WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural entropy fluctuations

  1. Inflationary fluctuations, entropy generation and baryogenesis in a cold universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    We study the implications of a generic inflationary model for scenarios of baryogenesis based on the decays of coherent oscillations of squark and slepton fields. We consider the effects of de Sitter fluctuations on the magnitudes of the coherent oscillations of squarks and sleptons. We see that the largest contribution to the entropy density is due to inflation decays which together with the value of the oscillation amplitude determined by the de Sitter fluctuations leads to a baryon to entropy ratio O(10 -10 ). The isothermal density fluctuations produced by the coherent oscillations are found to be negligible compared with the adiabatic fluctuations produced during inflation. (orig.)

  2. Statistical properties of entropy production derived from fluctuation theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merhav, Neri; Kafri, Yariv

    2010-01-01

    Several implications of well-known fluctuation theorems, on the statistical properties of entropy production, are studied using various approaches. We begin by deriving a tight lower bound on the variance of the entropy production for a given mean of this random variable. It is shown that the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem alone imposes a significant lower bound on the variance only when the mean entropy production is very small. It is then nonetheless demonstrated that upon incorporating additional information concerning the entropy production, this lower bound can be significantly improved, so as to capture extensivity properties. Another important aspect of the fluctuation properties of the entropy production is the relationship between the mean and the variance, on the one hand, and the probability of the event where the entropy production is negative, on the other hand. Accordingly, we derive upper and lower bounds on this probability in terms of the mean and the variance. These bounds are tighter than previous bounds that can be found in the literature. Moreover, they are tight in the sense that there exist probability distributions, satisfying the Evans–Searles fluctuation theorem, that achieve them with equality. Finally, we present a general method for generating a wide class of inequalities that must be satisfied by the entropy production. We use this method to derive several new inequalities that go beyond the standard derivation of the second law

  3. Heat Flux and Entropy Produced by Thermal Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, S.; Imparato, Alberto; Naert, A.

    2013-01-01

    , and a conservation law for the fluctuating entropy, which we justify theoretically. The system is ruled by the same equations as two Brownian particles kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force. Our results set strong constraints on the energy exchanged between coupled nanosystems held...

  4. Minimum entropy production principle from a dynamical fluctuation law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2007), 053306/1-053306/12 ISSN 0022-2488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dynamical fluctuations * entropy production Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.137, year: 2007

  5. Entropy Production and Fluctuation Theorems for Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Klymko, Katherine; DeWeese, Michael R.

    2017-12-01

    Active biological systems reside far from equilibrium, dissipating heat even in their steady state, thus requiring an extension of conventional equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In this Letter, we have extended the emerging framework of stochastic thermodynamics to active matter. In particular, for the active Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, we have provided consistent definitions of thermodynamic quantities such as work, energy, heat, entropy, and entropy production at the level of single, stochastic trajectories and derived related fluctuation relations. We have developed a generalization of the Clausius inequality, which is valid even in the presence of the non-Hamiltonian dynamics underlying active matter systems. We have illustrated our results with explicit numerical studies.

  6. Energy, entropy, and the flow of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    A fresh and unified exploration of the laws that govern natural change, examining the historical roots and meaning of the concepts of energy and entropy. All natural processes--mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, and biological--are viewed as a flow across free energy gradients that interact with one another.

  7. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-02-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified.

  8. Fluctuation Theorems of Work and Entropy in Hamiltonian Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These theorems lead to the fact that the second law holds for aver-. RESONANCE | May 2018 ... thermodynamic quantities like work, heat or entropy change are also stochastic and follow .... In the third line, we have used the fact that W[z(t)] ...

  9. Time-evolution of the entropy of fluctuations in some biological systems as investigated by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenk, R.

    1979-01-01

    A simple expression for the entropy of fluctuations has been developed, using the tunnelling-effect model. This gives the possibility to estimate the changes and evolution of entropy in non-crystalline and biological samples by NMR investigations. On the other hand, the oscillatory character of the time-evolution of some properties, experimentally found in the investigated samples of plants, is interpreted in terms of the generalized master equation with an exponential memory function. (Auth.)

  10. Detrended fluctuation analysis and Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy of electroencephalogram signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jung Ho; Khang, Eun Joo; Lee, Tae Hyun; Kim, In Hye; Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2013-01-01

    We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG) of young students in the relaxed state and in the state of the mathematical activities. We applied the detrended fluctuation analysis and Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy (KSE) in the EEG signals. We found that the detrended fluctuation functions follow a power law with Hurst exponents larger than 1/2. The Hurst exponents enhanced at all EEG channels in the state of mathematical activities. The KSE in the relaxed state is larger than those in the state of the mathematical activities. These indicate that the entropy is enhanced in the disorder state of the brain.

  11. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas

    OpenAIRE

    CLEUREN, Bart; WILLAERT, Koen; ENGEL, Andreas; VAN DEN BROECK, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and anti-particle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified.

  12. Entropy in the Tangled Nature Model of evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roach, Ty N.F.; Nulton, James; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Applications of entropy principles to evolution and ecology are of tantamount importance given the central role spatiotemporal structuring plays in both evolution and ecological succession. We obtain here a qualitative interpretation of the role of entropy in evolving ecological systems. Our...... interpretation is supported by mathematical arguments using simulation data generated by the Tangled Nature Model (TNM), a stochastic model of evolving ecologies. We define two types of configurational entropy and study their empirical time dependence obtained from the data. Both entropy measures increase...... logarithmically with time, while the entropy per individual decreases in time, in parallel with the growth of emergent structures visible from other aspects of the simulation. We discuss the biological relevance of these entropies to describe niche space and functional space of ecosystems, as well as their use...

  13. Entropy in bimolecular simulations: A comprehensive review of atomic fluctuations-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Summer; Ahmed, Marawan; El-Sheikh, Salah; Barakat, Khaled H

    2015-11-01

    Entropy of binding constitutes a major, and in many cases a detrimental, component of the binding affinity in biomolecular interactions. While the enthalpic part of the binding free energy is easier to calculate, estimating the entropy of binding is further more complicated. A precise evaluation of entropy requires a comprehensive exploration of the complete phase space of the interacting entities. As this task is extremely hard to accomplish in the context of conventional molecular simulations, calculating entropy has involved many approximations. Most of these golden standard methods focused on developing a reliable estimation of the conformational part of the entropy. Here, we review these methods with a particular emphasis on the different techniques that extract entropy from atomic fluctuations. The theoretical formalisms behind each method is explained highlighting its strengths as well as its limitations, followed by a description of a number of case studies for each method. We hope that this brief, yet comprehensive, review provides a useful tool to understand these methods and realize the practical issues that may arise in such calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase) space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  15. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  16. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin; Van den Broeck, C; Kawai, R; Lindenberg, Katja

    2007-06-01

    We derive an exact expression for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas driven by momentum transfer in addition to energy and particle flux. Following the treatment in Cleuren [Phys. Rev. E 74, 021117 (2006)], we construct a master equation formulation of the process and explicitly verify the thermodynamic fluctuation theorem, thereby directly exhibiting its extended applicability to particle flows and hence to hydrodynamic systems.

  17. Entropy in the Tangled Nature Model of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty N. F. Roach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of entropy principles to evolution and ecology are of tantamount importance given the central role spatiotemporal structuring plays in both evolution and ecological succession. We obtain here a qualitative interpretation of the role of entropy in evolving ecological systems. Our interpretation is supported by mathematical arguments using simulation data generated by the Tangled Nature Model (TNM, a stochastic model of evolving ecologies. We define two types of configurational entropy and study their empirical time dependence obtained from the data. Both entropy measures increase logarithmically with time, while the entropy per individual decreases in time, in parallel with the growth of emergent structures visible from other aspects of the simulation. We discuss the biological relevance of these entropies to describe niche space and functional space of ecosystems, as well as their use in characterizing the number of taxonomic configurations compatible with different niche partitioning and functionality. The TNM serves as an illustrative example of how to calculate and interpret these entropies, which are, however, also relevant to real ecosystems, where they can be used to calculate the number of functional and taxonomic configurations that an ecosystem can realize.

  18. Natural extensions and entropy of α-continued fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraaikamp, Cor; Schmidt, Thomas A; Steiner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We construct a natural extension for each of Nakada's α-continued fraction transformations and show the continuity as a function of α of both the entropy and the measure of the natural extension domain with respect to the density function (1 + xy) −2 . For 0 2 /6. We show that the interval (3-√5)/2≤α≤(1+√5)/2 is a maximal interval upon which the entropy is constant. As a key step for all this, we give the explicit relationship between the α-expansion of α − 1 and of α. (paper)

  19. Entropy Generation in Natural Convection Under an Evanescent Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magherbi, Mourad; El Jery, Atef; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    We numerically study the effect of an externally-evanescent magnetic field on total entropy generation in conducting and non-reactive fluid enclosed in a square cavity. The horizontal walls of the enclosure are assumed to be insulated while the vertical walls are kept isothermal. A control volume finite element method is used to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0.71. The values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are chosen, so that the Lorentz force acts only in the transient state of entropy generation in natural convection. The total entropy generation was calculated for fixed value of irreversibility distribution ratio, different relaxation time varying from 0 to 1/5 and Grashof number equal to 10 5

  20. The Maximum Entropy Limit of Small-scale Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we continue studies of the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying either on the concept of magnetic features or on subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. We propose a data analysis method to quantify fluctuations of the line-of-sight magnetic field by means of reducing the temporal field’s evolution to the regular Markov process. We build a representative model of fluctuations converging to the unique stationary (equilibrium) distribution in the long time limit with maximum entropy. We obtained different rates of convergence to the equilibrium at fixed noise cutoff for two sets of data. This indicates a strong influence of the data spatial resolution and mixing-polarity fluctuations on the relaxation process. The analysis is applied to observations of magnetic fields of the relatively quiet areas around an active region carried out during the second flight of the Sunrise/IMaX and quiet Sun areas at the disk center from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.

  1. Enhancing Entropy and Enthalpy Fluctuations to Drive Crystallization in Atomistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization is a process of great practical relevance in which rare but crucial fluctuations lead to the formation of a solid phase starting from the liquid. As in all first order first transitions, there is an interplay between enthalpy and entropy. Based on this idea, in order to drive crystallization in molecular simulations, we introduce two collective variables, one enthalpic and the other entropic. Defined in this way, these collective variables do not prejudge the structure into which the system is going to crystallize. We show the usefulness of this approach by studying the cases of sodium and aluminum that crystallize in the bcc and fcc crystalline structures, respectively. Using these two generic collective variables, we perform variationally enhanced sampling and well tempered metadynamics simulations and find that the systems transform spontaneously and reversibly between the liquid and the solid phases.

  2. Entropy transport in high-Tc superconductors in the fluctuation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, K.

    1991-01-01

    Making use of the expression for the heat current associated with the space-time-dependent order parameter for the s-wave superconductor, we calculate, in the clean limit, the heat current induced by an electric field. In the absence of a magnetic field we find an extra Peltier coefficient associated with the fluctuations, which diverges logarithmically as the temperature T approaches the transition temperature T c . In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the ab plane, the fluctuation gives rise to the Ettingshausen effect. In a small magnetic field, the corresponding entropy transported by magnetic flux is calculated: left-angle S φ right-angle f =[2π 3 τT/21ζ(3)d](h/var-epsilon)(1 +2α) -1/2 where τ and d are the transport lifetime and the interlayer spacing, ζ(3)=1.202. . ., h=2eξ a 2 B, var-epsilon=ln(T/T c ), and α=2(ξ c /d) 2 var-epsilon -1 . The result is compared with a recent observation of the Ettinghausen effect in a single crystal of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7

  3. Entropy generation in natural convection in a symmetrically and uniformly heated vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Assunta [Dipartimento di Energetica, Termofluidodinamica applicata e Condizionamenti ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Auletta, Antonio [CIRA - Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, Via Maiorise 1, 81043 Capua (CE) (Italy); Manca, Oronzio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Meccanica, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Real Casa dell' Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2006-08-15

    In this study numerical predictions of local and global entropy generation rates in natural convection in air in a vertical channel symmetrically heated at uniform heat flux are reported. Results of entropy generation analysis are obtained by solving the entropy generation equation based on the velocity and temperature data. The analyzed regime is two-dimensional, laminar and steady state. The numerical procedure expands an existing computer code on natural convection in vertical channels. Results in terms of fields and profiles of local entropy generation, for various Rayleigh number, Ra, and aspect ratio values, L/b, are given. The distributions of local values show different behaviours for the different Ra values. A correlation between global entropy generation rates, Rayleigh number and aspect ratio is proposed in the ranges 10{sup 3}=

  4. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  5. The Elusive Nature of Entropy and Its Physical Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoje M. Kostic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is the most used and often abused concept in science, but also in philosophy and society. Further confusions are produced by some attempts to generalize entropy with similar but not the same concepts in other disciplines. The physical meaning of phenomenological, thermodynamic entropy is reasoned and elaborated by generalizing Clausius definition with inclusion of generated heat, since it is irrelevant if entropy is changed due to reversible heat transfer or irreversible heat generation. Irreversible, caloric heat transfer is introduced as complementing reversible heat transfer. It is also reasoned and thus proven why entropy cannot be destroyed but is always generated (and thus over-all increased locally and globally, at every space and time scales, without any exception. It is concluded that entropy is a thermal displacement (dynamic thermal-volume of thermal energy due to absolute temperature as a thermal potential (dQ = TdS, and thus associated with thermal heat and absolute temperature, i.e., distribution of thermal energy within thermal micro-particles in space. Entropy is an integral measure of (random thermal energy redistribution (due to heat transfer and/or irreversible heat generation within a material system structure in space, per absolute temperature level: dS = dQSys/T = mCSysdT/T, thus logarithmic integral function, with J/K unit. It may be also expressed as a measure of “thermal disorder”, being related to logarithm of number of all thermal, dynamic microstates W (their position and momenta, S = kBlnW, or to the sum of their logarithmic probabilities S = −kB∑pilnpi, that correspond to, or are consistent with the given thermodynamic macro-state. The number of thermal microstates W, is correlated with macro-properties temperature T and volume V for ideal gases. A system form and/or functional order or disorder are not (thermal energy order/disorder and the former is not related to Thermodynamic entropy. Expanding

  6. Improving performance of two-phase natural circulation loops by reducing of entropy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, N.; Talebi, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of various parameters on stability behavior and entropy generation through a two-phase natural circulation loop. Two-phase natural circulation systems have low driving head and, consequently, low heat removal capability. To have a higher thermodynamic efficiency, in addition to the stability analysis, minimization of entropy generation by loop should be taken into account in the design of these systems. In the present study, to investigate the stability behavior, the non-linear method (known as the direct solution method or time domain method) which is able to simulate the uniform and non-uniform diameter loops, was applied. To best calculate entropy generation rates, the governing equations of the entropy generation were solved analytically. The effects of various parameters such as operating conditions and geometrical dimensions on the stability behavior and the entropy generation in the two-phase natural circulation loop were then analyzed. - Highlights: • Effects of all important parameters on entropy generation of a loop are studied. • The governing equations of the entropy generation are solved analytically. • Effects of all important parameters on stability of a loop are investigated. • Improvement of two-phase natural circulation loop is investigated.

  7. Relative Entropy, Interaction Energy and the Nature of Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gaveau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many thermodynamic relations involve inequalities, with equality if a process does not involve dissipation. In this article we provide equalities in which the dissipative contribution is shown to involve the relative entropy (a.k.a. Kullback-Leibler divergence. The processes considered are general time evolutions both in classical and quantum mechanics, and the initial state is sometimes thermal, sometimes partially so. By calculating a transport coefficient we show that indeed—at least in this case—the source of dissipation in that coefficient is the relative entropy.

  8. The different paths to entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguigui, L

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how the complex concept of entropy emerged, we propose a trip into the past, reviewing the works of Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs and Planck. In particular, since Gibbs's work is not very well known we present a detailed analysis, recalling the three definitions of entropy that Gibbs gives. The introduction of entropy in quantum mechanics gives in a compact form all the classical definitions of entropy. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of entropy is to see it as a thermodynamic potential like the others proposed by Callen. The calculation of fluctuations in thermodynamic quantities is thus naturally related to entropy. We close with some remarks on entropy and irreversibility. (paper)

  9. Interacting price model and fluctuation behavior analysis from Lempel–Ziv complexity and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A financial price model is developed based on the voter interacting system in this work. The Lempel–Ziv complexity is introduced to analyze the complex behaviors of the stock market. Some stock market stylized facts including fat tails, absence of autocorrelation and volatility clustering are investigated for the proposed price model firstly. Then the complexity of fluctuation behaviors of the real stock markets and the proposed price model are mainly explored by Lempel–Ziv complexity (LZC) analysis and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) analysis. A series of LZC analyses of the returns and the absolute returns of daily closing prices and moving average prices are performed. Moreover, the complexity of the returns, the absolute returns and their corresponding intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with MWPE is also investigated. The numerical empirical study shows similar statistical and complex behaviors between the proposed price model and the real stock markets, which exhibits that the proposed model is feasible to some extent. - Highlights: • A financial price dynamical model is developed based on the voter interacting system. • Lempel–Ziv complexity is the firstly applied to investigate the stock market dynamics system. • MWPE is employed to explore the complexity fluctuation behaviors of the stock market. • Empirical results show the feasibility of the proposed financial model.

  10. Interacting price model and fluctuation behavior analysis from Lempel–Ziv complexity and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui, E-mail: lirui1401@bjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-08

    A financial price model is developed based on the voter interacting system in this work. The Lempel–Ziv complexity is introduced to analyze the complex behaviors of the stock market. Some stock market stylized facts including fat tails, absence of autocorrelation and volatility clustering are investigated for the proposed price model firstly. Then the complexity of fluctuation behaviors of the real stock markets and the proposed price model are mainly explored by Lempel–Ziv complexity (LZC) analysis and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) analysis. A series of LZC analyses of the returns and the absolute returns of daily closing prices and moving average prices are performed. Moreover, the complexity of the returns, the absolute returns and their corresponding intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with MWPE is also investigated. The numerical empirical study shows similar statistical and complex behaviors between the proposed price model and the real stock markets, which exhibits that the proposed model is feasible to some extent. - Highlights: • A financial price dynamical model is developed based on the voter interacting system. • Lempel–Ziv complexity is the firstly applied to investigate the stock market dynamics system. • MWPE is employed to explore the complexity fluctuation behaviors of the stock market. • Empirical results show the feasibility of the proposed financial model.

  11. The large deviation principle and steady-state fluctuation theorem for the entropy production rate of a stochastic process in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Ge, Hao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Lihu

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuation theorem is one of the major achievements in the field of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics during the past two decades. There exist very few results for steady-state fluctuation theorem of sample entropy production rate in terms of large deviation principle for diffusion processes due to the technical difficulties. Here we give a proof for the steady-state fluctuation theorem of a diffusion process in magnetic fields, with explicit expressions of the free energy function and rate function. The proof is based on the Karhunen-Loève expansion of complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  12. Microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of 4 He superfluid helium deduced by maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium ( 4 He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator ρhut FP that is evaluated as Wigneris function through ρ CG obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix D mn defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator ρhut CG , matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine ρhut CG by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator ρhut l -tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements D mn but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator ρhut qe instead of the local equilibrium operator ρhut l -tilde. Matrix

  13. Natural time analysis and Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2016-12-01

    Upon analyzing the seismic data in natural time and employing a sliding natural time window comprising a number of events that would occur in a few months, it has been recently uncovered[1] that a precursory Seismic Electric Signals activity[2] initiates almost simultaneously with the appearance of a minimum in the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity [3]. Such minima have been ascertained [4] during periods of the magnitude time series exhibiting long range correlations [5] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger that occurred in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake). Before and after these minima, characteristic changes of the temporal correlations between earthquake magnitudes are observed which cannot be captured by Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics in the frame of which it has been suggested that kappa distributions arise [6]. Here, we extend the study concerning the existence of such minima in a large area that includes Aegean Sea and its surrounding area which exhibits in general seismo-tectonics [7] different than that of the entire Japanese area. References P. A. Varotsos et al., Tectonophysics, 589 (2013) 116. P. Varotsos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics 188 (1991) 321. P.A. Varotsos et al., Phys Rev E 72 (2005) 041103. N. V. Sarlis et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (2013) 13734. P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014), 9192, doi: 10.1002/2014JA0205800. G. Livadiotis, and D. J. McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105, doi:10.1029/2009JA014352. S. Uyeda et al., Tectonophysics, 304 (1999) 41.

  14. Nonequilibrium entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.

  15. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  16. The greenhouse effect and natural fluctuations of the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is a straight line connecting the first estimate in 1896 of worldwide climate changes due to the increasing use of fossil sources of energy with the Climate Convention of the United Nations at the 1992 Environmental Summit. Extensive model calculations exist of the 'greenhouse effect', in which the lower atmosphere is heated by manmade emissions of trace gases affecting the climate. However, the anticipated changes are not restricted to the temperature of the air; they affect the climate as a whole worldwide. As a consequence, the German Federal Government, in addition to its ban on CFCs, plans to reduce manmade carbon dioxide emissions by 25 or 30% by 2005. Natural fluctuations of the climate compete with the greenhouse effect: Volcanic and solar effects, but also random variations within the complicated interactions in the climatic system (atmosphere - oceans - ice regions - biosphere - land surface). Mathematical and statistical analyses of the superposition of such climatic mechanisms, which are based on data from observations, result in a risk analysis at a high level of probability. (orig.) [de

  17. Entropy Generation Analysis of Natural Convection in Square Enclosures with Two Isoflux Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Nejad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates entropy generation resulting from natural convective heat transfer in square enclosures with local heating of the bottom and symmetrical cooling of the sidewalls. This analysis tends to optimize heat transfer of two pieces of semiconductor in a square electronic package. In this simulation, heaters are modeled as isoflux heat sources and sidewalls of the enclosure are isothermal heat sinks. The top wall and the non-heated portions of the bottom wall are adiabatic. Flow and temperature fields are obtained by numerical simulation of conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy in laminar, steady and two dimensional flows. With constant heat energy into the cavity, effect of Rayleigh number, heater length, heater strength ratios and heater position is evaluated on flow and temperature fields and local entropy generation. The results show that a minimum entropy generation rate is obtained under the same condition in which a minimum peak heater temperature is obtained.

  18. Aspect ratio effects of an adiabatic rectangular obstacle on natural convection and entropy generation of a nanofluid in an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Nikfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, aspect ratio (AR) effects of a centered adiabatic rectangular obstacle numerically investigated on natural convection and entropy generation in a differentially heated enclosure filled with either water or nanofluid (Cu-water). The governing equations are solved numerically with finite volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. The study has been done for Rayleigh numbers between 10"3 and 10"6 , the aspect ratio of 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2 and 3 and for base fluid as well as nanofluid. It is found that, using the nanofluid leads to increase the flow strength, average Nusselt number and entropy generation and decrease the Bejan number especially at high Rayleigh numbers. At low Rayleigh numbers entropy generation is very low. By increasing Rayleigh number, entropy generation and Bejan number increases. It is observed that the viscose entropy generation is more considerable than the thermal entropy generation and has dominant role in total entropy generation. The maximum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1/3 and 3 and the minimum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1 and 1/2. It is observed that the effect of AR on Nusselt number, entropy generation and Bejan number depends on Rayleigh number.

  19. Aspect ratio effects of an adiabatic rectangular obstacle on natural convection and entropy generation of a nanofluid in an enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Nikfar, M. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, aspect ratio (AR) effects of a centered adiabatic rectangular obstacle numerically investigated on natural convection and entropy generation in a differentially heated enclosure filled with either water or nanofluid (Cu-water). The governing equations are solved numerically with finite volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. The study has been done for Rayleigh numbers between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} , the aspect ratio of 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2 and 3 and for base fluid as well as nanofluid. It is found that, using the nanofluid leads to increase the flow strength, average Nusselt number and entropy generation and decrease the Bejan number especially at high Rayleigh numbers. At low Rayleigh numbers entropy generation is very low. By increasing Rayleigh number, entropy generation and Bejan number increases. It is observed that the viscose entropy generation is more considerable than the thermal entropy generation and has dominant role in total entropy generation. The maximum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1/3 and 3 and the minimum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1 and 1/2. It is observed that the effect of AR on Nusselt number, entropy generation and Bejan number depends on Rayleigh number.

  20. MHD Natural Convection and Entropy Generation of Variable Properties Nanofluid in a Triangular Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aghaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection heat transfer has many applications in different fields of industry; such as cooling industries, electronic transformer devices and ventilation equipment; due to simple process, economic advantage, low noise and renewed retrieval. Recently, heat transfer of nanofluids have been considered because of higher thermal conductivity coefficient compared with those of ordinary fluids. In this study; natural convection and entropy generation in a triangular enclosure filled by Al2O3 –water nanofluid affected by magnetic field considering Brownian motion is investigated numerically. Two inclined walls are maintained at constant cold temperature (Tc while the bottom wall is kept at constant high temperature (Th with (Th>Tc. In order to investigate natural convection, a computer program (FORTRAN language based on finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm has been used. Analyses is performed for volume fraction of nanoparticles 0, 0.02, 0.04, Hartmann number 0, 50,100, Rayleigh numbers 103,104,105 and angle of inclined walls 450. In investigated angles and Rayleigh numbers; average Nusselt number is increased by enhancement of volume fraction of nanoparticles in a fixed Hartmann number. It is also observed that total entropy generation variations by increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles is similar to that of Nusselt number. By the results; effect of friction is always insignificant on generated entropy. It is observed that natural convection of nanofluid is decreased by enhancement of Hartmann number and its behavior is close to thermal conduction. It is also concluded that average Nusselt number and total generated entropy are decreased.

  1. Misuse of thermodynamic entropy in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The direct relationship between thermodynamic entropy and economic scarcity is only valid for a thermodynamically isolated economy. References to the second law of thermodynamics in economics within the context of scarcity ignore the fact that the earth is not an isolated system. The earth interacts with external sources and sinks of entropy and the resulting total entropy fluctuates around a constant. Even if the mankind finally proves unable to recycle industrial waste and close the technological cycle, the economic disruption caused by the depletion of natural resources may happen while the total thermodynamic entropy of the ecosystem remains essentially at the present level, because the transfer of chemically refined products may not increase significantly the total entropy, but it may decrease their recyclability. The inutility of industrial waste is not connected with its entropy, which may be exemplified with the case of alumina production. The case also demonstrates that industrially generated entropy is discharged into surroundings without being accumulated in ‘thermodynamically unavailable matter’. Material entropy, as a measure of complexity and economic dispersal of resources, can be a recyclability metric, but it is not a thermodynamic parameter, and its growth is not equivalent to the growth of thermodynamic entropy. - Highlights: • Entropy cannot be used as a measure of economic scarcity. • There is no anthropogenic entropy separate from the entropy produced naturally. • Inutility of industrial waste is not connected with its thermodynamic entropy. • Industrially generated entropy may or may not be accumulated in industrial waste. • Recyclability is more important than thermodynamic entropy of a product.

  2. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  3. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  4. Solutions to the Cosmic Initial Entropy Problem without Equilibrium Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihan M. Patel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entropy of the observable universe is increasing. Thus, at earlier times the entropy was lower. However, the cosmic microwave background radiation reveals an apparently high entropy universe close to thermal and chemical equilibrium. A two-part solution to this cosmic initial entropy problem is proposed. Following Penrose, we argue that the evenly distributed matter of the early universe is equivalent to low gravitational entropy. There are two competing explanations for how this initial low gravitational entropy comes about. (1 Inflation and baryogenesis produce a virtually homogeneous distribution of matter with a low gravitational entropy. (2 Dissatisfied with explaining a low gravitational entropy as the product of a ‘special’ scalar field, some theorists argue (following Boltzmann for a “more natural” initial condition in which the entire universe is in an initial equilibrium state of maximum entropy. In this equilibrium model, our observable universe is an unusual low entropy fluctuation embedded in a high entropy universe. The anthropic principle and the fluctuation theorem suggest that this low entropy region should be as small as possible and have as large an entropy as possible, consistent with our existence. However, our low entropy universe is much larger than needed to produce observers, and we see no evidence for an embedding in a higher entropy background. The initial conditions of inflationary models are as natural as the equilibrium background favored by many theorists.

  5. Information theory explanation of the fluctuation theorem, maximum entropy production and self-organized criticality in non-equilibrium stationary states

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, R

    2003-01-01

    Jaynes' information theory formalism of statistical mechanics is applied to the stationary states of open, non-equilibrium systems. First, it is shown that the probability distribution p subGAMMA of the underlying microscopic phase space trajectories GAMMA over a time interval of length tau satisfies p subGAMMA propor to exp(tau sigma subGAMMA/2k sub B) where sigma subGAMMA is the time-averaged rate of entropy production of GAMMA. Three consequences of this result are then derived: (1) the fluctuation theorem, which describes the exponentially declining probability of deviations from the second law of thermodynamics as tau -> infinity; (2) the selection principle of maximum entropy production for non-equilibrium stationary states, empirical support for which has been found in studies of phenomena as diverse as the Earth's climate and crystal growth morphology; and (3) the emergence of self-organized criticality for flux-driven systems in the slowly-driven limit. The explanation of these results on general inf...

