-06-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the combustion process at low loads of a diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu

    2016-01-01

    To construct an effective method to analyze the combustion process of dual fuel engines at low loads, effects of combustion boundaries on the combustion process of an electronically controlled diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine at low loads were investigated. Three typical combustion modes, including h, m and n, appeared under different combustion boundaries. In addition, the time-sequenced characteristic and the heat release rate-imbalanced characteristic were found in the dual fuel engine combustion process. To quantify these characteristics, two quantitative indicators, including the TSC (time-sequenced coefficient) and the HBC (HRR-balanced coefficient) were defined. The results show that increasing TSC and HBC can decrease HC (hydrocarbon) emissions and improve the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) significantly. The engine with the n combustion mode can obtain the highest BTE and the lowest HC emissions, followed by m, and then h. However, the combustion process of the engine will deteriorate sharply if boundary conditions are not strictly controlled in the n combustion mode. Based on the n combustion mode, advancing the start of diesel injection significantly, using large EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate and appropriately intake throttling can effectively reduce HC emissions and improve the BTE of dual fuel engines at low loads with relatively high natural gas PES (percentage energy substitution). - Highlights: • We reported three typical combustion modes of a dual-fuel engine at low loads. • Time-sequenced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • HRR-imbalanced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • Three combustion modes appeared as equivalence ratio/diesel injection timing varied. • The engine performance varied significantly with different combustion mode.

  9. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambuehl, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  10. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R; Seidl, Peter R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  11. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G. [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  12. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  13. Performance evaluation of an advanced air-fuel ratio controller on a stationary, rich-burn natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuparampil, Roshan Joseph

    The advent of an era of abundant natural gas is making it an increasingly economical fuel source against incumbents such as crude oil and coal, in end-use sectors such as power generation, transportation and industrial chemical production, while also offering significant environmental benefits over these incumbents. Equipment manufacturers, in turn, are responding to widespread demand for power plants optimized for operation with natural gas. In several applications such as distributed power generation, gas transmission, and water pumping, stationary, spark-ignited, natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the power plant of choice (over turbines) owing to their lower equipment and operational costs, higher thermal efficiencies across a wide load range, and the flexibility afforded to end-users when building fine-resolution horsepower topologies: modular size increments ranging from 100 kW -- 2 MW per ICE power plant compared to 2 -- 5 MW per turbine power plant. Under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's (EPA) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (RICE NESHAP) air quality regulations, these natural gas power plants are required to comply with stringent emission limits, with several states mandating even stricter emissions norms. In the case of rich-burn or stoichiometric natural gas ICEs, very high levels of sustained emissions reduction can be achieved through exhaust after-treatment that utilizes Non Selective Catalyst Reduction (NSCR) systems. The primary operational constraint with these systems is the tight air-fuel ratio (AFR) window of operation that needs to be maintained if the NSCR system is to achieve simultaneous reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH 2O). Most commercially available AFR controllers utilizing lambda (oxygen

  14. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  15. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  16. Characteristic of The RSG-Gas Oxide Fuel Element Temperature Under Forced Convection And Natural Convection Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarmono

    2000-01-01

    One of the methods used for fuel element plate temperature measurement in RSG-Gas is a direct measurement. Evaluation on the measurement results were done by using HEATHYDE and NATCON code, which was then compared to the safety margin criteria. Results of thermalhydraulic measurement on transitional core both under forced and natural convection were compared with the results of calculations using the two codes. Measurement result for maximum fuel element plate temperature at typical working core of 30 MW, was 121 o C. The deviation between calculation and measurement result was under 9.75 %. Under normal operation, safety margin on DNB and OFI are 3.56 and 2.60, respectively. Natcon calculation result showed that the typical working core under the natural circulation mode, an onset of nucleate boiling (ONB)occurred at a core power level of 826 kW (2.8% of the nominal power)

  17. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  18. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  19. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  20. Natural gas : nirvana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2001-01-01

    Despite completing 8,900 gas wells in year 2000, the deliverability of natural gas out of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was stagnant which has left many analysts wondering whether the basin has reached its limit. It also leaves many wondering if gas producers will be able to meet the strong demand for natural gas in the future. Nearly all new electrical generation being built in the U.S. is gas-based due to strict new environmental standards limiting the growth in hydro and coal-powered generation. Any future coal plants will use gasification technology and combined cycle turbines. Combined cycle turbines developed by Boeing and Lockheed are more efficient than combustion turbines, making gas more competitive with fuel alternatives. The lack of growth in natural gas supply has left storage levels near record lows. Demand is expected to increase in 2001 by 3.2 per cent to 23 trillion cubic feet in the U.S. Longer term, major new reserves must be brought on stream to meet this demand. It was noted that the easy discoveries within the WCSB have been made. The new plays are smaller, more technically complex and expensive which suggests that more investment is needed in training geologists, geophysicists and petroleum engineers to find new reserves. The Canadian Energy Research Institute agrees that there is enough gas in Alberta and British Columbia to meet current demands but efforts must shift towards drilling in the foothills front and northwest regions of Alberta to increase deliverability. Brief notes on several gas finds by various oil and gas companies in the area were presented. The article also discussed the huge untapped potential of northern reserves. Analysts have noted 44 Tcf of proven reserve, with a potential of 165 Tcf. In addition, new pipelines from the Alaskan North Slope and the Mackenzie Delta could transport nearly 2 Tcf annually to market. Wells drilled by Chevron and Paramount at Fort Liard in 1999 initially flowed at rates up to

  1. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  2. Dynamic modelling and characterisation of a solid oxide fuel cell integrated in a gas turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on three main areas within the field of SOFC/GT-technology: 1) Development of a dynamic SOFC/GT model. 2) Model calibration and sensitivity study. 3) Assessment of the dynamic properties of a SOFC/GT power plant. The SOFC/GT model developed in this thesis describes a pressurised tubular Siemens Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated in a gas turbine cycle. The process further includes a plate-fin recuperator for stack air preheating, a prereformer, an anode exhaust gas recycling loop for steam/carbon-ratio control, an afterburner and a shell-tube heat exchanger for air preheating. The fuel cell tube, the recuperator and the shell-tube heat exchanger are spatially distributed models. The SOFC model is further thermally integrated with the prereformer. The compressor and turbine models are based on performance maps as a general representation of the characteristics. In addition, a shaft model which incorporates moment of inertia is included to account for gas turbine transients. The SOFC model is calibrated against experimentally obtained data from a single-cell experiment performed on a Siemens Westinghouse tubular SOFC. The agreement between the model and the experimental results is good. The sensitivity study revealed that the degree of prereforming is of great importance with respect to the axial temperature distribution of the fuel cell. Types of malfunctions are discussed prior to the dynamic behaviour study. The dynamic study of the SOFC/GT process is performed by simulating small and large load changes according to three different strategies; 1) Load change at constant mean fuel cell temperature. 2) Load change at constant turbine inlet temperature. 3) Load change at constant shaft speed. Of these three strategies, the constant mean fuel cell temperature strategy appears to be the most rapid load change method. Furthermore, this strategy implies the lowest degree of thermal cycling, the smoothest fuel cell temperature distribution and

  3. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Diffusion and Gas Conversion Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Loads via AC Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert U. Payne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurements were conducted under practical load conditions in solid oxide fuel cells of differing sizes. For a 2 cm2 button cell, impedance spectra data were separately measured for the anode, cathode, and total cell. Improved equivalent circuit models are proposed and applied to simulate each of measured impedance data. Circuit elements related to the chemical and physical processes have been added to the total-cell model to account for an extra relaxation process in the spectra not measured at either electrode. The processes to which elements are attributed have been deduced by varying cell temperature, load current, and hydrogen concentration. Spectra data were also obtained for a planar stack of five 61 cm2 cells and the individual cells therein, which were fitted to a simplified equivalent circuit model of the total button cell. Similar to the button cell, the planar cells and stack exhibit a pronounced low-frequency relaxation process, which has been attributed to concentration losses, that is, the combined effects of diffusion and gas conversion. The simplified total-cell model approximates well the dynamic behavior of the SOFC cells and the whole stack.

  5. Gas diffusion layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Department of Engineering Technology, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Kannan, A.M.; Lin, J.F.; Saminathan, K. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Department of Engineering Technology, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Ho, Y. [Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 41354 (China); Lin, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States)

    2009-10-20

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) is one of the critical components acting both as the functional as well as the support structure for membrane-electrode assembly in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The role of the GDL is very significant in the H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cell to make it commercially viable. A bibliometric analysis of the publications on the GDLs since 1992 shows a total of 400+ publications (>140 papers in the Journal of Power Sources alone) and reveals an exponential growth due to reasons that PEMFC promises a lot of potential as the future energy source for varied applications and hence its vital component GDL requires due innovative analysis and research. This paper is an attempt to pool together the published work on the GDLs and also to review the essential properties of the GDLs, the method of achieving each one of them, their characterization and the current status and future directions. The optimization of the functional properties of the GDLs is possible only by understanding the role of its key parameters such as structure, porosity, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, gas permeability, transport properties, water management and the surface morphology. This paper discusses them in detail to provide an insight into the structural parts that make the GDLs and also the processes that occur in the GDLs under service conditions and the characteristic properties. The required balance in the properties of the GDLs to facilitate the counter current flow of the gas and water is highlighted through its characteristics. (author)

  6. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  7. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  8. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  9. Water transport in gas diffusion media for PEM fuel cells. Experimental and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Joerg

    2010-08-20

    The water flux in partially saturated hydrophobic carbon fibre paper for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications is investigated and compared with the frequently used constitutive two-phase flow model based on Darcy's law. Further, the first steps towards a math-based material design for gas diffusion media are explored in this thesis. Two self-developed ex-situ experiments to investigate the liquid water transport are introduced. The first is a newly developed buoyancy-based measurement of the pressuresaturation relationship on thin porous material with an accuracy of 0.5 kPa for the pressure and {+-} 5% for the saturation. The second experiment measures the pressure drop in dependence of flow rates down to magnitudes of {mu}L/s across the partially saturated thin porous material. This flow rate is relevant for the fuel cell application. The liquid water transport through Toray 060 carbon fibre paper, impregnated with 7% and 10% PTFE is investigated at wet and dry boundary conditions. The experiments are also accompanied by analytical and numerical free surface modelling with the consideration of the material morphology and liquid-solid interaction. The imbibing and draining cases of an arrangement of six fibres at varying solid-liquid interaction and boundary conditions are studied with 'Surface Evolver'. In order to evaluate the findings of ex-situ and modelling work for applicability to water transport in fuel cell operation, the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is assessed. The focus is on the visualisation of 2D and 3D water distribution in the operating fuel cell. The compatibility of the NMR experiment with fuel cell operation in relation to material selection, operating temperature, and current density is addressed. NMR imaging is employed for different current densities, stoichiometries, and fuel cell arrangements. The fuel cell arrangements differ by the cathode diffusion medium. Plain, hydrophobic, and

  10. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    produced from digesters ─ Animal manure (dairy cows, swine ) ─ Waste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills > RNG produced from...LNG) for vehicle fuel ─Ft. Lewis — Anaerobic digestion of waste water for production of hydrogen as a fuel cell vehicle fuel ─SCRA * – Landfill gas...BE CLEANED- UP AND PLACED IN THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM 6 GTI RNG Project Examples >Example GTI Projects: ─Gills Onions— Anaerobic

  11. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  12. Three-dimensional graphene as gas diffusion layer for micro direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Li, Jianyu; Qi, Gary

    2018-05-01

    The gas diffusion layer (GDL), as an important structure of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), provides a support layer for the catalyst and the fuel and the product channel. Traditionally, the material of GDL is generally carbon paper (CP). In this paper, a new material, namely three-dimensional graphene (3DG) is used as GDL for micro DMFC. The experimental results reveal that the performance of the DMFC has been improved significantly by application of 3DG. The peak powers increase from 25 mW to 31.2 mW and 32 mW by using 3DG as the anode and cathode GDL instead of CP, respectively. The reason may be the decrease of charge and mass transfer resistance of the cell. This means that the unique 3D porous architecture of the 3DG can provide lower contact resistance and sufficient fuel diffusion paths. The output performance of the cell will be further improved when porous metal current collectors is used.

