WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural enemies

  1. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-02

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions.

  2. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuest, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources...... of Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with 39 years of field data on aphid abundance, to (i) demonstrate that geographic patterns in a polymorphic defense locus (GS-ELONG) are strongly correlated with changes in the relative abundance of two specialist aphids; and (ii) demonstrate differential selection by the two...... aphids on GS-ELONG, using a multigeneration selection experiment. We thereby show a causal link between variation in abundance of the two specialist aphids and the geographic pattern at GS-ELONG, which highlights the potency of natural enemies as selective forces....

  3. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the population of tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and efficiency of natural enemies on tomato grown greenhouse in Mediterranean Region of Turkey during 2010 and 2011. Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ...

  4. Sample size for monitoring sirex populations and their natural enemies

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    Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae was introduced in Brazil in 1988 and became the main pest in pine plantations. It has spread to about 1.000.000 ha, at different population levels, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Control is done mainly by using a nematode, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Nematoda: Neothylenchidae. The evaluation of the efficiency of natural enemies has been difficult because there are no appropriate sampling systems. This study tested a hierarchical sampling system to define the sample size to monitor the S. noctilio population and the efficiency of their natural enemies, which was found to be perfectly adequate.

  5. Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Päts, Peeter

    1996-01-01

    The effects of maize-cowpea intercropping on three lepidopteran stemborers (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) C. orichalcociliellus (Strand) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson) and their natural enemies were studied in Kenya. Oviposition was not affected by intercropping, but significantly fewer larvae...... and wandering spiders, were not augmented by intercropping, but an inverse relationship in abundance was found between these two predator groups. It is concluded that maize intercropped with cowpea has only limited potential as a method of controlling the key pests in maize....

  6. The response of natural enemies to selective insecticides applied to soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2012-12-01

    Natural enemies of the invasive pest Aphis glycines Matsumura can prevent its establishment and population growth. However, current A. glycines management practices include the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that affect pests and natural enemies that are present in the field at the time of application. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that affect the targeted pest species, although having a reduced impact on the natural enemies. We tested the effects of esfenvalerate, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, and a combination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on the natural enemies in soybean during the 2009 and 2010 field season. The natural enemy community that was tested differed significantly between 2009 and 2010 (F = 87.41; df = 1, 598; P natural enemy in 2009 was Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (56.0%) and in 2010 was Orius insidiosus (Say) (41.0%). During 2009, the abundance of natural enemies did not vary between the broad-spectrum and selective insecticides; however, the abundance of natural enemies was reduced by all insecticide treatments when compared with the untreated control. In 2010, the selective insecticide imidacloprid had more natural enemies than the broad-spectrum insecticide. Although we did not observe a difference in the abundance of the total natural enemy community in 2009, we did observe more H. axyridis in plots treated with spirotetramat. In 2010, we observed more O. insidiosus in plots treated with imidacloprid. We suggest a couple of mechanisms to explain how the varying insecticides have different impacts on separate components of the natural enemy community.

  7. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  8. Urban warming trumps natural enemy regulation of herbivorous pests.

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    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    Trees provide ecosystem services that counter negative effects of urban habitats on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant on urban than rural trees, reducing tree growth, survival, and ecosystem services. Previous research where vegetation complexity was reduced has attributed elevated urban pest abundance to decreased regulation by natural enemies. However, reducing vegetation complexity, particularly the density of overstory trees, also makes cities hotter than natural habitats. We ask how urban habitat characteristics influence an abiotic factor, temperature, and a biotic factor, natural enemy abundance, in regulating the abundance of an urban forest pest, the gloomy scale, (Melanaspis tenebricosa). We used a map of surface temperature to select red maple trees (Acer rubrum) at warmer and cooler sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. We quantified habitat complexity by measuring impervious surface cover, local vegetation structural complexity, and landscape scale vegetation cover around each tree. Using path analysis, we determined that impervious surface (the most important habitat variable) increased scale insect abundance by increasing tree canopy temperature, rather than by reducing natural enemy abundance or percent parasitism. As a mechanism for this response, we found that increasing temperature significantly increases scale insect fecundity and contributes to greater population increase. Specifically, adult female M. tenebricosa egg sets increased by approximately 14 eggs for every 1°C increase in temperature. Climate change models predict that the global climate will increase by 2–3°C in the next 50–100 years, which we found would increase scale insect abundance by three orders of magnitude. This result supports predictions that urban and natural forests will face greater herbivory in the future, and suggests that a primary cause could be direct, positive effects of warming on herbivore

  9. A meta-analysis of crop pest and natural enemy response to landscape complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; O'Rourke, Megan E; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Kremen, Claire

    2011-09-01

    Many studies in recent years have investigated the relationship between landscape complexity and pests, natural enemies and/or pest control. However, no quantitative synthesis of this literature beyond simple vote-count methods yet exists. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 landscape-level studies, and found that natural enemies have a strong positive response to landscape complexity. Generalist enemies show consistent positive responses to landscape complexity across all scales measured, while specialist enemies respond more strongly to landscape complexity at smaller scales. Generalist enemy response to natural habitat also tends to occur at larger spatial scales than for specialist enemies, suggesting that land management strategies to enhance natural pest control should differ depending on whether the dominant enemies are generalists or specialists. The positive response of natural enemies does not necessarily translate into pest control, since pest abundances show no significant response to landscape complexity. Very few landscape-scale studies have estimated enemy impact on pest populations, however, limiting our understanding of the effects of landscape on pest control. We suggest focusing future research efforts on measuring population dynamics rather than static counts to better characterise the relationship between landscape complexity and pest control services from natural enemies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Spatial variation of important mulberry pests and their natural enemies

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    A. Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry is a silkworm food plant (Bombyxmori. L that is seriously affected by many insect pests. The incidence of Diaphania pulverulentalis (Hampson, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink, Aleurodiscus dispersus (Russels and Pseudodendrothrips mori (Niwa and their natural enemies, viz. coccinellids and spiders (/100 plants, were observed through survey and surveillance for 3 months. In February 2013, the incidence of insect pests in Vaikkalpattarai and Reddipudur villages (India was: D. pulverulentalis, 1.20 and 0.85%; P. marginatus, 6.80 and 33.10%; P. mori 42.98 and 45.50%, respectively. Further, the infestation of M. hirsutus (1.40% and A. dispersus (59.72% was also observed in February at Vaikkalpattarai. The population of coccinellids was high in December (1.02 and 0.84/100 plants, but the spider population was even higher in February and January (1.04 and 1.81/100 plants. Population of pests had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity. The population of coccinellids and spiders have positive correlation with temperature and mulberry pests infestation. The natural enemies observed in the study were mostly the ladybird beetles, Psyllobora bisoctonotata and unidentified species of spiders.

  11. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

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    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  12. Which shrubs and trees can conserve natural enemies of aphids in spring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Habitats with shrubs and trees within the agricultural landscape may contribute to the maintenance of natural enemies of pests. Aphids and flowers are important resources for beneficial natural enemies such as ladybeetles, hoverflies and lacewings. Woody plants are the most likely candidates to

  13. Releases of natural enemies in Hawaii since 1980 for classical biological control of weeds

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    P. Conant; J. N. Garcia; M. T. Johnson; W. T. Nagamine; C. K. Hirayama; G. P. Markin; R. L. Hill

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of biological control of weeds in Hawaii was last published in 1992, covering 74 natural enemy species released from 1902 through 1980. The present review summarizes releases of 21 natural enemies targeting seven invasive weeds from 1981 to 2010. These projects were carried out by Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), USDA Forest Service (USFS...

  14. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

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    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  15. Roles of dispersal, stochasticity, and nonlinear dynamics in the spatial structuring of seasonal natural enemy-victim populations

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    Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2005-01-01

    Natural enemy-victim systems may exhibit a range of dynamic space-time patterns. We used a theoretical framework to study spatiotemporal structuring in a transient natural enemy-victim system subject to differential rates of dispersal, stochastic forcing, and nonlinear dynamics. Highly mobile natural enemies that attacked less mobile victims were locally spatially...