  6. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  7. Spectral entropy as a mean to quantify water stress history for natural vegetation and irrigated agriculture in a water-stressed tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Spectral entropy (Hs) is an index which can be used to measure the structural complexity of time series data. When a time series is made up of one periodic function, the Hs value becomes smaller, while Hs becomes larger when a time series is composed of several periodic functions. We hypothesized that this characteristic of the Hs could be used to quantify the water stress history of vegetation. For the ideal condition for which sufficient water is supplied to an agricultural crop or natural vegetation, there should be a single distinct phenological cycle represented in a vegetation index time series (e.g., NDVI and EVI). However, time series data for a vegetation area that repeatedly experiences water stress may include several fluctuations that can be observed in addition to the predominant phenological cycle. This is because the process of experiencing water stress and recovering from it generates small fluctuations in phenological characteristics. Consequently, the value of Hs increases when vegetation experiences several water shortages. Therefore, the Hs could be used as an indicator for water stress history. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a natural area in comparison to a nearby sugarcane area in seasonally-dry western Costa Rica. In this presentation we will illustrate the use of spectral entropy to evaluate the vegetative responses of natural vegetation (dry tropical forest) and sugarcane under three different irrigation techniques (center pivot irrigation, drip irrigation and flood irrigation). Through this comparative analysis, the utility of Hs as an indicator will be tested. Furthermore, crop response to the different irrigation methods will be discussed in terms of Hs, NDVI and yield.

  8. Local Energies and Energy Fluctuations — Applied to the High Entropy Alloy CrFeCoNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Ogura, Masako; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H.

    2017-11-01

    High entropy alloys show a variety of fascinating properties like high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. They are random solid solutions of many components with rather high concentrations. We perform ab-initio calculations for the high entropy alloy CrFeCoNi, which equal concentration of 25% for each element. By the KKRnano program package, which is based on an order-N screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, we consider a face-centered cubic (FCC) supercell with 1372 randomly distributed elements, and in addition also smaller supercells with 500 and 256 atoms. It is found from our calculations that the local moments of the Cr atoms show a large environmental variation, ranging from -1.70 μB to +1.01 μB with an average of about -0.51 μB. We present a new method to calculate "local energies" of all atoms. This is based on the partitioning of the whole space into Voronoi cells and allows to calculate the energetic contribution of each atomic cell to the total energy of the supercell. The supercell calculations show very large variations of the local energies, analogous to the variations of the local moments. This shows that the random solid solution is not stable and has a tendency to form an L12-structure with the Cr-atoms ordered at the corner of the cube and the elements Fe, Co, and Ni randomly distributed on the three other FCC sublattices. For this structure the variation of the local moments are much smaller.

  9. Entropy Generation Due to Natural Convection in a Partially Heated Cavity by Local RBF-DQ Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, S.; Qajarjazi, A.; Bararnia, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Local Radial Basis Function-Differential Quadrature (RBF-DQ) method is applied to twodimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive form. Numerical results of heatlines and entropy generation due to heat transfer and fluid friction have been obtained for laminar natural...

  10. ON THE NATURE OF X-RAY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS IN M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Churazov, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Zhuravleva, I. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    X-ray images of galaxy clusters and gas-rich elliptical galaxies show a wealth of small-scale features that reflect fluctuations in density and/or temperature of the intracluster medium. In this paper we study these fluctuations in M87/Virgo to establish whether sound waves/shocks, bubbles, or uplifted cold gas dominate the structure. We exploit the strong dependence of the emissivity on density and temperature in different energy bands to distinguish between these processes. Using simulations we demonstrate that our analysis recovers the leading type of fluctuation even in the presence of projection effects and temperature gradients. We confirm the isobaric nature of cool filaments of gas entrained by buoyantly rising bubbles, extending to 7′ to the east and southwest, and the adiabatic nature of the weak shocks at 40″ and 3′ from the center. For features of ∼5–10 kpc, we show that the central 4′ × 4′ region is dominated by cool structures in pressure equilibrium with the ambient hotter gas while up to 30% of the variance in this region can be ascribed to adiabatic fluctuations. The remaining part of the central 14′ × 14′ region, excluding the arms and shocks described above, is dominated by apparently isothermal fluctuations (bubbles) with a possible admixture (at the level of ∼30%) of adiabatic (sound waves) and by isobaric structures. Larger features, of about 30 kpc, show a stronger contribution from isobaric fluctuations. The results broadly agree with a model based on feedback from an active galactic nucleus mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma.

  11. Tsallis non-additive entropy and natural time analysis of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2017-12-01

    Within the context of Tsallis non-additive entropy [1] statistical mechanics -in the frame of which kappa distributions arise [2,3]- a derivation of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law of seismicity has been proposed [4,5]. Such an analysis leads to a generalized GR law [6,7] which is applied here to the earthquakes in Japan and California. These seismic data are also studied in natural time [6] revealing that although some properties of seismicity may be recovered by the non-additive entropy approach, temporal correlations between successive earthquake magnitudes should be also taken into account [6,8]. The importance of such correlations is strengthened by the observation of periods of long range correlated earthquake magnitude time series [9] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) almost simultaneously with characteristic order parameter variations of seismicity [10]. These variations appear approximately when low frequency abnormal changes of the electric and magnetic field of the Earth (less than around 1Hz) are recorded [11] before strong earthquakes as the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan in 2011 [12]. 1. C Tsallis, J Stat Phys 52 (1988) 479 2. G Livadiotis, and D J McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105 3. G Livadiotis, Kappa Distributions. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 2017. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804638-8.01001-9 4. O Sotolongo-Costa, A Posadas, Phys Rev Lett 92 (2004) 048501 5. R Silva, G França, C Vilar, J Alcaniz, Phys Rev E 73 (2006) 026102 6. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, Phys Rev E 82 (2010) 021110 7. L Telesca, Bull Seismol Soc Am 102 (2012) 886-891 8. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. (Springer, Berlin) 2011. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16449-1 9. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014) 9192. 10. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, T

  12. Entropy in halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Claudine; Mohite, Aditya D.; Even, Jacky

    2018-05-01

    Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.

  13. Entropy? Honest!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Toffoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we deconstruct, and then in a reasoned way reconstruct, the concept of “entropy of a system”, paying particular attention to where the randomness may be coming from. We start with the core concept of entropy as a count associated with a description; this count (traditionally expressed in logarithmic form for a number of good reasons is in essence the number of possibilities—specific instances or “scenarios”—that match that description. Very natural (and virtually inescapable generalizations of the idea of description are the probability distribution and its quantum mechanical counterpart, the density operator. We track the process of dynamically updating entropy as a system evolves. Three factors may cause entropy to change: (1 the system’s internal dynamics; (2 unsolicited external influences on it; and (3 the approximations one has to make when one tries to predict the system’s future state. The latter task is usually hampered by hard-to-quantify aspects of the original description, limited data storage and processing resource, and possibly algorithmic inadequacy. Factors 2 and 3 introduce randomness—often huge amounts of it—into one’s predictions and accordingly degrade them. When forecasting, as long as the entropy bookkeping is conducted in an honest fashion, this degradation will always lead to an entropy increase. To clarify the above point we introduce the notion of honest entropy, which coalesces much of what is of course already done, often tacitly, in responsible entropy-bookkeping practice. This notion—we believe—will help to fill an expressivity gap in scientific discourse. With its help, we shall prove that any dynamical system—not just our physical universe—strictly obeys Clausius’s original formulation of the second law of thermodynamics if and only if it is invertible. Thus this law is a tautological property of invertible systems!

  14. Numerical study of three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in a cubical cavity with partially active vertical walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A Al-Rashed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection and entropy generation due to the heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities in a three-dimensional cubical cavity with partially heated and cooled vertical walls has been investigated numerically using the finite volume method. Four different arrangements of partially active vertical sidewalls of the cubical cavity are considered. Numerical calculations are carried out for Rayleigh numbers from (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, various locations of the partial heating and cooling vertical sidewalls, while the Prandtl number of air is considered constant as Pr=0.7 and the irreversibility coefficient is taken as (φ=10−4. The results explain that the total entropy generation rate increases when the Rayleigh number increases. While, the Bejan number decreases as the Rayleigh number increases. Also, it is found that the arrangements of heating and cooling regions have a significant effect on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of natural convection and entropy generation in a cubical cavity. The Middle-Middle arrangement produces higher values of average Nusselt numbers.

  15. Entropy generation analysis of the revised Cheng-Minkowycz problem for natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The similar solution on the equations of the revised Cheng-Minkowycz problem for natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid through a porous medium gives (using an analytical method, a system of non-linear partial differential equations which are solved by optimal homotopy analysis method. Effects of various drastic parameters on the fluid and heat transfer characteristics have been analyzed. A very good agreement is observed between the obtained results and the numerical ones. The entropy generation has been derived and a comprehensive parametric analysis on that has been done. Each component of the entropy generation has been analyzed separately and the contribution of each one on the total value of entropy generation has been determined. It is found that the entropy generation as an important aspect of the industrial applications has been affected by various parameters which should be controlled to minimize the entropy generation.

  16. Heat of combustion, sound speed and component fluctuations in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, L.; Ingman, D.

    1998-01-01

    The heat of combustion and sound speed of natural gas were studied as a function of random fluctuation of the gas fractions. A method of sound speed determination was developed and used for over 50,000 possible variants of component concentrations in four- and five- component mixtures. A test on binary (methane-ethane) and multicomponent (Gulf Coast) gas mixtures under standard pressure and moderate temperatures shows satisfactory predictability of sound speed on the basis of the binary virial coefficients, sound speeds and heat capacities of the pure components. Uncertainty in the obtained values does not exceed that of the pure component data. The results of comparison between two natural gas mixtures - with and without nonflammable components - are reported

  17. Fluctuating interaction network and time-varying stability of a natural fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, Masayuki; Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Masuda, Reiji; Deyle, Ethan R.; Ye, Hao; Chang, Chun-Wei; Sugihara, George; Kondoh, Michio

    2018-02-01

    Ecological theory suggests that large-scale patterns such as community stability can be influenced by changes in interspecific interactions that arise from the behavioural and/or physiological responses of individual species varying over time. Although this theory has experimental support, evidence from natural ecosystems is lacking owing to the challenges of tracking rapid changes in interspecific interactions (known to occur on timescales much shorter than a generation time) and then identifying the effect of such changes on large-scale community dynamics. Here, using tools for analysing nonlinear time series and a 12-year-long dataset of fortnightly collected observations on a natural marine fish community in Maizuru Bay, Japan, we show that short-term changes in interaction networks influence overall community dynamics. Among the 15 dominant species, we identify 14 interspecific interactions to construct a dynamic interaction network. We show that the strengths, and even types, of interactions change with time; we also develop a time-varying stability measure based on local Lyapunov stability for attractor dynamics in non-equilibrium nonlinear systems. We use this dynamic stability measure to examine the link between the time-varying interaction network and community stability. We find seasonal patterns in dynamic stability for this fish community that broadly support expectations of current ecological theory. Specifically, the dominance of weak interactions and higher species diversity during summer months are associated with higher dynamic stability and smaller population fluctuations. We suggest that interspecific interactions, community network structure and community stability are dynamic properties, and that linking fluctuating interaction networks to community-level dynamic properties is key to understanding the maintenance of ecological communities in nature.

  18. Numerical simulations of the effect of an isotropic heat field on the entropy generation due to natural convection in a square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghlany, Wael M.; Saqr, Khalid M.; Teamah, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Entropy generation in laminar natural convection in square cavity numerically studied. • The cavity subjected to an isotropic heat field with different intensities. • Study ranges 10 3 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 10 5 , 0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 10 and Pr = 0.7. • Entropy generation drastically affected by the superposition of an isotropic heat field. • CFD based empirical were derived for entropy generation as a function of Ra and φ. - Abstract: Entropy generation associated with laminar natural convection in an infinite square cavity, subjected to an isotropic heat field with different intensities; was numerically investigated for different values of Rayleigh number. The numerical work was carried out using, an in-house CFD code written in FORTRAN, which discretizes non-dimensional forms of the governing equations using the finite volume method and solves the resulting system of equations using Gauss-Seidal method utilizing a TDMA algorithm. Proper code validation was undertaken in order to establish the entropy generation calculations. It was found that the increase in the isotropic heat field intensity resulted in a corresponding exponential increase of the entropy augmentation number, and promoted high values of Bejan number within the flow. The entropy generation due to heat transfer was approximately one order of magnitude higher than the entropy generation due to fluid friction. The spatial uniformity of the Bejan number was more sensitive to the change in Rayleigh number than to the heat field intensity. The thermodynamic penalty of the isotropic heat field is shown by means of global integrals of the entropy source terms over the entire flow domain

  19. Saccadic gain adaptation is predicted by the statistics of natural fluctuations in oculomotor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to multiple factors such as fatigue, muscle strengthening, and neural plasticity, the responsiveness of the motor apparatus to neural commands changes over time. To enable precise movements the nervous system must adapt to compensate for these changes. Recent models of motor adaptation derive from assumptions about the way the motor apparatus changes. Characterizing these changes is difficult because motor adaptation happens at the same time, masking most of the effects of ongoing changes. Here, we analyze eye movements of monkeys with lesions to the posterior cerebellar vermis that impair adaptation. Their fluctuations better reveal the underlying changes of the motor system over time. When these measured, unadapted changes are used to derive optimal motor adaptation rules the prediction precision significantly improves. Among three models that similarly fit single-day adaptation results, the model that also matches the temporal correlations of the nonadapting saccades most accurately predicts multiple day adaptation. Saccadic gain adaptation is well matched to the natural statistics of fluctuations of the oculomotor plant.

  20. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhu eLiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs’ effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of twelve entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP, in anesthesia induced by GA-BAergic agents.Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE and State entropy (SE, three wavelet entropy (WE measures (Shannon WE (SWE, Tsallis WE (TWE and Renyi WE (RWE, Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE, approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE measures (Shannon PE (SPE, Tsallis PE (TPE and Renyi PE (RPE. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflu-rane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, phar-macokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA as a non-entropy measure was compared.Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline vari-ability, higher coefficient of determination and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an ad-vantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA.Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure.Significance: Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA.

  1. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation and entropy generation in a prismatic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aich Walid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational analysis of the natural ventilation process and entropy generation in 3-D prismatic greenhouse was performed using CFD. The aim of the study is to investigate how buoyancy forces influence air-flow and temperature patterns inside the greenhouse having lower level opening in its right heated façade and also upper level opening near the roof top in the opposite cooled façade. The bot-tom and all other walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators. Rayleigh number is the main parameter which changes from 103 to 106 and Prandtl number is fixed at Pr = 0.71. Results are reported in terms of particles trajectories, iso-surfaces of temperature, mean Nusselt number, and entropy generation. It has been found that the flow structure is sensitive to the value of Rayleigh number and that heat transfer increases with increasing this parameter. Also, it have been noticed that, using asymmetric opening positions improve the natural ventilation and facilitate the occurrence of buoyancy induced upward cross air-flow (low-level supply and upper-level extraction inside the greenhouse.

  2. Inquiries into the Nature of Free Energy and Entropy in Respect to Biochemical Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton D. Stoner

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Free energy and entropy are examined in detail from the standpoint of classical thermodynamics. The approach is logically based on the fact that thermodynamic work is mediated by thermal energy through the tendency for nonthermal energy to convert spontaneously into thermal energy and for thermal energy to distribute spontaneously and uniformly within the accessible space. The fact that free energy is a Second-Law, expendable energy that makes it possible for thermodynamic work to be done at finite rates is emphasized. Entropy, as originally defined, is pointed out to be the capacity factor for thermal energy that is hidden with respect to temperature; it serves to evaluate the practical quality of thermal energy and to account for changes in the amounts of latent thermal energies in systems maintained at constant temperature. With entropy thus operationally defined, it is possible to see that TDS° of the Gibbs standard free energy relation DG°= DH°-TDS° serves to account for differences or changes in nonthermal energies that do not contribute to DG° and that, since DH° serves to account for differences or changes in total energy, complete enthalpy-entropy (DH° - TDS° compensation must invariably occur in isothermal processes for which TDS° is finite. A major objective was to clarify the means by which free energy is transferred and conserved in sequences of biological reactions coupled by freely diffusible intermediates. In achieving this objective it was found necessary to distinguish between a 'characteristic free energy' possessed by all First-Law energies in amounts equivalent to the amounts of the energies themselves and a 'free energy of concentration' that is intrinsically mechanical and relatively elusive in that it can appear to be free of First-Law energy. The findings in this regard serve to clarify the fact that the transfer of chemical potential energy from one

  3. Fuzzy approximate entropy analysis of chaotic and natural complex systems: detecting muscle fatigue using electromyography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Guo, Jing-Yi; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2010-04-01

    In the present contribution, a complexity measure is proposed to assess surface electromyography (EMG) in the study of muscle fatigue during sustained, isometric muscle contractions. Approximate entropy (ApEn) is believed to provide quantitative information about the complexity of experimental data that is often corrupted with noise, short data length, and in many cases, has inherent dynamics that exhibit both deterministic and stochastic behaviors. We developed an improved ApEn measure, i.e., fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn), which utilizes the fuzzy membership function to define the vectors' similarity. Tests were conducted on independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian and uniform noises, a chirp signal, MIX processes, Rossler equation, and Henon map. Compared with the standard ApEn, the fApEn showed better monotonicity, relative consistency, and more robustness to noise when characterizing signals with different complexities. Performance analysis on experimental EMG signals demonstrated that the fApEn significantly decreased during the development of muscle fatigue, which is a similar trend to that of the mean frequency (MNF) of the EMG signal, while the standard ApEn failed to detect this change. Moreover, fApEn of EMG demonstrated a better robustness to the length of the analysis window in comparison with the MNF of EMG. The results suggest that the fApEn of an EMG signal may potentially become a new reliable method for muscle fatigue assessment and be applicable to other short noisy physiological signal analysis.

  4. Statistical tests for the Gaussian nature of primordial fluctuations through CBR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.

    1994-01-01

    Information about the physical processes that generate the primordial fluctuations in the early Universe can be gained by testing the Gaussian nature of the fluctuations through cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) temperature anisotropy experiments. One of the crucial aspects of density perturbations that are produced by the standard inflation scenario is that they are Gaussian, whereas seeds produced by topological defects left over from an early cosmic phase transition tend to be non-Gaussian. To carry out this test, sophisticated statistical tools are required. In this paper, we will discuss several such statistical tools, including multivariant skewness and kurtosis, Euler-Poincare characteristics, the three-point temperature correlation function, and Hotelling's T 2 statistic defined through bispectral estimates of a one-dimensional data set. The effect of noise present in the current data is discussed in detail and the COBE 53 GHz data set is analyzed. Our analysis shows that, on the large angular scale to which COBE is sensitive, the statistics are probably Gaussian. On the small angular scales, the importance of Hotelling's T 2 statistic is stressed, and the minimum sample size required to test Gaussianity is estimated. Although the current data set available from various experiments at half-degree scales is still too small, improvement of the data set by roughly a factor of 2 will be enough to test the Gaussianity statistically. On the arc min scale, we analyze the recent RING data through bispectral analysis, and the result indicates possible deviation from Gaussianity. Effects of point sources are also discussed. It is pointed out that the Gaussianity problem can be resolved in the near future by ground-based or balloon-borne experiments

  5. On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, Lee

    1986-01-01

    A new point of view towards the problem of the relationship between gravitational and quantum phenomena is proposed which is inspired by the fact that the distinction between quantum fluctuations and real statistical fluctuations in the state of a system seems not to be maintained in a variety of phenomena in which quantum and gravitational effects are both important. One solution to this dilemma, which is explored in this paper, is that quantum fluctuations are in fact real statistical fluctuations, due to some unknown, but universal, phenomena. At the same time quantum fluctuations have certain special properties which distinguish them from other types of fluctuation phenomena. The two most important of these are that the action of quantum fluctuations is non-dissipative for the special case of systems undergoing inertial motion in the absence of gravitational fields, and the dispersion constant for quantum fluctuations for a particle is inversely proportional to the inertial mass of the particle. These properties are summarised in a set of principles which, it is proposed, govern the relationship between quantum phenomena, gravitation and inertia. (author)

  6. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  7. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  8. Resonance transport and kinetic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.B.; Knoll, J.; Voskresensky, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    We continue the description of the dynamics of unstable particles within the real-time formulation of nonequilibrium field theory initiated in a previous paper . There we suggest to use Baym's PHI-functional method in order to achieve approximation schemes with 'built in' consistency with respect to conservation laws and thermodynamics even in the case of particles with finite damping width. Starting from Kadanoff-Baym equations we discuss a consistent first order gradient approach to transport which preserves the PHI-derivable properties. The validity conditions for the resulting quantum four-phase-space kinetic theory are discussed under the perspective to treat particles with broad damping widths. This non-equilibrium dynamics naturally includes all those quantum features already inherent in the corresponding equilibrium limit (e.g. Matsubara formalism) at the same level of PHI-derivable approximation. Various collision-term diagrams are discussed including those of higher order which lead to memory effects. As an important novel part we derive a generalized nonequilibrium expression for the kinetic entropy flow, which includes contributions from fluctuations and mass-width effects. In special cases an H-theorem is derived implying that the entropy can only increase with time. Memory effects in the kinetic terms provide contributions to the kinetic entropy flow that in the equilibrium limit recover the famous bosonic type T 3 lnT correction to the specific heat in the case of Fermi liquids like Helium-3

  9. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  10. Tidal and Seasonal River Stage Fluctuations Impact the Formation of Permeable Natural Reactive Barriers in Riverbank Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, P.; Myers, K.; Knappett, P.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    River stage fluctuations, induced by ocean tides and rainfall, enhance the exchange between oxic river water and reducing groundwater. When mixing occurs within riverbank aquifers high in dissolved iron (Fe) and arsenic (As), the timing and extent of mixing likely control the accumulation and mobility of arsenic (As) within the hyporheic zone. Here we analyzed the impact of tidal and seasonal water level fluctuations on the formation of a Permeable Natural Reactive Barrier (PNRB) within an aquifer adjacent to the Meghna River, Bangladesh and its impact on As mobility. We found that the periodicity and amplitude of river stage fluctuations strongly control the spatial and temporal distribution of the PNRB, comprised of rapidly precipitated iron oxides, in this riverbank along a relatively straight reach of the Meghna River. The PNRB forms much faster and with higher concentration of Fe-oxide under semi-diurnal (12 hr) tidal fluctuations compared to simulations run assuming only neap-spring tides (14 day). As tidal amplitude increases, a larger contact area between oxic river water and reducing groundwater results which in turn leads to the horizontal expansion of the PNRB into the riverbank. Seasonal fluctuations expand the PNRB up to 60 m horizontally and 5 m vertically. In contrast neap-spring tidal fluctuations result in a smaller PNRB that is 10 and 3 m in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The predicted changes in the spatial distribution of iron oxides within the riverbank would trap and release As at different times of the year. The PNRB could act as a secondary source of As to drinking water aquifers under sustained groundwater pumping scenarios near the river.

  11. Photosynthetic acclimation of WS and WS-gpt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana under fluctuating natural light condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa'ee, Furzani; Johnson, Giles

    2017-10-01

    Photoacclimation is a process by which photosynthetic capacity is regulated in response to environmental adjustments in terms of light regime. Photoacclimation is essential in determining the photosynthetic capacity to optimize light use and to avoid potentially damaging effects. Previous work in our laboratory has identified a gene, gpt2 (At1g61800) that is essential for plants to acclimate to an increase and decrease of growth irradiance, separately. To investigate the photoacclimation ability towards fluctuating natural light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, photosynthetic capacity was measured in plants of the accession Wassileskija (WS) and in plants lacking expression of the gene At1g61800 (WS-gpt2). The experiment was carried out over a time span from early Autumn to early Spring season in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The seedlings were grown in an unheated greenhouse in Manchester, UK without supplementary lighting. Gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll content estimation were performed on WS and WS-gpt2 and it showed that both sets of plants were able to acclimate to fluctuating natural light condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the mechanisms of acclimation in a separate growth light condition is mechanistically distinct than the mechanism under fluctuating natural light condition.

  12. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  13. Tsallis-like entropies in quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the following entropies in quantum scattering are defined: the informational angular entropy, S θ ; Tsallis-like angular entropies, S q (θ); the angular momentum entropy, S L ; the Tsallis-like angular momentum entropies, S q (L); the angle-angular momentum entropy, S θL . These entropies are defined as natural measures of the uncertainties corresponding to the distribution probabilities. If we are interested in obtaining a measure of uncertainty of the simultaneous realization of the probability distributions, than, we have to calculate the entropy corresponding to these distributions. The expression of angle-angular momentum entropy is given. The relation between the Tsallis entropies and the angle-angular momentum entropy is derived

  14. Possible Noise Nature of Elsässer Variable z- in Highly Alfvénic Solar Wind Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C.-Y.; He, J.-S.; Wang, L.-H.; Yao, S.; Zhang, L.

    2018-01-01

    It has been a long-standing debate on the nature of Elsässer variable z- observed in the solar wind fluctuations. It is widely believed that z- represents inward propagating Alfvén waves and interacts nonlinearly with z+ (outward propagating Alfvén waves) to generate energy cascade. However, z- variations sometimes show a feature of convective structures. Here we present a new data analysis on autocorrelation functions of z- in order to get some definite information on its nature. We find that there is usually a large drop on the z- autocorrelation function when the solar wind fluctuations are highly Alfvénic. The large drop observed by Helios 2 spacecraft near 0.3 AU appears at the first nonzero time lag τ = 81 s, where the value of the autocorrelation coefficient drops to 25%-65% of that at τ = 0 s. Beyond the first nonzero time lag, the autocorrelation coefficient decreases gradually to zero. The drop of z- correlation function also appears in the Wind observations near 1 AU. These features of the z- correlation function may suggest that z- fluctuations consist of two components: high-frequency white noise and low-frequency pseudo structures, which correspond to flat and steep parts of z- power spectrum, respectively. This explanation is confirmed by doing a simple test on an artificial time series, which is obtained from the superposition of a random data series on its smoothed sequence. Our results suggest that in highly Alfvénic fluctuations, z- may not contribute importantly to the interactions with z+ to produce energy cascade.

  15. Microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of {sup 4} He superfluid helium deduced by maximum entropy method; Modelo microscopico para la hidrodinamica fluctuante no lineal del {sup 4}He superfluido deducido mediante el metodo de maxima entropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1998-10-01

    This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium ({sup 4} He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub FP} that is evaluated as Wigneris function through {rho}{sub CG} obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix D{sub mn} defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator {rho}hut{sub CG}, matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine {rho}hut{sub CG} by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements D{sub mn} but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub qe} instead

  16. Entropy and wigner functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi; Feix

    2000-10-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such a definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive-definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions.

  17. Entropy and Wigner Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, G.; Feix, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions

  18. Symplectic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Sergio; Fedele, Renato; Man'ko, Margarita A; Man'ko, Vladimir I

    2007-01-01

    The tomographic-probability description of quantum states is reviewed. The symplectic tomography of quantum states with continuous variables is studied. The symplectic entropy of the states with continuous variables is discussed and its relation to Shannon entropy and information is elucidated. The known entropic uncertainty relations of the probability distribution in position and momentum of a particle are extended and new uncertainty relations for symplectic entropy are obtained. The partial case of symplectic entropy, which is optical entropy of quantum states, is considered. The entropy associated to optical tomogram is shown to satisfy the new entropic uncertainty relation. The example of Gaussian states of harmonic oscillator is studied and the entropic uncertainty relations for optical tomograms of the Gaussian state are shown to minimize the uncertainty relation

  19. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  20. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Craniological Features of Small Mammals as a Reflection of Heterogeneity of Natural Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shadrina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA in nine species of small mammals (Insectivora and Rodentia was estimated using 10 cranial features (foramina for nerves and blood vessels. The main criterion was the occurrence of the fluctuating asymmetry manifestations (OFAM. A total of 2300 skulls collected in the taiga and forest-tundra of Yakutia (Northeast Asia were examined. The examined species are characterized by comparable OFAM values in the vast territories of the taiga zone; on the ecological periphery of the range an increased FA level is registered. Asymmetric manifestations in analyzed features are equally likely to occur in males and females. OFAM values in juveniles are higher than in adults; this difference is more pronounced on the periphery of the geographic range. Among juveniles, lower FA levels are observed in individuals that have bred. It can be surmised that the risk of elimination of individuals with high FA levels increases in stressful periods (active reproduction and winter. In conditions that are close to optimal, populations demonstrate relatively homogeneous FA levels, while on the periphery of the area an increase in occurrence of disturbances in developmental stability is observed, which leads, on one hand, to higher average FA for the population and, on the other hand, to heterogeneity of the population in this parameter.

  1. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Analysis of natural convection in nanofluid-filled H-shaped cavity by entropy generation and heatline visualization using lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Sepehr, Mohammad; Lariche, Milad Janghorban; Mesbah, Mohammad; Kasaeipoor, Abbas; Malekshah, Emad Hasani

    2018-03-01

    The lattice Boltzmann simulation of natural convection in H-shaped cavity filled with nanofluid is performed. The entropy generation analysis and heatline visualization are employed to analyze the considered problem comprehensively. The produced nanofluid is SiO2-TiO2/Water-EG (60:40) hybrid nanofluid, and the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of used nanofluid are measured experimentally. To use the experimental data of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, two sets of correlations based on temperature for six different solid volume fractions of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 vol% are derived. The influences of different governing parameters such different aspect ratio, solid volume fractions of nanofluid and Rayleigh numbers on the fluid flow, temperature filed, average/local Nusselt number, total/local entropy generation and heatlines are presented.

  3. Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-09-15

    In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)

  4. Natural fluctuations in nearshore turbidity and the relative influences of beach renourishment

    OpenAIRE

    Dompe, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Turbidity is a measure of the clarity of water. Turbidity depends upon the scattering and absorption of light by suspended particles. The focus of this study was to obtain quantitative measurements of turbidity in the nearshore zone, along with measurements of associated wave parameters and currents occurring naturally and during a beach nourishment project. The objectives were to make quantitative and qualitative comparisons between natural events and those induced by the dred...