  13. Predicting liquid water saturation through differently structured cathode gas diffusion media of a proton exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of gas diffusion media with differently structured properties have been examined with emphasis on the liquid water saturation within the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The cathode electrode consists of a gas diffusion layer (GDL), a micro-porous layer and a

  14. Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran; Ekvall, Tomas; Bjoerklund, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels

  15. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  16. Design optimisation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.; Siddle, A.; Pointon, K.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the combined ALSTOM Power Technology and Advantica Technologies project are reported as: (a) to design a gas turbine (GT) unit compatible with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in a high efficiency power system and aimed at the Distributed Power application range of 1-20MW, and (b) to identify the main features and components of a 'Proof of Concept' hybrid unit of output around 0.1MW, based on existing or near-market technology. The study showed: (i) while the potential for high efficiency SOFC + GT hybrid cycles is clear, little effort has been put into the design of the gas turbine and some other components and (ii) there is room for commercial exploitation in the areas of both component manufacture and system supply.

  17. Climate and health relevant emissions from in-use Indian three-wheelers fueled by natural gas and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Grieshop, Andrew P; Kandlikar, Milind

    2011-03-15

    Auto-rickshaws in India use different fuels and engine technologies, with varying emissions and implications for air quality and climate change. Chassis dynamometer emission testing was conducted on 30 in-use auto-rickshaws to quantify the impact of switching from gasoline to compressed natural gas (CNG) in spark-ignition engines. Thirteen test vehicles had two-stroke CNG engines (CNG-2S) and 17 had four-stroke CNG engines (CNG-4S), of which 11 were dual-fuel and operable on a back-up gasoline (petrol) system (PET-4S). Fuel-based emission factors were determined for gaseous pollutants (CO(2), CH(4), NO(X), THC, and CO) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Intervehicle variability was high, and for most pollutants there was no significant difference (95% confidence level) between "old" (1998-2001) and "new" (2007-2009) age-groups within a given fuel-technology class. Mean fuel-based PM(2.5) emission factor (mean (95% confidence interval)) for CNG-2S (14.2 g kg(-1) (6.2-26.7)) was almost 30 times higher than for CNG-4S (0.5 g kg(-1) (0.3-0.9)) and 12 times higher than for PET-4S (1.2 g kg(-1) (0.8-1.7)). Global warming commitment associated with emissions from CNG-2S was more than twice that from CNG-4S or PET-4S, due mostly to CH(4) emissions. Comprehensive measurements and data should drive policy interventions rather than assumptions about the impacts of clean fuels.

  18. A Study of Pollutant Formation from the Lean Premixed Combustion of Gaseous Fuel Alternatives to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Keith Boyd, Jr.

    The goal of this research is to identify how nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and flame stability (blowout) are impacted by the use of fuels that are alternatives to typical pipeline natural gas. The research focuses on lean, premixed combustors that are typically used in state-of-the-art natural gas fueled systems. An idealized laboratory lean premixed combustor, specifically the jet-stirred reactor, is used for experimental data. A series of models, including those featuring detailed fluid dynamics and those focusing on detailed chemistry, are used to interpret the data and understand the underlying chemical kinetic reasons for differences in emissions between the various fuel blends. An ultimate goal is to use these data and interpretive tools to develop a way to predict the emission and stability impacts of changing fuels within practical combustors. All experimental results are obtained from a high intensity, single-jet stirred reactor (JSR). Five fuel categories are studied: (1) pure H 2, (2) process and refinery gas, including combinations of H2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8, (3) oxygen blown gasified coal/petcoke composed of H2, CO, and CO2, (4) landfill and digester gas composed of CH4, CO2, and N2, and (5) liquified natural gas (LNG)/shale/associated gases composed of CH4, C2H6, and C3 H8. NOx measurements are taken at a nominal combustion temperature of 1800 K, atmospheric pressure, and a reactor residence time of 3 ms. This is done to focus the results on differences caused by fuel chemistry by comparing all fuels at a common temperature, pressure, and residence time. This is one of the few studies in the literature that attempts to remove these effects when studying fuels varying in composition. Additionally, the effects of changing temperature and residence time are investigated for selected fuels. At the nominal temperature and residence time, the experimental and modeling results show the following trends for NOx emissions as a function of fuel type: 1.) NOx

  19. Adsorptive storage of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Song; Lang, Liu; Licheng, Ling

    2001-01-01

    The Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) storage technology is reviewed. The present status, theoretical limits and operational problems are discussed. Natural gas (NG) has a considerable advantage over conventional fuels both from an environmental point of view and for its natural abundance. However, as well known, it has a two fold disadvantage compared with liquid fuels: it is relatively expensive to transport from the remote areas, and its energy density (heat of combustion/volume) is low. All these will restrict its use. Compressed natural gas (CNG) may be a solution, but high pressures are needed (up to 25 MPa) for use in natural-gas fueled vehicles, and the large cost of the cylinders for storage and the high-pressure facilities necessary limit the practical use of CNG. Alternatively, adsorbed natural gas (ANG) at 3 - 4 MPa offers a very high potential for exploitation in both transport and large-scale applications. At present, research about this technology mainly focuses on: to make adsorbents with high methane adsorption capacity; to make clear the effects of heat of adsorption and the effect of impurities in natural gas on adsorption and desorption capacity. This paper provides an overview of current technology and examines the relations between fundamentals of adsorption and ANG storage. (authors)

  20. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Stobbe, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based(e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To preventdetrimental effects on the

  1. Synthetic Natural Gas/ Biogas (Bio-SNG) from Wood as Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Stucki, S.

    2004-03-01

    Biofuel production from wood is an interesting option for the energetic use of wood. Various bio fuels could be produced from woody biomass, such as methanol, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, methane or hydrogen. FT liquids and bio-SNG can be distributed and used via existing infrastructures and therefore fit best today's fossil infrastructure. On an assessment basis from primary to mechanical energy both fuels have pros and cons. For the consolidation of crucial information, i.e. production cost, demonstration plants of transportation fuels are needed. Based on such plants, a detailed evaluation of both fuel chains will be possible. (author)

  2. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  3. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  4. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  5. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  6. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

  7. Effect of cathode gas humidification on performance and durability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cathode inlet gas humidification was studied on single anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC's). The studied cells were Risø 2 G and 2.5 G. The former consists of a LSM:YSZ composite cathode, while the latter consists of a LSCF:CGO composite cathode on a CGO protection layer....... The humidification effect was found to be dependent on both the degree of humidification and the cathode polarization. No significant effect of humidification was found at OCV which rules out the possibility of a traditional poisoning effect with a blocking of active sites. Post-mortem high resolution FEG......-SEM analysis showed clear changes at and around the cathode/electrolyte contact area. In contrast to Risø 2 G cells, a very high tolerance towards humidification of cathode gas air was observed for Risø 2.5 G cells with no detectable effect of humidification even when the humidification was as high as 12.8 mol%...

  8. Gas fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Environment protection is one of the major concerns for public and local authorities worldwide. Automotive transports are in a large part responsible of the daily pollution of urban areas. Gaseous fuels can notably contribute to a reduction of this pollution. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part analyses the reasons and components of pollution in the transport sector: increasing use of private cars with respect to public transport systems for short distance travels, preponderance of road transport for long distance goods delivery, increase of air traffic for passengers and freight transports. For the air pollution itself, three levels are considered: the local CO, VOC (volatile organic compounds), SO 2 , NOx and particulates concentration, the regional pollution which corresponds to spatially diluted pollutants over a wider zone (acid rain and photochemical pollution), and the worldwide pollution with the greenhouse effect and the high altitude ozone problem. The vehicles noise in another important source of urban pollution. The second part of the paper analyses the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels and compares the combustion properties and the pollutants and noise emissions from natural gas for vehicles and LPG with respect to the classical liquid fuels used for private cars and trucks. The third part of the paper is devoted to the US Clean Air Act which regroups the actions developed since 1970 to fight against the photochemical pollution and the 'smog' phenomena. Its historical evolution is summarized: the creation of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), the norms for air quality (NAAQS) and the 1990's eleven amendments about the classification of States pollution, the pollutants emission norms and the development of clean vehicles. (J.S.)

  9. Investigation of gas flow characteristics in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwac, Lee Ku; Kim, Hong Gun

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of electrochemical behavior of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is performed by using a single-phase two-dimensional finite element analysis. Equations of current balance, mass balance, and momentum balance are implemented to simulate the behavior of PEMFC. The analysis results for the co-flow and counterflow mode of gas flow direction are examined in detail in order to compare how the gas flow direction affects quantitatively. The characteristics of internal properties, such as gas velocity distribution, mass fraction of the reactants, fraction of water and current density distribution in PEMFC are illustrated in the electrode and GDL (gas diffusion layer). It is found that the dry reactant gases can be well internally humidified and maintain high performance in the case of the counter-flow mode without external humidification while it is not advantageous for highly humidified or saturated reactant gases. It is also found that the co-flow mode improves the current density distribution with humidified normal condition compared to the counter-flow mode

  10. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  11. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  12. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  13. High-pressure measuring cell for Raman spectroscopic studies of natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    A system for obtaining Raman spectra of gases at high pressure has been constructed. In order to ensure that a natural gas sample is totally representative, a high-pressure gas-measuring cell has been developed, built up by stainless steel fittings and a sapphire tube. The design and construction...... of this cell are described. A perfect pressure seal has been demonstrated up to 15.0 MPaA (MPa absolute). The cell has been successfully used to obtain Raman spectra of natural gas samples. Some of these spectra are presented and assigned. The most remarkable observation in the spectra is that it is possible...... to detect hydrogen sulfide at concentrations of 1-3 mg H2S/Nm(3). An attempt to make a quantitative analysis of natural gas by the so-called "ratio method" is presented. In addition to this, the relative normalized differential Raman scattering cross sections for ethane and i-butane molecules at 8.0 MPa...

  14. Cycle-by-cycle variations in a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with EGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bin; Hu, Erjiang; Huang, Zuohua; Zheng, Jianjun; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2009-10-15

    Study of cycle-by-cycle variations in a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was conducted. The effects of EGR ratio and hydrogen fraction on engine cycle-by-cycle variations are analyzed. The results show that the cylinder peak pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the indicated mean effective pressure decrease and cycle-by-cycle variations increase with the increase of EGR ratio. Interdependency between the above parameters and their corresponding crank angles of cylinder peak pressure is decreased with the increase of EGR ratio. For a given EGR ratio, combustion stability is promoted and cycle-by-cycle variations are decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the fuel blends. Non-linear relationship is presented between the indicated mean effective pressure and EGR ratio. Slight influence of EGR ratio on indicated mean effective pressure is observed at low EGR ratios while large influence of EGR ratio on indicated mean effective pressure is demonstrated at high EGR ratios. The high test engine speed has lower cycle-by-cycle variations due to the enhancement of air flow turbulence and swirls in the cylinder. Increasing hydrogen fraction can maintain low cycle-by-cycle variations at high EGR ratios. (author)

  15. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  16. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.L.; Brown, S.S.D.; Ferguson, S.P.; Jarvis, R.F. Jr. [Dow Corning Corp., Carrollton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this program are to (a) develop a process for converting natural gas to methyl chloride via an oxyhydrochlorination route using highly selective, stable catalysts in a fixed-bed, (b) design a reactor capable of removing the large amount of heat generated in the process so as to control the reaction, (c) develop a recovery system capable of removing the methyl chloride from the product stream and (d) determine the economics and commercial viability of the process. The general approach has been as follows: (a) design and build a laboratory scale reactor, (b) define and synthesize suitable OHC catalysts for evaluation, (c) select first generation OHC catalyst for Process Development Unit (PDU) trials, (d) design, construct and startup PDU, (e) evaluate packed bed reactor design, (f) optimize process, in particular, product recovery operations, (g) determine economics of process, (h) complete preliminary engineering design for Phase II and (i) make scale-up decision and formulate business plan for Phase II. Conclusions regarding process development and catalyst development are presented.

  17. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  18. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  19. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In

  20. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  1. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo; Melaina, Marc W.