  16. Problems Inherent to Augmentation of Natural Enemies in Open Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P

    2018-04-01

    Augmentation biological control has successfully replaced a lot of insecticide use in 'closed system' agriculture (e.g., greenhouses). The profitable commercialization of biocontrol agents in greenhouses has created an incentive to expand markets for mass-reared beneficial insects into open agricultural systems, often without sufficient scientific justification. However, the semi-contained nature of greenhouse culture is often critical to the success of augmentation and can serve to mask potential pitfalls and intrinsic limitations of this approach in open systems. Factors contributing to greenhouse successes include the reduced biological diversity of contained agroecosystems, the prevention of agent dispersal, the ability to maintain environmental conditions within a range favorable for the agent, the exclusion of competitors and natural enemies of the agent that might otherwise diminish its efficacy, and the absence of alternative prey/hosts that could divert predation/parasitism from the target pest. There are also problems arising from collection of source material from locally adapted populations, and the inadvertent imposition of artificial selection in the course of laboratory rearing. Besides highlighting these pitfalls, this paper aims to encourage more consideration of conservation approaches prior to investment in augmentation programs which entice farmers into perpetual cycles of 'rear and release.' I argue that although augmentation can benefit agriculture whenever it replaces pesticide applications, it does not constitute an ecologically sustainable solution because it requires continued inputs, and it can distract research attention away from more sustainable objectives. Sustainable biological control is best achieved through modifications to cultural practices that increasingly 'naturalize' agroecosystems, thus facilitating the natural recruitment and persistence of beneficial arthropod fauna, combined with habitat management geared to increasing

  17. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  18. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

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    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  19. Natural enemy-mediated indirect interactions among prey species: potential for enhancing biocontrol services in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chailleux, A.; Mohl, E.K.; Teixeira Alves, M.; Messelink, G.J.; Desneux, N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how arthropod pests and their natural enemies interact in complex agroecosystems is essential for pest management programmes. Theory predicts that prey sharing a predator, such as a biological control agent, can indirectly reduce each other's density at equilibrium (apparent

  20. Natural Enemy Abundance in Southeastern Blueberry Agroecosystems: Distance to Edge and Impact of Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, T Seth; Sial, Ashfaq A; Schmidt, Jason M

    2018-02-08

    Natural enemies are valuable components of agroecosystems as they provide biological control services to help regulate pest populations. Promoting biocontrol services can improve sustainability by decreasing pesticide usage, which is a major challenge for the blueberry industry. Our research is the first to compare natural enemy populations in managed (conventional and organic) and unmanaged blueberry systems, in addition to the effects of non-crop habitat. We conducted our study in 10 blueberry orchards during the growing season across the major blueberry producing counties in Georgia, United States. To estimate the spatial distribution of natural enemies, we conducted suction sampling at three locations in each orchard: within the forested border, along the edge of blueberry orchard adjacent to forested border, and within the interior of the blueberry orchard. Natural enemies maintained higher abundance over the season in unmanaged areas when compared with organic or conventional production systems. In the conventional orchards, natural enemies were more abundant in the surrounding non-crop area compared with the interior of the orchard. Populations were more evenly distributed in less intensive systems (organic and unmanaged). Our results indicate spatial structure in natural enemy populations is related to management practice, and less intensive management can retain higher abundance of natural enemies in blueberry systems. Considerations must be made towards promoting ecologically based management practices to sustain natural enemy populations and potentially increase the delivery of biological control services. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Horizontal transmission of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in grasshopper populations via predatory natural enemies.

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    Wang-Peng, Shi; Zheng, Xuan; Jia, Wan-Tong; Li, Ao-Mei; Camara, Ibrahima; Chen, Hong-Xing; Tan, Shu-Qian; Liu, Yi-Qing; Ji, Rong

    2018-04-24

    Paranosema locustae Canning, 1953 (Microsporidia) provides effective control of grasshoppers. While horizontal transmission of P. locustae is known to occur, evidence for the mechanisms of such transmission via predatory natural enemies was found. We conducted a three-year laboratory and field study to assess the potential impact of feces both from grasshoppers Locusta migratoria L. and from their natural enemies on the persistence of P. locustae. We found that P. locustae persisted among grasshopper populations in treated areas and in adjacent untreated areas for up to two years, and the density of grasshoppers decreased in both areas. We showed that healthy grasshoppers could be infected by feeding on food contaminated by feces from their natural enemies. Predators of grasshoppers retained a large number of spores acquired from eating grasshoppers infected with P. locustae. Spores in the feces of the main natural enemy, the beetle Pterostichus gebleri Dejean 1828 in treated area showed clear viability. These results demonstrate that predatory natural enemies are important vectors for this microsporidian disease, and suggest that sustainable transmission and continuing population suppression might be achieved by horizontal transmission through natural enemies, which should be maximized to increase the effectiveness of P. locustae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  3. [Effects of insecticides on insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junqi; Miao, Yong; Zou, Yunding; Li, Guiting

    2006-05-01

    This paper studied the effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid on the insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields in the Yangtze-Huaihe region of Anhui Province. The results showed that all of the test insecticides had significant effects in controlling the growth of major insect pest populations. The average value of insect pest-natural enemy community diversity under effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid was 1.545, 1.562, 1.691 and 1.915, respectively, while that in control plot was 1.897. After two weeks of applying insecticides, the plots applied with shachongshuang and abamectin had a similar composition of insect pest-natural enemy community, but the community composition was significantly different between the plots applied with triazophos and Bt + imidacloprid. From the viewpoints of community stability and pest control, Bt + imidacloprid had the best effect, and shachongshuang and abamectin were better than triazophos.

  4. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  5. Can plant-natural enemy communication withstand disruption by biotic and abiotic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo McCormick, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The attraction of natural enemies towards herbivore-induced plant volatiles is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the majority of published studies are carried under optimal water and nutrient regimes and with just one herbivore. But what happens when additional levels of ecological complexity are added? Does the presence of a second herbivore, microorganisms, and abiotic stress interfere with plant-natural enemy communication? or is communication stable enough to withstand disruption by additional biotic and abiotic factors?Investigating the effects of these additional levels of ecological complexity is key to understanding the stability of tritrophic interactions in natural ecosystems and may aid to forecast the impact of environmental disturbances on these, especially in climate change scenarios, which are often associated with modifications in plant and arthropod species distribution and increased levels of abiotic stress.This review explores the literature on natural enemy attraction to herbivore-induced volatiles when, besides herbivory, plants are challenged by additional biotic and abiotic factors.The aim of this review was to establish the impact of different biotic and abiotic factors on plant-natural enemy communication and to highlight critical aspects to guide future research efforts.

  6. A Holling Type II Pest and Natural Enemy Model with Density Dependent IPM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource limitations and density dependent releasing of natural enemies during the pest control and integrated pest management will undoubtedly result in nonlinear impulsive control. In order to investigate the effects of those nonlinear control strategies on the successful pest control, we have proposed a pest-natural enemy system concerning integrated pest management with density dependent instant killing rate and releasing rate. In particular, the releasing rate depicts how the number of natural enemy populations released was guided by their current density at the fixed moment. The threshold condition which ensures the existence and global stability of pest-free periodic solution has been discussed first, and the effects of key parameters on the threshold condition reveal that reducing the pulse period does not always benefit pest control; that is, frequent releasing of natural enemies may not be beneficial to the eradication of pests when the density dependent releasing method has been implemented. Moreover, the forward and backward bifurcations could occur once the pest-free periodic solution becomes unstable, and the system could exist with very complex dynamics. All those results confirm that the control actions should be carefully designed once the nonlinear impulsive control measures have been taken for pest management.

  7. Approaches to conserving natural enemy populations in greenhouse crops: current methods and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bennison, J.; Alomar, O.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.; Shipp, L.; Palevsky, E.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological pest control in greenhouse crops is usually based on periodical releases of mass-produced natural enemies, and this method has been successfully applied for decades. However, in some cases there are shortcomings in pest control efficacy, which often can be attributed to the poor

  8. Hemlock woolly adelgid and its natural enemies in Sichuan Province, China, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Zhou; Yinbo Xiao; Yugui Xiao; Wenhua Lu; Michael Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of Chinese and American institutions was formed in 2005 to obtain natural enemies for biological control of Adelges tsugae Annand, the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), in the eastern United States. We report here the first 6 months (June-November) of studies done at three sites in Kangding and Baoxing Counties in Sichuan Province.

  9. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide nat...

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and natural enemies promote coexistence of tropical tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicte Bachelot; María Uriarte; Krista L. McGuire; Jill Thompson; Jess Zimmerman

    2017-01-01

    Negative population feedbacks mediated by natural enemies can promote species coexistence at the community scale through disproportionate mortality of numerically dominant (common) tree species. Simultaneously, associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can result in positive effects on tree populations. Coupling data on seedling foliar damage from herbivores...

  11. Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: lessons from the field and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We sampled the abundance of natural enemies and outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticides used in the f...

  12. Impact of reduced-risk insecticides on soybean aphid and associated natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnesorg, Wayne J; Johnson, Kevin D; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2009-10-01

    Insect predators in North America suppress Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations; however, insecticides are required when populations reach economically damaging levels. Currently, insecticides used to manage A. glycines are broad-spectrum (pyrethroids and organophosphates), and probably reduce beneficial insect abundance in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Our goal was to determine whether insecticides considered reduced-risk by the Environmental Protection Agency could protect soybean yield from A. glycines herbivory while having a limited impact on the aphid's natural enemies. We compared three insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pymetrozine,) to a broad-spectrum insecticide (lamda-cyhalothrin) and an untreated control using two application methods. We applied neonicotinoid insecticides to seeds (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) as well as foliage (imidacloprid); pymetrozine and lamda-cyhalothrin were applied only to foliage. Foliage-applied insecticides had lower A. glycines populations and higher yields than the seed-applied insecticides. Among foliage-applied insecticides, pymetrozine and imidacloprid had an intermediate level of A. glycines population and yield protection compared with lamda-cyhalothrin and the untreated control. We monitored natural enemies with yellow sticky cards, sweep-nets, and direct observation. Before foliar insecticides were applied (i.e., before aphid populations developed) seed treatments had no observable effect on the abundance of natural enemies. After foliar insecticides were applied, differences in natural enemy abundance were observed when sampled with sweep-nets and direct observation but not with yellow sticky cards. Based on the first two sampling methods, pymetrozine and the foliage-applied imidacloprid had intermediate abundances of natural enemies compared with the untreated control and lamda-cyhalothrin.