  5. [Relationships of bee population fluctuation and distribution with natural environment in Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linsheng; Zou, Yunding; Bi, Shoudong; Wu, Houzhang; Cao, Yifeng

    2006-08-01

    In 2002 to approximately 2004, an investigation was made on the bee population dynamics and its relationships with the ecological environment in four ecological regions of Anhui Province. The results indicated that in the mountainous areas of south and west Anhui, there were 46 and 37 species of nectariferous plants, and the distribution density of Apis cerena cerena population was 2.01 and 1.95 colony x km(-2), respectively. In Jianghuai area and Huaibei plain, there were 17 and 12 species of nectariferous plants, which had concentrated and short flowering period and fitted for Apis mellifera Ligustica oysterring and producing, and the distribution density of Apis cerena cerena population was 0. 06 and 0. 02 colony x km(-2), respectively. Bee population fluctuation and distribution was affected by wasp predation. The breeding proportion of Apis cerena cerena to local apis population was 41.5%, 36.8%, 3.1% and 1.1%, and that of Apis mellifera Ligustica was 58.5%, 63.2%, 96.9% and 98.9% in the mountainous areas of south and west Anhui, Jianghuai area, and Huaibei plain, respectively.

  6. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  7. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  8. Survival of rapidly fluctuating natural low winter temperatures by High Arctic soil invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Convey, Peter; Abbandonato, Holly; Bergan, Frode

    2015-01-01

    The extreme polar environment creates challenges for its resident invertebrate communities and the stress tolerance of some of these animals has been examined over many years. However, although it is well appreciated that standard air temperature records often fail to describe accurately conditions...... microhabitats. To assess survival of natural High Arctic soil invertebrate communities contained in soil and vegetation cores to natural winter temperature variations, the overwintering temperatures they experienced were manipulated by deploying cores in locations with varying snow accumulation: No Snow...... and did not decrease below -12. °C. Those under deep snow were even more stable and did not decline below -2. °C. Despite these striking differences in winter thermal regimes, there were no clear differences in survival of the invertebrate fauna between treatments, including oribatid, prostigmatid...

  9. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  10. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  11. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  12. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Subhash [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); KU Leuven - KULAK, Department of Physics, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G{sub D}{sup 0}. The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  13. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Subhash

    2018-01-01

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G D 0 . The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  14. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanics Reveal the Importance of Ring Entropy in the Biosynthesis and Activity of a Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai L; Lexa, Katrina W; Julien, Olivier; Young, Travis S; Walsh, Christopher T; Jacobson, Matthew P; Wells, James A

    2017-02-22

    Macrocycles are appealing drug candidates due to their high affinity, specificity, and favorable pharmacological properties. In this study, we explored the effects of chemical modifications to a natural product macrocycle upon its activity, 3D geometry, and conformational entropy. We chose thiocillin as a model system, a thiopeptide in the ribosomally encoded family of natural products that exhibits potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Since thiocillin is derived from a genetically encoded peptide scaffold, site-directed mutagenesis allows for rapid generation of analogues. To understand thiocillin's structure-activity relationship, we generated a site-saturation mutagenesis library covering each position along thiocillin's macrocyclic ring. We report the identification of eight unique compounds more potent than wild-type thiocillin, the best having an 8-fold improvement in potency. Computational modeling of thiocillin's macrocyclic structure revealed a striking requirement for a low-entropy macrocycle for activity. The populated ensembles of the active mutants showed a rigid structure with few adoptable conformations while inactive mutants showed a more flexible macrocycle which is unfavorable for binding. This finding highlights the importance of macrocyclization in combination with rigidifying post-translational modifications to achieve high-potency binding.

  16. A Connection Entropy Approach to Water Resources Vulnerability Analysis in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a water resources vulnerability framework based on sensitivity, natural resilience and artificial adaptation, through the analyses of the four states of the water system and its accompanying transformation processes. Furthermore, it proposes an analysis method for water resources vulnerability based on connection entropy, which extends the concept of contact entropy. An example is given of the water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province of China, which analysis illustrates that, overall, vulnerability levels fluctuated and showed apparent improvement trends from 2001 to 2015. Some suggestions are also provided for the improvement of the level of water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province, considering the viewpoint of the vulnerability index.

  17. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  18. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  19. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems and molecular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation–dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production. (review article)

  1. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  2. Generalized entropy production fluctuation theorems for quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rems have helped us in understanding how thermodynamic irreversibility arises ... This is a statement of second law of thermodynamics, expressed in the form of inequality ...... One of the authors (AMJ) thanks DST, India for financial support.

  3. The Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary: A Large-Scale Assessment of Conformational Entropy across Protein Fold Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Akke, Mikael; Daggett, Valerie

    2017-04-27

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations contain considerable information with regard to the motions and fluctuations of a protein, the magnitude of which can be used to estimate conformational entropy. Here we survey conformational entropy across protein fold space using the Dynameomics database, which represents the largest existing data set of protein MD simulations for representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We provide an overview of MD-derived entropies accounting for all possible degrees of dihedral freedom on an unprecedented scale. Although different side chains might be expected to impose varying restrictions on the conformational space that the backbone can sample, we found that the backbone entropy and side chain size are not strictly coupled. An outcome of these analyses is the Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary, the contents of which have been compared with entropies derived by other theoretical approaches and experiment. As might be expected, the conformational entropies scale linearly with the number of residues, demonstrating that conformational entropy is an extensive property of proteins. The calculated conformational entropies of folding agree well with previous estimates. Detailed analysis of specific cases identifies deviations in conformational entropy from the average values that highlight how conformational entropy varies with sequence, secondary structure, and tertiary fold. Notably, α-helices have lower entropy on average than do β-sheets, and both are lower than coil regions.

  4. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  5. Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.

  6. On unified-entropy characterization of quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, A E

    2012-01-01

    We consider properties of quantum channels with the use of unified entropies. Extremal unravelings of quantum channel with respect to these entropies are examined. The concept of map entropy is extended in terms of the unified entropies. The map (q, s)-entropy is naturally defined as the unified (q, s)-entropy of a rescaled dynamical matrix of given quantum channel. Inequalities of Fannes type are obtained for introduced entropies in terms of both the trace and Frobenius norms of difference between corresponding dynamical matrices. Additivity properties of introduced map entropies are discussed. The known inequality of Lindblad with the entropy exchange is generalized to many of the unified entropies. For the tensor product of a pair of quantum channels, we derive a two-sided estimate on the output entropy of a maximally entangled input state. (paper)

  7. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    the development of natural languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.

  8. Biological characterization, habits, naturals enemy and populational fluctuation of Aconophora elongatiformis Dietrich in Tecoma Stans (L.) Juss. Ex Hbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon F, Olga Patricia; Quintero C, Paola Fernanda

    2001-01-01

    The ornamental trees complete a very important environmental function for the quality of the inhabitants' life in the urban areas, when offering momentous benefits as the subduing of the climate, regulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere and the scenic beauty. Thanks to the interest of the District Administration, in Bogota, in the last four years, the urban plantation of trees acquired a preponderant paper that became apparent during the biggest plantation of trees program and maintenance of green areas that it has been carried out in the history of the capital; day by day they get more importance, and they are recognized by the citizenship like fundamental values of its environment. Previously to this program, the attention received were minimum or were remembered soon after the surprising devastating consequences of phyto sanitary problems: the grooved cochineal of the acacia, the louse plant of the cypress and the bedbug of the Urapan in whose cases the ignorance of basic aspects of the biology, natural control and the harmful populations' behavior, it has forced to generally apply measured of chemical type to try to reduce the high levels population. The importance that have, the green areas in the city, it favors a continuous pursuit that allows to deepen in the knowledge of the main risk factors, current problems and potentials of the species, types and consequences of the damages and the intra and inter relationships of the arthropofauna of the urban vegetation, their relationship with the plants, as well as the incidence of biotic and abiotic in the tree phonologic behavior and in the fluctuation of the populations of this individuals in order to coming closer to the understanding of the dynamics of the populations of arthropods harmful, in such a way that is possible to design kind handling strategies with the environment, having in consideration in integrated form the conditions under the attack of arthropods harmful

  9. Effects of Reduced pH on Macoma balthica Larvae from a System with Naturally Fluctuating pH-Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jansson

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is causing severe changes in the inorganic carbon balance of the oceans. The pH conditions predicted for the future oceans are, however, already regularly occurring in the Baltic Sea, and the system might thus work as an analogue for future ocean acidification scenarios. The characteristics of the Baltic Sea with low buffering capacity and large natural pH fluctuations, in combination with multiple other stressors, suggest that OA effects may be severe, but remain largely unexplored. A calcifying species potentially affected by low pH conditions is the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.. We investigated larval survival and development of M. balthica by exposing the larvae to a range of pH levels: 7.2, 7.4, 7.7 and 8.1 during 20 days in order to learn what the effects of reduced pH are on the larval biology and thus also potentially for the population dynamics of this key species. We found that even a slight pH decrease causes significant negative changes during the larval phase, both by slowing growth and by decreasing survival. The growth was slower in all reduced pH treatments compared to the control treatment. The size of 250 µm that is considered indicative to imminent settling in our system was reached by 22% of the larvae grown in control conditions after 20 days, whereas in all reduced pH treatments the size of 250 µm was reached by only 7-14%. The strong impact of ocean acidification on larvae is alarming as slowly growing individuals are exposed to higher predation risk in response to the longer time they are required to spend in the plankton, further decreasing the ecological competence of the species.

  10. Nature of the interfaces between the constituent phases in the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welk, Brian A.; Williams, Robert E.A.; Viswanathan, Gopal B. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 1305 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Gibson, Mark A. [CSIRO, Private Bag 33, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, 414 Ferris Hall, 1508 Middle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Fraser, Hamish L., E-mail: fraser.3@osu.edu [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 1305 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The interfaces between the phase separated regions in the dendritic grains of laser-deposited samples of the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl have been studied using aberration-corrected analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). The compositional variations have been determined using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in (S)TEM. It was found that between B2, consisting mainly of Al, Ni, Co, and Fe, and disordered bcc phase, consisting mainly of Cr and Fe, there is a transition region, approximately 1.5 nm in width, over which the chemical composition changes from the B2 to that of the bcc phase. The crystal structure of this interfacial region is also B2, but with very different sublattice occupancy than that of the adjacent B2 compound. The structural aspects of the interface between the ordered B2 phase and the disordered bcc phase have been characterized using high angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in STEM. It has been determined that the interfaces are essentially coherent, with the lattice parameters of the two B2 regions and the disordered bcc phase being more or less the same, the uncertainty arising from possible relaxations from the proximity of the surfaces of the thin foils used in imaging of the microstructures. Direct observations show that there is a planar continuity between all three constituent phases. - Highlights: • In the dendritic grains, there are two dominant phases, one with the ordered B2 structure, and the other disordered bcc. • From the intensity ratios in HAADF, the B2 phase appears to have a stoichiometry of the form Al(Ni, Co, and Fe). • Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy reveals the presence of an ordered interface transition region between the two phases. • Nanodiffraction in the Titan shows that the interface region is also ordered with the B2 crystal structure based on C.

  11. Optimum design of brake friction material using hybrid entropy-GRA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Kevlar and natural fibres on the performance of brake friction materials was evaluated. Four friction material specimens were developed by varying the proportion of Kevlar and natural fibres. Two developed composite contained 5-10 wt.% of Kevlar fibre while in the other two the Kevlar fibre was replaced with same amount of natural fibre. SAE J661 protocol was used for the assessment of the tribological properties on a Chase testing machine. Result shows that the specimens containing Kevlar fibres shows higher friction and wear performance, whereas Kevlar replacement with natural fibre resulted in improved fade, recovery and friction fluctuations. Further hybrid entropy-GRA (grey relation analysis approach was applied to select the optimal friction materials using various performance defining attributes (PDA including friction, wear, fade, recovery, friction fluctuations and cost. The friction materials with 10 wt% of natural fibre exhibited the best overall quality.

  12. Evanescent magnetic field effects on entropy generation at the onset ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    application of evanescent magnetic field not only suppresses the fluctuation of the ..... the Prigogine's theorem of minimum entropy production is unproven. ... consists in a double spiral configuration and viscous boundary layers in close ...

  13. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  14. Explaining the entropy concept and entropy components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Popovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Total entropy of a thermodynamic system consists of two components: thermal entropy due to energy, and residual entropy due to molecular orientation. In this article, a three-step method for explaining entropy is suggested. Step one is to use a classical method to introduce thermal entropy STM as a function of temperature T and heat capacity at constant pressure Cp: STM = ∫(Cp/T dT. Thermal entropy is the entropy due to uncertainty in motion of molecules and vanishes at absolute zero (zero-point energy state. It is also the measure of useless thermal energy that cannot be converted into useful work. The next step is to introduce residual entropy S0 as a function of the number of molecules N and the number of distinct orientations available to them in a crystal m: S0 = N kB ln m, where kB is the Boltzmann constant. Residual entropy quantifies the uncertainty in molecular orientation. Residual entropy, unlike thermal entropy, is independent of temperature and remains present at absolute zero. The third step is to show that thermal entropy and residual entropy add up to the total entropy of a thermodynamic system S: S = S0 + STM. This method of explanation should result in a better comprehension of residual entropy and thermal entropy, as well as of their similarities and differences. The new method was tested in teaching at Faculty of Chemistry University of Belgrade, Serbia. The results of the test show that the new method has a potential to improve the quality of teaching.

  15. Logarithmic corrections to entropy and AdS/CFT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We calculate the correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for five-dimensional AdS-Schwarzschild black holes due to thermodynamic fluctuations. The result is then compared with the boundary gauge theory entropy corrections via AdS/CFT correspondence.

  16. Relation between entropy functional of Keizer and information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidkin, E.S.; Nettleton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    An equation given by Keizer which relates the second-order functional derivative of the steady-state entropy to the inverse fluctuation correlation function is satisified by the information-theoretic entropy if the equation is extended to arbitrary nonequilibrium states

  17. Intensity approximation of random fluctuation in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Gafarov, F. M.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Emeljanova, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems are examined with the help of dynamical information Shannon entropy method. Here we consider the essential role of two mutually independent channels of entropy involving creation of correlation and annihilation of correlation. The developed method has been used to analyze the intensity fluctuation of the complex systems of various nature: in psychology (to analyze numerical and pattern short-time human memory, to study the effect of stress on the parameters of the dynamical taping-test) and in cardiology (to analyze the random dynamics of RR-intervals in human ECG's and to diagnose various diseases of human cardiovascular systems). The received results show that the application of intensity approximation allows to improve essentially the diagnostics of parameters in the evolution of human dynamic states.

  18. Gravitational entropies in LTB dust models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, Roberto A; Larena, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We consider generic Lemaître–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) dust models to probe the gravitational entropy proposals of Clifton, Ellis and Tavakol (CET) and of Hosoya and Buchert (HB). We also consider a variant of the HB proposal based on a suitable quasi-local scalar weighted average. We show that the conditions for entropy growth for all proposals are directly related to a negative correlation of similar fluctuations of the energy density and Hubble scalar. While this correlation is evaluated locally for the CET proposal, it must be evaluated in a non-local domain dependent manner for the two HB proposals. By looking at the fulfilment of these conditions at the relevant asymptotic limits we are able to provide a well grounded qualitative description of the full time evolution and radial asymptotic scaling of the three entropies in generic models. The following rigorous analytic results are obtained for the three proposals: (i) entropy grows when the density growing mode is dominant, (ii) all ever-expanding hyperbolic models reach a stable terminal equilibrium characterized by an inhomogeneous entropy maximum in their late time evolution; (iii) regions with decaying modes and collapsing elliptic models exhibit unstable equilibria associated with an entropy minimum (iv) near singularities the CET entropy diverges while the HB entropies converge; (v) the CET entropy converges for all models in the radial asymptotic range, whereas the HB entropies only converge for models asymptotic to a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker background. The fact that different independent proposals yield fairly similar conditions for entropy production, time evolution and radial scaling in generic LTB models seems to suggest that their common notion of a ‘gravitational entropy’ may be a theoretically robust concept applicable to more general spacetimes. (paper)

  19. Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

    2010-05-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (sleep.

  20. Text mining by Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaati, Maryam; Mehri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Long-range correlations between the elements of natural languages enable them to convey very complex information. Complex structure of human language, as a manifestation of natural languages, motivates us to apply nonextensive statistical mechanics in text mining. Tsallis entropy appropriately ranks the terms' relevance to document subject, taking advantage of their spatial correlation length. We apply this statistical concept as a new powerful word ranking metric in order to extract keywords of a single document. We carry out an experimental evaluation, which shows capability of the presented method in keyword extraction. We find that, Tsallis entropy has reliable word ranking performance, at the same level of the best previous ranking methods.

  1. Arithmetic of quantum entropy function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Quantum entropy function is a proposal for computing the entropy associated with the horizon of a black hole in the extremal limit, and is related via AdS/CFT correspondence to the dimension of the Hilbert space in a dual quantum mechanics. We show that in N = 4 supersymmetric string theories, quantum entropy function formalism naturally explains the origin of the subtle differences between the microscopic degeneracies of quarter BPS dyons carrying different torsion, i.e. different arithmetical properties. These arise from additional saddle points in the path integral - whose existence depends on the arithmetical properties of the black hole charges - constructed as freely acting orbifolds of the original AdS 2 x S 2 near horizon geometry. During this analysis we demonstrate that the quantum entropy function is insensitive to the details of the infrared cutoff used in the computation, and the details of the boundary terms added to the action. We also discuss the role of the asymptotic symmetries of AdS 2 in carrying out the path integral in the definition of quantum entropy function. Finally we show that even though quantum entropy function is expected to compute the absolute degeneracy in a given charge and angular momentum sector, it can also be used to compute the index. This can then be compared with the microscopic computation of the index.

  2. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin [Department of Mathematics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Dupuis, Frédéric [Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus (Denmark); Szehr, Oleg [Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fehr, Serge [CWI (Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica), 1090 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tomamichel, Marco [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2013-12-15

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation.

  3. On quantum Rényi entropies: A new generalization and some properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupuis, Frédéric; Szehr, Oleg; Fehr, Serge; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data-processing inequalities, a duality relation, and an entropic uncertainty relation

  4. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Rodrigo; Maldonado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    We consider the maximum entropy Markov chain inference approach to characterize the collective statistics of neuronal spike trains, focusing on the statistical properties of the inferred model. We review large deviations techniques useful in this context to describe properties of accuracy and convergence in terms of sampling size. We use these results to study the statistical fluctuation of correlations, distinguishability and irreversibility of maximum entropy Markov chains. We illustrate these applications using simple examples where the large deviation rate function is explicitly obtained for maximum entropy models of relevance in this field.

  5. Quantum statistical entropy for Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Chun; Wu Yue-Qin; Zhao Ren

    2004-01-01

    Improving the membrane model by which the entropy of the black hole is studied, we study the entropy of the black hole in the non-thermal equilibrium state. To give the problem stated here widespread meaning, we discuss the (n+2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime. Through discussion, we obtain that the black hole's entropy which contains two horizons (a black hole's horizon and a cosmological horizon) in the non-thermal equilibrium state comprises the entropy corresponding to the black hole's horizon and the entropy corresponding to the cosmological horizon. Furthermore, the entropy of the black hole is a natural property of the black hole. The entropy is irrelevant to the radiation field out of the horizon. This deepens the understanding of the relationship between black hole's entropy and horizon's area. A way to study the bosonic and fermionic entropy of the black hole in high non-thermal equilibrium spacetime is given.

  6. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  7. SpatEntropy: Spatial Entropy Measures in R

    OpenAIRE

    Altieri, Linda; Cocchi, Daniela; Roli, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    This article illustrates how to measure the heterogeneity of spatial data presenting a finite number of categories via computation of spatial entropy. The R package SpatEntropy contains functions for the computation of entropy and spatial entropy measures. The extension to spatial entropy measures is a unique feature of SpatEntropy. In addition to the traditional version of Shannon's entropy, the package includes Batty's spatial entropy, O'Neill's entropy, Li and Reynolds' contagion index, Ka...

  8. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  9. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  10. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-05-13

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to nonextensive, nonergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms, the (c,d)-entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for nonergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a generalized multiplicity and a constraint term. The problem of finding such a factorization reduces to finding an appropriate representation of relative entropy in a linear basis. In a particular example we show that path-dependent random processes with memory naturally require specific generalized entropies. The example is to our knowledge the first exact derivation of a generalized entropy from the microscopic properties of a path-dependent random process.

  11. Fluctuation theorems and atypical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, M; Lahiri, S; Jayannavar, A M

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied simple models that can be solved analytically to illustrate various fluctuation theorems. These fluctuation theorems provide symmetries individually to the distributions of physical quantities such as the classical work (W c ), thermodynamic work (W), total entropy (Δs tot ) and dissipated heat (Q), when the system is driven arbitrarily out of equilibrium. All these quantities can be defined for individual trajectories. We have studied the number of trajectories which exhibit behaviour unexpected at the macroscopic level. As the time of observation increases, the fraction of such atypical trajectories decreases, as expected at the macroscale. The distributions for the thermodynamic work and entropy production in nonlinear models may exhibit a peak (most probable value) in the atypical regime without violating the expected average behaviour. However, dissipated heat and classical work exhibit a peak in the regime of typical behaviour only.

  12. Multiplicity fluctuations and collective flow in small colliding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Murase, Koichi; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2017-11-01

    Recent observation of collective-flow-like behaviours in small colliding systems attracts significant theoretical and experimental interests. In large colliding systems, large collective flow has been interpreted as manifestation of almost-perfect fluidity of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). So it is quite intriguing to explore how small the QGP can be as a fluid. Multiplicity fluctuations play a crucial role in centrality definition of the events in small colliding systems since the fluctuations are, in general, more important as the system size is getting smaller. To consider the correct multiplicity fluctuations, we employ PYTHIA which naturally describes multiplicity distribution in p+p collisions. We superpose p+p collisions by taking into account the number of participants and that of binary collisions from Monte-Carlo version of Glauber model and evaluate initial entropy density distributions which contain not only multiplicity fluctuations but also fluctuations of longitudinal profiles. Solving hydrodynamic equations followed by the hadronic afterburner, we calculate transverse momentum spectra, elliptic and triangular flow parameters in p+Au, d+Au and 3He+Au collisions at the RHIC energy and p+Pb collisions at the LHC energy. Although a large fraction of final anisotropic flow parameters comes from the fluid-dynamical stage, the effects of hadronic rescatterings turn out to be also important as well in understanding of the flow data in small colliding systems.

  13. Quantum dynamical entropy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1996-10-01

    We define a new quantum dynamical entropy, which is a 'hybrid' of the closely related, physically oriented entropy introduced by Alicki and Fannes in 1994, and of the mathematically well-developed, single-argument entropy introduced by Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring in 1987. We show that this new quantum dynamical entropy has many properties similar to the ones of the Alicki-Fannes entropy, and also inherits some additional properties from the CNT entropy. In particular, the 'hybrid' entropy interpolates between the two different ways in which both the AF and the CNT entropy of the shift automorphism on the quantum spin chain agree with the usual quantum entropy density, resulting in even better agreement. Also, the new quantum dynamical entropy generalizes the classical dynamical entropy of Kolmogorov and Sinai in the same way as does the AF entropy. Finally, we estimate the 'hybrid' entropy both for the Powers-Price shift systems and for the noncommutative Arnold map on the irrational rotation C * -algebra, leaving some interesting open problems. (author)

  14. ECG contamination of EEG signals: effect on entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dhritiman; Bansal, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Entropy™ is a proprietary algorithm which uses spectral entropy analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to produce indices which are used as a measure of depth of hypnosis. We describe a report of electrocardiographic (ECG) contamination of EEG signals leading to fluctuating erroneous Entropy values. An explanation is provided for mechanism behind this observation by describing the spread of ECG signals in head and neck and its influence on EEG/Entropy by correlating the observation with the published Entropy algorithm. While the Entropy algorithm has been well conceived, there are still instances in which it can produce erroneous values. Such erroneous values and their cause may be identified by close scrutiny of the EEG waveform if Entropy values seem out of sync with that expected at given anaesthetic levels.

  15. Detecting the chaotic nature in a transitional boundary layer using symbolic information-theory quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Peiqing; Guo, Hao; Wang, Jinjun

    2017-11-01

    The permutation entropy and the statistical complexity are employed to study the boundary-layer transition induced by the surface roughness. The velocity signals measured in the transition process are analyzed with these symbolic quantifiers, as well as the complexity-entropy causality plane, and the chaotic nature of the instability fluctuations is identified. The frequency of the dominant fluctuations has been found according to the time scales corresponding to the extreme values of the symbolic quantifiers. The laminar-turbulent transition process is accompanied by the evolution in the degree of organization of the complex eddy motions, which is also characterized with the growing smaller and flatter circles in the complexity-entropy causality plane. With the help of the permutation entropy and the statistical complexity, the differences between the chaotic fluctuations detected in the experiments and the classical Tollmien-Schlichting wave are shown and discussed. It is also found that the chaotic features of the instability fluctuations can be approximated with a number of regular sine waves superimposed on the fluctuations of the undisturbed laminar boundary layer. This result is related to the physical mechanism in the generation of the instability fluctuations, which is the noise-induced chaos.

  16. ENTROPY - OUR BEST FRIEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Kordes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to tackle the question of connection between entropy and the living. Definitions of life as the phenomenon that defies entropy are overviewed and the conclusion is reached that life is in a way dependant on entropy - it couldn't exist without it. Entropy is a sort of medium, a fertile soil, that gives life possibility to blossom. Paper ends with presenting some consequences for the field of artificial intelligence.

  17. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  18. Physical entropy, information entropy and their evolution equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inspired by the evolution equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics entropy and the concise statistical formula of the entropy production rate, we develop a theory of the dynamic information entropy and build a nonlinear evolution equation of the information entropy density changing in time and state variable space. Its mathematical form and physical meaning are similar to the evolution equation of the physical entropy: The time rate of change of information entropy density originates together from drift, diffusion and production. The concise statistical formula of information entropy production rate is similar to that of physical entropy also. Furthermore, we study the similarity and difference between physical entropy and information entropy and the possible unification of the two statistical entropies, and discuss the relationship among the principle of entropy increase, the principle of equilibrium maximum entropy and the principle of maximum information entropy as well as the connection between them and the entropy evolution equation.

  19. Entropy: Order or Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in entropy can "sometimes" be interpreted in terms of changes in disorder. On the other hand, changes in entropy can "always" be interpreted in terms of changes in Shannon's measure of information. Mixing and demixing processes are used to highlight the pitfalls in the association of entropy with disorder. (Contains 3 figures.)

  20. Information entropy of earthquake populations in northeastern Italy and western Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, G.; Barnaba, C.; Gentili, S.; Rossi, G.

    2017-10-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of eight seismicity populations, preceding and following moderate earthquake sequences occurred in NE-Italy and W-Slovenia, are investigated by means of the normalized Shannon entropy and the fractal dimension. Three phases are recognized in the temporal seismic series. The period preceding the mainshock is characterized by oscillations of the Shannon entropy around a nearly constant level and by fluctuations of the fractal dimension. The phase of mainshock and aftershock sequences is characterized by a significant decrease of the Shannon entropy. A simultaneous marked decrease of the fractal dimension is observed in five cases. After the sequence, the entropy recovers the nearly constant trend before the mainshock and the fractal dimension is characterized by fluctuations. We interpreted the fluctuations of the normalized Shannon entropy and the fractal dimension caused by the coupling between the stress field and the mechanical heterogeneities of the crust that results in spatial and temporal fluctuations of the strain energy.

  1. Does black-hole entropy make sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.

    1979-01-01

    Bekenstein and Hawking saved the second law of thermodynamics near a black hole by assigning to the hole an entropy Ssub(h) proportional to the area of its event horizon. It is tempting to assume that Ssub(h) possesses all the features commonly associated with the physical entropy. Kundt has shown, however, that Ssub(h) violates several reasonable physical expectations. This criticism is reviewed, augmenting it as follows: (a) Ssub(h) is a badly behaved state function requiring knowledge of the hole's future history; and (b) close analogs of event horizons in other space-times do not possess an 'entropy'. These questions are also discussed: (c) Is Ssub(h) suitable for all regions of a black-hole space-time. And (b) should Ssub(h) be attributed to the exterior of a white hole. One can retain Ssub(h) for the interior (respectively, exterior) of a black (respectively, white) hole, but is rejected as contrary to the information-theoretic derivation of horizon entropy given by Berkenstein. The total entropy defined by Kundt (all ordinary entropy on space-section cutting through the hole, no horizon term) and that of Bekenstein-Hawking (ordinary entropy outside horizon plus horizon term) appear to be complementary concepts with separate domains of validity. In the most natural choice, an observer inside a black hole will use Kundt's entropy, and one remaining outside that of Bekenstein-Hawking. (author)

  2. Quantum chaos: entropy signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Sarkar, S.; Zarum, R.

    1998-01-01

    A definition of quantum chaos is given in terms of entropy production rates for a quantum system coupled weakly to a reservoir. This allows the treatment of classical and quantum chaos on the same footing. In the quantum theory the entropy considered is the von Neumann entropy and in classical systems it is the Gibbs entropy. The rate of change of the coarse-grained Gibbs entropy of the classical system with time is given by the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy. The relation between KS entropy and the rate of change of von Neumann entropy is investigated for the kicked rotator. For a system which is classically chaotic there is a linear relationship between these two entropies. Moreover it is possible to construct contour plots for the local KS entropy and compare it with the corresponding plots for the rate of change of von Neumann entropy. The quantitative and qualitative similarities of these plots are discussed for the standard map (kicked rotor) and the generalised cat maps. (author)

  3. Entropy and information

    CERN Document Server

    Volkenstein, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    The book "Entropy and Information" deals with the thermodynamical concept of entropy and its relationship to information theory. It is successful in explaining the universality of the term "Entropy" not only as a physical phenomenon, but reveals its existence also in other domains. E.g., Volkenstein discusses the "meaning" of entropy in a biological context and shows how entropy is related to artistic activities. Written by the renowned Russian bio-physicist Mikhail V. Volkenstein, this book on "Entropy and Information" surely serves as a timely introduction to understand entropy from a thermodynamic perspective and is definitely an inspiring and thought-provoking book that should be read by every physicist, information-theorist, biologist, and even artist.