    2011-01-01

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  2. Experimental study of the effects of natural gas injection timing on the combustion performance and emissions of a turbocharged common rail dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xing; Xi, Chengxun; Liu, Yifu; Zeng, Ke; Lai, Ming-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas injection timing has obvious effects on combustion of dual-fuel engine. • Combustion performance is improved with optimized natural gas injection timing. • BSHC and BSCO decreased with retarded natural gas injection timing at low load. • BSNO x increased at part load while reduced at high load with delay N.G. injection. • PM is very low and insensitive to the variation of natural gas injection timing. - Abstract: Natural gas combustion with pilot ignition has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to utilize natural gas in existing diesel engine without serious engine modification and it has been widely researched all over the world. In this study, three experiments of different loads (BMEP 0.240 MPa, 0.480 MPa and 0.767 MPa) were performed on a 2.8 L four-cylinder, natural gas manifold injection dual-fuel engine to investigate the effects of natural gas injection timing on engine combustion performance and emissions. The pilot injection parameters (pilot injection timing and pressure) and natural gas injection pressure remain constant at a speed of 1600 rpm in the experiment. The cylinder pressure, HRR, CoV imep , flame development duration, CA50 and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The results indicated that under low and part engine loads, the flame development duration and CA50 can be reduced by properly retarding natural gas injection timing, while the CoV imep increased with retarded natural gas injection timing. As a result, the brake thermal efficiency is increased and the combustion stability slightly deteriorates. Meanwhile, under low and part engine loads, PM emissions in the dual-fuel engine is much lower than that in conventional diesel engines, furthermore, at high load, the PM emissions are near zero. CO and HC emissions are reduced with retarded natural gas injection timing under low and part loads, however, NO x emissions are slightly increased. Under high load, the flame development duration

  3. Mathematical modeling of synthesis gas fueled electrochemistry and transport including H2/CO co-oxidation and surface diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-10-01

    Fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). A comprehensive macroscopic framework is proposed for synthesis gas (syngas) fueled electrochemistry and transport in SOFC anode with two main novelties, i.e. analytical H2/CO electrochemical co-oxidation, and correction of gas species concentration at triple phase boundary considering competitive absorption and surface diffusion. Staring from analytical approximation of the decoupled charge and mass transfer, we present analytical solutions of two defined variables, i.e. hydrogen current fraction and enhancement factor. Giving explicit answer (rather than case-by-case numerical calculation) on how many percent of the current output contributed by H2 or CO and on how great the water gas shift reaction plays role on, this approach establishes at the first time an adaptive superposition mechanism of H2-fuel and CO-fuel electrochemistry for syngas fuel. Based on the diffusion equivalent circuit model, assuming series-connected resistances of surface diffusion and bulk diffusion, the model predicts well at high fuel utilization by keeping fixed porosity/tortuosity ratio. The model has been validated by experimental polarization behaviors in a wide range of operation on a button cell for H2-H2O-CO-CO2-N2 fuel systems. The framework could be helpful to narrow the gap between macro-scale and meso-scale SOFC modeling.

  4. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  5. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  6. Research on natural gas fuel injection system. Development of high-performance pressure regulator; Tennen gas yo nenryo funsha system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1. Tennen gas nenryo funshayo no koseino regulator kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S; Ishii, M; Takigawa, B; Makabe, K; Harada, S; Ono, H [Nippon Carburetor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the aim of further reducing the exhaust emissions of natural-gas vehicles, vigorous research and development work is under way today on multi point gas injection (MPGI) system. In this studies, a high-performance pressure regulator, which is one of the main components of this MPGI system, has been newly developed. The results showed that a significantly better accuracy of the regulated pressure level using this regulator was obtained under the wide range of operating conditions, including instantaneously greater changes of fuel flow rate. In addition, the advanced studies of gaseous fuel injectors (GFIs) would be also conducted. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Hendriks, F.H.J.F.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Neelis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of CO 2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO 2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO 2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to replace crude oil. The results indicate that NG-based hydrogen applied in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) lead to largest CO 2 emission reductions (up to 40% compared to current practice). However, large implementation barriers for this option are foreseen, both technically and in terms of network change. Two different transition strategies are discussed to gradually make the transition to these preferred fuel chains. Important transition technologies that are the backbone of these routes are traditional engine technology fuelled by compressed NG and a FCV fuelled by gasoline. The first is preferred in terms of carbon emissions. The results furthermore indicate that an innovation in the conventional chain, the diesel hybrid vehicle, is more efficient than many NG-based chains. This option scores well in terms of carbon emissions and implementation barriers and is a very strong option for the future

  8. Study on hydrophobicity degradation of gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shuchun; Li, Xiaojin; Li, Jin; Liu, Sa; Lu, Wangting; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrophobicity degradation mechanism of GDL was proposed thoroughly. • C-O and C=O groups appeared on the surfaces of GDL after immersion. • The relative content of PTFE in GDL decreased after immersion. • The surfaces and inner structure of GDL destroyed after immersion. - Abstract: As one of the essential components of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), gas diffusion layer (GDL) is of importance on water management, as well on the performance and durability of PEMFC. In this paper, the hydrophobicity degradation of GDL was investigated by immersing it in the 1.0 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solution saturated by air for 1200 h. From the measurements of contact angle and water permeability, the hydrophobic characteristics of the pristine and immersed GDLs were compared. To investigate the causes for hydrophobicity degradation, the GDLs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Further, the chemical compositions of H 2 SO 4 solutions before and after immersion test were analyzed with infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that the hydrophobicity of immersed GDL decreased distinctly, which was caused by the damage of physical structure and surface characteristics. Moreover, the immersed GDL showed a worse fuel cell performance than the pristine GDL, especially under a low humidity condition

  9. Study of cycle-by-cycle variations of a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinhua; Chen, Hao; Liu, Bing; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Cycle-by-cycle variations of a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends with hydrogen volumetric fraction of 0%, 12%, 23%, 30% and 40% were studied. The effect of hydrogen addition on cycle-by-cycle variations of the natural gas engine was analyzed. The results showed that the peak cylinder pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the indicated mean effective pressure increased and their corresponding cycle-by-cycle variations decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction at lean mixture operation. The interdependency between the combustion parameters and the corresponding crank angle tended to be strongly correlated with the increase of hydrogen fraction under lean mixture operation. Coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure gave a low level and is slightly influenced by hydrogen addition under the stoichiometric and relatively rich mixture operation while it decreased remarkably with the increase of hydrogen fraction under the lean mixture operation. The excessive air ratio at CoV{sub imep} = 10% extended to the leaner mixture side with the increase of hydrogen fraction and this indicated that the engine lean operating limit could be extended with hydrogen addition. (author)

  10. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Repowering is a process consisting in a transformation of an old power plant in order to have a greater nameplate capacity or more efficiency, which result in a net increase of power generated. As a consequence of the higher efficiency, the repow ered plant is characterized by higher power output...... and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, a repowering is performed adding one or more gas turbines to an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combine d cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as SOFC) could also be used as a topping cycle......, reaching global plant efficiency even higher and specific CO2 emissions even lower. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less compl ex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity cost. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable...

  11. The performance of a thermophilic microbial fuel cell fed with synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Mehta, P; Raghavan, V; Wang, H; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2012-08-10

    This study demonstrated electricity generation in a thermophilic microbial fuel cell (MFC) operated on synthesis gas (syngas) as the sole electron donor. At 50°C, a volumetric power output of 30-35 mWL(R)(-1) and a syngas conversion efficiency of 87-98% was achieved. The observed pathway of syngas conversion to electricity primarily consisted of a two-step process, where the carbon monoxide and hydrogen were first converted to acetate, which was then consumed by the anodophilic bacteria to produce electricity. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rDNA revealed the presence of Geobacter species, Acetobacter, methanogens and several uncultured bacteria and archaea in the anodic chamber. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  13. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  14. Analysis and performance assessment of a new solar-based multigeneration system integrated with ammonia fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Osamah; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a new solar-based multigeneration system integrated with an ammonia fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine combined cycle to produce electricity, hydrogen, cooling and hot water is developed for analysis and performance assessment. In this regard, thermodynamic analyses and modeling through both energy and exergy approaches are employed to assess and evaluate the overall system performance. Various parametric studies are conducted to study the effects of varying system parameters and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies. The results of this study show that the overall multigeneration system energy efficiency is obtained as 39.1% while the overall system exergy efficiency is calculated as 38.7%, respectively. The performance of this multigeneration system results in an increase of 19.3% in energy efficiency as compared to single generation system. Furthermore, the exergy efficiency of the multigeneration system is 17.8% higher than the single generation system. Moreover, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine combined cycle are determined as 68.5% and 55.9% respectively.

  15. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettori, P.; Merigo, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  16. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Design and production of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the production of brown's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essuman, Samuel Pamford Kojo

    2017-07-01

    The use of petroleum products (fossil fuels) has raised a lot of environmental concerns over the past years. This is due to the fact that most of the machines and devices manufactured are engineered to use these conventional fuels which include petrol, diesel and natural gas. However, these fuels substances pollute and deteriorate the quality of the environment. Some of these pollutants include sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and ozone. These gases are called greenhouse gases because they contribute to the greenhouse effect. These gases also cause depletion of the ozone layer. In the search for alternative fuels, researchers have used improved technologies such as steam reforming, partial oxidation, and electrolysis among many to produce hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is used in modern times for varied applications in industries and is now been considered as a viable primary fuel for the future. Meanwhile, all these methods produce impure hydrogen except electrolysis of water. Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen as products gases. A collection of these gases through a common outlet gives rise to a unique type of gas called Brown’s or oxyhydrogen gas. Brown’s gas is a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen bonded magnetically in a ratio of 1:2. In the automobile industry, Brown’s gas is used as a fuel supplement to gasoline in internal combustion engines (ICEs), as well as welding and cutting of iron plates in the fabrication sector. In this project, a fabricated oxyhydrogen generator was used to produce Brown’s gas from distilled water using three selected catalyst namely caustic soda (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Parameters that influence the yield of oxyhydrogen gas were further studied. It was observed that increasing in the number of electrodes, catalyst concentration, voltage and time increased the yield of oxyhydrogen gas production. With the rapid increase in consumption of fossil fuels and

  18. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  19. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  20. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  1. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  3. A Generalized Nash-Cournot Model for the North-Western European Natural Gas Markets with a Fuel Substitution Demand Function: The GaMMES Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Ibrahim; Briat, Vincent; GABRIEL, Steve A.; MASSOL, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic Generalized Nash-Cournot model to describe the evolution of the natural gas markets. The major players along the gas chain are depicted including: producers, consumers, storage and pipeline operators, as well as intermediate local traders. Our economic structure description takes into account market power and the demand representation tries to capture the possible fuel substitution that can be made between the consumption of oil, coal, and natural gas in the overall fossil energy consumption. We also take into account long-term contracts in an endogenous way, which makes the model a Generalized Nash Equilibrium problem. We discuss some means to solve such problems. Our model has been applied to represent the European natural gas market and forecast, until 2030, after a calibration process, consumption, prices, production, and natural gas dependence. A comparison between our model, a more standard one that does not take into account energy substitution, and the European Commission natural gas forecasts is carried out to analyze our results. Finally, in order to illustrate the possible use of fuel substitution, we studied the evolution of the natural gas price as compared to the coal and oil prices. (authors)

  4. Wood and natural gas as fuels for tunnel kilns in the clay-product industry; Serragem e gas natural como fontes energeticas em fornos tuneis na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gabriel M. dos; Bazzo, Edson; Nicolau, Vicente de P.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mann@emc.ufsc.br; ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; vicente@lmpt.ufsc.br; amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The clay-product industry is responsible to large part of the thermal energy consumption, especially on drying and burning process. In spite of the success obtained with the burning of wood like principal fuel for tunnel kilns, the clay-product industries of Santa Catarina have looked for alternatives to substitute it. The interest appears especially due to imminent shortage of the wood on the market and due to possibility of use natural gas as a good and environmentally favorable alternative to reduce the energy specific consumption of the kilns, to increase the production and to improve the quality of the ceramic products. Nowadays, the natural gas is more expensive when compared with the wood. However, we believe that additional studies can place this fuel as a viable alternative to the clay-product industries. (author)

  5. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  6. Natural gas and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCarufel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of various atmospheric pollutants in environmental changes and the global water cycle, carbon cycle, and energy balance is explained. The role of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in acid deposition is also outlined. The pollutants that contribute to environmental problems include nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases. The potential for natural gas utilization to mitigate some of these pollution problems is explored. Natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides than combustion of other fossil fuel, and also does not produce sulfur dioxide, particulates, or volatile organics. Other pollution controlling opportunities offered by natural gas include the use of low-polluting burners, natural gas vehicles, and cogeneration systems. 18 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The Role of Post Flame Oxidation on the UHC Emission for Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen Containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Kvist; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    In-cylinder post flame oxidation of unburned hydro-carbons from crevices in a lean burn spark ignition engine has been examined for natural gas and mixtures of natural gas and a hydrogen containing producer gas. For this purpose a model was developed to describe the mixing of cold unburned...... during in-cylinder post oxidation. The Arrhenius parameters were determined using the reaction mechanism, which gave the prediction of the results from the combustion reactor experiments. The investigation showed that addition of producer gas to natural gas promotes the in-cylinder post oxidation...... significantly. Furthermore it was found that the cyclic variation in the post oxidation is reduced by addition of producer gas to natural gas....