  13. The Attractivity of Ornamental Plants to Some Natural Enemies of Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ramdan Muhamed Al Kawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several roles of ornamental plants to environment management and human being. One of them is to attract some natural enemies of pest which more ecofriendly and specific target. Related with this role, the objectives of this study are to inventory kind of ornamental plants in the play ground, to inventory kind of ornamental plants which attract natural enemies, and to know the foreign students perception to the function of the ornamental plant species for attracting the natural enemies. This study was conducted using Visual Encounter Survey (VES method with three repetitions. The result showed that there were 5 ornamental plants in the area study as Acalypha siamensis, Osmoxylon lineare, Canna indica, Crinum asiaticum L. and Oleina syzigium. Data analysis using Community structure of Arthropods, Index of Diversity, and Index of Similarity on different area. The result Based on the average of species abundance, O. lineare is the most visited plant by animals. It was showed from range of average of species abundance which reached from 0.17 to 13.72 individu. The second one was A. siamensis which had average of species abundance 0.14 - 13.14 individu. The next plant which visited by many animals are C. indica and C. asiaticum L. The average of species abundance respectively varied from 0.43 to 12.00 individu and from 0.14 to 8.72 individu. Oleina syzigium became the least one, because the average of species abundance reached from 0.14 to 3.14 individu. Overall, the level of respondents (foreign students knowledge about the function of ornamental plants for attracting natural enemies was categorized into high Key words: Attractivity, Natural enemies, Ornamental plants

  14. Assessing farmers' community readiness towards the enhancement of natural enemy population in rice fields in Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairuz, K.; Idris, A. G.; Syahrizan, S.; Hatijah, K.

    2018-04-01

    Malacca has committed to be a green technology state by the year 2020. Agriculture is one of the main industries that have been highlighted to achieve this goal especially rice farming activities. Some limitations for this issue have restricted the accomplishment of the plan including pesticide usage among rice farmers. The use of chemicals in rice field need to be reduced significantly in order to support the goal. One of the indicators to the successfulness of pesticide reduction is the increasing numbers of natural enemies' species abundance and population in the rice field. Natural enemies were important to regulate pest populations in rice field naturally. Farmers' readiness to participate in this issue is very important to ensure the successfulness. The level of readiness of farmers' community will determine whether they are ready or not to execute the plan. Unfortunately, such information in rice farmers' community was not properly measured. Thus this study was aimed to assess the readiness level of rice farmers' community to change in order to enhance natural enemies in their rice field. This study was adapting the CR model as its theoretical framework. Three rice farming area in Malacca were involved in this study namely, Jasin, Melaka Tengah and Alor Gajah. Questionnaires were used as major instrument and were randomly distributed to 224 farmers. Data collected were tested for their reliability, significance and level of readiness. Knowledge of issue, knowledge of effort and resources dimensions were found influencing the readiness dimension significantly, whilst the attitude and leadership dimensions were not. Generally, the level of readiness for farmers' community in Malacca was found in the sixth or initial stage, where some of them initially have started to practice a few related activities to enhance the natural enemies' population in their rice field. Continuous support and assistant from the leaders and local authorities are crucially needed in

  15. Mechanisms of symbiont-conferred protection against natural enemies: an ecological and evolutionary framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Nicole M; Parker, Benjamin J

    2014-10-01

    Many vertically-transmitted microbial symbionts protect their insect hosts from natural enemies, including host-targeted pathogens and parasites, and those vectored by insects to other hosts. Protection is often achieved through production of inhibiting toxins, which is not surprising given that toxin production mediates competition in many environments. Classical models of macroecological interactions, however, demonstrate that interspecific competition can be less direct, and recent research indicates that symbiont-protection can be mediated through exploitation of limiting resources, and through activation of host immune mechanisms that then suppress natural enemies. Available data, though limited, suggest that effects of symbionts on vectored pathogens and parasites, as compared to those that are host-targeted, are more likely to result from symbiont activation of the host immune system. We discuss these different mechanisms in light of their potential impact on the evolution of host physiological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Briano, Juan; Calcaterra, Luis; Varone, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  17. Lime sulfur toxicity to broad mite, to its host plants and to natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Perez, André L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy A; Martins Filho, Sebastião

    2013-06-01

    An acaricidal effect of lime sulfur has not been demonstrated for Polyphagotarsonemus latus. However, lime sulfur can cause toxicity to natural enemies and to host plants. In this study, the toxicity of different concentrations of lime sulfur to P. latus, to the predatory mite Amblyseius herbicolus and to the predatory insect Chrysoperla externa was evaluated. Additionally, the phytotoxicity of lime sulfur to two P. latus hosts, chili pepper and physic nut plants, was determined. Lime sulfur at a concentration of 9.5 mL L(-1) restrained P. latus population growth. However, this concentration was deleterious to natural enemies. The predatory mite A. herbicolus showed a negative value of instantaneous growth rate, and only 50% of the tested larvae of C. externa reached adulthood when exposed to 10 mL L(-1) . Physic nut had severe injury symptoms when sprayed with all tested lime sulfur concentrations. For chili pepper plants, no phytoxicity was observed at any tested concentration. Lime sulfur might be used for P. latus control on chili pepper but not on physic nut owing to phytotoxicity. Care should be taken when using lime sulfur in view of negative effects on natural enemies. Selective lime sulfur concentration integrated with other management tactics may provide an effective and sustainable P. latus control on chili pepper. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  20. Plant diversification promotes biocontrol services in peach orchards by shaping the ecological niches of insect herbivores and their natural enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Nian Feng; Ji, Xiang Yun; Deng, Jian Yu

    2018-01-01

    Ecological niche indicators have been scarcely adopted to assess the biological control of insect herbivores by their natural enemies. We hypothesize that plant diversification promotes the biocontrol services by narrowing the niches of herbivores and broadening the niches of natural enemies....... Our study reveals that plant diversification promotes the biocontrol services by shaping the niche of herbivores and natural enemies, and provides a new assessment method to understand the biodiversity-niche-ecosystem management interactions........ In a large-scale experiment, we found that the abundance of natural enemies was increased by 38.1%, and the abundance of insect herbivores was decreased by 16.9% in peach orchards with plant diversification (treatment) compared to ones with monoculture (control). Stratified sampling indicated...

  1. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Nash, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion) were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids) and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles) invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield loss regardless

  2. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Hill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield

  3. Genetic variation in plant volatile emission does not result in differential attraction of natural enemies in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Hunter, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission by plants may serve as an adaptive plant defense by attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. For plant VOC emission to evolve as an adaptive defense, plants must show genetic variability for the trait. To date, such variability has been investigated primarily in agricultural systems, yet relatively little is known about genetic variation in VOCs emitted by natural populations of native plants. Here, we investigate intraspecific variation in constitutive and herbivore-induced plant VOC emission using the native common milkweed plant (Asclepias syriaca) and its monarch caterpillar herbivore (Danaus plexippus) in complementary field and common garden greenhouse experiments. In addition, we used a common garden field experiment to gauge natural enemy attraction to milkweed VOCs induced by monarch damage. We found evidence of genetic variation in the total constitutive and induced concentrations of VOCs and the composition of VOC blends emitted by milkweed plants. However, all milkweed genotypes responded similarly to induction by monarchs in terms of their relative change in VOC concentration and blend. Natural enemies attacked decoy caterpillars more frequently on damaged than on undamaged milkweed, and natural enemy visitation was associated with higher total VOC concentrations and with VOC blend. Thus, we present evidence that induced VOCs emitted by milkweed may function as a defense against herbivores. However, plant genotypes were equally attractive to natural enemies. Although milkweed genotypes diverge phenotypically in their VOC concentrations and blends, they converge into similar phenotypes with regard to magnitude of induction and enemy attraction.

  4. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Sam P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation, neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i holds, we find that (ii the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties.

  5. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  6. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Schlinkert

    Full Text Available Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground, the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness. We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their

  7. Impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on natural enemies in greenhouse and interiorscape environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Bethke, James A

    2011-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and clothianidin are commonly used in greenhouses and/or interiorscapes (plant interiorscapes and conservatories) to manage a wide range of plant-feeding insects such as aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies. However, these systemic insecticides may also be harmful to natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids. Predatory insects and mites may be adversely affected by neonicotinoid systemic insecticides when they: (1) feed on pollen, nectar or plant tissue contaminated with the active ingredient; (2) consume the active ingredient of neonicotinoid insecticides while ingesting plant fluids; (3) feed on hosts (prey) that have consumed leaves contaminated with the active ingredient. Parasitoids may be affected negatively by neonicotinoid insecticides because foliar, drench or granular applications may decrease host population levels so that there are not enough hosts to attack and thus sustain parasitoid populations. Furthermore, host quality may be unacceptable for egg laying by parasitoid females. In addition, female parasitoids that host feed may inadvertently ingest a lethal concentration of the active ingredient or a sublethal dose that inhibits foraging or egg laying. There are, however, issues that require further consideration, such as: the types of plant and flower that accumulate active ingredients, and the concentrations in which they are accumulated; the influence of flower age on the level of exposure of natural enemies to the active ingredient; the effect of neonicotinoid metabolites produced within the plant. As such, the application of neonicotinoid insecticides in conjunction with natural enemies in protected culture and interiorscape environments needs further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource.