  4. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  5. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  6. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  7. Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-10-04

    We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.

  8. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Rényi entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Subhash

    2018-01-01

    The entanglement and Rényi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Rényi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order GD^0. The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Rényi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms.

  9. Universal bounds on current fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  10. Fluctuation contents of phosphorus and natural radionuclide in the water column of the Mersing river, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saili, Noor Affizah Bujang; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Studies on natural radionuclides such as 210 Po and 210 Pb with the concentration of phosphorus in water column related to suspended particulate matter (SPM) were carried out at the Mersing River, Johor, Malaysia. Sixteen water samples were collected from nine stations on the 4 th July 2010. 210 Po and 210 Pb activities varied between 0.76 to 2.24 mBq/L and 0.16 to 1.60 mBq/L respectively. The phosphorus concentrations, comprising total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), were within the ranges of 6.06 to 23.31 μg/L, 2.24 to 13.42 μg/L and 0.47 to 16.10 μ/L, respectively. The concentration of TDP and salinity shows weak positive correlation (r = 0.39), perhaps due to the shallow depth of the Mersing River. There is a high positive correlation (r = 0.85) of 210 Po activity with SPM concentration and a moderately positive correlation (r =0.59) of 210 Po and TDP in water. The K d values in suspended particulate matter are much higher compare to that in dissolved phase, proving that the adsorption of radionuclides to particles is more dominant. This implies that SPM significantly influences the variation of the P compound and both radionuclides in the Mersing River. This corresponds with agricultural activities from palm oil estates; erosion of the river bank due to river runoff; advection of suspended particulates from surface sediment due to boat and ferry traffic at the jetties; sedimentation; domestic sewage from nearby terrestrial areas; and natural processes; all of which might have resulted in their introduction to the Mersing River. (author)

  11. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.

    1997-01-01

    This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)

  13. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  14. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  15. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    antiferroelectrics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 017603 (2013). 22. Cantor , B., Chang, I., Knight, P. & Vincent, A. Microstructural development in equiatomic...Science 345, 1153–1158 (2014). 24. Gali, A. & George , E. Tensile properties of high- and medium-entropy alloys. Intermetallics 39, 74–78 (2013). 25...148–153 (2014). 26. Otto, F., Yang, Y., Bei, H. & George , E. Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy

  16. Seasonal fluctuation in susceptibility to insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Features of genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyo, Takahiro; Oguma, Yuzuru; Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate genetic variation in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides within natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we conducted an analysis of variance for mortality data sets of isofemale lines (10-286 lines) used in the previous studies. Susceptibility of isofemale lines to the three organophosphate insecticides was continuously distributed within each natural population, ranging from susceptible to resistant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variation among isofemale lines in susceptibility to each insecticide for each natural population. Significant genetic variances in susceptibility to the three chemicals were estimated for the Katsunuma population; 0.0529-0.2722 for malathion, 0.0492-0.1603 for prothiophos, and 0.0469-0.1696 for fenitrothion. Contrary to the consistent seasonal tendency towards an increase in mean susceptibility in the fall, reported in the previous study, genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates did not change significantly in 1997 but tended to increase by 2- to 5-times in 1998. We tested whether both the observed situations, maintenance and increase in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance, can be generated under circumstances in which the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates tended to decrease, by conducting a simulation analysis, based on the hypothesis that resistant genotypes have lower fitnesses than susceptible ones under the density-independent condition. The simulation analysis generally explained the pattern in the mean susceptibility and genetic variances in susceptibility to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population of D. melanogaster. It was suggested that the differences in the frequencies of resistance genes in the summer population could affect the patterns in genetic variance in organophosphate resistance in the fall population.

  17. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2010-12-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  18. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoee, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  19. More dimensions: Less entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions

  20. Entropy of balance - some recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxåback Gerd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entropy when applied to biological signals is expected to reflect the state of the biological system. However the physiological interpretation of the entropy is not always straightforward. When should high entropy be interpreted as a healthy sign, and when as marker of deteriorating health? We address this question for the particular case of human standing balance and the Center of Pressure data. Methods We have measured and analyzed balance data of 136 participants (young, n = 45; elderly, n = 91 comprising in all 1085 trials, and calculated the Sample Entropy (SampEn for medio-lateral (M/L and anterior-posterior (A/P Center of Pressure (COP together with the Hurst self-similariy (ss exponent α using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. The COP was measured with a force plate in eight 30 seconds trials with eyes closed, eyes open, foam, self-perturbation and nudge conditions. Results 1 There is a significant difference in SampEn for the A/P-direction between the elderly and the younger groups Old > young. 2 For the elderly we have in general A/P > M/L. 3 For the younger group there was no significant A/P-M/L difference with the exception for the nudge trials where we had the reverse situation, A/P Eyes Open. 5 In case of the Hurst ss-exponent we have for the elderly, M/L > A/P. Conclusions These results seem to be require some modifications of the more or less established attention-constraint interpretation of entropy. This holds that higher entropy correlates with a more automatic and a less constrained mode of balance control, and that a higher entropy reflects, in this sense, a more efficient balancing.

  1. ENTROPY FUNCTIONAL FOR CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS OF FINITE ENTROPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Rahimi A. Riazi

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we introduce the concept of entropy functional for continuous systems on compact metric spaces,and prove some of its properties.We also extract the Kolmogorov entropy from the entropy functional.

  2. The dynamics of natural populations: feedback structures in fluctuating environments La dinámica de las poblaciones naturales: estructuras de retroalimentación en ambientes fluctuantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO LIMA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuations exhibited by natural populations have fascinated ecologists for the last eighty years. However, a vigorous debate between different schools of population ecologists has hampered reaching a consensus about the causes of such numerical fluctuations. Recent findings and a more synthetic view of population change espoused by ecologists, statisticians, and mathematicians have integrated the role of nonlinear feedback (deterministic and external environmental (deterministic or stochastic processes in the dynamics of natural populations. The new challenge for population ecologists is to understand how these two different forces interact in nature. In this commentary, I review some of the basic principles of population analysis during the last 50 years. Finally, this commentary emphasize that one of the most promising approaches in population ecology will be the analysis and interpretation of time series data from several species in the same place, and the integration of demographic analysis and mathematical modeling. In both cases we need long-term data of biological populations and the factors that effect them. The potential insights gained from such an approach will help ecologists to understand better the dynamics of natural populations and will have large implications for applied issues such as conservation, management, and control of natural populationsLas fluctuaciones exhibidas por las poblaciones naturales han fascinado a los ecólogos durante los últimos ochenta años. Sin embargo, las acaloradas controversias entre las dos escuelas de ecólogos poblacionales han retrasado la explicación de dichas fluctuaciones numéricas. Recientes hallazgos y una visión más sintética del cambio poblacional lograda por los ecólogos, estadísticos y matemáticos han integrado el papel de los procesos no lineales (deterministas y los procesos externos ambientales (deterministas o estocásticos en la dinámica de las poblaciones naturales

  3. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the process of ageing, the balance shifts in the direction of anarchy. Death is ... tion of life and the laws of statistieal physics and entropy, both of which ... capable of doing work. ... defined by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1877, the entropy of the.

  4. The holographic entropy cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nezami, Sepehr [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Stoica, Bogdan [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sully, James [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  5. The holographic entropy cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  6. Entanglement entropy in causal set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Rafael D.; Yazdi, Yasaman K.

    2018-04-01

    Entanglement entropy is now widely accepted as having deep connections with quantum gravity. It is therefore desirable to understand it in the context of causal sets, especially since they provide in a natural manner the UV cutoff needed to render entanglement entropy finite. Formulating a notion of entanglement entropy in a causal set is not straightforward because the type of canonical hypersurface-data on which its definition typically relies is not available. Instead, we appeal to the more global expression given in Sorkin (2012 (arXiv:1205.2953)) which, for a Gaussian scalar field, expresses the entropy of a spacetime region in terms of the field’s correlation function within that region (its ‘Wightman function’ W(x, x') ). Carrying this formula over to the causal set, one obtains an entropy which is both finite and of a Lorentz invariant nature. We evaluate this global entropy-expression numerically for certain regions (primarily order-intervals or ‘causal diamonds’) within causal sets of 1  +  1 dimensions. For the causal-set counterpart of the entanglement entropy, we obtain, in the first instance, a result that follows a (spacetime) volume law instead of the expected (spatial) area law. We find, however, that one obtains an area law if one truncates the commutator function (‘Pauli–Jordan operator’) and the Wightman function by projecting out the eigenmodes of the Pauli–Jordan operator whose eigenvalues are too close to zero according to a geometrical criterion which we describe more fully below. In connection with these results and the questions they raise, we also study the ‘entropy of coarse-graining’ generated by thinning out the causal set, and we compare it with what one obtains by similarly thinning out a chain of harmonic oscillators, finding the same, ‘universal’ behaviour in both cases.

  7. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  8. Financial time series analysis based on effective phase transfer entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengbo; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-02-01

    Transfer entropy is a powerful technique which is able to quantify the impact of one dynamic system on another system. In this paper, we propose the effective phase transfer entropy method based on the transfer entropy method. We use simulated data to test the performance of this method, and the experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the information transfer between the systems. We also explore the relationship between effective phase transfer entropy and some variables, such as data size, coupling strength and noise. The effective phase transfer entropy is positively correlated with the data size and the coupling strength. Even in the presence of a large amount of noise, it can detect the information transfer between systems, and it is very robust to noise. Moreover, this measure is indeed able to accurately estimate the information flow between systems compared with phase transfer entropy. In order to reflect the application of this method in practice, we apply this method to financial time series and gain new insight into the interactions between systems. It is demonstrated that the effective phase transfer entropy can be used to detect some economic fluctuations in the financial market. To summarize, the effective phase transfer entropy method is a very efficient tool to estimate the information flow between systems.

  9. System Entropy Measurement of Stochastic Partial Differential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available System entropy describes the dispersal of a system’s energy and is an indication of the disorder of a physical system. Several system entropy measurement methods have been developed for dynamic systems. However, most real physical systems are always modeled using stochastic partial differential dynamic equations in the spatio-temporal domain. No efficient method currently exists that can calculate the system entropy of stochastic partial differential systems (SPDSs in consideration of the effects of intrinsic random fluctuation and compartment diffusion. In this study, a novel indirect measurement method is proposed for calculating of system entropy of SPDSs using a Hamilton–Jacobi integral inequality (HJII-constrained optimization method. In other words, we solve a nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for measuring the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs. To simplify the system entropy measurement of NSPDSs, the global linearization technique and finite difference scheme were employed to approximate the nonlinear stochastic spatial state space system. This allows the nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for the system entropy measurement to be transformed to an equivalent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs-constrained optimization problem, which can be easily solved using the MATLAB LMI-toolbox (MATLAB R2014a, version 8.3. Finally, several examples are presented to illustrate the system entropy measurement of SPDSs.

  10. Enthalpy-entropy compensation: the role of solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Read, Christopher M; Crane-Robinson, Colyn

    2017-05-01

    Structural modifications to interacting systems frequently lead to changes in both the enthalpy (heat) and entropy of the process that compensate each other, so that the Gibbs free energy is little changed: a major barrier to the development of lead compounds in drug discovery. The conventional explanation for such enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) is that tighter contacts lead to a more negative enthalpy but increased molecular constraints, i.e., a compensating conformational entropy reduction. Changes in solvation can also contribute to EEC but this contribution is infrequently discussed. We review long-established and recent cases of EEC and conclude that the large fluctuations in enthalpy and entropy observed are too great to be a result of only conformational changes and must result, to a considerable degree, from variations in the amounts of water immobilized or released on forming complexes. Two systems exhibiting EEC show a correlation between calorimetric entropies and local mobilities, interpreted to mean conformational control of the binding entropy/free energy. However, a substantial contribution from solvation gives the same effect, as a consequence of a structural link between the amount of bound water and the protein flexibility. Only by assuming substantial changes in solvation-an intrinsically compensatory process-can a more complete understanding of EEC be obtained. Faced with such large, and compensating, changes in the enthalpies and entropies of binding, the best approach to engineering elevated affinities must be through the addition of ionic links, as they generate increased entropy without affecting the enthalpy.

  11. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site's river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site's river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft)

  12. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  13. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  14. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series: An application to Rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Hofman, Paul A M; Besseling, René M H; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy. The BOLD time series was decomposed using the discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet entropy was calculated. Using a model time series consisting of multiple harmonics and nonstationary components, the wavelet entropy was compared with Shannon and spectral (Fourier-based) entropy. As an application, the wavelet entropy in 22 children with Rolandic epilepsy was compared to 22 age-matched healthy controls. The images were obtained by performing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 3T system, an 8-element receive-only head coil, and an echo planar imaging pulse sequence ( T2*-weighted). The wavelet entropy was also compared to spectral entropy, regional homogeneity, and Shannon entropy. Wavelet entropy was found to identify the nonstationary components of the model time series. In Rolandic epilepsy patients, a significantly elevated wavelet entropy was observed relative to controls for the whole cerebrum (P = 0.03). Spectral entropy (P = 0.41), regional homogeneity (P = 0.52), and Shannon entropy (P = 0.32) did not reveal significant differences. The wavelet entropy measure appeared more sensitive to detect abnormalities in cerebral fluctuations represented by nonstationary effects in the BOLD time series than more conventional measures. This effect was observed in the model time series as well as in Rolandic epilepsy. These observations suggest that the brains of children with Rolandic epilepsy exhibit stronger nonstationary temporal signal fluctuations than controls. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1728-1737. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic

  15. Joint probability distributions and fluctuation theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-García, Reinaldo; Kolton, Alejandro B; Domínguez, Daniel; Lecomte, Vivien

    2012-01-01

    We derive various exact results for Markovian systems that spontaneously relax to a non-equilibrium steady state by using joint probability distribution symmetries of different entropy production decompositions. The analytical approach is applied to diverse problems such as the description of the fluctuations induced by experimental errors, for unveiling symmetries of correlation functions appearing in fluctuation–dissipation relations recently generalized to non-equilibrium steady states, and also for mapping averages between different trajectory-based dynamical ensembles. Many known fluctuation theorems arise as special instances of our approach for particular twofold decompositions of the total entropy production. As a complement, we also briefly review and synthesize the variety of fluctuation theorems applying to stochastic dynamics of both continuous systems described by a Langevin dynamics and discrete systems obeying a Markov dynamics, emphasizing how these results emerge from distinct symmetries of the dynamical entropy of the trajectory followed by the system. For Langevin dynamics, we embed the 'dual dynamics' with a physical meaning, and for Markov systems we show how the fluctuation theorems translate into symmetries of modified evolution operators

  16. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  17. Entropy of the Mixture of Sources and Entropy Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Smieja, Marek; Tabor, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the entropy of the mixture of sources. There is given an estimation of the entropy and entropy dimension of convex combination of measures. The proof is based on our alternative definition of the entropy based on measures instead of partitions.

  18. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, Roger; Stadje, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk and prove a collection of axiomatic characterization and duality results. We show in particular that entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk emerge as negative certainty equivalents in (the regular and a generalized

  19. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex

  20. Entropy Coherent and Entropy Convex Measures of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. We prove that convex, entropy convex and entropy coherent measures of risk emerge as certainty equivalents under variational, homothetic and multiple priors preferences,

  1. Infinite Shannon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Even if a probability distribution is properly normalizable, its associated Shannon (or von Neumann) entropy can easily be infinite. We carefully analyze conditions under which this phenomenon can occur. Roughly speaking, this happens when arbitrarily small amounts of probability are dispersed into an infinite number of states; we shall quantify this observation and make it precise. We develop several particularly simple, elementary, and useful bounds, and also provide some asymptotic estimates, leading to necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of infinite Shannon entropy. We go to some effort to keep technical computations as simple and conceptually clear as possible. In particular, we shall see that large entropies cannot be localized in state space; large entropies can only be supported on an exponentially large number of states. We are for the time being interested in single-channel Shannon entropy in the information theoretic sense, not entropy in a stochastic field theory or quantum field theory defined over some configuration space, on the grounds that this simple problem is a necessary precursor to understanding infinite entropy in a field theoretic context. (paper)

  2. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  3. Some remarks on conditional entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijst, A.G.P.M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a definition of conditional entropy given by Hanen and Neveu [5, 10, 11] we discuss in this paper some properties of conditional entropy and mean entropy, in particular an integral representation of conditional entropy (§ 2), and the decomposition theorem of the KolmogorovSina¯i invariant (§

  4. Language Aspects of Engineering Students' View of Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Andersson, Staffan; Elmgren, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Entropy is a central concept in thermodynamics, but has been found to be challenging to students due to its abstract nature and the fact that it is not part of students' everyday language. Interviews with three pairs of engineering students (N = 6) were conducted and video recorded regarding their interpretation and use of the entropy concept, one…

  5. Gamma-ray spectra deconvolution by maximum-entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A maximum-entropy method which includes the response of detectors and the statistical fluctuations of spectra is described and applied to the deconvolution of γ-ray spectra. Resolution enhancement of 25% can be reached for experimental peaks and up to 50% for simulated ones, while the intensities are conserved within 1-2%. (orig.)

  6. Correlations of multiscale entropy in the FX market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Darko; Stosic, Dusan; Ludermir, Teresa; Stosic, Tatijana

    2016-09-01

    The regularity of price fluctuations in exchange rates plays a crucial role in FX market dynamics. Distinct variations in regularity arise from economic, social and political events, such as interday trading and financial crisis. This paper applies a multiscale time-dependent entropy method on thirty-three exchange rates to analyze price fluctuations in the FX. Correlation matrices of entropy values, termed entropic correlations, are in turn used to describe global behavior of the market. Empirical results suggest a weakly correlated market with pronounced collective behavior at bi-weekly trends. Correlations arise from cycles of low and high regularity in long-term trends. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix also indicate a dominant European market, followed by shifting American, Asian, African, and Pacific influences. As a result, we find that entropy is a powerful tool for extracting important information from the FX market.

  7. Kinetics of the Dynamical Information Shannon Entropy for Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulmetyev, R.M.; Yulmetyeva, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic behaviour of dynamical information Shannon entropy is discussed for complex systems: physical systems with non-Markovian property and memory in correlation approximation, and biological and physiological systems with sequences of the Markovian and non-Markovian random noises. For the stochastic processes, a description of the information entropy in terms of normalized time correlation functions is given. The influence and important role of two mutually dependent channels of the entropy change, correlation (creation or generation of correlations) and anti-correlation (decay or annihilation of correlation) is discussed. The method developed here is also used in analysis of the density fluctuations in liquid cesium obtained from slow neutron scattering data, fractal kinetics of the long-range fluctuation in the short-time human memory and chaotic dynamics of R-R intervals of human ECG. (author)

  8. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  9. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years. From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  10. On the Reference State for Exergy when Ambient Temperature Fluctuates

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Pons

    2009-01-01

    Exergy (availability) is the amount of mechanical work that could be produced by reversible processes. This notion is revisited in the case when ambient temperature fluctuates. Simple examples are first considered, and then a theoretical approach is developed. It results that the most reliable way for combining entropy and total energy into an exergy function is a linear combination where entropy is multiplied by a constant temperature. It results that ambient air has non-zero exergy, but tha...

  11. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  12. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  13. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  14. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  15. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  16. Topological nearly entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamsarwar, Syazwani; Salleh, Zabidin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notions of Adler's topological entropy along with their several fundamental properties. A function f : X → Y is said to be R-map if f-1 (V) is regular open in X for every regular open set V in Y. Thus, we initiated a notion of topological nearly entropy for topological R-dynamical systems which is based on nearly compact relative to the space by using R-map.

  17. Entropy analysis in yeast DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongkwang; Kim, Sowun; Lee, Kunsang; Kwon, Younghun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the language structure in yeast 16 chromosomes. In order to find it, we use the entropy analysis for codons (or amino acids) of yeast 16 chromosomes, developed in analysis of natural language by Montemurro et al. From the analysis, we can see that there exists a language structure in codons (or amino acids) of yeast 16 chromosomes. Also we find that the grammar structure of amino acids of yeast 16 chromosomes has a deep relationship with secondary structure of protein.

  18. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-01-01

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  19. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  20. Entropy and black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of entropy is examined with an eye toward gaining insight into the nature of black-hole thermodynamics. Definitions of entropy are given for ordinary classical and quantum-mechanical systems which lead to plausibility arguments for the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. The treatment of entropy for a classical system is in the spirit of the information-theory viewpoint, but by explicitly incorporating the coarse-grained observable into the definition of entropy, we eliminate any nonobjective features. The definition of entropy for a quantum-mechanical system is new, but directly parallels the classical treatment. We then apply these ideas to a self-gravitating quantum system which contains a black hole. Under some assumptions: which, although nontrivial, are by no means exotic: about the nature of such a system, it is seen that the same plausibility arguments which lead to the ordinary laws of thermodynamics for ordinary systems now lead to the laws of black-hole mechanics, including the generalized second law of thermodynamics. Thus, it appears perfectly plausible that black-hole thermodynamics is nothing more than ordinary thermodynamics applied to a self-gravitating quantum system

  1. On the Conditional Rényi Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fehr (Serge); S. Berens (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Rényi entropy of general order unifies the well-known Shannon entropy with several other entropy notions, like the min-entropy or the collision entropy. In contrast to the Shannon entropy, there seems to be no commonly accepted definition for the conditional Rényi entropy: several

  2. Transition-strength fluctuations and the onset of chaotic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Levine, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum-entropy formalism is used to characterize the fluctuations in transition strengths for a bound quantum-mechanical system. In the chaotic limit only one, ever present, sum rule is required as a constraint. The resulting distribution is that of Porter and Thomas, which can also be derived from random-matrix theory. For nonchaotic systems the distribution of transition strengths has a lower entropy. A possible additional constraint, operative during the onset of chaos, is proposed. The distribution of maximal entropy subject to both constraints accords with computed intensities in a system of two degrees of freedom

  3. Fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews sources of noise in Josephson junctions, and the limits they impose on the sensitivity of dc and rf SQUIDS. The results are strictly valid only for a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) with zero capacitance, but should be applicable to point contact junctions and microbridges in so far as these devices can be approximated by the RSJ model. Fluctuations arising from Nyquist noise in the resistive shunt of a single junction are discussed in the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T << 1 in which a classical treatment is appropriate, and then extend the treatment to the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T greater than or equal to 1 in which quantum effects become important. The Nyquist limit theory is used to calculate the noise in a dc SQUID, and the results are compared with a number of practical devices. The quantum limit is briefly considered. Results for the predicted sensitivity of rf SQUIDS are presented, and also compared with a number of practical devices. Finally, the importance of l/f noise (f is the frequency) in limiting the low frequency performance of SQUIDS is discussed

  4. A Graphical Proof of the Positive Entropy Change in Heat Transfer between Two Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatgamolchai, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that heat transfer between two objects results in a positive change in the total entropy of the two-object system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy change of a naturally irreversible process is positive. In other words, if the entropy change of any process is positive, it can be inferred that such a process…

  5. Entropy of a bit-shift channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Stan; Balakirsky, Vladimir; Denteneer, Dee; Egner, Sebastian; Hollmann, Henk; Tolhuizen, Ludo; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple transformation (coding) of an iid source called a bit-shift channel. This simple transformation occurs naturally in magnetic or optical data storage. The resulting process is not Markov of any order. We discuss methods of computing the entropy of the transformed process, and

  6. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  7. Calculation of Configurational Entropy in Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are fundamental concepts that underlie all natural processes and patterns. Recent research has shown how the entropy of a landscape mosaic can be calculated using the Boltzmann equation, with the entropy of a lattice mosaic equal to the logarithm of the number of ways a lattice with a given dimensionality and number of classes can be arranged to produce the same total amount of edge between cells of different classes. However, that work seemed to also suggest that the feasibility of applying this method to real landscapes was limited due to intractably large numbers of possible arrangements of raster cells in large landscapes. Here I extend that work by showing that: (1 the proportion of arrangements rather than the number with a given amount of edge length provides a means to calculate unbiased relative configurational entropy, obviating the need to compute all possible configurations of a landscape lattice; (2 the edge lengths of randomized landscape mosaics are normally distributed, following the central limit theorem; and (3 given this normal distribution it is possible to fit parametric probability density functions to estimate the expected proportion of randomized configurations that have any given edge length, enabling the calculation of configurational entropy on any landscape regardless of size or number of classes. I evaluate the boundary limits (4 for this normal approximation for small landscapes with a small proportion of a minority class and show it holds under all realistic landscape conditions. I further (5 demonstrate that this relationship holds for a sample of real landscapes that vary in size, patch richness, and evenness of area in each cover type, and (6 I show that the mean and standard deviation of the normally distributed edge lengths can be predicted nearly perfectly as a function of the size, patch richness and diversity of a landscape. Finally, (7 I show that the

  8. 1/ f noise from the laws of thermodynamics for finite-size fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Ralph V; Nasir, Derek M

    2014-07-01

    Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's factor is extended to include local alignment entropy to all orders. We show that this nonlinear correction maintains maximum entropy during equilibrium fluctuations. Indeed, as with the usual way to resolve Gibbs' paradox that avoids entropy reduction during reversible processes, the correction yields the statistics of indistinguishable particles. The correction also ensures conservation of energy if an instantaneous contribution from local entropy is included. Thus, a common mechanism for 1/f noise comes from assuming that finite-size fluctuations strictly obey the laws of thermodynamics, even in small parts of a large system. Empirical evidence for the model comes from its ability to match the measured temperature dependence of the spectral-density exponents in several metals and to show non-Gaussian fluctuations characteristic of nanoscale systems.

  9. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  10. Entropy Production in Stochastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.

  11. Remarks on entanglement entropy in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Parrikar, Onkar

    2018-03-01

    Entanglement entropy for spatial subregions is difficult to define in string theory because of the extended nature of strings. Here we propose a definition for bosonic open strings using the framework of string field theory. The key difference (compared to ordinary quantum field theory) is that the subregion is chosen inside a Cauchy surface in the "space of open string configurations." We first present a simple calculation of this entanglement entropy in free light-cone string field theory, ignoring subtleties related to the factorization of the Hilbert space. We reproduce the answer expected from an effective field theory point of view, namely a sum over the one-loop entanglement entropies corresponding to all the particle-excitations of the string, and further show that the full string theory regulates ultraviolet divergences in the entanglement entropy. We then revisit the question of factorization of the Hilbert space by analyzing the covariant phase-space associated with a subregion in Witten's covariant string field theory. We show that the pure gauge (i.e., BRST exact) modes in the string field become dynamical at the entanglement cut. Thus, a proper definition of the entropy must involve an extended Hilbert space, with new stringy edge modes localized at the entanglement cut.

  12. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  13. Monte Carlo power iteration: Entropy and spatial correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Michel; Miao, Jilang; Dumonteil, Eric; Forget, Benoit; Onillon, Anthony; Smith, Kord S.; Zoia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We show that the entropy function might be misleading in criticality simulations. • We interpret the spatial fluctuations of the fission chains in terms of the key parameters of the simulated system. • We show that the behavior of the entropy function is related to the theory of neutron clustering. - Abstract: The behavior of Monte Carlo criticality simulations is often assessed by examining the convergence of the so-called entropy function. In this work, we shall show that the entropy function may lead to a misleading interpretation, and that potential issues occur when spatial correlations induced by fission events are important. We will support our analysis by examining the higher-order moments of the entropy function and the center of mass of the neutron population. Within the framework of a simplified model based on branching processes, we will relate the behavior of the spatial fluctuations of the fission chains to the key parameters of the simulated system, namely, the number of particles per generation, the reactor size and the migration area. Numerical simulations of a fuel rod and of a whole core suggest that the obtained results are quite general and hold true also for real-world applications.

  14. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta; Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian est...

  15. Entropy is in Flux V3.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2017-05-01

    The science of thermodynamics was put together in the Nineteenth Century to describe large systems in equilibrium. One part of thermodynamics defines entropy for equilibrium systems and demands an ever-increasing entropy for non-equilibrium ones. Since thermodynamics does not define entropy out of equilibrium, pure thermodynamics cannot follow the details of how this increase occurs. However, starting with the work of Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872, and continuing to the present day, various models of non-equilibrium behavior have been put together with the specific aim of generalizing the concept of entropy to non-equilibrium situations. This kind of entropy has been termed kinetic entropy to distinguish it from the thermodynamic variety. Knowledge of kinetic entropy started from Boltzmann's insight about his equation for the time dependence of gaseous systems. In this paper, his result is stated as a definition of kinetic entropy in terms of a local equation for the entropy density. This definition is then applied to Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid thereby giving the kinetic entropy within that theory. The dynamics of many condensed matter systems including Fermi liquids, low temperature superfluids, and ordinary metals lend themselves to the definition of kinetic entropy. In fact, entropy has been defined and used for a wide variety of situations in which a condensed matter system has been allowed to relax for a sufficient period so that the very most rapid fluctuations have been ironed out. One of the broadest applications of non-equilibrium analysis considers quantum degenerate systems using Martin-Schwinger Green's functions (Phys Rev 115:1342-1373, 1959) as generalized Wigner functions, g^({p},ω ,{R},T). This paper describes once again how the quantum kinetic equations for these functions give locally defined conservation laws for mass momentum and energy. In local thermodynamic equilibrium, this kinetic theory enables a reasonable definition of the density

  16. Algebraic topological entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a 'by-product' of the Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring theory of dynamical entropy for (originally non-Abelian) nuclear C * -algebras, the well-known variational principle for topological entropy is eqivalently reformulated in purly algebraically defined terms for (separable) Abelian C * -algebras. This 'algebraic variational principle' should not only nicely illustrate the 'feed-back' of methods developed for quantum dynamical systems to the classical theory, but it could also be proved directly by 'algebraic' methods and could thus further simplify the original proof of the variational principle (at least 'in principle'). 23 refs. (Author)

  17. Combinatorial Image Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuri, Shtarkov; Justesen, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions.......The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions....