  8. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  9. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  10. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  11. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  12. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  13. Natural gas to liquid transportation fuels and chemicals via the Sasol synthol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the recent developments in Synfuels technology at Sasol. The specific areas covered are synthesis plants and the development of modern high technology reactors to reduce capital and maintenance costs of future Synfuel plants. Emphasis is further placed on the co-production of chemicals in Synfuel plants to increase profitability. An important aspect namely that the fuels from the Sasol Synthol process can meet the new specifications for reformulated gasoline are also dealt with in the paper

  14. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  15. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  16. Development of gas diffusion layer using water based carbon slurry for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F.; Liu, X.; Adame, A.; Villacorta, R. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The micro-porous layer of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by wire rod coating process. The aqueous carbon slurry with micelle-encapsulation was highly consistent and stable without losing any homogeneity even after adding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder for hundreds of hours. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. GDLs fabricated with various SDS concentrations were assembled into MEAs and evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under diverse operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the GDLs with optimum SDS concentration was 1400 and 500 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 90% RH, respectively. GDLs were also fabricated with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based carbon slurry for fuel cell performance comparison. It was found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically SDS concentration played a critical role in controlling the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs.

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  18. Biogenic Carbon Fraction of Biogas and Natural Gas Fuel Mixtures Determined with 14C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of the radiocarbon-based calculation of the biogenic carbon fraction for different biogas and biofossil gas mixtures. The focus is on the uncertainty in the C-14 reference values for 100% biogenic carbon and on the C-13-based isotope fractionation correction of

  19. Use of wood as an alternative fuel to coal and natural gas at the Holnam Cement Plant, north of LaPorte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes

    2001-01-01

    The Holnam Company currently operates a cement plant north of Laporte, CO. The plant is attempting to use wood as an alternate fuel to coal and natural gas. The principal objective of this project is to investigate the extended use of wood as an alternate fuel at the plant. Tests conducted at Holnam indicate that wood is suitable for use at the plant and Holnam could...

  20. Two-dimensional simulation of gas concentration impedance for a planar solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Ghassemi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The 2D simulation shows another feature in concentration impedance. • The channel gas transport causes a capacitive behavior. • Anode polarization variation has a significant influence on velocity distribution. • The influence of 2D simulation is important for channel height bigger than 2 mm. - Abstract: This paper presents a two-dimensional model for a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode in order to simulate the steady-state performance characteristics as well as the electrochemical impedance spectra. The developed model couples the mass transport with the electrochemical kinetics. The transient conservation equations (momentum and species equations) are solved numerically and the linear kinetic is used for the anode electrochemistry. In order to solve the system of the nonlinear equations, an in-house code based on the finite volume method is developed and utilized. A parametric study is also carried out and the results are discussed. Results show a capacitive semicircle in the Nyquist plot which is identical to the gas concentration impedance. The simulation results are in good agreement with published data

  1. Interpretation of measurements made by oscillations of irradiated fuels in natural uranium, graphite-gas piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard; Luffin, Jean; Brunet, Max; Guerange, Jacques; Tonolli, Jacky

    1969-06-01

    When considering a pile operation, it is interesting to know the evolution of fuel quality with respect to irradiation, i.e. the variation of its fission rate and of its absorption rate. In order to experimentally obtain these features, a method is to introduce an irradiated cartridge into a critical reactor and to measure the induced effect on its reactivity and on the neutron density at the vicinity of the cartridge. An oscillation method presented in another document and based on a periodic introduction of fuel sample into a critical reactor allows, from the measurement of reactivity variation (global signal), and of the neutron density (local signal), effective macroscopic fission and absorption cross sections of this sample to be obtained. As previous studies revealed that the interpretation of the local signal was notably delicate, this information has been replaced by computed information, the fission rate, which is determined by means of the COREGRAF1 code. Thus, the remaining quantity to be obtained is the fuel absorption rate. The authors report studies performed on several sets of cartridges from different reactors, and with an irradiation range from about 700 to 4000 MWJ/T. In a first part, they describe the characteristics of the studied cartridges, their irradiation and measurement conditions, and the use of the evolution code. In a second part, they try to define the interpretation of oscillation-based measurements by using two methods, a first and fast one which gives an approximation of results, and a more elaborated second one which complies with measurement conditions. The last part presents and discusses the obtained results [fr

  2. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  3. Effects of natural gas vehicles and fuel prices on key transportation economic metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is responsible for planning, operating, and maintaining : a highway network consisting of over 18,500 lane-miles of highway. Planning and building highways is, by nature, a : long-range enterp...

  4. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  5. Multidimensional modeling of the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on exergy terms in an HCCI engine fueled with a mixture of natural gas and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarmadar, Samad; Nemati, Peyman; Khodaie, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The exergy efficiency decreases by 41.3%. • The irreversibility increases by 46.80%. • The cumulative heat loss exergy decreases by 68.10%. • The cumulative work exergy decreases by 63.4%. • The exhaust losses exergy increases by 28.79%. - Abstract: One of the most important issues in HCCI engines is auto-ignition timing control. EGR introduction into intake charge can be a method to control combustion phasing and its duration. In the current study, a FORTRAN-based code which includes 10 species (O_2, N_2, H_2O, CO_2, CO, H_2, OH, O, N, NO) associated with combustion products was employed to study the exergy analysis in a dual fuel (natural gas + diesel) HCCI engine at four EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) mass fractions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) while the diesel fuel amount was held constant. In order to achieve this task, a 3-D CFD code was employed to model the energy balance during a closed cycle of running engine simulation. Moreover, an efficient Extend Coherent Flame Model-Three Zone model (ECFM-3Z) method was employed to analyze the combustion process. With crank positions at different EGR mass fractions, the exergy terms were identified and calculated separately. It was found that as EGR mass fraction increased from 0% to 30% (in 10% increment steps), exergy efficiency decreased from 48.9% to 28.7%. Furthermore, with the change in EGR mass fraction, the cumulative heat loss exergy decreased from 10.1% to 5.64% of mixture fuels chemical exergy.

  6. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  7. Price Comovement Between Biodiesel and Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Kourilek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We study relationship between biodiesel, as a most important biofuel in the EU, relevant feedstock commodities and fossil fuels. Our main interest is to capture relationship between biodiesel and natural gas. They are both used either directly as a fuel or indirectly in form of additives in transport. Therefore, our purpose is to �nd price linkage between biofuel and natural gas to support or reject the claim that they compete as alternative fuels and potential substitutes. The estimated p...

  8. Globalization of the Natural Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, RJ.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with the foreseeable evolution of natural gas demand in the next 15 years. Natural gas consumption is growing faster than any other fossil fuel and, according to ENRON, the natural consumption growth will continue. The environmental aspect of natural gas use for power generation is presented, showing that gas use reduces pollution emissions (when compared with coal). On top of that, it appears that the conversion efficiency of gas is much higher than the conversion efficiency of coal steam. Eventually, natural gas resources should meet energy demand for decades. (TEC)

  9. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbrenner, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  10. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  11. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  12. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  13. Wire rod coating process of gas diffusion layers fabrication for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A.M.; Sadananda, S.; Parker, D.; Munukutla, L. [Electronic Systems Department, Arizona State University, 7001 E Williams Field Road, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) were fabricated using non-woven carbon paper as a macro-porous layer substrate developed by Hollingsworth and Vose Company. A commercially viable coating process was developed using wire rod for coating micro-porous layer by a single pass. The thickness as well as carbon loading in the micro-porous layer was controlled by selecting appropriate wire thickness of the wire rod. Slurry compositions with solid loading as high as 10 wt.% using nano-chain and nano-fiber type carbons were developed using dispersion agents to provide cohesive and homogenous micro-porous layer without any mud-cracking. The surface morphology, wetting characteristics and pore size distribution of the wire rod coated GDLs were examined using FESEM, Goniometer and Hg porosimetry, respectively. The GDLs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC under various operating conditions (temperature and RH) using hydrogen and air as reactants. It was observed that the wire rod coated micro-porous layer with 10 wt.% nano-fibrous carbon based GDLs showed the highest fuel cell performance at 85 C using H{sub 2} and air at 50% RH, compared to all other compositions. (author)

  14. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  15. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  16. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  17. Use of catalytic reforming to aid natural gas HCCI combustion in engines: experimental and modelling results of open-loop fuel reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucheret, S.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Lehrle, R.S. [Future Power Systems Group, Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Golunski, S. [Johnson Matthey, Technology Centre, Blount' s Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Xu, H. [Jaguar Land Rover Research, Jaguar Land Rover W/2/021, Abbey Road, Coventry CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process to deliver drastically reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and improved fuel economy from internal combustion engines is well known. The process is, however, difficult to initiate and control, especially when methane or natural gas are used as fuel. To aid the HCCI combustion of natural gas, hydrogen addition has been successfully used in this study. This hydrogen can be obtained from on-line reforming of natural gas. Methane reforming is achieved here by reaction with engine exhaust gas and air in a small scale monolith catalytic reactor. The benchmark quantity of H{sub 2} required to enhance the feasibility and engine load range of HCCI combustion is 10%. For low temperature engine exhaust gas, typical for HCCI engine operating conditions, experiments show that additional air is needed to produce this quantity. Experimental results from an open-loop fuel exhaust gas reforming system are compared with two different models of basic thermodynamic equilibria calculations. At the low reactor inlet temperatures needed for the HCCI application (approx. 400 deg C) the simplified three-reaction thermodynamic equilibrium model is in broad agreement with experimental results, while for medium (550-650 deg C) inlet temperature reforming with extra air added, the high hydrogen yields predicted from the multi-component equilibrium model are difficult to achieve in a practical reformer. (author)

  18. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  19. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  20. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  1. Can natural gas save lives? Evidence from the deployment of a fuel delivery system in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesur, Resul; Tekin, Erdal; Ulker, Aydogan

    2018-05-01

    There has been a widespread displacement of coal by natural gas as space heating and cooking technology in Turkey in the last two decades, triggered by the deployment of natural gas networks. We examine the impact of this development on mortality among adults and the elderly by exploiting the variation in the timing of the deployment and the intensity of expansion of gas networks across provinces using data from 2001 to 2016. The results indicate that the expansion of natural gas has caused significant reductions in mortality among both adults and the elderly. These findings are supported by our auxiliary analysis, which demonstrates that the expansion of natural gas networks might have led to a significant improvement in air quality. Furthermore, we show that the mortality gains are primarily driven by reductions in cardio-respiratory deaths, which are more likely to be due to conditions caused or exacerbated by air pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulfur Poisoning of the Water Gas Shift Reaction on Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke

    2013-01-01

    resistance increased both in the high and low frequency region, which indicates a strong poisoning of the water gas shift reaction and thus a lack of hydrogen fuel in addition to the poisoning of the electrochemical hydrogen oxidation. All poisoning effects are reversible under the applied operating...