  9. Responses of Crop Pests and Natural Enemies to Wildflower Borders Depends on Functional Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ellie; Loeb, Gregory; Grab, Heather

    2017-07-25

    Increased homogeneity of agricultural landscapes in the last century has led to a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, management practices such as wildflower borders offer supplementary resources to many beneficial arthropods. There is evidence that these borders can increase beneficial arthropod abundance, including natural enemies of many pests. However, this increase in local habitat diversity can also have effects on pest populations, and these effects are not well-studied. In this study, we investigated how wildflower borders affect both natural enemies and pests within an adjacent strawberry crop. Significantly more predators were captured in strawberry plantings with wildflower borders versus plantings without wildflowers, but this effect depended on sampling method. Overall, herbivore populations were lower in plots with a wildflower border; however, responses to wildflower borders varied across specific pest groups. Densities of Lygus lineolaris (Tarnished Plant Bug), a generalist pest, increased significantly in plots that had a border, while Stelidota geminata (Strawberry Sap Beetle) decreased in strawberry fields with a wildflower border. These results suggest that wildflower borders may support the control of some pest insects; however, if the pest is a generalist and can utilize the resources of the wildflower patch, their populations may increase within the crop.

  10. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter−1), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10−5 mg a.i. liter−1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter−1). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults. PMID:27958333

  11. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  12. Susceptibility of natural enemies of pests of agriculture to commonly applied insecticides in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, M.; Sabillon, A.; Velasquez, C.; Ordonez, J.; Baquedano, F.

    1999-01-01

    Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)

  13. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  14. Collective defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae against natural enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hartbauer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear, show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found

  15. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  16. Seasonal abundance and development of the Asian longhorned beetle and natural enemy prevalence in different forest types in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and population development of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and prevalence of its natural enemies were studied on Hankow willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.) at an urban forest site (Anci) and a rural forest site (Tangerli) in Hebei province...

  17. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  18. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina...

  19. Early-season movement dynamics of phytophagous pest and natural enemies across a native vegetation-crop ecotone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macfadyen, S.; Hopkinson, J.; Parry, H.; Neave, M.J.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Zalucki, M.P.; Schellhorn, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding about how insect movement patterns are influenced by landscape features, and how landscapes can be managed to suppress pest phytophage populations in crops. Theory suggests that the relative timing of pest and natural enemy arrival in crops may influence pest

  20. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  1. Optimal control of soybean aphid in the presence of natural enemies and the implied value of their ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M

    2012-04-15

    By suppressing pest populations, natural enemies provide an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural ecosystems systems and potentially mitigates producers' pest control costs. Integrating natural control services into decisions about pesticide-based control has the potential to significantly improve the economic efficiency of pesticide use, with socially desirable outcomes. Two gaps have hindered the incorporation of natural enemies into pest management decision rules: (1) insufficient knowledge of pest and predator population dynamics and (2) lack of a decision framework for the economic tradeoffs among pest control options. Using a new intra-seasonal, dynamic bioeconomic optimization model, this study assesses how predation by natural enemies contributes to profit-maximizing pest management strategies. The model is applied to the management of the invasive soybean aphid, the most significant serious insect threat to soybean production in North America. The resulting lower bound estimate of the value of natural pest control ecosystem services was estimated at $84 million for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota in 2005. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field.

  3. Conservation Effort of Natural Enemies Animal by Creating The Green Park and Play Ground in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed Abo Al-Qassem Shahub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play grounds and green parks in Malang was developed until nowadays in the effort of enhancement the environment in Malang. With improving of the quality of services of that public area, it will increase the achievement of visitor satisfaction and their perception about its function.  The research was conducted to evaluate the existing condition in Malang City Park, to analyze the  perception of the visitors to the utilization play grounds in the city and to formulate the recommendations in improving the play ground for the conservation of natural enemies. For these purposes, questionnaires were developed and it was interviewed to the visitors of the play ground as respondents. Data collected were analyzed using Gap Analysis compared to the ideal of green park as play ground according to the governance criteria. Based on research results, most of the visitors were satisfy with the play ground, but their perception to its function were no so clear. By implementing some suggestion of the stakeholders (University and Non-Governmental Organization almost all of the criteria of ideal green open space were already similar with its from the government. The improvement in the educational characters of the play ground and be considered for the ideal multifunction play ground in Malang City. Keywords: multi function, play ground, visitor perception

  4. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp. and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Briano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is reported on local fire ants and their microsporidia, nematodes, viruses, phorid flies, eucharitid wasps, strepsiptera, and parasitic ants. Their biology, abundance, distribution, detrimental effect, field persistence, specificity, and phenology are discussed. We conclude that the objectives of the ARS program in South America are being achieved and that the pioneering studies have served to encourage further investigations in the United States and other countries and advanced the implementation of biological control programs to decrease imported fire ant densities and damage. Still, several promising organisms should be further investigated for eventual field release in the near future.

  5. Active insecticides for Diaphania hyalinata selective for the natural enemy Solenopsis saevissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alex R; Alvarenga, Elson S; Lopes, Mayara C; Santos, Izailda B Dos; Galdino, Tarcisio V; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the nine synthetic dienamides against the insect pest Diaphania hyalinata (melonworm) and the selectivity of these substances for the predator Solenopsis saevissima (fire ant). Four bioassays were conducted. To begin with, the dienamides that caused high mortality of D. hyalinata have been selected. In the second bioassay the dose-mortality curves of the selected dienamides have been constructed. In the third bioassay, the survival curves for D. hyalinata and the elapsed time to kill 50% of their population have been determined. In the fourth biological test, the selectivity of the substances to the predator S. saevissima has been evaluated. The most active (2E,4E)-N-butylhexa-2,4-dienamide 3d has killed 95% of the melonworm, D. hyalinata, and less than 10% of the natural enemy S. saevissima. The results presented by this compound are superior to the outcome displayed by the commercial insecticide Malathion®. Three of the dienamides prepared in this manuscript have proven to be selective in killing the pest, but not the beneficial insect.

  6. [Effects of plant viruses on vector and non-vector herbivorous arthropods and their natural enemies: a mini review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Chan; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xu-Song; Sun, Yu-Jian; Yang, Ya-Jun; Tian, Jun-Ce; Lü, Zhong-Xian

    2014-05-01

    Plant viruses transmitted by arthropods, as an important biotic factor, may not only directly affect the yield and quality of host plants, and development, physiological characteristics and ecological performances of their vector arthropods, but also directly or indirectly affect the non-vector herbivorous arthropods and their natural enemies in the same ecosystem, thereby causing influences to the whole agro-ecosystem. This paper reviewed the progress on the effects of plant viruses on herbivorous arthropods, including vector and non-vector, and their natural enemies, and on their ecological mechanisms to provide a reference for optimizing the management of vector and non-vector arthropod populations and sustainable control of plant viruses in agro-ecosystem.

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST SUCKING INSECT PEST AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES ON COTTON CROP

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Baker; A. H. Makhdum; M. Nasir; A. Imran; A. Ahmad; F. Tufail

    2016-01-01

    The Synthetic and botanical insecticides are relatively safer for environment and beneficial insects. The study was conducted in Rahim Yar Khan during the cotton cropping season 2014 to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two Synthetic insecticides i.e. Nitenpyram (Jasper 10% SL) and Pyriproxyfen (Bruce 10.8% EC) and two botanical extracts of Calotropic procera and Azadirachta indica, against sucking insect pest complex of cotton and their natural enemies. Upon reaching economic thresholds, ...

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST SUCKING INSECT PEST AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES ON COTTON CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Synthetic and botanical insecticides are relatively safer for environment and beneficial insects. The study was conducted in Rahim Yar Khan during the cotton cropping season 2014 to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two Synthetic insecticides i.e. Nitenpyram (Jasper 10% SL and Pyriproxyfen (Bruce 10.8% EC and two botanical extracts of Calotropic procera and Azadirachta indica, against sucking insect pest complex of cotton and their natural enemies. Upon reaching economic thresholds, the recommended field doses of all the insecticides were applied on cotton cultivar MNH-886. Data against sucking pests and their natural enemies was recorded 24 hours prior to insecticidal application and then 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after insecticidal application. Results revealed that Nitenpyram was much toxic against sucking pests followed by Pyriproxyfen as compared to two botanical extracts. On the other hand, the synthetic insecticides did not prove safer for natural enemies as compared to botanical extracts. It was concluded that as an Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy, botanical extracts can be used at low infestation levels so that ecosystem service of biological control may be sustained.