  18. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  19. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  20. Maximum entropy tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The new entropy concept for the collective magnetic equilibria is applied to the description of the states of a tokamak subject to ohmic and auxiliary heating. The condition for the existence of steady state plasma states with vanishing entropy production implies, on one hand, the resilience of specific current density profiles and, on the other, severe restrictions on the scaling of the confinement time with power and current. These restrictions are consistent with Goldston scaling and with the existence of a heat pinch. (author)

  1. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  2. von Neumann entropy associated with the haldane exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    We obtain the von Neumann entropy per state of the Haldane exclusion statistics with parameter g in terms of the mean occupation number bar n{wlnw-(1+w)ln(1+w)}, where w=(1-bar n). This reduces correctly to the well known expressions in the limiting cases of Bose (g=0) and Fermi (g=1) statistics. We have derived the second and third order fluctuations in the occupation numbers for arbitrary g. An elegant general duality relationship between the w factor associated with the particle and that associated with the hole at the reciprocal g is deduced along with the attendant relationship between the two respective entropies

  3. Fluctuations in quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.

    1996-01-01

    Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru

  4. Nuclear power industry from the viewpoint of entropy so-called, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Rokuo

    1984-01-01

    In Japan, the nuclear power industry tends to be grouped, which is understandable because of its nature as the unification of various technology aspects. The grouped operation implies the state in order (low entropy). If this grouped operation (low entropy) is in a state of low economic value (high entropy), in order to raise the economic value (low entropy), the tendency will be to weaken the grouping (high entropy). For raising the low economic value (high entropy) to a higher state (low entropy), other energy or value must be consumed. In the problematic situation when the economic value is also high for manufacturing and construction enterprises (low entropy), the leadership by the electric power enterprises is strongly desired. (Mori, K.)

  5. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  6. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  7. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.hansen@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  8. Physical interpretation of the angle-dependent magnetic helicity spectrum in the solar wind: The nature of turbulent fluctuations near the proton gyroradius scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Podesta, John J., E-mail: kristopher-klein@uiowa.edu [Center for Space Plasma Physics, Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.

  9. Physical interpretation of the angle-dependent magnetic helicity spectrum in the solar wind: The nature of turbulent fluctuations near the proton gyroradius scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; TenBarge, Jason M.; Podesta, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.

  10. Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿铭

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.

  11. Entropy à la Boltzmann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy à la Boltzmann. Jayanta K Bhattacharjee. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 19-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0019-0034 ...

  12. Entropy in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the integral. taken over a reversible transformation. We shall call this function the entropy of state A.” 'Thermodynamics' by Enrico Fermi. “Let Γ be the volume of the region of motion of the states, and. This is the basic assumption of ...

  13. Dynamic Cross-Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aur, Dorian; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Complexity measures for time series have been used in many applications to quantify the regularity of one dimensional time series, however many dynamical systems are spatially distributed multidimensional systems. We introduced Dynamic Cross-Entropy (DCE) a novel multidimensional complexity measure that quantifies the degree of regularity of EEG signals in selected frequency bands. Time series generated by discrete logistic equations with varying control parameter r are used to test DCE measures. Sliding window DCE analyses are able to reveal specific period doubling bifurcations that lead to chaos. A similar behavior can be observed in seizures triggered by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Sample entropy data show the level of signal complexity in different phases of the ictal ECT. The transition to irregular activity is preceded by the occurrence of cyclic regular behavior. A significant increase of DCE values in successive order from high frequencies in gamma to low frequencies in delta band reveals several phase transitions into less ordered states, possible chaos in the human brain. To our knowledge there are no reliable techniques able to reveal the transition to chaos in case of multidimensional times series. In addition, DCE based on sample entropy appears to be robust to EEG artifacts compared to DCE based on Shannon entropy. The applied technique may offer new approaches to better understand nonlinear brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  15. Entropy and information causality in general probabilistic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnum, Howard; Leifer, Matthew; Spekkens, Robert; Barrett, Jonathan; Clark, Lisa Orloff; Stepanik, Nicholas; Wilce, Alex; Wilke, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the concept of entropy in probabilistic theories more general than quantum mechanics, with particular reference to the notion of information causality (IC) recently proposed by Pawlowski et al (2009 arXiv:0905.2292). We consider two entropic quantities, which we term measurement and mixing entropy. In the context of classical and quantum theory, these coincide, being given by the Shannon and von Neumann entropies, respectively; in general, however, they are very different. In particular, while measurement entropy is easily seen to be concave, mixing entropy need not be. In fact, as we show, mixing entropy is not concave whenever the state space is a non-simplicial polytope. Thus, the condition that measurement and mixing entropies coincide is a strong constraint on possible theories. We call theories with this property monoentropic. Measurement entropy is subadditive, but not in general strongly subadditive. Equivalently, if we define the mutual information between two systems A and B by the usual formula I(A: B)=H(A)+H(B)-H(AB), where H denotes the measurement entropy and AB is a non-signaling composite of A and B, then it can happen that I(A:BC)< I(A:B). This is relevant to IC in the sense of Pawlowski et al: we show that any monoentropic non-signaling theory in which measurement entropy is strongly subadditive, and also satisfies a version of the Holevo bound, is informationally causal, and on the other hand we observe that Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, which violate IC, also violate strong subadditivity. We also explore the interplay between measurement and mixing entropy and various natural conditions on theories that arise in quantum axiomatics.

  16. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  17. Entropy equilibrium equation and dynamic entropy production in environment liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The entropy equilibrium equation is the basis of the nonequilibrium state thermodynamics. But the internal energy implies the kinetic energy of the fluid micelle relative to mass center in the classical entropy equilibrium equation at present. This internal energy is not the mean kinetic energy of molecular movement in thermodynamics. Here a modified entropy equilibrium equation is deduced, based on the concept that the internal energy is just the mean kinetic energy of the molecular movement. A dynamic entropy production is introduced into the entropy equilibrium equation to describe the dynamic process distinctly. This modified entropy equilibrium equation can describe not only the entropy variation of the irreversible processes but also the reversible processes in a thermodynamic system. It is more reasonable and suitable for wider applications.

  18. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This approach presents a multi-valued representation of the neutrosophic information. It highlights the link between the bifuzzy information and neutrosophic one. The constructed deca-valued structure shows the neutrosophic information complexity. This deca-valued structure led to construction of two new concepts for the neutrosophic information: neutro-entropy and anti-entropy. These two concepts are added to the two existing: entropy and non-entropy. Thus, we obtained the following triad: e...

  19. Observations of magnetic field and TEC fluctuations caused by ionospheric responses to acoustic and gravity waves from ground-level, natural hazard sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchin, P.; Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have reported magnetic field fluctuations following intense seismic hazard events [e.g. Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016; Toh et al., JGR, 116, 2011]. These perturbations can be associated with ionospheric dynamo phenomena driven by seismically generated acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs). AGW-related dynamo effects can be separated from other sources of magnetic fluctuations (e.g. piezo magnetic effects, magnetospheric forcing or Rayleigh surface waves) based on time delays from event onset (corresponding closely with travel times for AGWs from ground to the ionosphere) and spectral content measured concurrently in total electron content (TEC). Modeling studies aimed at understanding these magnetic field fluctuations have demonstrated the idea that AGWs propagating through the conducting ionosphere can induce current densities sufficient to produce observable magnetic signatures [Zettergren and Snively, JGR, 120, 2017]. Here, we investigate the features of seismic-related magnetic field fluctuations in data and their generation via the effects of seismically-forced AGWs on the ionosphere [Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013; Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005]. Concurrent magnetic field and TEC data are analyzed for several events: the Chilean earthquakes of 2010 and 2015, Chile's Calbuco volcano eruption and the Sumatran earthquake on March 28, 2005. We investigate the qualitative features of the disturbances as well as quantitative spectral and timing analysis of the data. For Chilean earthquakes, TEC and ground-based magnetometer data reveal fluctuations in magnetic field exhibiting 4-5 mHz frequencies, the same as in TEC. For the Calbuco volcano eruption and Sumatran earthquake both TEC and magnetic field perturbations exhibit frequencies of 4-5 mHz. The results are consistent with previous reports [Aoyama et al., EPS, 68, 2016, Hasbi et al., JASTP, 71, 2005, Iyemori et al., EPS, 65, 2013]. These observations are further interpreted through detailed numerical

  20. Order and correlation contributions to the entropy of hydrophobic solvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maoyuan; Besford, Quinn Alexander; Mulvaney, Thomas; Gray-Weale, Angus, E-mail: gusgw@gusgw.net [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-03-21

    The entropy of hydrophobic solvation has been explained as the result of ordered solvation structures, of hydrogen bonds, of the small size of the water molecule, of dispersion forces, and of solvent density fluctuations. We report a new approach to the calculation of the entropy of hydrophobic solvation, along with tests of and comparisons to several other methods. The methods are assessed in the light of the available thermodynamic and spectroscopic information on the effects of temperature on hydrophobic solvation. Five model hydrophobes in SPC/E water give benchmark solvation entropies via Widom’s test-particle insertion method, and other methods and models are tested against these particle-insertion results. Entropies associated with distributions of tetrahedral order, of electric field, and of solvent dipole orientations are examined. We find these contributions are small compared to the benchmark particle-insertion entropy. Competitive with or better than other theories in accuracy, but with no free parameters, is the new estimate of the entropy contributed by correlations between dipole moments. Dipole correlations account for most of the hydrophobic solvation entropy for all models studied and capture the distinctive temperature dependence seen in thermodynamic and spectroscopic experiments. Entropies based on pair and many-body correlations in number density approach the correct magnitudes but fail to describe temperature and size dependences, respectively. Hydrogen-bond definitions and free energies that best reproduce entropies from simulations are reported, but it is difficult to choose one hydrogen bond model that fits a variety of experiments. The use of information theory, scaled-particle theory, and related methods is discussed briefly. Our results provide a test of the Frank-Evans hypothesis that the negative solvation entropy is due to structured water near the solute, complement the spectroscopic detection of that solvation structure by

  1. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a deca-valued representation of neutrosophic information in which are defined the following features: truth, falsity, weak truth, weak falsity, ignorance, contradiction, saturation, neutrality, ambiguity and hesitation. Using these features, there are constructed computing formulas for entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy.

  2. Fluctuation theorem for the effusion of an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleuren, B; Van den Broeck, C; Kawai, R

    2006-08-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of an ideal gas between two compartments is calculated explicitly. The fluctuation theorem is verified. The analytic results are in good agreement with numerical data from hard disk molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. A numerically research on energy loss evaluation in a centrifugal pump system based on local entropy production method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Hucan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by wide application of the second law of thermodynamics to flow and heat transfer devices, local entropy production analysis method was creatively introduced into energy assessment system of centrifugal water pump. Based on Reynolds stress turbulent model and energy equation model, the steady numerical simulation of the whole flow passage of one IS centrifugal pump was carried out. The local entropy production terms were calculated by user defined functions, mainly including wall entropy production, turbulent entropy production, and viscous entropy production. The numerical results indicated that the irreversible energy loss calculated by the local entropy production method agreed well with that calculated by the traditional method but with some deviations which were probably caused by high rotatability and high curvature of impeller and volute. The wall entropy production and turbulent entropy production took up large part of the whole entropy production about 48.61% and 47.91%, respectively, which indicated that wall friction and turbulent fluctuation were the major factors in affecting irreversible energy loss. Meanwhile, the entropy production rate distribution was discussed and compared with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate distribution, it showed that turbulent entropy production rate increased sharply at the near wall regions and both distributed more uniformly. The blade region in leading edge near suction side, trailing edge and volute tongue were the main regions to generate irreversible exergy loss. This research broadens a completely new view in evaluating energy loss and further optimizes pump using entropy production minimization.

  4. Entropy and Recurrence Measures of a Financial Dynamic System by an Interacting Voter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A financial time series agent-based model is reproduced and investigated by the statistical physics system, the finite-range interacting voter system. The voter system originally describes the collective behavior of voters who constantly update their positions on a particular topic, which is a continuous-time Markov process. In the proposed model, the fluctuations of stock price changes are attributed to the market information interaction amongst the traders and certain similarities of investors’ behaviors. Further, the complexity of return series of the financial model is studied in comparison with two real stock indexes, the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and the Hang Seng Index, by composite multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The empirical research shows that the simulation data for the proposed model could grasp some natural features of actual markets to some extent.

  5. Quantifying ‘Causality’ in Complex Systems: Understanding Transfer Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Fatimah; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    ‘Causal’ direction is of great importance when dealing with complex systems. Often big volumes of data in the form of time series are available and it is important to develop methods that can inform about possible causal connections between the different observables. Here we investigate the ability of the Transfer Entropy measure to identify causal relations embedded in emergent coherent correlations. We do this by firstly applying Transfer Entropy to an amended Ising model. In addition we use a simple Random Transition model to test the reliability of Transfer Entropy as a measure of ‘causal’ direction in the presence of stochastic fluctuations. In particular we systematically study the effect of the finite size of data sets. PMID:24955766

  6. Fast Slip Velocity in a High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Q.; Sparks, G.; Maaß, R.

    2018-04-01

    Due to fluctuations in nearest-neighbor distances and chemistry within the unit cell, high-entropy alloys are believed to have a much higher resistance to dislocation motion than pure crystals. Here, we investigate the coarse-grained dynamics of a number of dislocations being active during a slip event. We found that the time-resolved dynamics of slip is practically identical in Au and an Al0.3CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy, but much faster than in Nb. Differences between the FCC-crystals are seen in the spatiotemporal velocity profile, with faster acceleration and slower velocity relaxation in the high-entropy alloy. Assessing distributions that characterize the intermittently evolving plastic flow reveals material-dependent scaling exponents for size, duration, and velocity-size distributions. The results are discussed in view of the underlying dislocation mobility.

  7. Critical study on conventional concept of entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.K.; Nizami, S.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of increase in entropy or disorder as a result of all natural processes has been critically reviewed on the basis of experimental facts and ongoing phenomena on our Globe. Similarly, order-disorder statements have also been judged under new and fresh look. In fact, these are not absolute but depend upon defining specific purpose and considering that whether that purpose is being served or not. The new concept has been elaborated by considering natural biological processes, spontaneous mixing of four different gases, distribution of four points in space and assembling of a packaged electronic gadget. Actually, this order-disorder dilemma is the result of not defining the specific purpose of a process which leads to so-called concept that disorder is increasing day by day in our universe. The traditional concept of entropy has been finally tested under heat exchange and probability considerations, which also yield no information to discern it as a measure of disorder. Consequently, increase of entropy translating into increase of disorder could not be applied to all natural processes especially the natural biological systems. (author)

  8. Entropy inequality and hydrodynamic limits for the Boltzmann equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Raymond, Laure

    2013-12-28

    Boltzmann brought a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the notion of entropy, by giving a microscopic formulation of the second principle of thermodynamics. His ingenious idea, motivated by the works of his contemporaries on the atomic nature of matter, consists of describing gases as huge systems of identical and indistinguishable elementary particles. The state of a gas can therefore be described in a statistical way. The evolution, which introduces couplings, loses part of the information, which is expressed by the decay of the so-called mathematical entropy (the opposite of physical entropy!).

  9. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  10. Fluctuation theorem for Hamiltonian Systems: Le Chatelier's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denis J.; Searles, Debra J.; Mittag, Emil

    2001-05-01

    For thermostated dissipative systems, the fluctuation theorem gives an analytical expression for the ratio of probabilities that the time-averaged entropy production in a finite system observed for a finite time takes on a specified value compared to the negative of that value. In the past, it has been generally thought that the presence of some thermostating mechanism was an essential component of any system that satisfies a fluctuation theorem. In the present paper, we point out that a fluctuation theorem can be derived for purely Hamiltonian systems, with or without applied dissipative fields.

  11. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  12. Equipartition of entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy production rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy production is minimal when the local production is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy production and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy production when the cost factors are constant over the whole system

  13. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  14. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  15. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  16. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  17. Information and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2007-11-01

    What is information? Is it physical? We argue that in a Bayesian theory the notion of information must be defined in terms of its effects on the beliefs of rational agents. Information is whatever constrains rational beliefs and therefore it is the force that induces us to change our minds. This problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), which is designed for updating from arbitrary priors given information in the form of arbitrary constraints, includes as special cases both MaxEnt (which allows arbitrary constraints) and Bayes' rule (which allows arbitrary priors). Thus, ME unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme that allows us to handle problems that lie beyond the reach of either of the two methods separately. I conclude with a couple of simple illustrative examples.

  18. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  19. Entanglement entropy and differential entropy for massive flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Peter A.R.; Taylor, Marika

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compute the holographic entanglement entropy for massive flavors in the D3-D7 system, for arbitrary mass and various entangling region geometries. We show that the universal terms in the entanglement entropy exactly match those computed in the dual theory using conformal perturbation theory. We derive holographically the universal terms in the entanglement entropy for a CFT perturbed by a relevant operator, up to second order in the coupling; our results are valid for any entangling region geometry. We present a new method for computing the entanglement entropy of any top-down brane probe system using Kaluza-Klein holography and illustrate our results with massive flavors at finite density. Finally we discuss the differential entropy for brane probe systems, emphasising that the differential entropy captures only the effective lower-dimensional Einstein metric rather than the ten-dimensional geometry.

  20. Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero

    2018-03-01

    The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.

  1. On Using Entropy for Enhancing Handwriting Preprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Peischl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting is an important modality for Human-Computer Interaction. For medical professionals, handwriting is (still the preferred natural method of documentation. Handwriting recognition has long been a primary research area in Computer Science. With the tremendous ubiquity of smartphones, along with the renaissance of the stylus, handwriting recognition has become a new impetus. However, recognition rates are still not 100% perfect, and researchers still are constantly improving handwriting algorithms. In this paper we evaluate the performance of entropy based slant- and skew-correction, and compare the results to other methods. We selected 3700 words of 23 writers out of the Unipen-ICROW-03 benchmark set, which we annotated with their associated error angles by hand. Our results show that the entropy-based slant correction method outperforms a window based approach with an average precision of 6:02 for the entropy-based method, compared with the 7:85 for the alternative. On the other hand, the entropy-based skew correction yields a lower average precision of 2:86, compared with the average precision of 2:13 for the alternative LSM based approach.

  2. Multiscale entropy based study of the pathological time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Ma Qianli

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the multiscale entropy (MSE) of electrocardiogram's ST segment and compares the MSE results of ST segment with that of electrocardiogram in the first time. Electrocardiogram complexity changing characteristics has important clinical significance for early diagnosis. Study shows that the average MSE values and the varying scope fluctuation could be more effective to reveal the heart health status. Particularly the multiscale values varying scope fluctuation is a more sensitive parameter for early heart disease detection and has a clinical diagnostic significance. (general)

  3. Entropy correction of BTZ black holes in a tunneling framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, using the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling framework, we first calculate the emission rates of non-rotating BTZ black holes and rotating BTZ black holes to second order accuracy. Then, by assuming that the emission process satisfies an underlying unitary theory, we obtain the corrected entropy of the BTZ black holes. A log term emerges naturally in the expression of the corrected entropy. A discussion about the inverse area term is also presented.

  4. Analysis of Meniscus Fluctuation in a Continuous Casting Slab Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaitian; Liu, Jianhua; Cui, Heng; Xiao, Chao

    2018-03-01

    A water model of slab mold was established to analyze the microscopic and macroscopic fluctuation of meniscus. The fast Fourier transform and wavelet entropy were adopted to analyze the wave amplitude, frequency, and components of fluctuation. The flow patterns under the meniscus were measured by using particle image velocimetry measurement and then the mechanisms of meniscus fluctuation were discussed. The results reflected that wavelet entropy had multi-scale and statistical properties, and it was suitable for the study of meniscus fluctuation details both in time and frequency domain. The basic wave, frequency of which exceeding 1 Hz in the condition of no mold oscillation, was demonstrated in this work. In fact, three basic waves were found: long-wave with low frequency, middle-wave with middle frequency, and short-wave with high frequency. In addition, the upper roll flow in mold had significant effect on meniscus fluctuation. When the position of flow impinged was far from the meniscus, long-wave dominated the fluctuation and the stability of meniscus was enhanced. However, when the velocity of flow was increased, the short-wave dominated the meniscus fluctuation and the meniscus stability was decreased.

  5. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian estimates, depend on the accuracy of the prior parameters, but example simulations show that the performance can be substantially improved compared to maximum likelihood or state-of-the-art nonparametric estimators.

  6. Permutation entropy and statistical complexity in characterising low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onchi, T; Fujisawa, A; Sanpei, A; Himura, H; Masamune, S

    2017-01-01

    Permutation entropy and statistical complexity are measures for complex time series. The Bandt–Pompe methodology evaluates probability distribution using permutation. The method is robust and effective to quantify information of time series data. Statistical complexity is the product of Jensen–Shannon divergence and permutation entropy. These physical parameters are introduced to analyse time series of emission and magnetic fluctuations in low-aspect-ratio reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. The observed time-series data aggregates in a region of the plane, the so-called C – H plane, determined by entropy versus complexity. The C – H plane is a representation space used for distinguishing periodic, chaos, stochastic and noisy processes of time series data. The characteristics of the emissions and magnetic fluctuation change under different RFP-plasma conditions. The statistical complexities of soft x-ray emissions and magnetic fluctuations depend on the relationships between reversal and pinch parameters. (paper)

  7. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  8. Energy fluctuations in a biharmonically driven nonlinear system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analyse the nature of work and heat fluctuations and show that the steady state fluctuation .... The above equation is the statement of the first law of thermodynamics and ..... One of the authors (AMJ) thanks DST, India for financial support.

  9. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron from scratch by maximizing entropy in a formal probabilistic frame. However, such deductive reasoning cannot work in more complex hydrological systems with diverse elements, yet the entropy maximization framework can help in inductive inference, necessarily based on data. Several examples of this type are provided in an attempt to link statistical thermophysics with hydrology with a unifying view of entropy.

  10. Entropy of finite random binary sequences with weak long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2014-11-01

    We study the N-step binary stationary ergodic Markov chain and analyze its differential entropy. Supposing that the correlations are weak we express the conditional probability function of the chain through the pair correlation function and represent the entropy as a functional of the pair correlator. Since the model uses the two-point correlators instead of the block probability, it makes it possible to calculate the entropy of strings at much longer distances than using standard methods. A fluctuation contribution to the entropy due to finiteness of random chains is examined. This contribution can be of the same order as its regular part even at the relatively short lengths of subsequences. A self-similar structure of entropy with respect to the decimation transformations is revealed for some specific forms of the pair correlation function. Application of the theory to the DNA sequence of the R3 chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster is presented.

  11. An alternative expression to the Sackur-Tetrode entropy formula for an ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    An expression for the entropy of a monoatomic classical ideal gas is known as the Sackur-Tetrode equation. This pioneering investigation about 100 years ago incorporates quantum considerations. The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative expression for the entropy in terms of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The analysis is made on the basis of fluctuation theory, for a canonical system in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. This new formula indicates manifestly that the entropy of macroscopic world is recognized as a measure of uncertainty in microscopic quantum world. The entropy in the Sackur-Tetrode equation can be re-interpreted from a different perspective viewpoint. The emphasis is on the connection between the entropy and the uncertainty relation in quantum consideration.

  12. Entropy and long-range memory in random symbolic additive Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the entropy of random symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. As a plausible model, we use the high-order additive stationary ergodic Markov chain with long-range memory. Supposing that the correlations between random elements of the chain are weak, we express the conditional entropy of the sequence by means of the symbolic pair correlation function. We also examine an algorithm for estimating the conditional entropy of finite symbolic sequences. We show that the entropy contains two contributions, i.e., the correlation and the fluctuation. The obtained analytical results are used for numerical evaluation of the entropy of written English texts and DNA nucleotide sequences. The developed theory opens the way for constructing a more consistent and sophisticated approach to describe the systems with strong short-range and weak long-range memory.

  13. Characterization of time series via Rényi complexity-entropy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, M.; Zunino, L.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most useful tools for distinguishing between chaotic and stochastic time series is the so-called complexity-entropy causality plane. This diagram involves two complexity measures: the Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity. Recently, this idea has been generalized by considering the Tsallis monoparametric generalization of the Shannon entropy, yielding complexity-entropy curves. These curves have proven to enhance the discrimination among different time series related to stochastic and chaotic processes of numerical and experimental nature. Here we further explore these complexity-entropy curves in the context of the Rényi entropy, which is another monoparametric generalization of the Shannon entropy. By combining the Rényi entropy with the proper generalization of the statistical complexity, we associate a parametric curve (the Rényi complexity-entropy curve) with a given time series. We explore this approach in a series of numerical and experimental applications, demonstrating the usefulness of this new technique for time series analysis. We show that the Rényi complexity-entropy curves enable the differentiation among time series of chaotic, stochastic, and periodic nature. In particular, time series of stochastic nature are associated with curves displaying positive curvature in a neighborhood of their initial points, whereas curves related to chaotic phenomena have a negative curvature; finally, periodic time series are represented by vertical straight lines.

  14. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  15. Quantum thermodynamics: Microscopic foundations of entropy and of entropy generation by irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2008-02-01

    complete and coherent resolution of the century-old dilemma on the meaning of entropy and the origin of irreversibility, including Onsager reciprocity relations and maximal-entropy-generation nonequilibrium dynamics, which we believe provides the microscopic foundations of heat, mass and momentum transfer theories, including all their implications such as Bejan's Constructal Theory of natural phenomena.

  16. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  17. Entropy Transfer between Residue Pairs and Allostery in Proteins: Quantifying Allosteric Communication in Ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysima Hacisuleyman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been proposed by Gunasakaran et al. that allostery may be an intrinsic property of all proteins. Here, we develop a computational method that can determine and quantify allosteric activity in any given protein. Based on Schreiber's transfer entropy formulation, our approach leads to an information transfer landscape for the protein that shows the presence of entropy sinks and sources and explains how pairs of residues communicate with each other using entropy transfer. The model can identify the residues that drive the fluctuations of others. We apply the model to Ubiquitin, whose allosteric activity has not been emphasized until recently, and show that there are indeed systematic pathways of entropy and information transfer between residues that correlate well with the activities of the protein. We use 600 nanosecond molecular dynamics trajectories for Ubiquitin and its complex with human polymerase iota and evaluate entropy transfer between all pairs of residues of Ubiquitin and quantify the binding susceptibility changes upon complex formation. We explain the complex formation propensities of Ubiquitin in terms of entropy transfer. Important residues taking part in allosteric communication in Ubiquitin predicted by our approach are in agreement with results of NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. Finally, we show that time delayed correlation of fluctuations of two interacting residues possesses an intrinsic causality that tells which residue controls the interaction and which one is controlled. Our work shows that time delayed correlations, entropy transfer and causality are the required new concepts for explaining allosteric communication in proteins.

  18. Entropy Transfer between Residue Pairs and Allostery in Proteins: Quantifying Allosteric Communication in Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisuleyman, Aysima; Erman, Burak

    2017-01-01

    It has recently been proposed by Gunasakaran et al. that allostery may be an intrinsic property of all proteins. Here, we develop a computational method that can determine and quantify allosteric activity in any given protein. Based on Schreiber's transfer entropy formulation, our approach leads to an information transfer landscape for the protein that shows the presence of entropy sinks and sources and explains how pairs of residues communicate with each other using entropy transfer. The model can identify the residues that drive the fluctuations of others. We apply the model to Ubiquitin, whose allosteric activity has not been emphasized until recently, and show that there are indeed systematic pathways of entropy and information transfer between residues that correlate well with the activities of the protein. We use 600 nanosecond molecular dynamics trajectories for Ubiquitin and its complex with human polymerase iota and evaluate entropy transfer between all pairs of residues of Ubiquitin and quantify the binding susceptibility changes upon complex formation. We explain the complex formation propensities of Ubiquitin in terms of entropy transfer. Important residues taking part in allosteric communication in Ubiquitin predicted by our approach are in agreement with results of NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. Finally, we show that time delayed correlation of fluctuations of two interacting residues possesses an intrinsic causality that tells which residue controls the interaction and which one is controlled. Our work shows that time delayed correlations, entropy transfer and causality are the required new concepts for explaining allosteric communication in proteins.

  19. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  20. On the Interplay between Entropy and Robustness of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between entropy and robustness of gene network is a core mechanism of systems biology. The entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of a physical system due to random parameter fluctuation and environmental noises in gene regulatory networks. The robustness of a gene regulatory network, which can be measured as the ability to tolerate the random parameter fluctuation and to attenuate the effect of environmental noise, will be discussed from the robust H∞ stabilization and filtering perspective. In this review, we will also discuss their balancing roles in evolution and potential applications in systems and synthetic biology.

  1. CFT and Logarithmic Corrections to the Black Hole Entropy Product Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the logarithmic corrections to the black hole (BH entropy product formula of outer horizon and inner horizon by taking into account the effects of statistical quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and via conformal field theory (CFT. We argue that, in logarithmic corrections to the BH entropy product formula when calculated using CFT and taking into account the effects of quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium, the formula should not be universal and it also should not be quantized. These results have been explicitly checked by giving several examples.