  3. Two dimensional gas temperature measurements of fuel sprays in a high pressure cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is a promising low-emission combustion concept. By partially mixing the fuel, air and exhaust gas before auto-ignition, the soot and NOx emissions are lower than for conventional diesel combustion. However, the fundamental aspects of the mixing process of

  4. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume II: Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veyo, S

    1997-01-01

    .... Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate...

  5. The design of stationary and mobile solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Wolfgang; Lorenz, Hagen

    A general thermodynamic model has shown that combined fuel cell cycles may reach an electric-efficiency of more than 80%. This value is one of the targets of the Department of Energy (DOE) solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) program. The combination of a SOFC and GT connects the air flow of the heat engine and the cell cooling. The principle strategy in order to reach high electrical-efficiencies is to avoid a high excess air for the cell cooling and heat losses. Simple combined SOFC-GT cycles show an efficiency between 60 and 72%. The combination of the SOFC and the GT can be done by using an external cooling or by dividing the stack into multiple sub-stacks with a GT behind each sub-stack as the necessary heat sink. The heat exchangers (HEXs) of a system with an external cooling have the benefit of a pressurization on both sides and therefore, have a high heat exchange coefficient. The pressurization on both sides delivers a low stress to the HEX material. The combination of both principles leads to a reheat (RH)-SOFC-GT cycle that can be improved by a steam turbine (ST) cycle. The first results of a study of such a RH-SOFC-GT-ST cycle indicate that a cycle design with an efficiency of more than 80% is possible and confirm the predictions by the theoretical thermodynamic model mentioned above. The extremely short heat-up time of a thin tubular SOFC and the market entrance of the micro-turbines give the option of using these SOFC-GT designs for mobile applications. The possible use of hydrocarbons such as diesel oil is an important benefit of the SOFC. The micro-turbine and the SOFC stack will be matched depending on the start-up requirements of the mobile system. The minimization of the volume needed is a key issue. The efficiency of small GTs is lower than the efficiency of large GTs due to the influence of the leakage within the stages of GTs increasing with a decreasing size of the GT. Thus, the SOFC module pressure must be lower than in larger

  6. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  7. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  8. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  9. A study of burning processes of fossil fuels in straitened conditions of furnaces in low capacity boilers by an example of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to research operations of modern combined low-emission swirl burner with a capacity of 2.2 MW for fire-tube boiler type KV-GM-2.0, to ensure the effective burning of natural gas, crude oil and diesel fuel. For this purpose, a computer model of the burner and furnace chamber has been developed. The paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the burner operation, using the example of natural gas in a working load range from 40 to 100%. The basic features of processes of fuel burning in the cramped conditions of the flame tube have been identified to fundamentally differ from similar processes in the furnaces of steam boilers. The influence of the design of burners and their operating modes on incomplete combustion of fuel and the formation of nitrogen oxides has been determined.

  10. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monado, F.; Permana, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8 % HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance. (author)

  11. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monado, Fiber; Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems

  13. Numerical calculation and analysis of natural convection removal of the spent fuel residual heat of 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Huang Yifan; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    The spent fuel of 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) could be stored in the shielded tank, and the tank is stored in the concrete shielded canister in spent fuel storage room, the residual heat of the spent fuel could be removed by the air. The ability of residual heat removal is analyzed in the paper, and the temperature field is numerically calculated through FEA program ANSYS, the analysis and the calculation are used to validate the safety of the spent fuel and the tank, the ultimate temperature of the spent fuel and the tank should below the safety limit. The calculation shows that the maximum temperature locates in the middle of the fuel pebble bed in the spent fuel tank, and the temperature decreases gradually with radial distance, the temperature in the tank body is evenly distributed, and the temperature in the concrete shielded canister decreases gradually with radial distance. It is feasible to remove the residual heat of the spent fuel storage tank by natural ventilation, in natural ventilation condition, the temperature of the spent fuel and the tank is lower than the temperature limit, which provides theoretical evidence for the choice of the residual heat removal method. (authors)

  14. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  15. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  16. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the natural gas fuel cycle for electricity generation. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission, 1994a; 1995, in preparation). The reader is referred to these earlier reports for wider discussion of many of the issues underlying this type of work. The increased desire for economic assessment of environmental damage reflects growing awareness of problems such as global warming, ozone depletion and the acidification and nutrification of ecosystems. A wide range of receptors are affected, including human health, forests, crops, and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. At the political level there are a variety of reasons for the growing interest in the quantification of the environmental impacts of energy use and the related external costs. These include the need to integrate environmental concerns when selecting between different fuels and energy technologies and the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards. These issues are reflected in European Union policy, through, for example, the Maastricht Treaty, the 5th Environmental Action Programme 'towards sustainability', the European Commission's White Paper 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and ways forward to the 21st century' and the establishment of the European Environmental Agency. The proposal for an Energy-Carbon tax is the first concrete proposal by the European Union for the direct use of economic instruments in environmental policy in the energy sector. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not

  17. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report documents design guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The report is designed to provide guidance, information on safe industry practices, applicable national codes and standards, and reference data that transit age...

  18. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  19. Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2012-01-01

    energy sources only. Also dimethyl ether (DME = (CH3)2O), which might be called Liquefied Green Gas, LGG, in analogy to Liquefied Petroleum Gas, LPG, because DME has properties similar to LPG. It further gives a short review of the state of the art of electrolysis in general and SOEC in particular......This paper gives arguments in favour of using green natural gas (GNG) as storage media for the intermittent renewable energy sources. GNG is here defined as being CH4, i.e. methane, often called synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG), produced using renewable or at least CO2 neutral....... Production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from CO2 and H2O using SOEC technology is evaluated. GNG and LGG can be produced from synthesis gas (or short: syngas) by means of well established commercially available catalysis technology. Finally, estimations of costs and efficiencies are presented and the relative...

  20. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  1. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  2. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  3. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  4. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  5. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  6. Novel electrospun gas diffusion layers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part I. Fabrication, morphological characterization, and in situ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Lavielle, N.; Hatton, B. D.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-06-01

    In this first of a series of two papers, we report an in-depth analysis of the impact of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) structure on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance through the use of custom GDLs fabricated in-house. Hydrophobic electrospun nanofibrous gas diffusion layers (eGDLs) are fabricated with controlled fibre diameter and alignment. The eGDLs are rendered hydrophobic through direct surface functionalization, and this molecular grafting is achieved in the absence of structural alteration. The fibre diameter, chemical composition, and electrical conductivity of the eGDL are characterized, and the impact of eGDL structure on fuel cell performance is analysed. We observe that the eGDL facilitates higher fuel cell power densities compared to a commercial GDL (Toray TGP-H-60) at highly humidified operating conditions. The ohmic resistance of the fuel cell is found to significantly increase with increasing inter-fiber distance. It is also observed that the addition of a hydrophobic treatment enhances membrane hydration, and fibres perpendicularly aligned to the channel direction may enhance the contact area between the catalyst layer and the GDL.

  7. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  8. Role of a natural gas utility in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayko, J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Enbridge Gas Distribution is the largest natural gas distribution company in Canada at about 1.7 million residential, commercial and industrial customers. Enbridge will speak to the role of a natural gas utility in the hydrogen economy, and outline the benefits of hydrogen production from natural gas reformation for both stationary and mobile applications. Hydrocarbon reformation will act at least as a bridge until a more fully developed hydrogen economy infrastructure is developed. Reformation allows immediate leveraging of the reliability of vast existing natural gas distribution systems, and a reduced need for on-site hydrogen storage. Natural gas powered fuel cells provide improved emissions over traditional internal combustion engines, and in the stationary market provide smarter use of resources through the higher efficiencies of cogeneration (the capture and use of otherwise waste heat). (author)

  9. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  10. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  11. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  12. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  13. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  14. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  15. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  16. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  17. The price of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas used to be a relatively cheap primary energy source, always at a discount to crude oil (on a comparative British thermal unit basis). It gradually evolved into a major resource during the 20th century - reaching a 24 per cent share of global primary energy in 1999. In the year 2000, natural gas prices in the USA rose to unheard-of highs of 10/million US dollars Btu, ushering in a new era, with natural gas at a 120 per cent premium to crude oil. This clearly was a watershed for gas, somehow similar to the 1973-74 watershed for oil prices. And similarly, any return to the status quo-ante looks rather improbable, although a number of experts (alongside the International Energy Agency) still believe the 2000 price 'spike' to have been ''only transitory''. The consequences of higher gas prices (at a level equal to crude oil prices on a Btu basis) will be multifaceted and momentous, altering habits and uses in downstream industries and economic sectors, as well as providing added income for major gas-exporters, such as Russia, Canada and Algeria. Another potential consequence of the 2000 watershed might be to propel US standard prices (such as the 'Henry Hub' spot) to international status and gas price-setter, as the 'WTI spot' became an 'international benchmark' for crude oils in the post-1993 era. For the time being, the equality of gas and oil prices has become the new norm; but, in the longer term, a discount of crude oil relative to natural gas might be envisaged, as the latter is a cleaner fuel and emits less carbon dioxide when used. (author)

  18. Project of multiple controller models for the maintenance of air/fuel ratio in natural gas internal combustion motors; Projeto de controladores multiplos modelos para manutencao da relacao ar/combustivel em motores de combustao interna movidos a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Junior, Fernando Sousa e; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo [Sao Paulo Univ. SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ffreitas@usp.br; agfleury@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of advanced control techniques for the reduction of pollutant gases generated by internal combustion engines powered by natural gas. In this paper three techniques are applied to control the fuel injection and the ignition timing: the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and H{infinity} Control by Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). To each one of those techniques were developed a multiple model structure seeking to include the vast operation region of the engine. The controller's performance is measured by the efficiency in maintaining the fuel/air ratio around 1% of maximum deviation in relation to the stoichiometric value. The results show the possibility of controlling pollutant emission generated by this kind of engine to conform to international emission standards, improving life quality. (author)

  19. Resourceful utilization technology for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a description of new applications that will contribute in increasing the demand for natural gas. First, technical issues to turn natural gas into a more resourceful fuel (efficient transportation and storage, integrated utilization of energies, uses as non-fuel), and also pitch-based high performance carbon materials and utilization techniques in the field of energy (isotropic carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber, spherical carbon micro-beads, high modulus carbon fiber). (TEC)

  20. Making sure natural gas gets to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The role of natural gas in power generation was discussed with reference to price implications and policy recommendations. New natural gas supply is not keeping pace with demand. Production is leveling out in traditional basins and industry investment is not adequate. In addition, energy deregulation is creating disconnects. This presentation included a map depicting the abundant natural gas reserves across North America. It was noted that at 2002 levels of domestic production, North America has approximately 80 years of natural gas. The AECO consensus wholesale natural gas price forecast is that natural gas prices in 2010 will be lower than today. The use of natural gas for power generation was outlined with reference to fuel switching, distributed generation, and central generation. It was emphasized that government, regulators and the energy industry must work together to address policy gaps and eliminate barriers to new investment. 13 figs

  1. Membrane separation principle used for gas drying processes in fuel cells and life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigsch, H.A.; Fleck, W.U.

    1991-07-01

    Different membrane separation principles as applied to fuel cell powerplants and ECLSS are described. A new separator type that enables smaller weight and geometries and requires less energy than conventional mechanical separator techniques for space applications is presented. Module optimization and investigations concerning ECLSS applications are discussed. 5 refs

  2. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to Couple with an Existing Gas Turbine Engine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Thomas E.; Kopasakis, George

    2004-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center are interested in combining a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to operate in conjunction with a gas turbine engine. A detailed engine model currently exists in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The idea is to incorporate a SOFC model within the turbine engine simulation and observe the hybrid system's performance. The fuel cell will be heated to its appropriate operating condition by the engine s combustor. Once the fuel cell is operating at its steady-state temperature, the gas burner will back down slowly until the engine is fully operating on the hot gases exhausted from the SOFC. The SOFC code is based on a steady-state model developed by The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In its current form, the DOE SOFC model exists in Microsoft Excel and uses Visual Basics to create an I-V (current-voltage) profile. For the project's application, the main issue with this model is that the gas path flow and fuel flow temperatures are used as input parameters instead of outputs. The objective is to create a SOFC model based on the DOE model that inputs the fuel cells flow rates and outputs temperature of the flow streams; therefore, creating a temperature profile as a function of fuel flow rate. This will be done by applying the First Law of Thermodynamics for a flow system to the fuel cell. Validation of this model will be done in two procedures. First, for a given flow rate the exit stream temperature will be calculated and compared to DOE SOFC temperature as a point comparison. Next, an I-V curve and temperature curve will be generated where the I-V curve will be compared with the DOE SOFC I-V curve. Matching I-V curves will suggest validation of the temperature curve because voltage is a function of temperature. Once the temperature profile is created and validated, the model will then be placed into the turbine engine simulation for system analysis.