  9. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  10. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Calcaterra, Luis A

    2018-01-01

    Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology. After a series of winnowing methods to remove S. invicta genes, known S. invicta virus genes, and all other non-virus gene sequences, 61,944 unique singletons were identified with virus identity. These were assembled de novo yielding 171 contiguous sequences with significant identity to non-plant virus genes. Fifteen contiguous sequences exhibited very high expression rates and were detected in all four gene libraries. One contig (Contig_29) exhibited the highest expression level overall and across all four gene libraries. Random amplification of cDNA ends analyses expanded this contiguous sequence yielding a complete virus genome, which we have provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 5 (SINV-5). SINV-5 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with genome characteristics consistent with insect-infecting viruses from the family Dicistroviridae. Moreover, the replicative genome strand of SINV-5 was detected in worker ants indicating that S. invicta serves as host for the virus. Many additional sequences were identified that are likely of viral origin. These sequences await further investigation to determine their origins and relationship with S. invicta. This study expands knowledge of the RNA virome diversity found within S. invicta populations.

  11. Prospecting for viral natural enemies of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology. After a series of winnowing methods to remove S. invicta genes, known S. invicta virus genes, and all other non-virus gene sequences, 61,944 unique singletons were identified with virus identity. These were assembled de novo yielding 171 contiguous sequences with significant identity to non-plant virus genes. Fifteen contiguous sequences exhibited very high expression rates and were detected in all four gene libraries. One contig (Contig_29 exhibited the highest expression level overall and across all four gene libraries. Random amplification of cDNA ends analyses expanded this contiguous sequence yielding a complete virus genome, which we have provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 5 (SINV-5. SINV-5 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with genome characteristics consistent with insect-infecting viruses from the family Dicistroviridae. Moreover, the replicative genome strand of SINV-5 was detected in worker ants indicating that S. invicta serves as host for the virus. Many additional sequences were identified that are likely of viral origin. These sequences await further investigation to determine their origins and relationship with S. invicta. This study expands knowledge of the RNA virome diversity found within S. invicta populations.

  12. Evaluation of three neonicotinoid insecticides against the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirzade, Najmeh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Jalali, Mohammad Amin; Zohdi, Hadi

    2014-03-06

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest in pistachio orchards in Iran. Chemical control is a common method to manage this pest. Compatibility between natural enemies and pesticides is a primary concern in programs of integrated pest management of the psyllid pest. In this research, susceptibility of fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae and fourth instar larvae of the two most common predators of this pest, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Coccinella undecimpunctata aegyptiaca Reiche, to acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid was investigated. Probit analysis of concentration-mortality data was conducted to estimate the LC50 value. The results showed that thiamethoxam with an LC50 value of 56.35 mg a.i./L was more toxic to fifth instar nymphs of Ag. pistaciae in comparison to acetamiprid (60.75 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (138.21 mg a.i/L) . Imidacloprid with an LC50 value of 218.89 mg a.i/L compared to acetamiprid (222.65 mg a.i/L) and thiamethoxam (232.37 mg a.i/L) had more lethal effects on fourth instar larvae of Ad. bipunctata. However, on the fourth instar larvae of C. undecimpunctata aegyptica, acetamiprid with an LC50 value of 263.44 mg a.i/L was more toxic than thiamethoxam (296.62 mg a.i/L) and imidacloprid (447.82 mg a.i/L). The laboratory findings showed that the three tested insecticides were more toxic to the common pistachio psylla than to its natural predators. Thiamethoxam was the most toxic against Ag. pistaciae. However, its toxicity to the predators was lower than imidacloprid and acetamiprid. This result suggests that thiamethoxam is the best insecticide for control of Ag. pistaciae in combination with predatory lady beetles. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  13. The effect of insecticide applications to melon crop on melon aphid and its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Ceballos, J.; Checa, B.

    1999-01-01

    Melons are an important export crop for Panama and are cultivated on more than 1000 ha of land. Long growing season, extending well into January, allows several generations and build up of heavy populations of an important insect pest, Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid. Growers find it difficult to cultivate melons without several applications of insecticides. Although the insecticide applications control the aphids, they may also have adverse effects on the natural enemies of the aphid, in particular the two predatory insects Cycloneda sanguinea and Chrysoperla carnea. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of insecticide applications on these insects and on the yield of melons, and to estimate residues of the applied insecticides in soil. The insecticides were applied as four different type of treatments to melon crop. The treatments were (i) three periodic applications of endosulfan (Thiodan 35EC), each at 0.52 kg a.i./ha, (ii) three applications of fenitrothion (Sumithion 50WP), each at 0.35 kg a.i./ha, (iii) two applications of fenitrothion and one of endosulfan, and (iv) grower's treatment, which included applications of six different insecticides. The effect of the insecticide applications was evaluated by estimating numbers of each of the three type of insects before and within 72 hours after the applications and estimating yield of melons. All insecticide treatments reduced the populations of Aphis gossypii, but they also reduced the numbers of the benificial insects. Endosulfan was somewhat less toxic to C. carnea than the other insecticides were, since greater number of C. carnea were recorded from the plots treated with endosulfan than the other treated plots. The best yield of melons was recorded in the plots which were sprayed with fenitrothion, followed by the plots sprayed with endosulfan. and then those with grower's insecticides. Soon after the application of endosulfan the residue in the soil was 0.2 mg/kg, but it declined to less

  14. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  15. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  16. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  18. Floral resource utilization by solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and exploitation of their stored foods by natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcislo, W T; Cane, J H

    1996-01-01

    Bees are phytophagous insects that exhibit recurrent ecological specializations related to factors generally different from those discussed for other phytophagous insects. Pollen specialists have undergone extensive radiations, and specialization is not always a derived state. Floral host associations are conserved in some bee lineages. In others, various species specialize on different host plants that are phenotypically similar in presenting predictably abundant floral resources. The nesting of solitary bees in localized areas influences the intensity of interactions with enemies and competitors. Abiotic factors do not always explain the intraspecific variation in the spatial distribution of solitary bees. Foods stored by bees attract many natural enemies, which may shape diverse facets of nesting and foraging behavior. Parasitism has evolved repeatedly in some, but not all, bee lineages. Available evidence suggests that cleptoparasitic lineages are most speciose in temperate zones. Female parasites frequently have a suite of characters that can be described as a masculinized feminine form. The evolution of resource specialization (including parasitism) in bees presents excellent opportunities to investigate phenotypic mechanisms responsible for evolutionary change.

  19. Exchange of natural enemies for biological control: is it a rocky road?-the road in the Euro-Mediterranean region and the South American common market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinot, D; Briano, J; Parra, J R P; de Sá, L A N; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    The access and benefit sharing (ABS) regulations from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the use of natural resources became an important issue because the biodiversity of developing countries was heavily accessed and unilaterally exploited by pharmaceutical and seed companies. However, natural enemies used for biological control are living and unmodified genetic resources which cannot be patented and have been treated as resources such as drugs, seeds, or other commercial products. Consequently, the ABS requirements have limited not only the use of natural enemies but also the positive effects that scientifically supported biological control strategies have on the society, the environment, and the economy, reducing problems of pesticide residues, water and soil contamination, and non-target effects. During the last several years, the biological control scientific community has faced new and extremely complicated legislation dictated by a high and diverse number of governmental agencies at different levels, making the access to natural resources for biocontrol purposes a rocky road. Society at large should be aware of how the strict ABS regulations affect the use of natural enemies as biological resources to secure food production, food safety, and global environmental protection. We discuss in here the current difficulties derived from CBD for the exchange of natural enemies taking as example the Euro-Mediterranean region, Argentina, and Brazil to demonstrate how long and diverse are the steps to be followed to obtain the required permits for access and exportation/importation of natural enemies. We then argue that the public visibility of biocontrol strategies should be increased and their benefits highlighted in order to persuade legislators for the development of a less bureaucratic, more expedient, and more centralized regulatory frame, greatly favoring the practice and benefits of biological control. We finally propose a general framework in

  20. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  1. Habitat affinity of resident natural enemies of the invasive Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on soybean, with comments on biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Noma, Takuji

    2010-06-01

    We integrated a natural enemy survey of the broader landscape into a more traditional survey for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), parasitoids and predatory flies on soybean using A. glycines-infested soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., placed in cropped and noncropped plant systems to complement visual field observations. Across three sites and 5 yr, 18 parasitoids and predatory flies in total (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae [two species] and Bracondae [seven species], Diptera: Cecidomyiidae [one species], Syrphidae [seven species], Chamaemyiidae [one species]) were detected, with significant variability in recoveries detected across plant system treatments and strong contrasts in habitat affinity detected among species. Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson was the most frequently detected parasitoid, and no differences in abundance were detected in cropped (soybean, wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], corn [Zea mays L.], and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]) and noncropped (poplar [Populus euramericana (Dode) Guinier] and early successional vegetation) areas. In contrast, Binodoxys kelloggensis Pike, Starý & Brewer had strong habitat affinity for poplar and early successional vegetation. The low recoveries seasonally and across habitats of Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus sp., and Aphidius colemoni Viereck make their suitability to A. glycines on soybean highly suspect. The widespread occurrence of many of the flies reflects their broad habitat affinity and host aphid ranges. The consistent low field observations of parasitism and predation suggest that resident parasitoids and predatory flies are unlikely to contribute substantially to A. glycines suppression, at least during the conventional time period early in the pest invasion when classical biological control activities are considered. For selected species that were relatively well represented across plant systems (i.e., L. testaceipes and Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani), conservation biological control efforts

  2. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  3. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  5. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  6. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies.