  2. Colored thermal noise driven dynamical system in the presence and absence of non-equilibrium constraint: time dependence of information entropy flux and entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Gurupada; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the relaxation of non-Markovian and thermodynamically closed system both in the absence and presence of non-equilibrium constraint in terms of the information entropy flux and entropy production based on the Fokker-Planck and the entropy balance equations. Our calculation shows how the relaxation time depends on noise correlation time. It also considers how the non-equilibrium constraint is affected by system parameters such as noise correlation time, strength of dissipation and frequency of dynamical system. The interplay of non-equilibrium constraint, frictional memory kernel, noise correlation time and frequency of dynamical system reveals the extremum nature of the entropy production

  3. Colored thermal noise driven dynamical system in the presence and absence of non-equilibrium constraint: time dependence of information entropy flux and entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Gurupada; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the relaxation of non-Markovian and thermodynamically closed system both in the absence and presence of non-equilibrium constraint in terms of the information entropy flux and entropy production based on the Fokker-Planck and the entropy balance equations. Our calculation shows how the relaxation time depends on noise correlation time. It also considers how the non-equilibrium constraint is affected by system parameters such as noise correlation time, strength of dissipation and frequency of dynamical system. The interplay of non-equilibrium constraint, frictional memory kernel, noise correlation time and frequency of dynamical system reveals the extremum nature of the entropy production.

  4. Information Entropy Measures for Stand Structural Diversity:Joint Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiangdong; Lu Yuanchang

    2004-01-01

    Structural diversity is the key attribute of a stand. A set of biodiversity measures in ecology was introduced in forest management for describing stand structure, of which Shannon information entropy (Shannon index) has been the most widely used measure of species diversity. It is generally thought that tree size diversity could serve as a good proxy for height diversity. However, tree size diversity and height diversity for stand structure is not completely consistent. Stand diameter cannot reflect height information completely. Either tree size diversity or height diversity is one-dimensional information entropy measure. This paper discussed the method of multiple-dimensional information entropy measure with the concept of joint entropy. It is suggested that joint entropy is a good measure for describing overall stand structural diversity.

  5. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  6. Entropy concentration and the empirical coding game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    We give a characterization of maximum entropy/minimum relative entropy inference by providing two 'strong entropy concentration' theorems. These theorems unify and generalize Jaynes''concentration phenomenon' and Van Campenhout and Cover's 'conditional limit theorem'. The theorems characterize

  7. Fluctuations from dissipation in a hot non-Abelian plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Manuel, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    We consider a transport equation of the Boltzmann-Langevin type for non-Abelian plasmas close to equilibrium to derive the spectral functions of the underlying microscopic fluctuations from the entropy. The correlator of the stochastic source is obtained from the dissipative processes in the plasma. This approach, based on classical transport theory, exploits the well-known link between a linearized collision integral, the entropy and the spectral functions. Applied to the ultra-soft modes of a hot non-Abelian (classical or quantum) plasma, the resulting spectral functions agree with earlier findings obtained from the microscopic theory. As a by-product, it follows that theorem.

  8. Entropy of orthogonal polynomials with Freud weights and information entropies of the harmonic oscillator potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, W.; Yáñez, R. J.; Dehesa, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    The information entropy of the harmonic oscillator potential V(x)=1/2λx2 in both position and momentum spaces can be expressed in terms of the so-called ``entropy of Hermite polynomials,'' i.e., the quantity Sn(H):= -∫-∞+∞H2n(x)log H2n(x) e-x2dx. These polynomials are instances of the polynomials orthogonal with respect to the Freud weights w(x)=exp(-||x||m), m≳0. Here, a very precise and general result of the entropy of Freud polynomials recently established by Aptekarev et al. [J. Math. Phys. 35, 4423-4428 (1994)], specialized to the Hermite kernel (case m=2), leads to an important refined asymptotic expression for the information entropies of very excited states (i.e., for large n) in both position and momentum spaces, to be denoted by Sρ and Sγ, respectively. Briefly, it is shown that, for large values of n, Sρ+1/2logλ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1) and Sγ-1/2log λ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1), so that Sρ+Sγ≂log(2π2n/e2)+o(1) in agreement with the generalized indetermination relation of Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski [Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129-132 (1975)]. Finally, the rate of convergence of these two information entropies is numerically analyzed. In addition, using a Rakhmanov result, we describe a totally new proof of the leading term of the entropy of Freud polynomials which, naturally, is just a weak version of the aforementioned general result.

  9. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  10. Information entropy for static spherically symmetric black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ji-Jian; Li Chuan-An

    2009-01-01

    By using the new equation of state density derived from the generalized uncertainty relation, the number of the quantum states near event horizon is obtained, with which then the information entropy of static spherically symmetric black holes has been discussed. It is found that the divergent integral of quantum states near the event horizon can be naturally avoided if using the new equation of state density without introducing the ultraviolet cut-off. The information entropy of black holes can be obtained precisely by the residue theorem, which is shown to be proportional to the horizon area. The information entropy of black holes obtained agrees with the Bechenstein-Hawking entropy when the suitable cutoff factor is adopted.

  11. Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...... in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results....... Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges....

  12. Entropy and convexity for nonlinear partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John M; Chen, Gui-Qiang G

    2013-12-28

    Partial differential equations are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of many phenomena involving change in physical, chemical, biological and social processes. The concept of entropy originated in thermodynamics and statistical physics during the nineteenth century to describe the heat exchanges that occur in the thermal processes in a thermodynamic system, while the original notion of convexity is for sets and functions in mathematics. Since then, entropy and convexity have become two of the most important concepts in mathematics. In particular, nonlinear methods via entropy and convexity have been playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations in recent decades. This opening article of the Theme Issue is intended to provide an introduction to entropy, convexity and related nonlinear methods for the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. We also provide a brief discussion about the content and contributions of the papers that make up this Theme Issue.

  13. Information entropy for static spherically symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Jian, Jiang; Chuan-An, Li

    2009-01-01

    By using the new equation of state density derived from the generalized uncertainty relation, the number of the quantum states near event horizon is obtained, with which then the information entropy of static spherically symmetric black holes has been discussed. It is found that the divergent integral of quantum states near the event horizon can be naturally avoided if using the new equation of state density without introducing the ultraviolet cut-off. The information entropy of black holes can be obtained precisely by the residue theorem, which is shown to be proportional to the horizon area. The information entropy of black holes obtained agrees with the Bechenstein–Hawking entropy when the suitable cutoff factor is adopted. (general)

  14. Generalized entropy formalism and a new holographic dark energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayahian Jahromi, A.; Moosavi, S. A.; Moradpour, H.; Morais Graça, J. P.; Lobo, I. P.; Salako, I. G.; Jawad, A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Rényi and Tsallis generalized entropies have extensively been used in order to study various cosmological and gravitational setups. Here, using a special type of generalized entropy, a generalization of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropy, together with holographic principle, we build a new model for holographic dark energy. Thereinafter, considering a flat FRW universe, filled by a pressureless component and the new obtained dark energy model, the evolution of cosmos has been investigated showing satisfactory results and behavior. In our model, the Hubble horizon plays the role of IR cutoff, and there is no mutual interaction between the cosmos components. Our results indicate that the generalized entropy formalism may open a new window to become more familiar with the nature of spacetime and its properties.

  15. Entropy and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, human society is regarded as a “superorganism”, analogous to colonies of social insects. The digestive system of the human superorganism is the global economy, which ingests both free energy and resources, and later excretes them in a degraded form. This process involves an increase in entropy. Early in the 20th century, both Frederick Soddy and Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen discussed the relationship between entropy and economics. Soddy called for an index system to regulate the money supply and a reform of the fractional reserve banking system, while Georgescu-Roegen pointed to the need for Ecological Economics, a steady-state economy, and population stabilization. As we reach the end of the fossil fuel era and as industrial growth falters, massive unemployment can only be avoided by responsible governmental action. The necessary steps include shifting labor to projects needed for a sustainable economy, dividing the available work fairly among those seeking employment, and reforming the practices of the financial sector.

  16. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  17. Fluctuations and Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence

  18. Fluctuations and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-02-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  19. Fluctuations and Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2007-02-15

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  20. Entropy squeezing of the field interacting with a nearly degenerate V-type three-level atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qing-Chun; Zhu Shi-Ning

    2005-01-01

    The position- and momentum-entopic squeezing properties of the optical field in the system of a nearly degenerate three-level atom interacting with a single-mode field are investigated. Calculation results indicate that when the field is initially in the vacuum state, it may lead to squeezing of the position entropy or the momentum entropy of the field if the atom is prepared properly. The effects of initial atomic state and the splitting of the excited levels of the atom on field entropies are discussed in this case. When the initial field is in a coherent state, we find that position-entropy squeezing of the field is present even if the atom is prepared in the ground state. By comparing the variance squeezing and entropy squeezing of the field we confirm that entropy is more sensitive than variance in measuring quantum fluctuations.

  1. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  2. Detecting quantum critical points using bipartite fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Song, H Francis; Le Hur, Karyn

    2012-03-16

    We show that the concept of bipartite fluctuations F provides a very efficient tool to detect quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated systems. Using state-of-the-art numerical techniques complemented with analytical arguments, we investigate paradigmatic examples for both quantum spins and bosons. As compared to the von Neumann entanglement entropy, we observe that F allows us to find quantum critical points with much better accuracy in one dimension. We further demonstrate that F can be successfully applied to the detection of quantum criticality in higher dimensions with no prior knowledge of the universality class of the transition. Promising approaches to experimentally access fluctuations are discussed for quantum antiferromagnets and cold gases.

  3. Using entropy to cut complex time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, David; Poncela Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2013-03-01

    Using techniques from statistical physics, physicists have modeled and analyzed human phenomena varying from academic citation rates to disease spreading to vehicular traffic jams. The last decade's explosion of digital information and the growing ubiquity of smartphones has led to a wealth of human self-reported data. This wealth of data comes at a cost, including non-uniform sampling and statistically significant but physically insignificant correlations. In this talk I present our work using entropy to identify stationary sub-sequences of self-reported human weight from a weight management web site. Our entropic approach-inspired by the infomap network community detection algorithm-is far less biased by rare fluctuations than more traditional time series segmentation techniques. Supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute

  4. Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizes a fundamental limitation of operations by the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted, we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy. (paper)

  5. Stress-induced electric current fluctuations in rocks: a superstatistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-04-01

    We recorded spontaneous electric current flow in non-piezoelectric Carrara marble samples during triaxial deformation. Mechanical data, ultrasonic velocities and acoustic emissions were acquired simultaneously with electric current to constrain the relationship between electric current flow, differential stress and damage. Under strain-controlled loading, spontaneous electric current signals (nA) were generated and sustained under all conditions tested. In dry samples, a detectable electric current arises only during dilatancy and the overall signal is correlated with the damage induced by microcracking. Our results show that fracture plays a key role in the generation of electric currents in deforming rocks (Cartwright-Taylor et al., in prep). We also analysed the high-frequency fluctuations of these electric current signals and found that they are not normally distributed - they exhibit power-law tails (Cartwright-Taylor et al., 2014). We modelled these distributions with q-Gaussian statistics, derived by maximising the Tsallis entropy. This definition of entropy is particularly applicable to systems which are strongly correlated and far from equilibrium. Good agreement, at all experimental conditions, between the distributions of electric current fluctuations and the q-Gaussian function with q-values far from one, illustrates the highly correlated, fractal nature of the electric source network within the samples and provides further evidence that the source of the electric signals is the developing fractal network of cracks. It has been shown (Beck, 2001) that q-Gaussian distributions can arise from the superposition of local relaxations in the presence of a slowly varying driving force, thus providing a dynamic reason for the appearance of Tsallis statistics in systems with a fluctuating energy dissipation rate. So, the probability distribution for a dynamic variable, u under some external slow forcing, β, can be obtained as a superposition of temporary local

  6. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  7. Thermostatistical aspects of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, K.S.; Lenzi, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the properties concerning a class of generalized entropies given by S q,r =k{1-[Σ i p i q ] r }/[r(q-1)] which include Tsallis' entropy (r=1), the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy (q=1), Renyi's entropy (r=0) and normalized Tsallis' entropy (r=-1). In order to obtain the generalized thermodynamic relations we use the laws of thermodynamics and considering the hypothesis that the joint probability of two independent systems is given by p ij A c upB =p i A p j B . We show that the transmutation which occurs from Tsallis' entropy to Renyi's entropy also occur with S q,r . In this scenario, we also analyze the generalized variance, covariance and correlation coefficient of a non-interacting system by using extended optimal Lagrange multiplier approach. We show that the correlation coefficient tends to zero in the thermodynamic limit. However, Renyi's entropy related to this non-interacting system presents a certain degree of non-extensivity

  8. Entropy statistics and information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Hanusch, H.; Pyka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Entropy measures provide important tools to indicate variety in distributions at particular moments in time (e.g., market shares) and to analyse evolutionary processes over time (e.g., technical change). Importantly, entropy statistics are suitable to decomposition analysis, which renders the

  9. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  10. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2011-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  11. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  12. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  13. Entropy and equilibrium via games of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2004-09-01

    It is suggested that thermodynamical equilibrium equals game theoretical equilibrium. Aspects of this thesis are discussed. The philosophy is consistent with maximum entropy thinking of Jaynes, but goes one step deeper by deriving the maximum entropy principle from an underlying game theoretical principle. The games introduced are based on measures of complexity. Entropy is viewed as minimal complexity. It is demonstrated that Tsallis entropy ( q-entropy) and Kaniadakis entropy ( κ-entropy) can be obtained in this way, based on suitable complexity measures. A certain unifying effect is obtained by embedding these measures in a two-parameter family of entropy functions.

  14. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  15. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  16. Entropy of nonrotating isolated horizons in Lovelock theory from loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Chao-Guang; Li, Lin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the BF theory method is applied to the nonrotating isolated horizons in Lovelock theory. The final entropy matches the Wald entropy formula for this theory. We also confirm the conclusion obtained by Bodendorfer et al. that the entropy is related to the flux operator rather than the area operator in general diffeomorphic-invariant theory. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207)

  17. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Entropy and galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of a p-particle entropy Sp introduced by Kandrup (1987) is applied here to a Newtonian cosmology modeled as an expanding system of identical point masses studying the time dependence of S1 and S2 in the framework of the linearized theory considered by Fall and Saslaw (1976). It is found that if, at some initial time t0, the galaxy-galaxy correlation function vanished, then S1(t0) = S2(t0). At least for short times t - t0 thereafter, S1 and Delta S = S1 - S2 increase on a characteristic time scale. For all times t after t0, S1(t) = S2(t) or greater. 13 references

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Vortex transport entropy in the H-T diagram of high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridoux, G; Nieva, G; Cruz, F de la, E-mail: gbridoux@yahoo.com.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, R84002AGP S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    The combination of Nernst effect and electrical resistivity measurements allows to extract the transport entropy carried by moving vortices. In high T{sub c} superconductors, the vortex-like fluctuations close and above T{sub c} can be detected with these tools if local phase coherence is still present. In this work we study the vortex transport entropy in the two milestone high T{sub c}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta (YBCO) and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d}elta (BSCCO). While below T{sub c} the YBCO entropy displays a mean field like behavior, close and above T{sub c} the entropy reveals typical features of strong superconducting fluctuations. The lower dimensionality in BSCCO enhances the strength of superconducting fluctuations in a wider region of the H - Tdiagram and a mean field treatment can not be applied. In this region the vortex transport entropy remains unaffected by the presence of correlated defects.

  2. Bubble Entropy: An Entropy Almost Free of Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, George; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation entropy, where the vectors in the embedding space are ranked. We use the bubble sort algorithm for the ordering procedure and count instead the number of swaps performed for each vector. Doing so, we create a more coarse-grained distribution and then compute the entropy of this distribution. Results: Experimental results with both real and synthetic HRV signals showed that bubble entropy presents remarkable stability and exhibits increased descriptive and discriminating power compared to all other definitions, including the most popular ones. Conclusion: The definition proposed is almost free of parameters. The most common ones are the scale factor r and the embedding dimension m . In our definition, the scale factor is totally eliminated and the importance of m is significantly reduced. The proposed method presents increased stability and discriminating power. Significance: After the extensive use of some entropy measures in physiological signals, typical values for their parameters have been suggested, or at least, widely used. However, the parameters are still there, application and dataset dependent, influencing the computed value and affecting the descriptive power. Reducing their significance or eliminating them alleviates the problem, decoupling the method from the data and the application, and eliminating subjective factors. Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation

  3. The concept of entropy. Relation between action and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P.Badiali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Boltzmann expression for entropy represents the traditional link between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. New theoretical developments like the Unruh effect or the black hole theory suggest a new definition of entropy. In this paper we consider the thermodynamics of black holes as seriously founded and we try to see what we can learn from it in the case of ordinary systems for which a pre-relativistic description is sufficient. We introduce a space-time model and a new definition of entropy considering the thermal equilibrium from a dynamic point of view. Then we show that for black hole and ordinary systems we have the same relation relating a change of entropy to a change of action.

  4. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  5. Shannon's information is not entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this letter we clear up the long-standing misidentification of Shannon's Information with Entropy. We show that Information, in contrast to Entropy, is not invariant under unitary transformations and that these quantities are only equivalent for representations consisting of Hamiltonian eigenstates. We illustrate this fact through a toy system consisting of a harmonic oscillator in a coherent state. It is further proved that the representations which maximize the information are those which are energy-eigenstates. This fact sets the entropy as an upper bound for Shannon's Information. (author)

  6. Entropy Learning in Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geok See Ng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, entropy term is used in the learning phase of a neural network.  As learning progresses, more hidden nodes get into saturation.  The early creation of such hidden nodes may impair generalisation.  Hence entropy approach is proposed to dampen the early creation of such nodes.  The entropy learning also helps to increase the importance of relevant nodes while dampening the less important nodes.  At the end of learning, the less important nodes can then be eliminated to reduce the memory requirements of the neural network.

  7. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  8. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  9. Configuration Entropy Calculations for Complex Compounds Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhayatun; Susanto Imam Rahayu; Surdia, N.M.; Abdul Mutalib

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the study of technetium complexes is rapidly increasing, due to the benefit of 99m Tc complexes (one of Tc nuclear isomers), which are widely used for diagnostics. Study of the structure-stability relationship of Tc complexes based on solid angle has been done by Kung using a Solid Angle Factor Sum (SAS). The SAS is hypothesized to be related to stability. SAS has been used by several researchers either for synthesis or designing the reaction route of the Tc complex formation and predicting the geometry of complex structures. Although the advantages of the SAS were very gratifying, but the model does not have the theoretical basis which is able to explain the correlation of steric parameters to physicochemical properties of complexes especially to those connected to a complex's stability. To improve the SAS model, in this research the model was modified by providing a theoretical basis for SAS. The results obtained from the correlation of the SAS value to the thermodynamic stability parameters of simple complexes show the values to have a similar trend as the standard entropy (S 0 ). The entropy approximation model was created by involving some factors which are not used in Kung's model. Entropy optimization to the bond length (ML) has also been done to several complexes. The calculations of SAS value using the calculated R for more than 100 Tc complexes provide a normalized mean value of 0.8545 ± 0.0851 and have similar curve profiles as those of Kung's model. The entropy value can be obtained by multiplying the natural logarithm of the a priori degeneracy of a certain distribution (Ω) and the Boltzmann constant. The results of Ω and In Ω of the Tc complexes have a narrow range. The results of this research are able to provide a basic concept for the SAS to explain the structure-stability relationship and to improve Kung's model. (author)

  10. Supersymmetric Renyi entropy in CFT{sub 2} and AdS{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-01-08

    We show that in any two dimensional conformal field theory with (2,2) supersymmetry one can define a supersymmetric analog of the usual Renyi entropy of a spatial region A. It differs from the Renyi entropy by a universal function (which we compute) of the central charge, Renyi parameter n and the geometric parameters of A. In the limit n→1 it coincides with the entanglement entropy. Thus, it contains the same information as the Renyi entropy but its computation only involves correlation functions of chiral and anti-chiral operators. We also show that this quantity appears naturally in string theory on AdS{sub 3}.

  11. On quantum Rényi entropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in in...

  12. Dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1990-01-01

    We review the recent physical application of the so-called Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring entropy, which is the successful quantum mechanical generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and, by its very conception, is a dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems. We thus comparingly review also the physical applications of the classical dynamical entropy for infinite classical systems. 41 refs. (Author)

  13. Entropy and Multifractality in Relativistic Ion-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Entropy production in multiparticle systems is investigated by analyzing the experimental data on ion-ion collisions at AGS and SPS energies and comparing the findings with those reported earlier for hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is observed that the entropy produced in limited and full phase space, when normalized to maximum rapidity, exhibits a kind of scaling which is nicely supported by Monte Carlo model HIJING. Using Rényi’s order q information entropy, multifractal characteristics of particle production are examined in terms of generalized dimensions, Dq. Nearly the same values of multifractal specific heat, c, observed in hadronic and ion-ion collisions over a wide range of incident energies suggest that the quantity c might be used as a universal characteristic of multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The analysis is extended to the study of spectrum of scaling indices. The findings reveal that Rényi’s order q information entropy could be another way to investigate the fluctuations in multiplicity distributions in terms of spectral function f(α, which has been argued to be a convenient function for comparison sake not only among different experiments but also between the data and theoretical models.

  14. Wavelet entropy of BOLD time series : an application to Rolandic epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Lalit; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; Besseling, René M.H.; de Louw, Anton J.A.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the wavelet entropy for the characterization of intrinsic aberrant temporal irregularities in the time series of resting-state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. Further, to evaluate the temporal irregularities (disorder/order) on a voxel-by-voxel basis in

  15. Multiscale multifractal multiproperty analysis of financial time series based on Rényi entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yujun, Yang; Jianping, Li; Yimei, Yang

    This paper introduces a multiscale multifractal multiproperty analysis based on Rényi entropy (3MPAR) method to analyze short-range and long-range characteristics of financial time series, and then applies this method to the five time series of five properties in four stock indices. Combining the two analysis techniques of Rényi entropy and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), the 3MPAR method focuses on the curves of Rényi entropy and generalized Hurst exponent of five properties of four stock time series, which allows us to study more universal and subtle fluctuation characteristics of financial time series. By analyzing the curves of the Rényi entropy and the profiles of the logarithm distribution of MFDFA of five properties of four stock indices, the 3MPAR method shows some fluctuation characteristics of the financial time series and the stock markets. Then, it also shows a richer information of the financial time series by comparing the profile of five properties of four stock indices. In this paper, we not only focus on the multifractality of time series but also the fluctuation characteristics of the financial time series and subtle differences in the time series of different properties. We find that financial time series is far more complex than reported in some research works using one property of time series.

  16. On the validity of entropy production principles for linear electrical circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruers, S.; Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 129, - (2007), s. 725-740 ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : entropy production * variational principles * nonequilibrium fluctuations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2007

  17. Beyond the second law entropy production and non-equilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lineweaver, Charles; Niven, Robert; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, ...

  18. Phase transitions and quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Portesi, M.; Rossignoli, R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination is made of the possibility to predict phase transitions of the fundamental state of finite quantum system, knowing the quantum entropy of these states, defined on the basis of the information theory. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  19. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics

    2016-04-18

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  20. Quantum entropy and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher; Scudo, Petra F; Terno, Daniel R

    2002-06-10

    We consider a single free spin- 1 / 2 particle. The reduced density matrix for its spin is not covariant under Lorentz transformations. The spin entropy is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning.

  1. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  2. Analysis of fluctuations in semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Petru

    The random nature of ion implantation and diffusion processes as well as inevitable tolerances in fabrication result in random fluctuations of doping concentrations and oxide thickness in semiconductor devices. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in ultrasmall (nanoscale) semiconductor devices when the spatial scale of doping and oxide thickness variations become comparable with the geometric dimensions of devices. In the dissertation, the effects of these fluctuations on device characteristics are analyzed by using a new technique for the analysis of random doping and oxide thickness induced fluctuations. This technique is universal in nature in the sense that it is applicable to any transport model (drift-diffusion, semiclassical transport, quantum transport etc.) and it can be naturally extended to take into account random fluctuations of the oxide (trapped) charges and channel length. The technique is based on linearization of the transport equations with respect to the fluctuating quantities. It is computationally much (a few orders of magnitude) more efficient than the traditional Monte-Carlo approach and it yields information on the sensitivity of fluctuations of parameters of interest (e.g. threshold voltage, small-signal parameters, cut-off frequencies, etc.) to the locations of doping and oxide thickness fluctuations. For this reason, it can be very instrumental in the design of fluctuation-resistant structures of semiconductor devices. Quantum mechanical effects are taken into account by using the density-gradient model as well as through self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger computations. Special attention is paid to the presenting of the technique in a form that is suitable for implementation on commercial device simulators. The numerical implementation of the technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with those previously published in literature.

  3. Algorithmic randomness and physical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic randomness provides a rigorous, entropylike measure of disorder of an individual, microscopic, definite state of a physical system. It is defined by the size (in binary digits) of the shortest message specifying the microstate uniquely up to the assumed resolution. Equivalently, algorithmic randomness can be expressed as the number of bits in the smallest program for a universal computer that can reproduce the state in question (for instance, by plotting it with the assumed accuracy). In contrast to the traditional definitions of entropy, algorithmic randomness can be used to measure disorder without any recourse to probabilities. Algorithmic randomness is typically very difficult to calculate exactly but relatively easy to estimate. In large systems, probabilistic ensemble definitions of entropy (e.g., coarse-grained entropy of Gibbs and Boltzmann's entropy H=lnW, as well as Shannon's information-theoretic entropy) provide accurate estimates of the algorithmic entropy of an individual system or its average value for an ensemble. One is thus able to rederive much of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in a setting very different from the usual. Physical entropy, I suggest, is a sum of (i) the missing information measured by Shannon's formula and (ii) of the algorithmic information content---algorithmic randomness---present in the available data about the system. This definition of entropy is essential in describing the operation of thermodynamic engines from the viewpoint of information gathering and using systems. These Maxwell demon-type entities are capable of acquiring and processing information and therefore can ''decide'' on the basis of the results of their measurements and computations the best strategy for extracting energy from their surroundings. From their internal point of view the outcome of each measurement is definite

  4. Applications of Entropy in Finance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanqun Tong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of entropy is originated from thermodynamics, its concepts and relevant principles, especially the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross-entropy, have been extensively applied in finance. In this paper, we review the concepts and principles of entropy, as well as their applications in the field of finance, especially in portfolio selection and asset pricing. Furthermore, we review the effects of the applications of entropy and compare them with other traditional and new methods.

  5. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  6. On Interrelation of Time and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A measure of time is related to the number of ways by which the human correlates the past and the future for some process. On this basis, a connection between time and entropy (information, Boltzmann–Gibbs, and thermodynamic one is established. This measure gives time such properties as universality, relativity, directionality, and non-uniformity. A number of issues of the modern science related to the finding of laws describing changes in nature are discussed. A special emphasis is made on the role of evolutionary adaptation of an observer to the surrounding world.

  7. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalapino, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations

  8. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  9. Non-equilibrium Dynamics, Thermalization and Entropy Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichsen, Haye; Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics such as the motivation of a classical state space with spontaneous transitions, the meaning of non-equilibrium in the context of thermalization, and the justification of these concepts from the quantum-mechanical point of view. After an introductory part we focus on the problem of entropy production in non-equilibrium systems. In particular, the generally accepted formula for entropy production in the environment is analyzed from a critical perspective. It is shown that this formula is only valid in the limit of separated time scales of the system's and the environmental degrees of freedom. Finally, we present an alternative simple proof of the fluctuation theorem.

  10. Thermodynamic studies of different black holes with modifications of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Amritendu; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the thermodynamic properties of black holes are topics of interests. We investigate the thermodynamic properties like surface gravity and Hawking temperature on event horizon of regular black holes viz. Hayward Class and asymptotically AdS (Anti-de Sitter) black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamic volume and naive geometric volume of asymptotically AdS black holes and show that the entropy of these black holes is simply the ratio of the naive geometric volume to thermodynamic volume. We plot the different graphs and interpret them physically. We derive the `cosmic-Censorship-Inequality' for both type of black holes. Moreover, we calculate the thermal heat capacity of aforesaid black holes and study their stabilities in different regimes. Finally, we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy for both the black holes considering the quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and study the corresponding thermodynamics.

  11. Density fluctuations in ohmic Asdex discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The investigations on the wave-number and frequency spectra of the density fluctuations, occurring in the different operational modes of ASDEX, are summarized. The aim of the experiments is to study the physical nature of fluctuations and their influence on anomalous transport. The scattering system is described. The results reported were obtained using a 100 mW, λ = 119 μm CW CH-30H laser and homodyne detection

  12. Local Entropy Production in Turbulent Shear Flows: A Tool for Evaluating Heat Transfer Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. HERWIG; F. KOCK

    2006-01-01

    Performance evaluation of heat transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy production in these devices.In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy production due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to heat conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy production can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy production rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy production terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as heat transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy production rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy production compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and heat transfer data are given.

  13. Configurational entropy change of netropsin and distamycin upon DNA minor-groove binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Oostenbrink, Chris; Koller, Joze; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2006-08-15

    Binding of a small molecule to a macromolecular target reduces its conformational freedom, resulting in a negative entropy change that opposes the binding. The goal of this study is to estimate the configurational entropy change of two minor-groove-binding ligands, netropsin and distamycin, upon binding to the DNA duplex d(CGCGAAAAACGCG).d(CGCGTTTTTCGCG). Configurational entropy upper bounds based on 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations of netropsin and distamycin in solution and in complex with DNA in solution were estimated using the covariance matrix of atom-positional fluctuations. The results suggest that netropsin and distamycin lose a significant amount of configurational entropy upon binding to the DNA minor groove. The estimated changes in configurational entropy for netropsin and distamycin are -127 J K(-1) mol(-1) and -104 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Estimates of the configurational entropy contributions of parts of the ligands are presented, showing that the loss of configurational entropy is comparatively more pronounced for the flexible tails than for the relatively rigid central body.