  4. International cooperation on methanol-based fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    An international agreement on co-operation to study the use of cars powered by methanol-based fuel cells was signed in September 2000. This indicates that gas will have to compete on the future fuel market. According to the agreement, measures will be taken to ease the introduction of such cars when they are commercialized. Methanol represents a fuel that can be distributed throughout most of the world within realistic economical bounds by means of the existing infrastructure. A global market analysis based on the assumption that there will be a billion cars in the world by 2020 shows the great potential for the use of fuel cells. In addition, they are environmentally sound. Technological developments of fuel cells during the latest decade may render traditional combustion engines obsolete. Methanol is a liquid at room temperature and can be stored in the fuel tank just like ordinary fuels. Petrol, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, ethanol and methanol can all be used in a fuel cell engine, but since the technology is based on chemical energy conversion, the most suitable fuel is one that is hydrogen-rich and easily stored. Many experts favour liquid hydrogen. However, liquid hydrogen has many problems in common with liquefied natural gas or cooled liquid natural gas: about 25% of the energy is used in keeping the fuel in the liquid state

  5. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  6. Development of Criteria for Flashback Propensity in Jet Flames for High Hydrogen Content and Natural Gas Type Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantari, Alireza [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sullivan-Lewis, Elliot [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); McDonell, Vincent [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. In fact, flashback is a key operability issue associated with low emission combustion of high hydrogen content fuels. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Hence, design tools to predict flashback propensity are of interest. Such a design tool has been developed based on the data gathered by experimental study to predict boundary layer flashback using non-dimensional parameters. The flashback propensity of a premixed jet flame has been studied experimentally. Boundary layer flashback has been investigated under turbulent flow conditions at elevated pressures and temperatures (i.e. 3 atm to 8 atm and 300 K to 500 K). The data presented in this study are for hydrogen fuel at various Reynolds numbers, which are representative of practical gas turbine premixer conditions and are significantly higher than results currently available in the literature. Three burner heads constructed of different materials (stainless steel, copper, and zirconia ceramic) were used to evaluate the effect of tip temperature, a parameter found previously to be an important factor in triggering flashback. This study characterizes flashback systematically by developing a comprehensive non-dimensional model which takes into account all effective parameters in boundary layer flashback propensity. The model was optimized for new data and captures the behavior of the new results well. Further, comparison of the model with the single existing study of high pressure jet flame flashback also indicates good agreement. The model developed using the high pressure test rig is able to predict flashback tendencies for a commercial gas turbine engine and can thus serve as a

  7. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  8. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  9. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  10. A fractal analytical model for the permeabilities of fibrous gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Boqi; Fan, Jintu; Ding, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The study of water and gas transport through fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) is important to the optimization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, analytical models of dimensionless permeability, and water and gas relative permeabilities of fibrous GDL in PEMFCs are derived using fractal theory. In our models, the structure of fibrous GDL is characterized in terms of porosity, tortuosity fractal dimension (D T ), pore area fractal dimensions (d f ), water phase (d f,w ) and gas phase (d f,g ) fractal dimensions. The predicted dimensionless permeability, water and gas relative permeabilities based on the proposed models are in good agreement with experimental data and predictions of numerical simulations reported in the literature. The model reveals that, although water phase and gas phase fractal dimensions strongly depend on porosity, the water and gas relative permeabilities are independent of porosity and are a function of water saturation only. It is also shown that the dimensionless permeability decreases significantly with the increase of tortuosity fractal dimension. On the other hand, there is only a small decrease in the water and gas relative permeabilities when tortuosity fractal dimension increases. One advantage of the proposed analytical model is that it contains no empirical constant, which is normally required in past models

  11. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  12. A micro-scale model for predicting contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Lin, G.; Shih, A.J.; Hu, S.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Contact resistance between the bipolar plate (BPP) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell constitutes a significant portion of the overall fuel cell electrical resistance under the normal operation conditions. Most current methods for contact resistance estimation are experimental and there is a lack of well developed theoretical methods. A micro-scale numerical model is developed to predict the electrical contact resistance between BPP and GDL by simulating the BPP surface topology and GDL structure and numerically determining the status for each contact spot. The total resistance and pressure are obtained by considering all contact spots as resistances in parallel and summing the results together. This model shows good agreements with experimental results. Influences of BPP surface roughness parameters on contact resistance are also studied. This model is beneficial in understanding the contact behavior between BPP and GDL and can be integrated with other fuel cell simulations to predict the overall performance of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  13. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  14. Vapor Delivery Systems for the Study of the Effects of Reformate Gas Impurities in HT-PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2011-01-01

    , impurities in the reformate gas produced from methanol steam reforming can affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. In this paper different vapor delivery systems, intended to assist in the study of the effects of some of the impurities, are described and compared with each other. A system based...... on a pump and electrically heated evaporator was found to be more suitable for the typical flow rates involved in the anode feed of an H3PO4/PBI based HT-PEMFC unit cell assembly. Test stations composed of vapor delivery systems and mass flow controllers for testing the effects of methanol slip, water vapor...

  15. A Study of the Influence of Gas Channel Parameters on HT-PEM Fuel Cell Performance Using FEM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Viorel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC are highly efficient power generators, achieving up to 50–60% conversion efficiency, even in sizes of a few kilowatts. Comsol Multiphysics, a commercial solver based on the Finite Element Method (FEM was used for developing a three dimensional model of a high temperature PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field for examining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. Cathode gas flow velocity influence on the cell performance was investigated at first. Polarization curves for three different channel widths (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mm and three different channel depths (1, 2 and 3 mm were computed at a cathode inlet flow velocity of 0.06 m/s. Oxygen molar concentration at cathode catalyst layer-GDL channel interface and local current density variation along the cell length were also studied for specific gas channel geometries.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  17. Process integration and optimization of a solid oxide fuel cellGas turbine hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Gassner, Martin; D’Amelio, Matilde; Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its suitability for using wet biomass, hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of otherwise unused waste biomass to synthesis gas and biofuels. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based hybrid cycles are considered as the best candidate for a more efficient and clean conversion of (bio) fuels. A significant potential for the integration of the two technologies is expected since hydrothermal gasification requires heat at 673–773 K, whereas SOFC is characterized by heat excess at high temperature due to the limited electrochemical fuel conversion. This work presents a systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-gas turbine (GT) hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass. Several design options are systematically developed and compared through a thermodynamic optimization approach based on First Law and exergy analysis. The work demonstrates the considerable potential of the system that allows for converting wet waste biomass into electricity at a First Law efficiency of up to 63%, while simultaneously enabling the separation of biogenic carbon dioxide for further use or sequestration. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of waste wet biomass. ► Solid Oxide Fuel CellGas Turbine hybrid cycle emerges as the best candidates for conversion of biofuels. ► A systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-GT hybrid cycle fuelled with hydrothermally gasified biomass is presented. ► The system may convert wet waste biomass to electricity at a First Law efficiency of 63% while separating the biogenic carbon dioxide. ► The process integration enables to improve the First Law efficiency of around 4% with respect to a non-integrated system.

  18. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  20. Evaluation And Analysis of Natural Gas Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is considered as a preferred fuel and its utility is growing every day in the country (Iran). The usage of natural gas has increased from 3.5 to 44 billion cubic meters from 1980 to 1997, respectively. Currently, 4 million residences and most of the industrial sector are being provided with the pipelined natural gas. Because of the tremendous increase in consumption, it is necessary to give the needed considerations to natural gas rate structure. The objective of the paper is to 1.Evaluate the fundamentals and principal methods used for rate structures. 2. Identification of effective components. 3. Analyze the current rates including connection fees and other customer charges

  1. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  2. Future markets and technologies for natural gas vehicles; Futurs marches et technologies pour les vehicules au gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J. [Development Engineer, Lotus Engineering (United Kingdom); Carpenter, B. [Gas Applications, BG Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Lotus Engineering and BG Technology recently collaborated on the conversion of the Lotus Elise for operation on natural gas. This paper considers the world-wide opportunities for natural gas as an automotive fuel by comparison with other fuels. It looks at how technology can be used to exploit this potential, by examining the special features of the gas fuelled Elise, and how other technologies such as hybrid vehicles and fuel cells can be expected to respond to this challenge in future. (authors)

  3. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 1; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Logistics Fuel Processor 27 kWe Power System Demonstration for ARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the successful testing of a 27 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator fueled by natural gas and/or a fuel gas produced by a brassboard logistics fuel preprocessor (LFP). The test period began on May 24, 1995 and ended on February 26, 1996 with the successful completion of all program requirements and objectives. During this time period, this power system produced 118.2 MWh of electric power. No degradation of the generator's performance was measured after 5582 accumulated hours of operation on these fuels: local natural gas - 3261 hours, jet fuel reformate gas - 766 hours, and diesel fuel reformate gas - 1555 hours. This SOFC generator was thermally cycled from full operating temperature to room temperature and back to operating temperature six times, because of failures of support system components and the occasional loss of test site power, without measurable cell degradation. Numerous outages of the LFP did not interrupt the generator's operation because the fuel control system quickly switched to local natural gas when an alarm indicated that the LFP reformate fuel supply had been interrupted. The report presents the measured electrical performance of the generator on all three fuel types and notes the small differences due to fuel type. Operational difficulties due to component failures are well documented even though they did not affect the overall excellent performance of this SOFC power generator. The final two appendices describe in detail the LFP design and the operating history of the tested brassboard LFP.

  4. Repowering with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of combined-cycle repowering with natural gas as one possible solution to the impending dilemma facing electric utilities - tight capacity margins in the 1990s and the inordinate expense of traditional powerplants. Combined-cycle repowering refers to the production of electricity through the integration of new and used equipment at an existing site, with the final equipment configuration resembling a new gas-fired combined-cycle unit (i.e., gas turbine, waste heat recovery unit and steam turbine/generator). Through the utilization of improved waste heat recovery and gas-fired equipment, repowering provides both additional capacity and increased generating efficiency. Three modes of repowering are considered: (1) peak turbine repowering refers to the addition of a steam turbine and heat recovery unit to an existing gas turbine, with the efficiency improvement allowing the unit to convert from peaking to baseload operation; (2) heat recovery repowering is the replacement of an old coal boiler with a gas turbine and heat recovery unit, leaving the existing steam turbine in place; and (3) boiler repowering, in which the exhaust from a new gas turbine is fed into an existing coal boiler, replacing existing forced-draft fans and air heaters. These three options are compared with the option of adding new coal-fired boilers on the basis of economics, energy efficiency and environmental impacts

  5. Comparison of vibration and noise level on the boiler during operation of fuel heavy oil (mazut) and on natural gas in TO 'Istok' - Toplifikacija - Joint-Stock Co. for district heating Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirovski, Hristo; Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Dzhingov, Gjorgji

    1999-01-01

    In the beginning of the heat season 1997/98, we started to use natural gas as a second fuel (the basic fuel is heavy fuel oil). Preparations were made for the use of natural gas in half of the TO 'Istok' Plant capacity (147 MW) in Skopje (Macedonia). During operation on natural gas, we noted that the levels of vibration and noise are higher when operating on heavy fuel oil. This was the reason why an investigation was carried out through a special company working on that issue. The investigation was made by measurement of vibration levels and noise at the boiler furnace in various orientation and levels. This material gives the results and conclusions from that investigation. A comparison has been made of the dynamic conditions and noise levels of the same boilers during operation on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas. We also compared the dynamic conditions and noise levels of different boilers during operations on natural gas, with different equipment for the atomizing of the natural gas. Conclusions on the dynamic conditions of the investigated boilers while operating on heavy fuel oil and on natural gas are given at the end of this material. (Author)