  7. Significance of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) as part of the natural enemy complex responsible for successful biological control of many tropical irrigated rice pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M J; Heong, K L

    2009-10-01

    The tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) often nests very abundantly in the earthen banks (bunds) around irrigated rice fields in the tropics. Where some farmers habitually drain fields to the mud for about 3-4 days, the ants can quickly spread up to about 20 m into the fields where they collect food, including pest prey such as the eggs and young of the apple snail Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck) and insects such as lepidopterous larvae and hoppers, notably Nilaparvata lugens (Stäl) the brown planthopper (Bph) and green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. Even in drained fields, the activity of S. geminata is restricted by rainfall in the wet season. The relatively few ant workers that forage characteristically into drained fields and on to the transplanted clumps of rice plants (hills) kill the normally few immigrant Bph adults but are initially slower acting than other species of the natural enemy complex. However, larger populations of Bph are fiercely attacked and effectively controlled by rapidly recruited ant workers; whereas, in the absence of the ant, the other natural enemies are inadequate. In normal circumstances, there is no ant recruitment in response to initially small populations of immigrant Bph and no evidence of incompatibility between ant foragers and other natural enemies such as spiders. However, when many ants are quickly and aggressively recruited to attack large populations of Bph, they temporarily displace some spiders from infested hills. It is concluded that, in suitable weather conditions and even when insecticides kill natural enemies within the rice field, periodic drainage that enables S. geminata to join the predator complex is valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails and Lepidoptera, and especially against relatively large populations of Bph. Drainage practices to benefit ants are fully compatible with recent research, which shows that periodic drainage combats problems of 'yield decline' in intensively irrigated

  8. Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, D. A.; Parisey, N.; Burel, F.; Plantegenest, M.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Butet, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 89-101 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : agroecosystems * landscape structure * crop pests * aphids * biological control * semi-natural habitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.

    2017-07-01

    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  10. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and natural enemies on hops in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, A.; Hermoso de Mendoza, A.; Seco, V.; Campelo, P.; Casquero, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003) observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230) and adults (p=0.0245) in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004) where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  11. Effects of organic-farming-compatible insecticides on four aphid natural enemy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jean P; Defrance, Thibaut; Warnier, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    The toxicities of pyrethrins + rapeseed oil, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), potassium salts of fatty acids and linseed oil were assessed in the laboratory on the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Destefani-Perez), the ladybird Adalia bipunctata (L.), the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Gyll.) and the carabid beetle Bembidion lampros (Herbst.). The methods selected were residual contact toxicity tests on inert and natural substrates. Both the pyrethrin products led to 100% mortality in the adult parasitic wasps and ladybird larvae on glass plates and plants. The pyrethrins + PBO formulation was toxic for B. lampros on sand and natural soil, but the pyrethrins + rapeseed oil formulation was harmless for this species. Insecticidal soaps were harmless for all these beneficial species. None of the tested products significantly affected the parasitism of the onion fly pupae by A. bilineata. The results indicated the potentially high toxicity of natural pyrethrins for beneficial arthropods. Although this toxicity needs to be confirmed in field conditions, the toxicity levels obtained in the laboratory were similar to or higher than those of several synthetic insecticides known to be toxic in the field. Insecticidal soaps could be considered as an alternative for aphid control in organic farming in terms of selectivity.

  12. Studies on the occurrence of true spiders as natural enemies in many Egyptian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira A. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available True spiders represent one of the most important natural predatory species in Egyptian fields. In this work, common true spiders were surveyed in wheat, cotton and maize fields, and were counted weekly by using the direct method. For evaluating the feeding consumption of true spiders, five feeding cases were tested (as preys. These cases were: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella, eggs of Phthorimaea operculella, one day eggs and larvae of E. kuehniella, larvae of E. kuehniella and P. operculella and larvae of E. kuehniella only. Results obtained revealed that, the highest average daily consumption for each spider was recorded in case of feeding on eggs of P. operculella. While, the longest survival period was recorded in case of feeding on larvae of E. kuehniella.

  13. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  14. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  15. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  16. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    cabbage, may be used by these natural enemies to locate their diamondback moth host.

  17. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  18. Diversity and Activity of Insect Natural Enemies of the Bag worm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) within an Oil Palm Plantation in Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman Kamarudin; Othman Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Bag worms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are one of the important leaf-eating pests of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. Crop losses, due to the extensive defoliation by a serious bag worm attack are inevitable. The establishment and propagation of the bag worm's parasitoids, depend very much on species of flowering plants as sources of nectar. Cassia cobanensis, was proven suitable due to its attractiveness to most bag worm parasitoids. A study to assess the diversity of bag worm's natural enemies (hymenopterous parasitoids and reduuvid predatory bugs) on the C. cobanensis plant and within the undergrowth of the oil palm planting block was evaluated by sweep net and sticky trap sampling. Environmental parameters such as light intensity, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded during the sampling to determine their possible range of influence towards the activity of the insect natural enemies. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of insect natural enemies occurring on the C. cobanensis plant was 2.32. Among the dominant parasitoids observed on C. cobanensis plants are chalcids (Brachymeria lugubris and Brachymeria carinata) and braconids (Dolichogenidea metesae and Apanteles aluella), besides the reduuvid predator, Cosmolestes picticeps. In contrast, within the oil palm planting block, the undergrowth within the non-harvesting path only recorded a much lower diversity index of 1.09 and 1.12 each, in a block with C. cobanensis at the roadside and without, respectively. However, C. picticeps was shown to be much more dominant within both oil palm planting blocks, up to two- to three-fold, with much lesser numbers of hymenopterous parasitoids (less than five individuals). This indicates the important contribution of C. cobanensis plant towards enriching the diversity of the parasitoids, which are normally not found within the oil palm block, due to much less intense sunlight. In terms of insect activity, they are significantly more active in the

  19. Dissemination of Aleurocanthus woglumi in citrus plants, its natural enemies and new host plants in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Alvim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aleurocanthus woglumi is an exotic pest, widely disseminated in Brazil, with a high preference for citrus plants, but with a polyphagous feeding habit. The contribution of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the Brazilian production of citrus fruits is small; however, there are still public policies that encourage citrus production in the state. In 2010, the appearance of this pest in Rio de Janeiro was confirmed in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the dissemination of A. woglumi in this state, conduct a survey of new species of host plants, identify and evaluate the population of natural enemies present at two orchards that grow 'Tahiti' limes ( Citrus latifolia infested by the pest in Cachoeiras de Macacu, RJ, Brazil. In 19 municipalities, leaves of citrus and other species of plants presenting aleyrodid nymphs were collected, and yellow sticky traps were installed to capture adults for subsequent identification. At the 'Tahiti' lime orchards, the leaf collections were done to confirm the species of Aleyrodidae , and regarding A. woglumi , the natural enemies associated with this pest were collected directly from the infested plants. The results showed that A. woglumi is wide-spread in 12 municipalities. Three new host plants for A. woglumi were identified: Artocarpus heterophyllus ( Moraceae , Pouteria caimito ( Sapotaceae and Struthanthus flexicaulis ( Loranthaceae . In Cachoeiras de Macacu, a new species of parasitoid of A. woglumi nymphs was named: Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae , while the insects in the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera family have stood out as predators of this pest.

  20. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  1. Effects of land use and insecticides on natural enemies of aphids in cotton: First evidence from smallholder agriculture in the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, K.; Huang, J.; Deng, X.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Lu, Y.; Wu, K.; Wu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted in the USA and Europe have shown that diverse landscapes in general support greaternatural enemy abundance. No quantitative evidence on the relationship between land use diversity andnatural enemies has been reported from developing countries, where fields and farms are much

  2. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  3. Natural enemies of corn silk flies: Euxesta Stigmatias (Loew, Chaetopsis Massyla (Walker and Eumecosommyia Nubila (Wiedemann in Guasave Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ricardo Camacho Báez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The flies species complex of corn, known as “stigma flies”, including the corn-silk fly, Euxesta stigmatias (Loew,Chaetopsis massyla (Walker and Eumecosommyia nubila (Wiedemann, they have became an important pest problem in the state of Sinaloa. The damage is associated with decaying symptoms has severely affected the quality and yield of the crop. The objectives of this research project are to report sampling results on the presence of natural sources of biological control agents (parasitoids, predators, and entomopathogenic nematodes with biological control potential capacity to manage the populations of this flies species complex. This research was conducted during the spring-summer growingseason of 2011. Samples where collected for eight continuous weeks during the corn cob development and maturation. The sampled corn variety was the hybrid Asgrow Garañon. We collected predominat two wasp species belonging to the order Hymenoptera, families Pteromalidae and Eurytomidae, which are parasites to the pupa stage of corn silk fly. In addition, a wasp from the genus Spalangia spp. The latter has shown a stronger natural parasitic effect of 47% on Euxesta stigmatias (Loew. We also observed a population of the pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Say during the months of March-July, attacking several developmental stages of the fly. Soil samples where also processed to isolate and to identify populations of possible entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Larvae of Galleria melonella L. where utilized as nematode traps. Populations of nematodes from three different sites where isolated from CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Sinaloa, Guasave and Maximiliano R. Lopez, all located in the Guasave. The isolated populations are included in the Rhabditidae family, genus and specie identification is still in progress. The natural enemies found have shown potential capacity to asseses them asbiological control agents on the corn flies complex.