  14. Conformational entropy changes upon lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Carl; Genheden, Samuel; Modig, Kristofer; Ryde, Ulf; Akke, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    The conformational entropy of proteins can make significant contributions to the free energy of ligand binding. NMR spin relaxation enables site-specific investigation of conformational entropy, via order parameters that parameterize local reorientational fluctuations of rank-2 tensors. Here we have probed the conformational entropy of lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 (Gal3), a protein that plays an important role in cell growth, cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention in inflammation and cancer. We used 15 N spin relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to monitor the backbone amides and secondary amines of the tryptophan and arginine side chains in the ligand-free and lactose-bound states of Gal3. Overall, we observe good agreement between the experimental and computed order parameters of the ligand-free and lactose-bound states. Thus, the 15 N spin relaxation data indicate that the molecular dynamics simulations provide reliable information on the conformational entropy of the binding process. The molecular dynamics simulations reveal a correlation between the simulated order parameters and residue-specific backbone entropy, re-emphasizing that order parameters provide useful estimates of local conformational entropy. The present results show that the protein backbone exhibits an increase in conformational entropy upon binding lactose, without any accompanying structural changes

  15. Mechanism of the generation of black hole entropy in Sakharov's induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Fursaev, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the generation of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S BH of a black hole in the Sakharov's induced gravity is proposed. It is suggested that the physical degrees of freedom, which explain the entropy S BH , form only a finite subset of the standard Rindler-like modes defined outside the black hole horizon. The entropy S R of the Rindler modes, or entanglement entropy, is always ultraviolet divergent, while the entropy of the physical modes is finite and coincides in the induced gravity with S BH . The two entropies S BH and S R differ by a surface integral Q interpreted as a Noether charge of nonminimally coupled scalar constituents of the model. We demonstrate that energy E and Hamiltonian H of the fields localized in a part of space-time, restricted by the Killing horizon Σ, differ by the quantity T H Q, where T H is the temperature of a black hole. The first law of black hole thermodynamics enables one to relate the probability distribution of fluctuations of the black hole mass, caused by the quantum fluctuations of the fields, to the probability distribution of physical modes over energy E. The latter turns out to be different from the distribution of the Rindler modes. We show that the probability distribution of the physical degrees of freedom has a sharp peak at E=0 with the width proportional to the Planck mass. The logarithm of number of physical states at the peak coincides exactly with the black hole entropy S BH . This enables us to argue that the energy distribution of the physical modes and distribution of the black hole mass are equivalent in induced gravity. Finally it is shown that the Noether charge Q is related to the entropy of the low-frequency modes propagating in the vicinity of the bifurcation surface Σ of the horizon. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Maximum entropy estimation via Gauss-LP quadratures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thély, Maxime; Sutter, Tobias; Mohajerin Esfahani, P.; Lygeros, John; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximation method to a class of parametric integration problems that naturally appear when solving the dual of the maximum entropy estimation problem. Our method builds up on a recent generalization of Gauss quadratures via an infinite-dimensional linear program, and utilizes a

  17. Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2008-10-09

    We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.

  18. Quantum fluctuations and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. We consider two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) and find that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. 8 refs., 2 figs

  19. Quantum fluctuations and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. Two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) are considered and it is found that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. (author)

  20. Dynamical glucometry: Use of multiscale entropy analysis in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena D.; Henriques, Teresa; Munshi, Medha N.; Segal, Alissa R.; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the world's most prevalent medical conditions. Contemporary management focuses on lowering mean blood glucose values toward a normal range, but largely ignores the dynamics of glucose fluctuations. We probed analyte time series obtained from continuous glucose monitor (CGM) sensors. We show that the fluctuations in CGM values sampled every 5 min are not uncorrelated noise. Next, using multiscale entropy analysis, we quantified the complexity of the temporal structure of the CGM time series from a group of elderly subjects with type 2 DM and age-matched controls. We further probed the structure of these CGM time series using detrended fluctuation analysis. Our findings indicate that the dynamics of glucose fluctuations from control subjects are more complex than those of subjects with type 2 DM over time scales ranging from about 5 min to 5 h. These findings support consideration of a new framework, dynamical glucometry, to guide mechanistic research and to help assess and compare therapeutic interventions, which should enhance complexity of glucose fluctuations and not just lower mean and variance of blood glucose levels.

  1. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Smooth Min entropy vs. Smooth Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Markus; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We consider different entropy measures that play an important role in the analysis of the security of QKD with finite resources. The smooth min entropy leads to an optimal bound for the length of a secure key. Another bound on the secure key length was derived by using Renyi entropies. Unfortunately, it is very hard or even impossible to calculate these entropies for realistic QKD scenarios. To estimate the security rate it becomes important to find computable bounds on these entropies. Here, we compare a lower bound for the smooth min entropy with a bound using Renyi entropies. We compare these entropies for the six-state protocol with symmetric attacks.

  2. A Note on Burg’s Modified Entropy in Statistical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritansu Ray

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Burg’s entropy plays an important role in this age of information euphoria, particularly in understanding the emergent behavior of a complex system such as statistical mechanics. For discrete or continuous variable, maximization of Burg’s Entropy subject to its only natural and mean constraint always provide us a positive density function though the Entropy is always negative. On the other hand, Burg’s modified entropy is a better measure than the standard Burg’s entropy measure since this is always positive and there is no computational problem for small probabilistic values. Moreover, the maximum value of Burg’s modified entropy increases with the number of possible outcomes. In this paper, a premium has been put on the fact that if Burg’s modified entropy is used instead of conventional Burg’s entropy in a maximum entropy probability density (MEPD function, the result yields a better approximation of the probability distribution. An important lemma in basic algebra and a suitable example with tables and graphs in statistical mechanics have been given to illustrate the whole idea appropriately.

  3. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns.

  4. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J.

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns. PMID:29432427

  5. On the definition of entropy for quantum unstable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Gadella, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The concept of entropy is central to the formulation of the quantum statistical mechanics, and it is linked to the definition of the density operator and the associated probabilities of occupation of quantum states. The extension of this scheme to accommodate for quantum decaying states is conceptually difficult, because of the nature of these states. Here we present a way to treat quantum unstable states in the context of statistical mechanics. We focuss on the definition of the entropy and avoid the use of complex temperatures

  6. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  7. Fully Quantum Fluctuation Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Johan

    2018-02-01

    Systems that are driven out of thermal equilibrium typically dissipate random quantities of energy on microscopic scales. Crooks fluctuation theorem relates the distribution of these random work costs to the corresponding distribution for the reverse process. By an analysis that explicitly incorporates the energy reservoir that donates the energy and the control system that implements the dynamic, we obtain a quantum generalization of Crooks theorem that not only includes the energy changes in the reservoir but also the full description of its evolution, including coherences. Moreover, this approach opens up the possibility for generalizations of the concept of fluctuation relations. Here, we introduce "conditional" fluctuation relations that are applicable to nonequilibrium systems, as well as approximate fluctuation relations that allow for the analysis of autonomous evolution generated by global time-independent Hamiltonians. We furthermore extend these notions to Markovian master equations, implicitly modeling the influence of the heat bath.

  8. Determinism, chaos, self-organization and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ PONTES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We discuss two changes of paradigms that occurred in science along the XXth century: the end of the mechanist determinism, and the end of the apparent incompatibility between biology, where emergence of order is law, and physics, postulating a progressive loss of order in natural systems. We recognize today that three mechanisms play a major role in the building of order: the nonlinear nature of most evolution laws, along with distance to equilibrium, and with the new paradigm, that emerged in the last forty years, as we recognize that networks present collective order properties not found in the individual nodes. We also address the result presented by Blumenfeld (L.A. Blumenfeld, Problems of Biological Physics, Springer, Berlin, 1981 showing that entropy decreases resulting from building one of the most complex biological structures, the human being, are small and may be trivially compensated for compliance with thermodynamics. Life is made at the expense of very low thermodynamic cost, so thermodynamics does not pose major restrictions to the emergence of life. Besides, entropy does not capture our idea of order in biological systems. The above questions show that science is not free of confl icts and backlashes, often resulting from excessive extrapolations.

  9. Determinism, chaos, self-organization and entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, José

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two changes of paradigms that occurred in science along the XXth century: the end of the mechanist determinism, and the end of the apparent incompatibility between biology, where emergence of order is law, and physics, postulating a progressive loss of order in natural systems. We recognize today that three mechanisms play a major role in the building of order: the nonlinear nature of most evolution laws, along with distance to equilibrium, and with the new paradigm, that emerged in the last forty years, as we recognize that networks present collective order properties not found in the individual nodes. We also address the result presented by Blumenfeld (L.A. Blumenfeld, Problems of Biological Physics, Springer, Berlin, 1981) showing that entropy decreases resulting from building one of the most complex biological structures, the human being, are small and may be trivially compensated for compliance with thermodynamics. Life is made at the expense of very low thermodynamic cost, so thermodynamics does not pose major restrictions to the emergence of life. Besides, entropy does not capture our idea of order in biological systems. The above questions show that science is not free of confl icts and backlashes, often resulting from excessive extrapolations.

  10. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  11. Quantumness of bipartite states in terms of conditional entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Zhang, Zhengmin

    2007-01-01

    Quantum discord, as defined by Olliver and Zurek (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017901) as the difference of two natural quantum extensions of the classical mutual information, plays an interesting role in characterizing quantumness of correlations. Inspired by this idea, we will study quantumness of bipartite states arising from different quantum analogs of the classical conditional entropy. Our approach is intrinsic, in contrast to the Olliver-Zurek method that involves extrinsic local measurements. For this purpose, we introduce two alternative variants of quantum conditional entropies via conditional density operators, which in turn are intuitive quantum extensions of equivalent classical expressions for the conditional probability. The significance of these quantum conditional entropies in characterizing quantumness of bipartite states is illustrated through several examples

  12. Residual Entropy, the Third Law and Latent Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Lambert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermodynamic treatment of residual entropy in crystals, involving the configurational partition function, is suggested, which is consistent with both classical and statistical thermodynamics. It relates residual entropy to the inherent latent heat which would be released upon cooling if the reversible path were available. The nature of this heat is that if the crystal possessing residual entropy freezes above its Boltzmann’s characteristic temperature of molecular alignment, the difference in energy between different molecular arrangements is overcome by the kT heat bath to form a nearly-ideal solution. However, upon cooling below this characteristic temperature, they would separate with a concomitant release of the corresponding energy, provided the reversible path were available.

  13. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  14. Hierarchical Polygamy Inequality for Entanglement of Tsallis q-Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Li, Yong-Ming

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the polygamy inequality of quantum entanglement in terms of Tsallis q-entropy. We first give a lower bound of Tsallis q-entropy entanglement of assistance (TOA) in the 2 ⊗ d systems. The relation-ships between Tsallis q-entropy entanglement (TEE) and TOA are also given. Furthermore, we prove TOA follows a hierarchical polygamy inequality in a 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2 N‑2 systems. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11671244, the Higher School Doctoral Subject Foun- dation of Ministry of Education of China under Grant No. 20130202110001, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grants Nos. 2016TS060 and 2016CBY003

  15. Dissecting Protein Configurational Entropy into Conformational and Vibrational Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying how the rugged nature of the underlying free-energy landscape determines the entropic cost a protein must incur upon folding and ligand binding is a challenging problem. Here, we present a novel computational approach that dissects the protein configurational entropy on the basis of the classification of protein dynamics on the landscape into two separate components: short-term vibrational dynamics related to individual free-energy wells and long-term conformational dynamics associated with transitions between wells. We apply this method to separate the configurational entropy of the protein villin headpiece subdomain into its conformational and vibrational components. We find that the change in configurational entropy upon folding is dominated by the conformational entropy despite the fact that the magnitude of the vibrational entropy is the significantly larger component in each of the folded and unfolded states, which is in accord with the previous empirical estimations. The straightforward applicability of our method to unfolded proteins promises a wide range of applications, including those related to intrinsically disordered proteins.

  16. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  17. Entanglement interpretation of black hole entropy in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Einhorn, Martin B.; Yarom, Amos

    2006-01-01

    We show that the entropy resulting from the counting of microstates of non extremal black holes using field theory duals of string theories can be interpreted as arising from entanglement. The conditions for making such an interpretation consistent are discussed. First, we interpret the entropy (and thermodynamics) of spacetimes with non degenerate, bifurcating Killing horizons as arising from entanglement. We use a path integral method to define the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state in such spacetimes and discuss explicitly its entangled nature and its relation to the geometry. If string theory on such spacetimes has a field theory dual, then, in the low-energy, weak coupling limit, the field theory state that is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state is a thermofield double state. This allows the comparison of the entanglement entropy with the entropy of the field theory dual, and thus, with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole. As an example, we discuss in detail the case of the five dimensional anti-de Sitter, black hole spacetime

  18. A student's guide to entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Striving to explore the subject in as simple a manner as possible, this book helps readers understand the elusive concept of entropy. Innovative aspects of the book include the construction of statistical entropy, the derivation of the entropy of classical systems from purely classical assumptions, and a statistical thermodynamics approach to the ideal Fermi and ideal Bose gases. Derivations are worked through step-by-step and important applications are highlighted in over 20 worked examples. Nearly 50 end-of-chapter exercises test readers' understanding. The book also features a glossary giving definitions for all essential terms, a time line showing important developments, and list of books for further study. It is an ideal supplement to undergraduate courses in physics, engineering, chemistry and mathematics.

  19. Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banday, A.J.; Wolfendale, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the importance to contemporary cosmology, and to our understanding of the Universe, of the precise nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) spectrum, we consider the effects on this spectrum of contamination by other radiation fields of both galactic and extragalactic origin. Particular attention is given to the significance of measurements of the fluctuations in the 'background' radiation detected at 10.46 GHz and we conclude that these fluctuations are of the same magnitude as those expected from galactic cosmic-ray effects. A more detailed study of the cosmic-ray induced fluctuations and measurements at higher frequencies will be needed before genuine CMB fluctuations can be claimed. (author)

  20. Shannon entropy and particle decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Millán, Pedro; García-Ferrero, M. Ángeles; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Porras Riojano, Ana; Sánchez García, Esteban M.

    2018-05-01

    We deploy Shannon's information entropy to the distribution of branching fractions in a particle decay. This serves to quantify how important a given new reported decay channel is, from the point of view of the information that it adds to the already known ones. Because the entropy is additive, one can subdivide the set of channels and discuss, for example, how much information the discovery of a new decay branching would add; or subdivide the decay distribution down to the level of individual quantum states (which can be quickly counted by the phase space). We illustrate the concept with some examples of experimentally known particle decay distributions.

  1. Methods for calculating nonconcave entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Five different methods which can be used to analytically calculate entropies that are nonconcave as functions of the energy in the thermodynamic limit are discussed and compared. The five methods are based on the following ideas and techniques: (i) microcanonical contraction, (ii) metastable branches of the free energy, (iii) generalized canonical ensembles with specific illustrations involving the so-called Gaussian and Betrag ensembles, (iv) the restricted canonical ensemble, and (v) the inverse Laplace transform. A simple long-range spin model having a nonconcave entropy is used to illustrate each method

  2. Near-Milne realization of scale-invariant fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, Joao

    2007-01-01

    A near-Milne universe produces a very red spectrum of vacuum quantum fluctuations but has the potential to produce near-scale-invariant thermal fluctuations. This happens if the energy and entropy are mildly subextensive, for example, if there is a Casimir contribution. Therefore, one does not need to invoke corrections to Einstein gravity (as in loop quantum cosmology) for a thermal scenario to be viable. Neither do we need the energy to scale like the area, as in scenarios where the thermal fluctuations are subject to a phase transition in the early universe. Some odd features of this model are pointed out: whether they are fatal or merely unusual will need to be investigated further

  3. Examples of Entropy-driven Ordering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven Ordering. Orientational ordering of long objects. Entropy of sliding increases. Freezing in hard-sphere systems. Vibrational entropy increases. Phase separation in hard-sphere binary mixtures with disparate sizes. More room for smaller ...

  4. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  5. On thermodynamic limits of entropy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriya, H; Van Enter, A

    We give some sufficient conditions which guarantee that the entropy density in the thermodynamic limit is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the entropy densities of finite-volume (local) Gibbs states.

  6. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  7. The entropy principle thermodynamics for the unsatisfied

    CERN Document Server

    Thess, André

    2011-01-01

    Entropy is the most important and the most difficult to understand term of thermodynamics. This book helps make this key concept understandable. It includes seven illustrative examples of applications of entropy, which are presented step by step.

  8. A brief introduction to sofic entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Sofic entropy theory is a generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy theory to actions of large class of non-amenable groups called sofic groups. This is a short introduction with a guide to the literature.

  9. Notes on entanglement entropy in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Song; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the conical entropy in string theory in the simplest setup of dividing the nine dimensional space into two halves. This corresponds to the leading quantum correction to the horizon entropy in string theory on the Rindler space. This entropy is also called the conical entropy and includes surface term contributions. We first derive a new simple formula of the conical entropy for any free higher spin fields. Then we apply this formula to computations of conical entropy in open and closed superstring. In our analysis of closed string, we study the twisted conical entropy defined by making use of string theory on Melvin backgrounds. This quantity is easier to calculate owing to the folding trick. Our analysis shows that the conical entropy in closed superstring is UV finite owing to the string scale cutoff.

  10. The effect of longitudinal fluctuations in (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Karpenko, Yuri [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); ITP, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Huovinen, Pasi [ITP, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Wang, Xin-Nian [CCNU, Wuhan (China); LBNL, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The energy density fluctuations of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the transverse plane are studied in detail and found to be important to explain the high order harmonic flow v{sub n} at RHIC and LHC. However, the energy density fluctuations along longitudinal direction (space-time rapidity η{sub s}) have not been fully investigated yet, even though they should exist as well. Previous studies show that the longitudinal fluctuations strongly depend on the initial entropy deposition mechanisms. In this work AMPT initial conditions are used where HIJING introduces longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, string length fluctuations and finite number of partons at different collision energies. The longitudinal fluctuations have been found to be responsible for the de-correlation of anisotropic flow and twist of event planes along rapidity. We study the effect of longitudinal fluctuations on the QGP expansion in both transverse and longitudinal direction within CLVisc, a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic code parallelized on GPU using OpenCL, to check whether the anisotropic flow is affected by longitudinal fluctuations and to determine appropriate shear viscosity over entropy density coefficients η/s in comparison with experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  11. Analysis of swarm behaviors based on an inversion of the fluctuation theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Heiko; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl

    2014-01-01

    A grand challenge in the field of artificial life is to find a general theory of emergent self-organizing systems. In swarm systems most of the observed complexity is based on motion of simple entities. Similarly, statistical mechanics focuses on collective properties induced by the motion of many interacting particles. In this article we apply methods from statistical mechanics to swarm systems. We try to explain the emergent behavior of a simulated swarm by applying methods based on the fluctuation theorem. Empirical results indicate that swarms are able to produce negative entropy within an isolated subsystem due to frozen accidents. Individuals of a swarm are able to locally detect fluctuations of the global entropy measure and store them, if they are negative entropy productions. By accumulating these stored fluctuations over time the swarm as a whole is producing negative entropy and the system ends up in an ordered state. We claim that this indicates the existence of an inverted fluctuation theorem for emergent self-organizing dissipative systems. This approach bears the potential of general applicability.

  12. Effects of thermal fluctuations on non-minimal regular magnetic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a regular black hole (RBH) of the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mill theory with gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type and a cosmological constant. We consider the logarithmic corrected entropy in order to analyze the thermal fluctuations corresponding to non-minimal RBH thermodynamics. In this scenario, we develop various important thermodynamical quantities, such as entropy, pressure, specific heats, Gibb's free energy and Helmholtz free energy. We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of logarithmic corrected entropy and non-minimal RBH. We also discuss the stability of this RBH using various frameworks such as the γ factor (the ratio of heat capacities), phase transition, grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble. It is observed that the non-minimal RBH becomes globally and locally more stable if we increase the value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  13. Effects of thermal fluctuations on non-minimal regular magnetic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-05-15

    We analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a regular black hole (RBH) of the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mill theory with gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type and a cosmological constant. We consider the logarithmic corrected entropy in order to analyze the thermal fluctuations corresponding to non-minimal RBH thermodynamics. In this scenario, we develop various important thermodynamical quantities, such as entropy, pressure, specific heats, Gibb's free energy and Helmholtz free energy. We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of logarithmic corrected entropy and non-minimal RBH. We also discuss the stability of this RBH using various frameworks such as the γ factor (the ratio of heat capacities), phase transition, grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble. It is observed that the non-minimal RBH becomes globally and locally more stable if we increase the value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  14. Study of the statistical physics bases on superstatistics from the β-fluctuated to the T-fluctuated form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargolzaeipor, S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Chung, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the T -fluctuated form of superstatistics. In this form, some thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz energy, the entropy and the internal energy, are expressed in terms of the T -fluctuated form for a canonical ensemble. In addition, the partition functions in the formalism for 2-level and 3-level distributions are derived. Then we make use of the T -fluctuated superstatistics for a quantum harmonic oscillator problem and the thermal properties of the system for three statistics of the Bose-Einstein, Maxwell-Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics are calculated. The effect of the deformation parameter on these properties is examined. All the results recover the well-known results by removing the deformation parameter.

  15. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  16. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  17. The Wehrl entropy has Gaussian optimizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Palma, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    We determine the minimum Wehrl entropy among the quantum states with a given von Neumann entropy and prove that it is achieved by thermal Gaussian states. This result determines the relation between the von Neumann and the Wehrl entropies. The key idea is proving that the quantum-classical channel...

  18. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  19. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similar to this is the case of ref. [12] which also uses the saddle point approximation to express the microcanonical entropy in terms of the canonical entropy [12a]. Recalling that there is at least 'circumstantial' evidence that the microcanonical entropy has a 'universal' form [13–15], identical to that obtained in ref. [6] quoted.

  20. Regularities of changes of metal melting entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kats, S.A.; Chekhovskoj, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Most trustworthy data on temperatures, heats and entropies of fusion of metals have been used as a basis to throw light on the laws governing variations of the entropy of metals fusion. The elaborated procedure is used to predict the entropies of the metals fusion whose thermodynamic properties under high temperatures have not yet been investigated

  1. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  2. The dynamical entropy of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connes, A.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition of the dynamical entropy for automorphisms of C * - algebras is represented. Several properties are discussed; especially it is argued that the entropy of the shift can be shown in special cases to be equal with the entropy density. (Author)

  3. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  4. Spin fluctuations and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Loktev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.

  5. Entropy-driven phase transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Increase in visible order can be associated with an increase in microscopic disorder. This phenomenon leads to many counter-intuitive phenomena such as entropy driven crystallization and phase separation. I devote special attention to the entropic depletion interaction as a means to tune the range

  6. Properties of von Neumann entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  7. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression. S Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 35-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0035-0045 ...

  8. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  9. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  11. Hidden states and hidden entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betak, E.

    1993-06-01

    We study the properties of master equations of the pre-equilibrium exciton model. For the case when the emission is included, we have proved the entropy to be a nondecreasing function of time. The opposite statement in the recent paper of Pan et al. has been caused mainly by neglecting a part of the exciton states. (author). 17 refs

  12. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  13. Time evolution of coarse-grained entropy in classical and quantum motions of strongly chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Wang, Jiao

    1997-02-01

    We study relaxation of an ensemble of cat maps with initially localized phase-space distributions. Calculations of the coarse-grained entropy Sɛ ( t) for both classical and quantum motions are presented. It is shown that, within the relaxation period, both classical and quantum entropies increase with a nearly constant rate which can be identified as the largest Lyapunov exponent of the classical cat. After an empirical relaxation time, the time behavior for two entropies becomes different. While the classical entropy increases to the equilibrium entropy Seqm and stays there, its quantum analogue fluctuates incessantly around a mean overlineSɛ which is less than Seqm. We regard the entropy difference ΔS = S eqm - overlineSɛ as a measure of nonergodicity of the quantum motion of strongly chaotic systems and investigate its dependence on the Planck constant h. For fixed initial phase-space distributions, numerical results suggest that there is a scaling law ΔSαhβ with β ≈ 0.72 in the semiclassical regime.

  14. Binding stability of peptides on major histocompatibility complex class I proteins: role of entropy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmet; Erman, Burak

    2018-03-01

    Prediction of peptide binding on specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) has long been studied with successful results. We herein describe the effects of entropy and dynamics by investigating the binding stabilities of 10 nanopeptides on various HLA Class I alleles using a theoretical model based on molecular dynamics simulations. The fluctuational entropies of the peptides are estimated over a temperature range of 310-460 K. The estimated entropies correlate well with experimental binding affinities of the peptides: peptides that have higher binding affinities have lower entropies compared to non-binders, which have significantly larger entropies. The computation of the entropies is based on a simple model that requires short molecular dynamics trajectories and allows for approximate but rapid determination. The paper draws attention to the long neglected dynamic aspects of peptide binding, and provides a fast computation scheme that allows for rapid scanning of large numbers of peptides on selected HLA antigens, which may be useful in defining the right peptides for personal immunotherapy.

  15. Entropy Generation Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Turbulent Forced Convective Heat Transfer to Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The entropy generation analysis of fully turbulent convective heat transfer to nanofluids in a circular tube is investigated numerically using the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model. The nanofluids with particle concentration of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 6% are treated as single phases of effective properties. The uniform heat flux is enforced at the tube wall. To confirm the validity of the numerical approach, the results have been compared with empirical correlations and analytical formula. The self-similarity profiles of local entropy generation are also studied, in which the peak values of entropy generation by direct dissipation, turbulent dissipation, mean temperature gradients and fluctuating temperature gradients for different Reynolds number as well as different particle concentration are observed. In addition, the effects of Reynolds number, volume fraction of nanoparticles and heat flux on total entropy generation and Bejan number are discussed. In the results, the intersection points of total entropy generation for water and four nanofluids are observed, when the entropy generation decrease before the intersection and increase after the intersection as the particle concentration increases. Finally, by definition of Ep, which combines the first law and second law of thermodynamics and attributed to evaluate the real performance of heat transfer processes, the optimal Reynolds number Reop corresponding to the best performance and the advisable Reynolds number Read providing the appropriate Reynolds number range for nanofluids in convective heat transfer can be determined.

  16. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  17. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  18. Relation Entropy and Transferable Entropy Think of Aggregation on Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qi-yue; QIU Wan-hua; LIU Xiao-feng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, aggregation question based on group decision making and a single decision making is studied. The theory of entropy is applied to the sets pair analysis. The system of relation entropy and the transferable entropy notion are put. The character is studied. An potential by the relation entropy and transferable entropy are defined. It is the consistency measure on the group between a single decision making. We gained a new aggregation effective definition on the group misjudge.

  19. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  20. Does horizon entropy satisfy a quantum null energy conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2016-12-01

    A modern version of the idea that the area of event horizons gives 4G times an entropy is the Hubeny-Rangamani causal holographic information (CHI) proposal for holographic field theories. Given a region R of a holographic QFTs, CHI computes A/4G on a certain cut of an event horizon in the gravitational dual. The result is naturally interpreted as a coarse-grained entropy for the QFT. CHI is known to be finitely greater than the fine-grained Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) entropy when \\partial R lies on a Killing horizon of the QFT spacetime, and in this context satisfies other non-trivial properties expected of an entropy. Here we present evidence that it also satisfies the quantum null energy condition (QNEC), which bounds the second derivative of the entropy of a quantum field theory on one side of a non-expanding null surface by the flux of stress-energy across the surface. In particular, we show CHI to satisfy the QNEC in 1  +  1 holographic CFTs when evaluated in states dual to conical defects in AdS3. This surprising result further supports the idea that CHI defines a useful notion of coarse-grained holographic entropy, and suggests unprecedented bounds on the rate at which bulk horizon generators emerge from a caustic. To supplement our motivation, we include an appendix deriving a corresponding coarse-grained generalized second law for 1  +  1 holographic CFTs perturbatively coupled to dilaton gravity.

  1. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  2. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  3. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

  4. Entropy evaporated by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the entropy of the radiation evaporated by an uncharged, nonrotating black hole into vacuum in the course of its lifetime is approximately (4/3) times the initial entropy of this black hole. Also considered is a thermodynamically reversible process in which an increase of black-hole entropy is equal to the decrease of the entropy of its surroundings. Implications of these results for the generalized second law of thermodynamics and for the interpretation of black-hole entropy are pointed out

  5. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems. (paper)

  6. Holographic charged Rényi entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan; Maloney, Alexander; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Sierens, Todd

    2013-12-01

    We construct a new class of entanglement measures by extending the usual definition of Rényi entropy to include a chemical potential. These charged Rényi entropies measure the degree of entanglement in different charge sectors of the theory and are given by Euclidean path integrals with the insertion of a Wilson line encircling the entangling surface. We compute these entropies for a spherical entangling surface in CFT's with holographic duals, where they are related to entropies of charged black holes with hyperbolic horizons. We also compute charged Rényi entropies in free field theories.

  7. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.

  8. Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao

    2009-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is now an interesting candidate of dark energy, which has been studied extensively in the literature. In the derivation of HDE, the black hole entropy plays an important role. In fact, the entropy-area relation can be modified due to loop quantum gravity or other reasons. With the modified entropy-area relation, we propose the so-called 'entropy-corrected holographic dark energy' (ECHDE) in the present work. We consider many aspects of ECHDE and find some interesting results. In addition, we briefly consider the so-called 'entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy' (ECADE). (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  9. Effects of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Mathematics, Howrah (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a modified Hayward black hole. These thermal fluctuations will produce correction terms for various thermodynamical quantities like entropy, pressure, internal energy, and specific heats. We also investigate the effect of these correction terms on the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we study the phase transition for the modified Hayward black hole. It is demonstrated that the modified Hayward black hole is stable even after the thermal fluctuations are taken into account, as long as the event horizon is larger than a certain critical value. (orig.)