  6. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  7. A reduced mechanism for predicting the ignition timing of a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane in HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlouli, Keyvan; Atikol, Ugur; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms. • The mechanisms are combined to develop a reaction mechanism for a fuel blend. • The genetic algorithm is used for optimization of reaction constants. • The developed reduced mechanism can be used to predict the ignition timing in HCCI engine for a fuel blend. - Abstract: One of the main challenges associated with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine application is the lack of direct control on ignition timing. One of the solutions to this problem is mixing two fuels with various properties at a variety of ratios on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In the current study, a reduced mechanism for a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane is proposed. The approach is validated for the prediction of ignition timing in the HCCI combustion engine. A single-zone combustion model is used to simulate the HCCI engine. A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms of existing semi-detailed GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism that contains 53 species and 325 reactions and Golovichev’s mechanism consisting of 57 species and 290 reactions for natural gas and n-heptane fuels, respectively. Firstly, the unimportant species and related reactions are identified by employing the directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP) reduction method and then, to extend reduction, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is utilized. To evaluate the validity of the reduced mechanism, representative engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, maximum heat release, and CA50 are used. The reduced mechanism of GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism, containing 19 species and 39 reactions, and the reduced mechanism of Golovichev’s mechanism, consisting of 40 species and 95 reactions, provide good prediction for the mentioned parameters in comparison with those of detailed mechanisms. The combination of the generated reduced mechanisms is used to develop a

  8. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  9. Integral manifolding structure for fuel cell core having parallel gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed herein are manifolding means for directing the fuel and oxidant gases to parallel flow passageways in a fuel cell core. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte and interconnect wall consists respectively of anode and cathode materials layered on the opposite sides of electrolyte material, or on the opposite sides of interconnect material. A core wall projects beyond the open ends of the defined core passageways and is disposed approximately midway between and parallel to the adjacent overlaying and underlying interconnect walls to define manifold chambers therebetween on opposite sides of the wall. Each electrolyte wall defining the flow passageways is shaped to blend into and be connected to this wall in order to redirect the corresponding fuel and oxidant passageways to the respective manifold chambers either above or below this intermediate wall. Inlet and outlet connections are made to these separate manifold chambers respectively, for carrying the fuel and oxidant gases to the core, and for carrying their reaction products away from the core.

  10. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  11. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  12. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  13. Fabrication of gas diffusion layer based on x-y robotic spraying technique for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitanggang, Ramli; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Iyuke, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The x-y robotic spraying technique developed in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is capable of fabricating various sizes of thickness and porosity of gas diffusion layer (GDL) used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These parameters are obtained by varying the characteristic spray numbers of the robotic spraying machine. This investigation results were adequately represented with mathematical equations for hydrogen gas distribution in GDL. Volumetric modulus (M) parameter is used to determine the value of current density produced on the electrode of a single cell PEMFC. Thus the M parameter can be employed as indicator for a successful GDL fabrication. GDL type 4 has three variables of layer design that can be optimized to function as gas distributor, gas storage, flooding preventer on GDL surface, to evacuate water from the electrode and to control the electrical conductivity. The gas distribution in GDL was mathematically represented with average error of 15.5%. The M value of GDL type 4 according to the model was 0.22 cm 3 /s and yielded a current density of 750 A/m 2 .

  14. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  15. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an exi......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  16. Greenhouse gas emission and exergy analyses of an integrated trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitsaz, Ata; Mahmoudi, S. Mohammad S.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy and greenhouse gas emission analyses are performed for a novel trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The trigeneration system also consists of a generator-absorber heat exchanger (GAX) absorption refrigeration system and a heat exchanger to produce electrical energy, cooling and heating, respectively. Four operating cases are considered: electrical power generation, electrical power and cooling cogeneration, electrical power and heating cogeneration, and trigeneration. Attention is paid to numerous system and environmental performance parameters, namely, exergy efficiency, exergy destruction rate, and greenhouse gas emissions. A maximum enhancement of 46% is achieved in the exergy efficiency when the SOFC is used as the primary mover for the trigeneration system compared to the case when the SOFC is used as a standalone unit. The main sources of irreversibility are observed to be the air heat exchanger, the SOFC and the afterburner. The unit CO 2 emission (in kg/MWh) is considerably higher for the case in which only electrical power is generated. This parameter is reduced by half when the system is operates in a trigeneration mode. - Highlights: • A novel trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell is analyzed. • Exergy and greenhouse gas emission analyses are performed. • Four special cases are considered. • An enhancement of up to 46% is achieved in exergy efficiency. • The CO 2 emission drops to a relatively low value for the tri-generation case

  17. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  18. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system analysis for high-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, P.; Brandon, N.P. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Brett, D.J.L. [The Centre for CO{sub 2} Technology, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are ideally suited to provide surveillance, remote sensing and communication relay capabilities for both military and civilian applications. HALE UAVs typically cruise at an altitude between 15 km and 20 km, travelling at low speed and circling specific areas of interest. The work reported aims to investigate alternative power system architectures that enable an efficiency increase and consequent fuel consumption reduction to realise a one-week endurance target. Specifically, the application of a solid oxide fuel cell combined with a gas turbine is considered; with different system configurations modelled with a view to maximising overall efficiency. It is found that modularising the fuel cell capacity into a number of discrete stacks such that the fuel is distributed in parallel and air is fed in series results in an increased system efficiency compared with a single-stack design. An overall system efficiency of 66.3% (LHV) when operating on hydrogen is predicted for a three-stack system. (author)

  20. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    be considered which fuels such technologies can utilise and how these fuels can be distributed. Natural gas is not an option in future renewable energy systems and the de‐ mand for gaseous fuels, such as biogas or syngas, will increase significantly. Hence, fuel cell CHP plants represent a more fuel...... of transport, battery electric vehicles are more suitable than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in future energy system. Battery electric ve‐ hicles may, for a part of the transport demand, have limitations in their range. Hybrid tech‐ nologies may provide a good option, which can combine the high fuel efficiency......Efficient fuel cells and electrolysers are still at the development stage. In this dissertation, future developed fuel cells and electrolysers are analysed in future renewable energy sys‐ tems. Today, most electricity, heat and transport demands are met by combustion tech‐ nologies. Compared...

  1. Gas-discharge plasma processes for surface modification and conversion of chemical substances. Application for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Meyer, D.; Rohland, B.; Heintze, M.; Zahn, R.J.; Hannemann, M.; Meusinger, J.; Ohl, A. [Institute of Non-Thermal Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Technik mbH Greifswald (Germany)]|[GAPC, Adam Opel AG, IPC, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The potential of plasma processes towards hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be demonstrated by two examples with preliminary results: 1. plasma modification of polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells, and 2. plasma supported steam reforming.

  2. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  3. Fabricating method of gas diffusion electrode for fuel cell. Nenryo denchiyo gas kakusan denkyoku no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H [Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-01-28

    When the cation exchange film of the solid high polymer electrolyte fuel cell which uses the cation exchange film as the electrolyte (PEMFC) is bonded with the electrode catalyst layers for the anode and cathode, the hot-press conditions are severe and satisfactory bonding is hard to be achieved because the softening temperature of polytetrafluoroethylene used as the binder for the bonding is higher than that of the cation exchange film. This invention is concerned with a means of obtaining PEMFC which can generate high cell voltage, wherein perfluorosulfonic acid system copolymer solution or dispersed solution similar to that used for the cation exchange film is used as the binder when bonding carbon cloth or carbon paper coated with electrode catalyst layers for anode and cathode to the cation exchange film, setting of hot-pressing conditions is made easier, and the adhesion and bonding of the cation exchange film surface and the electrode catalyst layers are improved. 1 fig.

  4. Natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas was for a long time reserved to the most noble uses in the industry. However, natural gas, which get a priori no captive market, has progressively imposed itself in all possible energy uses. The gas resources and abundant enough to represent the main contribution of the energy industry of the 21 century. With intrinsic qualities which make it an energy less polluting than the other fossil fuels, natural gas is the commercial energy source with the highest potential growth in the energy status of the future. (J.S.)

  5. US Department of Energy investments in natural gas R ampersand D: An analysis of the gas industry proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The natural gas industry has proposed an increase in the DOE gas R ampersand D budget from about $100 million to about $250 million per year for each of the next 10 years. The proposal includes four programs: natural gas supplies, fuel cells, natural gas vehicles and stationary combustion systems. This paper is a qualitative assessment of the gas industry proposal and recommends a natural gas R ampersand D strategy for the DOE. The methodology is a conceptual framework based on an analysis of market failures and the energy policy objectives of the DOE's (1991) National Energy Strategy. This framework would assist the DOE in constructing an R ampersand D portfolio that achieves energy policy objectives. The natural gas supply program is recommended to the extent that it contributes to energy price stability. Stationary combustion programs are supported on grounds of economic efficiency and environmental quality. The fuel cell program is supported on grounds of environmental quality. The natural gas vehicle program may potentially contribute to environmental quality and energy price stability. The R ampersand D programs in natural gas vehicles and in fuel cells should be complemented with policies that encourage the commercialization and use of the technology, not merely its development

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  7. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  8. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  9. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  10. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T Oe; Einang, P M; Stenersen, D [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  11. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D. [Ztek Corp., Waltham, MA (United States); Bradshaw, D.T. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  12. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of Pt nanostructures on fuel cell gas diffusion layer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available and test MEA?s performance in PEMFC. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Barbir F., (2005) PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice, Elsevier Academic Press Oxford. 2. Yang T.-H., et al (2004) J. Power Sources 127 230. 3. Hirano S., Kim J. and Srinivasan S., (1997) Electrochim... stream_source_info Modibedi_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5644 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Modibedi_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS...

  13. Natural gas supply, demand and price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas consumption in the US grew 15.9 percent between 1986 and 1989. Its share of total primary energy use in the US grew from 22.5 percent to 23.8 percent. Despite unusually warm weather and an economic downturn, natural gas use in the first eight months of 1990 fell only modestly from its 1989 pace - while its market share of US total primary energy use has remained stable. The American Gas Association's Total Energy Resource Analysis energy modeling system (A.G.A.-TERA) projects continued growth in natural gas demand and supply. Natural gas is projected to gain a growing share of total US primary use. Natural gas prices are projected to be sufficient to encourage growth in well completions and reserve additions, yet competitive with electricity, fuel oil and other alternative forms of energy

  14. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  15. Peclet number analysis of cross-flow in porous gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Jayanti, Sreenivas

    2016-10-01

    Adoption of hydrogen economy by means of using hydrogen fuel cells is one possible solution for energy crisis and climate change issues. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is an important type of fuel cells, suffers from the problem of water management. Cross-flow is induced in some flow field designs to enhance the water removal. The presence of cross-flow in the serpentine and interdigitated flow fields makes them more effective in proper distribution of the reactants on the reaction layer and evacuation of water from the reaction layer than diffusion-based conventional parallel flow fields. However, too much of cross-flow leads to flow maldistribution in the channels, higher pressure drop, and membrane dehydration. In this study, an attempt has been made to quantify the amount of cross-flow required for effective distribution of reactants and removal of water in the gas diffusion layer. Unit cells containing two adjacent channels with gas diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer at the bottom have been considered for the parallel, interdigitated, and serpentine flow patterns. Computational fluid dynamics-based simulations are carried out to study the reactant transport in under-the-rib area with cross-flow in the GDL. A new criterion based on the Peclet number is presented as a quantitative measure of cross-flow in the GDL. The study shows that a cross-flow Peclet number of the order of 2 is required for effective removal of water from the GDL. Estimates show that this much of cross-flow is not usually produced in the U-bends of Serpentine flow fields, making these areas prone to flooding.