  4. Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Schellhorn, N.A.; Cunningham, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators

  5. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  6. The tri-trophic interactions hypothesis: interactive effects of host plant quality, diet breadth and natural enemies on herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailen A Mooney

    Full Text Available Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai and a generalist (Aphis gossypii aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.

  7. Biology and natural enemies of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead in corn (Zea mays L., in systems of polycrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tulio García González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in Fomento municipality, Sancti Spíritus, in Cuba, from 2011 through 2013 in two ecosystems and in two sowing times (rainy and dry seasons. The objectives were to describe the life cycle of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead and the damage caused to corn (Zea mays L., to identify the main pest bio-regulators naturally occurring in two agro-ecosystems, and to determine the predator-prey relationship. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The data were collected through observation at weekly intervals. In order to estimate the number of pest insects and bio-regulators occurring on the plants, 25 plants per parcel were selected for a total of 100 plants per treatment (maize/squash, maize/beans, maize/ Sesame, maize/sunflower, and maize monoculture. Once the research was accomplished, it was concluded that P maidis had been present since the first week, and reached its population peak in week six. The lower indexes of affectation occurred in the pre-mountain agro-ecosystems, and with more frequency in the maize/sesame and maize/squash polyculture, which depended on the time of the year and the season. Fifteen species of P. maidis control insects of were identified, and Scymnus sp was found in all treatments. The life cycle of P maidis averaged 5.4 days more in the dry season than in rain season. The predator-prey relationship showed relatively superior indexes in the polyculture systems than in monocrops systems.

  8. Biological characterization, habits, naturals enemy and populational fluctuation of Aconophora elongatiformis Dietrich in Tecoma Stans (L.) Juss. Ex Hbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon F, Olga Patricia; Quintero C, Paola Fernanda

    2001-01-01

    The ornamental trees complete a very important environmental function for the quality of the inhabitants' life in the urban areas, when offering momentous benefits as the subduing of the climate, regulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere and the scenic beauty. Thanks to the interest of the District Administration, in Bogota, in the last four years, the urban plantation of trees acquired a preponderant paper that became apparent during the biggest plantation of trees program and maintenance of green areas that it has been carried out in the history of the capital; day by day they get more importance, and they are recognized by the citizenship like fundamental values of its environment. Previously to this program, the attention received were minimum or were remembered soon after the surprising devastating consequences of phyto sanitary problems: the grooved cochineal of the acacia, the louse plant of the cypress and the bedbug of the Urapan in whose cases the ignorance of basic aspects of the biology, natural control and the harmful populations' behavior, it has forced to generally apply measured of chemical type to try to reduce the high levels population. The importance that have, the green areas in the city, it favors a continuous pursuit that allows to deepen in the knowledge of the main risk factors, current problems and potentials of the species, types and consequences of the damages and the intra and inter relationships of the arthropofauna of the urban vegetation, their relationship with the plants, as well as the incidence of biotic and abiotic in the tree phonologic behavior and in the fluctuation of the populations of this individuals in order to coming closer to the understanding of the dynamics of the populations of arthropods harmful, in such a way that is possible to design kind handling strategies with the environment, having in consideration in integrated form the conditions under the attack of arthropods harmful

  9. Recognising one's enemies : a functional approach to risk assessment by prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grostal, P.; Dicke, M.

    2000-01-01

    Little has been done to compare the relative importance of various mechanisms through which prey assess the potential risk from natural enemies. We used predator-naive spider mites (Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychidae) to (1) compare the responses of prey to chemical cues from enemy and non-enemy

  10. Variation in herbivory-induced volatiles among cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties has consequences for the attraction of carnivorous natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to herbivory by arthropods, plants emit herbivory-induced volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the inducing herbivores. Here, we compared the attractiveness of eight cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) to Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mites after infestation of the

  11. The enemies of books

    CERN Document Server

    Blades, William

    2012-01-01

    A fascinating look at the myriad enemies of the printed book, from fire, to neglect, to children, to the bookworm, to plain old ignorance. A passionate litany against all who would see printed literature destroyed, written by English printer and bibliographer William Blades.

  12. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  13. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  14. Image of Enemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    ABSRTACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. MA (War Studies). Royal Military College of Canada. May 2004. Image of Enemy: A Naturalistic or an Expressionistic Picture. Supervisor: Dr. Michael Roi. Societies at war rely on perceptions and preconceptions of their enemies. In many ways, the perceptions are shaped......, et peut-être des guerres. D’être capable de prédire les décisions et les actions de l’ennemi, ainsi éliminant complètement l’incertitude, il faut pénétrer à l’intérieur du cerveau adverse. Cela n’arrivera toutefois pas dans un avenir rapproché – ou peut-être jamais du tout....

  15. Eastwood and the Enemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Taking the question of why Clint Eastwood made two movies as her point of departure, film scholar Rikke Schubart explores the construction of “us” and “them” in Letters From Iwo Jima. Rather than portray American soldiers as “us” and Japanese soldiers as “them,” the film presents both groups...... of soldiers as equally humane and capable of doing both good and evil. The enemy is not a nation, that is neither the Japanese nor the Americans, but the blind idea of nationalism. In a present day perspective, the film represents a new ethical and global awareness of a conflict between a transnational...... humanism and nationalism in the American war film. Schubart thus argues that Eastwood should be interpreted as a “minor utopian,” an expression coined by historian Jay Winter in his Dreams of Peace and Freedom (2006)....

  16. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L. as an attractive crop to natural enemies in onion fields Cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes erecta L. como cultura atrativa para inimigos naturais em cultivo de cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Onion is the third most grown vegetable crop in São Paulo state, Brazil. Organic onion farming is expected to increase in the state due to the increasing demand. Pest management in organic onion farming is based on plant extracts with insecticide effects. However, the efficacy of such plant extracts has not been proved yet, and it was observed that they do negatively affect natural enemies. Plants surrounding onion fields, and that are attractive to natural enemies, may be a good option to farmers, since they may lead to increased diversity of arthropod species and, consequently, the natural control of pest populations. This study deals with the effect of marigold plants as a resource plant to natural enemies in onion fields. The experiment was set in a certified organic farm using marigold rows at a center of an onion field. Samples were taken from marigold and the onion plants 5 m (near and 30 m (far from the flowering strips. Higher numbers of arthropod pests were observed in onion plants 30 m from the marigold strip, while higher numbers of predators and parasitoids were found at 5 m distance. Species richness and Shannon's diversity index were higher at 5 m from marigold. Therefore, marigold rows next to onion fields resulted in higher number of entomophagous species, potentially enhancing the natural control of onion pests. In the study field, marigold strips may be an alternative to crop sprays for organic control of onion pests.A cebola é a terceira hortaliça mais cultivada em São Paulo, cujo cultivo orgânico tende a crescer devido ao grande mercado consumidor existente. O manejo das pragas na cebolicultura orgânica baseia-se nos extratos de plantas inseticidas que, além de terem eficiência não comprovada, podem afetar negativamente os inimigos naturais. A utilização de plantas atrativas a inimigos naturais no entorno dos cultivos de cebola pode ser uma boa opção para os produtores, pois potencialmente aumentam a diversidade

  17. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas aos inimigos naturais de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae em brássicas Insecticide physiological selectivity to natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae in Brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bacci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de inimigos naturais é um componente fundamental no manejo integrado de pragas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a seletividade de sete inseticidas usados no manejo de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ao parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e aos predadores Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae e Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. Os organofosforados metamidofós e paratiom metílico e o carbamato carbaril foram altamente tóxicos aos três inimigos naturais estudados. Dimetoato apresentou seletividade em favor do Discodon sp., na dose e subdose. O inseticida acefato apresentou alto impacto ao Discodon sp., no momento da aplicação e seu efeito foi reduzido com a metade da concentração do princípio ativo. Deltametrina apresentou seletividade à O. sokolowskii nas duas dosagens. Já permetrina foi seletiva a Lasiochilus sp., somente na subdose. Discodon sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose do dimetoato e à subdose do acefato do que O. sokolowskii e Lasiochilus sp. O predador Lasiochilus sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da permetrina do que O. sokolowskii e Discodon sp. O parasitóide O. sokolowskii foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da deltametrina do que Lasiochilus sp. e Discodon sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa foram obtidos em condições de exposição extrema, portanto indicam que os inseticidas seletivos possivelmente não serão prejudiciais aos inimigos naturais, em condições de campo.The conservation of natural enemies is a fundamental component in the integrated pest management. In this work, one studied the selectivity of seven insecticides, used in the management of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, to the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, and to the predators Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae and Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The organophosphates methamidophos and methyl parathion

  18. Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tscharntke, T.; Bommarco, R.; Clough, Y.; Crist, T.O.; Kleijn, D.; Rand, T.A.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Nouhuys, S.; Vidal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biological control in agroecosystems requires a landscape management perspective, because most arthropod species experience their habitat at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and there is spillover of natural enemies across the crop–noncrop interface. The species pool in the

  19. Know Your Enemy and Know Yourself: Assessing Progress in Developing Cultural Competence to Enhance Operational Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keene, Sean T

    2007-01-01

    .... Thousands of years ago, the writer of The Art of War highlighted the critical nature of cultural competence when he asserted his formula for military success, "know the enemy and know yourself...