  10. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    The general factor of mental ability ("g") may reflect general biological fitness. If so, "g"-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left-right asymmetry of a set of typically left-right symmetrical body traits such as finger…

  11. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  12. Zeta function methods and quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    A review of some recent advances in zeta function techniques is given, in problems of pure mathematical nature but also as applied to the computation of quantum vacuum fluctuations in different field theories, and specially with a view to cosmological applications

  13. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Ormos

    Full Text Available We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  14. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  15. Wavelet entropy characterization of elevated intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Scalzo, Fabien; Bergsneider, Marvin; Vespa, Paul; Chad, Miller; Hu, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial Hypertension (ICH) often occurs for those patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, tumor, etc. Pathology of ICH is still controversial. In this work, we used wavelet entropy and relative wavelet entropy to study the difference existed between normal and hypertension states of ICP for the first time. The wavelet entropy revealed the similar findings as the approximation entropy that entropy during ICH state is smaller than that in normal state. Moreover, with wavelet entropy, we can see that ICH state has the more focused energy in the low wavelet frequency band (0-3.1 Hz) than the normal state. The relative wavelet entropy shows that the energy distribution in the wavelet bands between these two states is actually different. Based on these results, we suggest that ICH may be formed by the re-allocation of oscillation energy within brain.

  16. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  17. Quantum inflaton, primordial perturbations, and CMB fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F.J.; Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow-roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of (m 2 /NH 2 ), where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at the moment of horizon crossing. An upper estimate turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it

  18. Entropy localization and extensivity in the semiclassical black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H.

    2009-01-01

    I aim to quantify the distribution of information in the Hawking radiation and inside the black hole in the semiclassical evaporation process. The structure of relativistic quantum field theory does not allow one to define a localized entropy unambiguously, but rather forces one to consider the shared information (mutual information) between two different regions of space-time. Using this tool, I first show that the entropy of a thermal gas at the Unruh temperature underestimates the actual amount of (shared) information present in a region of the Rindler space. Then, I analyze the mutual information between the black hole and the late time radiation region. A well-known property of the entropy implies that this is monotonically increasing with time. This means that in the semiclassical picture it is not possible to recover the eventual purity of the initial state in the final Hawking radiation through subtle correlations established during the whole evaporation period, no matter the interactions present in the theory. I find extensivity of the entropy as a consequence of a reduction to a two dimensional conformal problem in a simple approximation. However, the extensivity of information in the radiation region in a full four dimensional calculation seems not to be guaranteed on general grounds. I also analyze the localization of shared information inside the black hole finding that a large amount of it is contained in a small, approximately flat region of space-time near the point where the horizon begins. This gives place to large violations of the entropy bounds. I show that this problem is not eased by backscattering effects and argue that a breaking of conformal invariance is necessary to delocalize the entropy. Finally, I indicate that the mutual information could lead to a way to understand the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy which does not require a drastic reduction in degrees of freedom in order to regulate the entanglement entropy. On the contrary

  19. Nonlinear entropy transfer in ETG-TEM turbulence via TEM driven zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yuuichi; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Ishizawa, Akihiro; Sugama, Hideo; Watanabe, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear interplay of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes and the trapped electron modes (TEMs) was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulation. Focusing on the situation where both TEMs and ETG modes are linearly unstable, the effects of TEM-driven zonal flows on ETG turbulence were examined by means of entropy transfer analysis. In a statistically steady turbulence where the TEM driven zonal flows are dominant, it turned out that the zonal flows meditate the entropy transfer of the ETG modes from the low to high radial wavenumber regions. The successive entropy transfer broadens the potential fluctuation spectrum in the radial wavenumber direction. In contrast, in the situation where ETG modes are unstable but TEMs are stable, the pure ETG turbulence does not produce strong zonal flows, leading to a rather narrow spectrum in the radial wavenumber space and a higher transport level. (author)

  20. Combined Power Quality Disturbances Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Entropies and S-Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the combined power quality +disturbance recognition, an automated recognition method based on wavelet packet entropy (WPE and modified incomplete S-transform (MIST is proposed in this paper. By combining wavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy, energy entropy and MIST, a 13-dimension vector of different power quality (PQ disturbances including single disturbances and combined disturbances is extracted. Then, a ruled decision tree is designed to recognize the combined disturbances. The proposed method is tested and evaluated using a large number of simulated PQ disturbances and some real-life signals, which include voltage sag, swell, interruption, oscillation transient, impulsive transient, harmonics, voltage fluctuation and their combinations. In addition, the comparison of the proposed recognition approach with some existing techniques is made. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively recognize the single and combined PQ disturbances.

  1. Value at risk estimation with entropy-based wavelet analysis in exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaijian; Wang, Lijun; Zou, Yingchao; Lai, Kin Keung

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, exchange markets are increasingly integrated together. Fluctuations and risks across different exchange markets exhibit co-moving and complex dynamics. In this paper we propose the entropy-based multivariate wavelet based approaches to analyze the multiscale characteristic in the multidimensional domain and improve further the Value at Risk estimation reliability. Wavelet analysis has been introduced to construct the entropy-based Multiscale Portfolio Value at Risk estimation algorithm to account for the multiscale dynamic correlation. The entropy measure has been proposed as the more effective measure with the error minimization principle to select the best basis when determining the wavelet families and the decomposition level to use. The empirical studies conducted in this paper have provided positive evidence as to the superior performance of the proposed approach, using the closely related Chinese Renminbi and European Euro exchange market.

  2. Entropy of non-extreme rotating black holes in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, D.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate the Rindler space description of rotating black holes in string theories. We argue that the comoving frame is the natural frame for studying the thermodynamics of rotating black holes and the statistical analysis of rotating black holes gets simplified in this frame. We also calculate statistical entropies of a general class of rotating black holes in heterotic strings on tori by applying the D-brane description and the correspondence principle. We find at least a qualitative agreement between the Bekenstein-Hawking entropies and the statistical entropies of these black hole solutions. (orig.)

  3. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  4. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  5. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  6. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  7. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  8. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  9. Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The quantum phenomena of tunneling and interference show up not only in the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, but also in cold materials of the real world, such as metals and semiconductors. Though not fully macroscopic, such mesoscopic systems contain a huge number of particles, and the holistic nature of quantum mechanics becomes evident already in simple electronic measurements. The measured quantity fluctuates as a function of applied fields in an unpredictable, yet reproducible way. Despite this fingerprint character of fluctuations, their statistical properties are universal, i.e

  10. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  11. Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Humeau-Heurtier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.

  12. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  13. Entropy in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frautschi, S.

    1982-01-01

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding causal region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found

  14. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-02-14

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  15. Statistical mechanical theory of liquid entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multiparticle correlation expansion for the entropy of a classical monatomic liquid is presented. This entropy expresses the physical picture in which there is no free particle motion, but rather, each atom moves within a cage formed by its neighbors. The liquid expansion, including only pair correlations, gives an excellent account of the experimental entropy of most liquid metals, of liquid argon, and the hard sphere liquid. The pair correlation entropy is well approximated by a universal function of temperature. Higher order correlation entropy, due to n-particle irreducible correlations for n≥3, is significant in only a few liquid metals, and its occurrence suggests the presence of n-body forces. When the liquid theory is applied to the study of melting, the author discovers the important classification of normal and anomalous melting, according to whether there is not or is a significant change in the electronic structure upon melting, and he discovers the universal disordering entropy for melting of a monatomic crystal. Interesting directions for future research are: extension to include orientational correlations of molecules, theoretical calculation of the entropy of water, application to the entropy of the amorphous state, and correlational entropy of compressed argon. The author clarifies the relation among different entropy expansions in the recent literature

  16. Entropy in molecular recognition by proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, José A; Harpole, Kyle W; Kasinath, Vignesh; Lim, Jackwee; Granja, Jeffrey; Valentine, Kathleen G; Sharp, Kim A; Wand, A Joshua

    2017-06-20

    Molecular recognition by proteins is fundamental to molecular biology. Dissection of the thermodynamic energy terms governing protein-ligand interactions has proven difficult, with determination of entropic contributions being particularly elusive. NMR relaxation measurements have suggested that changes in protein conformational entropy can be quantitatively obtained through a dynamical proxy, but the generality of this relationship has not been shown. Twenty-eight protein-ligand complexes are used to show a quantitative relationship between measures of fast side-chain motion and the underlying conformational entropy. We find that the contribution of conformational entropy can range from favorable to unfavorable, which demonstrates the potential of this thermodynamic variable to modulate protein-ligand interactions. For about one-quarter of these complexes, the absence of conformational entropy would render the resulting affinity biologically meaningless. The dynamical proxy for conformational entropy or "entropy meter" also allows for refinement of the contributions of solvent entropy and the loss in rotational-translational entropy accompanying formation of high-affinity complexes. Furthermore, structure-based application of the approach can also provide insight into long-lived specific water-protein interactions that escape the generic treatments of solvent entropy based simply on changes in accessible surface area. These results provide a comprehensive and unified view of the general role of entropy in high-affinity molecular recognition by proteins.

  17. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  18. Natural games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.

  19. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  20. Precise charge density studies by maximum entropy method

    CERN Document Server

    Takata, M

    2003-01-01

    For the production research and development of nanomaterials, their structural information is indispensable. Recently, a sophisticated analytical method, which is based on information theory, the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) using synchrotron radiation powder data, has been successfully applied to determine precise charge densities of metallofullerenes and nanochannel microporous compounds. The results revealed various endohedral natures of metallofullerenes and one-dimensional array formation of adsorbed gas molecules in nanochannel microporous compounds. The concept of MEM analysis was also described briefly. (author)

  1. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John

    2011-01-01

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  2. Quantum horizon fluctuations of an evaporating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The quantum fluctuations of a black hole spacetime are studied within a low-energy effective field theory approach to quantum gravity. Our approach accounts for both intrinsic metric fluctuations and those induced by matter fields interacting with the gravitational field. Here we will concentrate on spherically symmetric fluctuations of the black hole horizon. Our results suggest that for a sufficiently massive evaporating black hole, fluctuations can accumulate over time and become significant well before reaching Planckian scales. In addition, we provide the sketch of a proof that the symmetrized two-point function of the stress-tensor operator smeared over a null hypersurface is actually divergent and discuss the implications for the analysis of horizon fluctuations. Finally, a natural way to probe quantum metric fluctuations near the horizon is briefly described

  3. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.

  4. Black hole entropy functions and attractor equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Wit, Bernard de; Mahapatra, Swapna

    2007-01-01

    The entropy and the attractor equations for static extremal black hole solutions follow from a variational principle based on an entropy function. In the general case such an entropy function can be derived from the reduced action evaluated in a near-horizon geometry. BPS black holes constitute special solutions of this variational principle, but they can also be derived directly from a different entropy function based on supersymmetry enhancement at the horizon. Both functions are consistent with electric/magnetic duality and for BPS black holes their corresponding OSV-type integrals give identical results at the semi-classical level. We clarify the relation between the two entropy functions and the corresponding attractor equations for N = 2 supergravity theories with higher-derivative couplings in four space-time dimensions. We discuss how non-holomorphic corrections will modify these entropy functions

  5. Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion

    2016-01-01

    species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem...... entropy of de Sitter or near-de Sitter backgrounds at leading order. Working in detail with $N$ scalar fields in de Sitter space, renormalized to one loop order, we show that the gravitational entropy automatically obeys the covariant entropy bound. Furthermore, while the axion decay constant is a strong...... in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it....

  6. Entropy type complexity of quantum processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    von Neumann entropy represents the amount of information in the quantum state, and this was extended by Ohya for general quantum systems [10]. Umegaki first defined the quantum relative entropy for σ-finite von Neumann algebras, which was extended by Araki, and Uhlmann, for general von Neumann algebras and *-algebras, respectively. In 1983 Ohya introduced the quantum mutual entropy by using compound states; this describes the amount of information correctly transmitted through the quantum channel, which was also extended by Ohya for general quantum systems. In this paper, we briefly explain Ohya's S-mixing entropy and the quantum mutual entropy for general quantum systems. By using structure equivalent class, we will introduce entropy type functionals based on quantum information theory to improve treatment for the Gaussian communication process. (paper)

  7. Relative entropy and the RG flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo [Centro Atómico Bariloche and CONICET,S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro, R8402AGP (Argentina)

    2017-03-16

    We consider the relative entropy between vacuum states of two different theories: a conformal field theory (CFT), and the CFT perturbed by a relevant operator. By restricting both states to the null Cauchy surface in the causal domain of a sphere, we make the relative entropy equal to the difference of entanglement entropies. As a result, this difference has the positivity and monotonicity properties of relative entropy. From this it follows a simple alternative proof of the c-theorem in d=2 space-time dimensions and, for d>2, the proof that the coefficient of the area term in the entanglement entropy decreases along the renormalization group (RG) flow between fixed points. We comment on the regimes of convergence of relative entropy, depending on the space-time dimensions and the conformal dimension Δ of the perturbation that triggers the RG flow.

  8. Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Sato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribution, and represents the complexity of a shape (one of the overall shape features. The quadrature curvature entropy is an improvement of the curvature entropy by introducing a Markov process to evaluate the continuity of a curvature and to approximate human cognition of the shape. Additionally, a shape generation method using a genetic algorithm as a calculator and the entropy as a shape generation index is presented. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using the side view of an automobile as a design example.

  9. Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Tamara M; Davies, P C W; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2003-01-01

    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more than balanced by an increase in cosmological event horizon entropy, maintaining the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, an intriguing set of open universe models shows an apparent entropy decrease when black holes disappear over the cosmological event horizon. We anticipate that this apparent violation of the generalized second law will disappear when solutions are available for black holes embedded in arbitrary backgrounds

  10. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  11. New Definition and Properties of Fuzzy Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ming; Qin Yingbing

    2006-01-01

    Let X = (x1,x2 ,…,xn ) and F(X) be a fuzzy set on a universal set X. A new definition of fuzzy entropy about a fuzzy set A on F(X), e*, is defined based on the order relation "≤" on [0,1/2] n. It is proved that e* is a σ-entropy under an additional requirement. Besides, some entropy formulas are presented and related properties are discussed.

  12. Permutation Entropy: New Ideas and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Keller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, some new variants of Permutation entropy have been introduced and applied to EEG analysis, including a conditional variant and variants using some additional metric information or being based on entropies that are different from the Shannon entropy. In some situations, it is not completely clear what kind of information the new measures and their algorithmic implementations provide. We discuss the new developments and illustrate them for EEG data.

  13. Entropy In the Universe: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alfonso-Faus

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We propose a new definition of entropy for any mass m, based on gravitation and through the concept of a gravitational cross section. It turns out to be proportional to mass, and therefore extensive, and to the age of the Universe. It is a Machian approach. It is also the number of gravity quanta the mass has emitted through its age. The entropy of the Uni-verse is so determined and the cosmological entropy problem solved.

  14. Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...

  15. Entropy Stable Summation-by-Parts Formulations for Compressible Computational Fluid Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Carpenter, M.H.

    2016-11-09

    A systematic approach based on a diagonal-norm summation-by-parts (SBP) framework is presented for implementing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NSE). These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy equality for smooth problems. They are also valid for discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities to satisfy an entropy inequality. Admissible SBP operators include all centred diagonal-norm finite-difference (FD) operators and Legendre spectral collocation-finite element methods (LSC-FEM). Entropy stable multiblock FD and FEM operators follows immediately via nonlinear coupling operators that ensure conservation, accuracy and preserve the interior entropy estimates. Nonlinearly stable solid wall boundary conditions are also available. Existing SBP operators that lack a stability proof (e.g. weighted essentially nonoscillatory) may be combined with an entropy stable operator using a comparison technique to guarantee nonlinear stability of the pair. All capabilities extend naturally to a curvilinear form of the NSE provided that the coordinate mappings satisfy a geometric conservation law constraint. Examples are presented that demonstrate the robustness of current state-of-the-art entropy stable SBP formulations.

  16. The Entropy of Words—Learnability and Expressivity across More than 1000 Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bentz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The choice associated with words is a fundamental property of natural languages. It lies at the heart of quantitative linguistics, computational linguistics and language sciences more generally. Information theory gives us tools at hand to measure precisely the average amount of choice associated with words: the word entropy. Here, we use three parallel corpora, encompassing ca. 450 million words in 1916 texts and 1259 languages, to tackle some of the major conceptual and practical problems of word entropy estimation: dependence on text size, register, style and estimation method, as well as non-independence of words in co-text. We present two main findings: Firstly, word entropies display relatively narrow, unimodal distributions. There is no language in our sample with a unigram entropy of less than six bits/word. We argue that this is in line with information-theoretic models of communication. Languages are held in a narrow range by two fundamental pressures: word learnability and word expressivity, with a potential bias towards expressivity. Secondly, there is a strong linear relationship between unigram entropies and entropy rates. The entropy difference between words with and without co-textual information is narrowly distributed around ca. three bits/word. In other words, knowing the preceding text reduces the uncertainty of words by roughly the same amount across languages of the world.

  17. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2011-01-01

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles. - Highlights: → Nonextensive entropies are derived from Gauss' principle and ensemble equivalence. → Gauss' principle is generalized for a q-exponential distribution. → I have found the condition for satisfying Greene-Callen principle. → The associated statistical q-entropy is found to be normalized Tsallis entropy.

  18. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  19. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir; Fatollahi, Amir H., E-mail: fath@alzahra.ac.ir; Khorrami, Mohammad, E-mail: mamwad@mailaps.org; Shariati, Ahmad, E-mail: shariati@mailaps.org

    2013-10-15

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  20. Holographic entanglement entropy and cyclic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss a cyclic cosmology in which the visible universe, or introverse, is all that is accessible to an observer while the extroverse represents the total spacetime originating from the time when the dark energy began to dominate. It is argued that entanglement entropy of the introverse is the more appropriate quantity to render infinitely cyclic, rather than the entropy of the total universe. Since vanishing entanglement entropy implies disconnected spacetimes, at the turnaround when the introverse entropy is zero the disconnected extroverse can be jettisoned with impunity.

  1. All Inequalities for the Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinson, Ben; Linden, Noah; Winter, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The relative entropy of two n-party quantum states is an important quantity exhibiting, for example, the extent to which the two states are different. The relative entropy of the states formed by reducing two n-party states to a smaller number m of parties is always less than or equal to the relative entropy of the two original n-party states. This is the monotonicity of relative entropy. Using techniques from convex geometry, we prove that monotonicity under restrictions is the only general inequality satisfied by quantum relative entropies. In doing so we make a connection to secret sharing schemes with general access structures: indeed, it turns out that the extremal rays of the cone defined by monotonicity are populated by classical secret sharing schemes. A surprising outcome is that the structure of allowed relative entropy values of subsets of multiparty states is much simpler than the structure of allowed entropy values. And the structure of allowed relative entropy values (unlike that of entropies) is the same for classical probability distributions and quantum states.

  2. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  3. Fluctuations in the hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajaczak, M.

    1992-01-01

    The multiscaling in the fluctuations of the multiparticle distributions at small scales is studied. Similarly to the multiscaling effect, recently found in multifractal models, the dependence of the intermittency patterns on the low density cut-off in the cascade is analyzed. The effect changes the scaling behaviour and leads to stronger dependence of the scaled factorial moments on the resolution than the power law. This could be an explanation of the behaviour observed recently in the experimental 3-dimensional data. The multiscaling analysis allows to restore the universality in the processes with different cut-offs and could be used in the analysis of the experimental data. (author) 17 refs., 5 figs

  4. Entropy of the electroencephalogram as applied in the M-Entropy S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been suggested that spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram as applied in the M-Entropy S/5TM Module (GE Healthcare) does not detect the effects of nitrous oxide (N2O). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on entropy by graded increases in N2O concentrations in the presence of a ...

  5. Three faces of entropy for complex systems: Information, thermodynamics, and the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    There are at least three distinct ways to conceptualize entropy: entropy as an extensive thermodynamic quantity of physical systems (Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs), entropy as a measure for information production of ergodic sources (Shannon), and entropy as a means for statistical inference on multinomial processes (Jaynes maximum entropy principle). Even though these notions represent fundamentally different concepts, the functional form of the entropy for thermodynamic systems in equilibrium, for ergodic sources in information theory, and for independent sampling processes in statistical systems, is degenerate, H (p ) =-∑ipilogpi . For many complex systems, which are typically history-dependent, nonergodic, and nonmultinomial, this is no longer the case. Here we show that for such processes, the three entropy concepts lead to different functional forms of entropy, which we will refer to as SEXT for extensive entropy, SIT for the source information rate in information theory, and SMEP for the entropy functional that appears in the so-called maximum entropy principle, which characterizes the most likely observable distribution functions of a system. We explicitly compute these three entropy functionals for three concrete examples: for Pólya urn processes, which are simple self-reinforcing processes, for sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes, which are simple history dependent processes that are associated with power-law statistics, and finally for multinomial mixture processes.

  6. Monotonicity of the von Neumann entropy expressed as a function of R\\'enyi entropies

    OpenAIRE

    Fannes, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The von Neumann entropy of a density matrix of dimension d, expressed in terms of the first d-1 integer order R\\'enyi entropies, is monotonically increasing in R\\'enyi entropies of even order and decreasing in those of odd order.

  7. Entanglement entropy of excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in excited states of spin chains. We consider the XY model in a transverse field and the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. For the latter, we developed a numerical application of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We find two main classes of states with logarithmic and extensive behavior in the dimension of the block, characterized by the properties of excitations of the state. This behavior can be related to the locality properties of the Hamiltonian having a given state as the ground state. We also provide several details of the finite size scaling

  8. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  9. Fundamental Flaws In The Derivation Of Stevens' Law For Taste Within Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, Lance

    2010-01-01

    Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception (1975-present) is a general theory of perception, based on Shannon's Information Theory. Among many bold claims, the Entropy Theory presents a truly astounding result: that Stevens' Law with an Index of 1, an empirical power relation of direct proportionality between perceived taste intensity and stimulus concentration, arises from theory alone. Norwich's theorizing starts with several extraordinary hypotheses. First, 'multiple, parallel receptor-neuron units' without collaterals 'carry essentially the same message to the brain', i.e. the rate-level curves are identical. Second, sensation is proportional to firing rate. Third, firing rate is proportional to the taste receptor's 'resolvable uncertainty'. Fourth, the 'resolvable uncertainty' is obtained from Shannon's Information Theory. Finally, 'resolvable uncertainty' also depends upon the microscopic thermodynamic density fluctuation of the tasted solute. Norwich proves that density fluctuation is density variance, which is proportional to solute concentration, all based on the theory of fluctuations in fluid composition from Tolman's classic physics text, 'The Principles of Statistical Mechanics'. Altogether, according to Norwich, perceived taste intensity is theoretically proportional to solute concentration. Such a universal rule for taste, one that is independent of solute identity, personal physiological differences, and psychophysical task, is truly remarkable and is well-deserving of scrutiny. Norwich's crucial step was the derivation of density variance. That step was meticulously reconstructed here. It transpires that the appropriate fluctuation is Tolman's mean-square fractional density fluctuation, not density variance as used by Norwich. Tolman's algebra yields a 'Stevens Index' of -1 rather than 1. As 'Stevens Index' empirically always exceeds zero, the Index of -1 suggests that it is risky to infer psychophysical laws of sensory response from information theory

  10. Clausius entropy for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Jacobson’s thermodynamic derivation of the Einstein equations was originally applied only to local Rindler horizons. But at least some parts of that construction can usefully be extended to give meaningful results for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces. As presaged in Jacobson’s original article, this more general construction sharply brings into focus the questions: is entropy objectively ‘real’? Or is entropy in some sense subjective and observer-dependent? These innocent questions open a Pandora’s box of often inconclusive debate. A consensus opinion, though certainly not universally held, seems to be that Clausius entropy (thermodynamic entropy, defined via a Clausius relation dS=đQ/T) should be objectively real, but that the ontological status of statistical entropy (Shannon or von Neumann entropy) is much more ambiguous, and much more likely to be observer-dependent. This question is particularly pressing when it comes to understanding Bekenstein entropy (black hole entropy). To perhaps further add to the confusion, we shall argue that even the Clausius entropy can often be observer-dependent. In the current article we shall conclusively demonstrate that one can meaningfully assign a notion of Clausius entropy to arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces—effectively defining a ‘virtual Clausius entropy’ for arbitrary ‘virtual (local) causal horizons’. As an application, we see that we can implement a version of the generalized second law (GSL) for this virtual Clausius entropy. This version of GSL can be related to certain (nonstandard) integral variants of the null energy condition. Because the concepts involved are rather subtle, we take some effort in being careful and explicit in developing our framework. In future work we will apply this construction to generalize Jacobson’s derivation of the Einstein equations. (paper)

  11. Entropy generation as an environmental impact indicator and a sample application to freshwater ecosystems eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Mendez, S.E.; Sierra-Grajeda, J.M.T.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Rodriguez-Lelis, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Generally speaking, an ecosystem is seen as a complex set, it is composed by different biotic and abiotic parts. Naturally, each part has specifics functions related with mass and energy, those functions have influence between the parts directly and indirectly, and these functions are subjected to the basic laws of thermodynamics. If each part of the ecosystem is taken as thermodynamics system its entropy generation could be evaluated, then the total entropy generation of the ecosystem must be sum of the entropy generation in each part, to be in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. With this in mind, in this work an environmental indicator, for any kind of ecosystems, can be determined as a function of the ratio of total entropy generation for reference state, for instance a healthy forest; and the entropy generation of new different state of the same ecosystem can take, for instance a deforestation. Thus, thermodynamics concepts are applied to study the eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems; the strategy is based on techniques that integrate assumptions of the methodology of entropy generation inside ecosystems. The results show that if the amount of entropy generation is small respect a reference state; the sustainability of the ecosystem will be greater. - Highlights: • We estimate an environmental impact indicator using the concept of entropy generation. • It can be a useful tool for assessing the environmental impacts of the society over the environment. • It can be a useful tool to compare new technologies and improve their efficiencies even more. • It can help for a better understanding of the concept of entropy and its role among various classes of processes. • It can help to reduce environmental concerns and increase the sustainability of the planet

  12. Beyond the classical theory of heat conduction: a perspective view of future from entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiang; Zhu, Pingan

    2016-01-01

    Energy is conserved by the first law of thermodynamics; its quality degrades constantly due to entropy generation, by the second law of thermodynamics. It is thus important to examine the entropy generation regarding the way to reduce its magnitude and the limit of entropy generation as time tends to infinity regarding whether it is bounded or not. This work initiates such an analysis with one-dimensional heat conduction. The work not only offers some fundamental insights of universe and its future, but also builds up the relation between the second law of thermodynamics and mathematical inequalities via developing the latter of either new or classical nature. A concise review of entropy is also included for the interest of performing the analysis in this work and the similar analysis for other processes in the future. PMID:27843400

  13. Study on spectral entropy of two-phase flow density wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi

    1992-05-01

    By using mathematic proof, spectral entropy calculations for simple examples and a practical two-phase flow system, it has been proved that under the same stochastic input, the output spectral entropy of a stable linear system is in maximum, while for an unstable linear system, its entropy is in relative lower level. Because the spectral entropy describes the output uncertainty of a system and the second law of thermodynamics rules the direction of natural tendency, the spontaneous process can develop only toward the direction of uncertainty increasing, and the opposite is impossible. It seems that the physical mechanism of the stability of a system can be explained as following: Any deviation from its original state of a stable system will reduce the spectral entropy and violate the natural tendency so that the system will return to original state. On the contrary, the deviation from its original state of an unstable system will increase the spectral entropy that will enhance the deviation and the system will be further away from its original state

  14. Cytoskeleton dynamics: Fluctuations within the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursac, Predrag; Fabry, Ben; Trepat, Xavier; Lenormand, Guillaume; Butler, James P.; Wang, Ning; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; An, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems, such as the dynamics of a living cytoskeleton (CSK), are inherently noisy with fluctuations arising from the stochastic nature of the underlying biochemical and molecular events. Recently, such fluctuations within the cell were characterized by observing spontaneous nano-scale motions of an RGD-coated microbead bound to the cell surface [Bursac et al., Nat. Mater. 4 (2005) 557-561]. While these reported anomalous bead motions represent a molecular level reorganization (remodeling) of microstructures in contact with the bead, a precise nature of these cytoskeletal constituents and forces that drive their remodeling dynamics are largely unclear. Here, we focused upon spontaneous motions of an RGD-coated bead and, in particular, assessed to what extent these motions are attributable to (i) bulk cell movement (cell crawling), (ii) dynamics of focal adhesions, (iii) dynamics of lipid membrane, and/or (iv) dynamics of the underlying actin CSK driven by myosin motors

  15. Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhas Ranjan Majhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein–Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.

  16. Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2017-07-01

    Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein-Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.

  17. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Ho 20 Er 20 Co 20 Al 20 RE 20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change (ΔS M pk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg −1 K −1 and 627 J kg −1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔS M pk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔS M pk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures

  18. Minimum Entropy-Based Cascade Control for Governing Hydroelectric Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mifeng Ren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved cascade control strategy is presented for hydroturbine speed governors. Different from traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control and model predictive control (MPC strategies, the performance index of the outer controller is constructed by integrating the entropy and mean value of the tracking error with the constraints on control energy. The inner controller is implemented by a proportional controller. Compared with the conventional PID-P and MPC-P cascade control methods, the proposed cascade control strategy can effectively decrease fluctuations of hydro-turbine speed under non-Gaussian disturbance conditions in practical hydropower plants. Simulation results show the advantages of the proposed cascade control method.

  19. Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志明

    1999-01-01

    A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.

  20. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be