  16. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  17. Fuel cell R&D at the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hietkamp, S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available similarly to a battery, which uses electrochemical conversion, fuel cells take in hydrogen- rich fuel and oxygen and turn them into electricity and heat. The hydrogen used can be derived from gasoline, natural gas, propane or methanol. Within the CSIR...

  18. Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500 Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165 Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity factor, i.e. ratio between available reserves and natural gas consumption, is around 300 years for the last 50 years. The new discovery of natural gas reserves has given rise to a new energy strategy based on natural gas. Natural gas utilization is constantly increasing in the last 50 years. With new technologies for deep drilling, we have come to know that there are enormous gas resources available at relatively low price. These new discoveries together with high demand for the environment saving have introduced a new energy strategy on the world scale. This paper presents an evaluation of the potential natural gas utilization in energy sector. As the criteria in this analysis resource, economic, environmental, social and technological indicators are used. Among the potential options of gas utilization following systems are considered: Gas turbine power plant, combine cycle plant, CHP power plant, steam turbine gas-fired power plant, fuel cells power plant. Multi-criteria method was used for the assessment of potential options with priority given to the Resource, Economic and Social Indicators. Results obtained are presented in graphical form representing priority list of potential options under specific constraints in the priority of natural gas utilization strategy in energy sector

  19. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphlett, J. C.; Mann, R. F.; Peppley, B. A.; Roberge, P. R.; Rodrigues, A.; Salvador, J. P.

    Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

  1. Investigating the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy in a natural gas/diesel fueled engine with a pre-chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, Mohammad Mahdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Gharehghani, Ayatallah; Mirsalim, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combustion strategy, RCCI with a pre-chamber, is proposed and investigated. • The proposed strategy extends the RCCI operating range to use less intake air temperatures. • The new concept extends the RCCI operating range to use lower portions of the active fuel. • The proposed strategy is sensitive to engine load and is more efficient for high loads. - Abstract: Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept has been proven to be a promising combustion mode for the next generations of internal combustion engines. This strategy is still subject of extensive studies to overcome its operational limitations. In the present work, the effect of using a pre-chamber to extend some operating ranges in a RCCI engine is investigated using coupled multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. To accomplish this, the combustion and flow field in a single cylinder engine with a pre-chamber, working in RCCI mode and fueled with natural gas/diesel are numerically modeled. Experimental data is used to validate the simulation results and then, combustion characteristics and engine emissions in some various operating regions, in terms of initial temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and portions of the two fuels are discussed. The results reveal that the proposed strategy provides the ability to extend the engine operating ranges to use lower intake temperatures, even to 50 K lower for some cases, and also using a larger portion of natural gas instead of diesel fuel. On the other hand, the new strategy could result in incomplete combustion and formation of related emissions in low loads, but for higher engine loads it shows better combustion characteristics.

  2. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  3. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  4. Produksi Gas hidrogen dari Limbah Alumunium dan Uji Daya Listrik dengan Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusraini DIS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Fuel Cell adalah teknologi masa depan yang ramah lingkungan. Bahan baku untuk fuel cell adalah hidrogen. Produksi hidrogen dari limbah alumunium dan storage telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan limbah alumunium (alumunium foil dan kaleng minuman yang direaksikan dengan larutan beralkalin untuk menghasilkan hidrogen. Hidrogen yang dihasilkan sebanding dengan tekanan yang terukur yang diukur dengan CASSY LAB Version 1.41. Hasilnya adalah: a. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi NaOH (5 %, 10 % dan 15 % semakin cepat reaksi produksi hidrogen berlangsung. b. Jumlah limbah alumunium yang berbeda (0,01 g, 0,05 g dan 0,10 g kurang berpengaruh terhadap waktu reaksi jika konsentrasi NaOHnya sama. c. Temperatur yang dihasilkan berkisar antara 27 oC - 33,7 oC, semakin banyak jumlah alumunium yang direaksikan semakin tinggi temperatur yang dihasilkan. d. Daya listrik yang dihasilkan dari 0,10 gram alumunium foil adalah sebesar 45-51 watt dengan daya rata-rata 0,08 watt per detik. e. Daya listrik yang dihasilkan dengan kaleng Coca Cola adalah sebesar 12,13 watt dengan daya rata-rata 0,009 watt per detik.

  5. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  6. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  7. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  8. Use of a single-zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry to study a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junnian; Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Auto-ignition characteristics of a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► Engine speed had the greatest effect on the auto-ignition process. ► Increases of C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 improved the auto-ignition process. ► Engine performance was not sensitive to small changes in C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 . ► Nitric oxides concentrations decreased as engine speed or EGR level was increased. - Abstract: A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. This simulation was used to complete analyses for a modified 0.4 L single cylinder engine. The engine possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the minimal initial temperature, engine performance, and nitric oxide emissions of HCCI engine operation. The results show significant changes in combustion characteristics with varying engine operating conditions. Effects of varying equivalence ratios (0.3–1.0), engine speeds (1000–4000 RPM), EGR (0–40%), and fuel compositions were determined and analyzed in detail. In particular, every 0.1 increase in equivalence ratio or 500 rpm increase in engine speed requires about a 5 K higher initial temperature for complete combustion, and leads to around 0.7 bar increase in IMEP.

  9. Coordination of ministry actions related to the use of liquefied natural gas for marine fuel - A maritime challenge to face collectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Jean-Francois; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Allais, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    As France remained apart from a movement of adoption of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in maritime applications, this report first discusses the different fuels used by ships (conventional fuels, LNG, fuel energy efficiency, LNG engines and tanks). Then, after having recalled international constraints related to atmospheric emissions by ships (MARPOL convention, European legal framework) and noticed the possible transfer to other transport mode in case of change of fuel, the authors discuss the possible solutions and show that LNG allows environmental objectives to be met whereas other conventional fuels present several drawbacks. They comment the results of some European studies on the use of LNG, propose an overview of LNG resources, availability and prices, and indicate current projects in the world. They study the implications of introduction of LNG for ships in France in terms of infrastructures, of regulation, and of compliance with different European policies. They discuss different aspects related to the creation of the associated market, the commitment of economic stakeholders, industrial stakes, pilot projects and the issue of investment financing

  10. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  11. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  12. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  13. Optimisation of the process of fuel gas production for fuel cells in motor vehicles; Verfahrenstechnische Optimierung der Brenngaserzeugung fuer Brennstoffzellen in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colsman, G

    1995-10-01

    There are advanced development programs and demonstration projects worldwide concerning the use of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) in passenger cars. The on-board production of a hydrogen-rich fuel gas in particular requires research and development. Based on a comparison of different energy carriers and hydrogen production processes, the methanol steam-reforming system is optimized with respect to criteria such as power density and fuel gas quality. The specific hydrogen production is thereby raised to 10 m{sup 3} (STP) per hour and litre of catalyst at 99.5% methanol conversion rate and 280 C reformer wall temperature. Due to the fact, that the maximum CO concentration in the fuel gas, which is tolerable by the PEMFC with platinum catalyst, is 10 ppm, a separate gas cleaning is necessary after the steam reforming process. Different gas treatment processes are discussed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Pore-free metal membranes allow the separation of ultra pure (>99.9999 vol.-%) hydrogen from the reformer gas while the technical criteria for the use in passenger cars are fulfilled. The investigations are completed by mathematical models of the optimized methanol reformer as well as the gas separation by membranes. The results of this work concerning the optimization of the fuel processing from methanol have made possible the building and testing of a fuel gas production unit on a passenger car scale. Volume and weight of the total unit allow already today the installation in a vehicle without any restrictions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von PEMFC (Brennstoffzellen mit Protonenaustauschmembran) in Kraftfahrzeugen wird weltweit erforscht und in zahlreichen Prototypen demonstriert. Insbesondere auf dem Gebiet der Erzeugung eines wasserstoffreichen Brenngases im Kraftfahrzeug besteht ein erheblicher Entwicklungsbedarf. Auf der Basis eines Vergleichs verschiedener Energietraeger und Verfahren der Wasserstoffgewinnung wird das

  14. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  15. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  16. Who's afraid of natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in our electricity systems provoked by natural gas power generation technology are paving the way for large-scale renewables use in the future. Natural gas and gas turbines are now such a cheap and easy option for electricity generation that they appear to cast a pall over renewables. The market share of gas-fired generation continues expanding inexorably. Its cost continues to fall, setting renewables an ever more demanding competitive target. Nevertheless, paradoxical though this may sound, natural gas is actually the natural ally of renewables. Despite the fierce competitive challenge it represents, natural gas may even be the most important single factor shaping a bright future for renewables. (author)

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Liquid Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the origins of the Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) industry the production and transportation of LNG are discussed. Special attention is paid to the importance of the safety aspect during every activity or handling of LNG. Next the most important trade flows for LNG are dealt with. Two zones can be distinguished: the western part of the Pacific and the Atlantic basin. Subsequently the main aspects of a LNG-project are mentioned, as well as the success factors. Finally the prospects for the LNG-industry are reviewed. 11 figs

  19. Experimental study on the self-humidification effect in proton exchange membrane fuel cells containing double gas diffusion backing layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Im Mo; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Min Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated self-humidification effect of structurally modified GDBLs in PEMFCs. • One conventional and two modified GDLs were prepared. • Structural design of the GDBLs significantly affected self-humidification. • Stacking was found to have negligible effect on self-humidification. • It can be applied readily to self-humidified PEMFCs. - Abstract: Adequate hydration of the membrane is required to ensure high proton conductivity in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which, in turn, is required for achieving high cell performances. While external humidifiers are typically used to humidify the supplied air in conventional systems, their use increases the complexity, weight, volume, and parasitic power loss in fuel cell systems, rendering them unviable in some systems, particularly for portable applications. In this study, the structure of a gas diffusion backing layer (GDBL) was modified to enhance the self-humidification effect in PEMFCs. Three types of GDLs were prepared for the experiments: a conventional GDL (GDL-A with uniform single GDBL) and two modified GDLs (GDL-A′B with uniform double GDBL and GDL-A′C with heterogeneous double GDBLs). In order to evaluate the effect of stacking and structural design on the self-humidification characteristics, some characteristics of the GDLs such as contact angle, resistance, and vapor permeation rate were measured. The electrochemical performances of the fuel cells were also measured at various relative humidity (RH) and stoichiometric ratio (SR) conditions. The results showed that stacking had a negligible effect, whereas the structural design of the GDBL had a significant effect on self-humidification. The self-humidification effect and the cell performance were improved significantly in the structurally modified GDBL. In addition, considering the actual field conditions and the results of the present study, it was concluded that the structural modifications made to the GDBL would

  20. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  5. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel. LNG, a European component of the energy transition in road freight transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maler, Philippe; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the third of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel in transports. LNG is an important potential substitute to diesel fuel in road transport and would allow significant abatement of nitrogen oxides emissions. Bio-LNG is ten times less polluting than fossil fuel LNG and thus important efforts are to be made in bio-LNG R and D. An important work has been carried out for adapting EU regulations and standards to LNG vehicles and LNG supply developments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - European framework of energy transition in the road freight transport (differences with maritime transport, CO 2 emissions abatement, trucks pollution and fuel quality standards, trucks technical specifications and equipment, fuel taxes in EU countries); 2 - European policy and national actions in favour of LNG development for road transport (LNG as alternate fuel, the Paris agreement, the French national energy plan); 3 - Environmental benefits of LNG in road transport (public health impacts, nitrogen oxides abatement, divergent views and expertise, LNG and CO 2 abatement measures, bio-LNG environmental evaluation; 4 - LNG development actors in road transport and the administrative coordination (professional organizations, public stakeholders, LNG topics information dissemination at the Ministry); 5 - LNG development in road transport at the worldwide, European and national scales; 6 - European regulations and standards allowing trucks LNG fueling and circulation (standard needs, users information, regulation works); 7 - Common rules to define and implement for personnel training; 8 - reflexion on LNG taxation; 9 - support policy for a road transport LNG supply chain (infrastructures, European financing, lessons learnt from maritime

  6. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  7. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  8. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  9. Natural gas and bio methane in the future fuel mix. Need of action and solution approaches for an accelerated etablishment in the traffic; Erdgas und Biomethan im kuenftigen Krafts