  20. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS AO COMPLEXO DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS NA CULTURA DO ALGODÃO (Gossypium hirsutum L. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES ON THE COMPLEX OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN COTTON CROP (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The selectivity of insecticides was evaluated in the complex of natural enemies of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crop. The cultivar Deltapine was used in a randomized block experimental design, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments, all in their commercial formulation, were: control; thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1; lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1; betacyflutrin (800 mL.ha-1; imidacloprid (70g.ha-1; diflubenzuron (6,0 g.ha-1; and endosulfan (1500 mL.ha-1. The insecticides were sprayed at 45 days after germination. Besides the initial evaluation, other evaluations were performed three and seven days after insecticide application. Each plot was sampled by the fabric beating method, with two random beatings per plot. Natural enemies were identified and counted. Three days after application, the insecticides thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1, lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1, and diflubenzuron (60 g.ha-1 did not showed negative effect on the complex of predators present in the cotton. However, seven days after application, only the lufenuron treatment maintained the selective effect over predator complex.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecticide; biological control; Gossypium.

  2. The effect of synthetic pesticides and sulfur used in conventional and organically grown strawberry and soybean on Neozygites floridana, a natural enemy of spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Thiago; Roggia, Samuel; Wekesa, Vitalis W; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Gb Demétrio, Clarice; Delalibera, Italo; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Invasive plants and enemy release: Evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Hornoy , Benjamin; Tarayre , Michèle; Hervé , Maxime; Gigord , Luc; Atlan , Anne

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction a...

  4. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  5. Interação entre inimigos naturais: Trichogramma e Bacillus thuringiensis no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas = Interaction between natural enemies: Trichogramma and Bacillus thuringiensis in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos adversos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt nos parasitóides de ovos Trichogramma pratissolii e Trichogramma pretiosum. Suspensões de 6 isolados de Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e Bt kurstaki foram misturadas com mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento, e cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella foram fornecidas para o parasitismo. O experimento foi mantido em BOD a 25 + 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70+ 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Foram analisados a longevidade, os parasitismos diário, acumulado e total. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre a longevidade e todos ostratamentos em T. pratissolii e E-3, E-10, E-16 e E- 19 em T. pretiosum diminuíram o tempo necessário para os parasitóides atingirem 80% de parasitismo. Apesar dessa aceleração do parasitismo, o Bt não influenciou o total de ovos parasitados, mostrando-se como tática de controle que pode ser usada com Trichogramma em programas de MIP.The goal of this work was to detect the possible side-effectsprovoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on eggs parasitoids Thichogramma pratissolii and Trichogramma pretiosum. Six strains of Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, and E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each treatment and offered simultaneously displays with Anagasta kuehniella eggs. The experiment was maintained in a climatized chamber at 25+ 1ºC, RH 70+ 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity, the daily, the accumulated, and the total parasitism were observed. No treatments affected the longevity of both parasitoids. All treatments in T. pratissolii and E-3, E-10, E-16, and E-19 in T. pretiosum decreased the time necessary to reach 80% of parasitism. The lack of deleterious effects of Bt on these parasitoids suggests that these natural enemies can be used together in IPM programs.

  6. Natural products to agro-ecological pest management and their natural enemies of cotton plant intercropped with maize, cowpea and sesame = Produtos naturais no manejo agroecológico de pragas e seus inimigos naturais do algodoeiro consorciado com milho, feijão-caupi e gergelim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Pereira de Araujo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton was once the main crop grown in the northeast of Brazil; its production boosted the development of many cities and contributed to the development of the semi-arid region. Attacks by pests, low productivity, high production costs and low prices on the international market, coupled with a lack of adequate technical assistance, contributed to the decline of the crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural insecticides: aqueous extract from the malagueta pepper, kaolin, Azamax®, Rotenat® and Pironat®, on the agroecological management of the principal pests, with their natural enemies, of cotton intercropped with maize, cowpea and sesame crops. The studies were carried out at the experimental area of Embrapa Algodão, in Barbalha, in the state of Ceará, Brazil (CE, where an experiment was set up to evaluate these natural products, in an experimental design of randomised blocks with four replications, represented by six treatments: T1-Control (no application, T2-Malagueta pepper, T3-Kaolin, T4-Azamax®, T5-Rotenat® and T6-Pironat®. The products were applied every seven days, followed by weekly assessments, considering the effect of the treatments on the occurrence of insect pests of the cotton plant, and on their natural enemies. Kaolin is the most effective natural product in controlling the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Malagueta pepper is not effective in controlling the principle pests of the cotton plant. Natural products applied by spraying the leaves of the cotton plant every 7 days do not interfere with the presence of natural enemies = O algodão já foi a principal cultura cultivada no Nordeste, a sua produção alavancou o desenvolvimento de muitas cidades e contribuiu para o desenvolvimento da região semiárida. Ataque de pragas, baixas produtividades, alto custo de produção e baixa nos preços no mercado internacional, aliado a falta de assistência técnica adequada, contribuíram para o declínio da cultura

  7. The open society and its enemies

    CERN Document Server

    Popper, Karl Raimund

    2003-01-01

    Written in political exile during the Second World War and first published in 1945, Karl Popper's The Open Society and Its Enemies is one of the most influential books of the twentieth century. Hailed by Bertrand Russell as a 'vigorous and profound defence of democracy', its now legendary attack on the philosophies of Plato, Hegel and Marx exposed the dangers inherent in centrally planned political systems. Popper's highly accessible style, his erudite and lucid explanations of the thought of great philosophers and the recent resurgence of totalitarian regimes around the world are just three of the reasons for the enduring popularity of The Open Society and Its Enemies, and for why it demands to be read both today and in years to come. This is the second of two volumes of The Open Society and Its Enemies.

  8. Increased seedling establishment via enemy release at the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urli, Morgane; Brown, Carissa D; Narváez Perez, Rosela; Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; Vellend, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution. A growth chamber experiment manipulating soil origin and temperature indicated that this so-called "happy edge" was not likely caused by temperature (i.e., the possibility that climate warming has made high elevation temperatures optimal for sugar maple) or by abiotic soil factors that vary along the elevational gradient. Finally, an insect-herbivore-exclusion experiment showed that insect herbivory was a major cause of seedling mortality in the core of sugar maple's distribution, whereas seedlings transplanted at or beyond the range edge experienced minimal herbivory (i.e., enemy release). Insect herbivory did not completely explain the high levels of seedling mortality in the core of the species' distribution, suggesting that seedlings at or beyond the range edge may also experience release from pathogens. In sum, while some effects of enemies are magnified beyond range edges (e.g., seed predation), others are dampened at and beyond the range edge (e.g., insect herbivory), such that understanding the net outcome of different biotic interactions within, at and beyond the edge of distribution is critical to predicting species' responses to global change. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genesis for this special issue on pestiviruses was a joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology that was held October 14 and 15, 2014. The theme of the meeting was “Pestiviruses: Old enemies and new challenges”. Th...

  10. Soil organisms associated to the weed suppressant Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae and its importance as a refuge for natural enemies Organismos de solo associados à supressora de plantas daninhas Crotalaria juncea (fabaceae e sua importância como refúgio para inimigos naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S Tavares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organisms play an important role in organic crops of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae and are associated with the natural conservation of the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the population of soil organisms in the organic culture of C. juncea, as well as its importance as a refuge for natural enemies. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera: Lagriidae, Melanotus sp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae, Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Myrmicidae, Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae, Procornitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae were identified in C. juncea. The organisms that were found during a 3-month period in 144 trenches in C. juncea were pest species (84.47% and natural enemies (15.53% as well. Natural enemies had an average of 11.89 individuals per 1.08 m³ of soil cultivated with C. juncea. The abundance of organisms in the pod stage (5.49% of C. juncea was lower than that in the vegetative (83.50% and flowering (11.01% stages. Crotalaria juncea plants can be used as part of a crop system for Integrated Pest Management.Organismos de solo desempenham um importante papel em cultivos orgânicos de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae e estão associados com a conservação natural do ambiente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a população de organismos de solo no cultivo orgânico de C. juncea, bem como sua importância como um refúgio para inimigos naturais. Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Diabrotica sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Lagria villosa (Coleoptera

  11. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  12. The destruction of the nameless public enemy: an interpretation of the political in Carl Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a critical analysis of the essential criteria to define the concept of the political as presented by German jurist and philosopher, Carl Schmitt. Based on the essence of the political —i.e. the friend-enemy duality—, the objective is to explore the practical implications resulting from the actual possibilities of confrontation, the key scope being the analysis of a totalitarian potential from a Schmittian´s perspective. In Schmitt´s thought, this distinction is the fundamental reason for the definition of the political. Not every opponent is necessarily the enemy –—the other one, the unknown— and likely to be physically destroyed and exterminated but only a public enemy (hostis. Given its indeterminate nature, the enemy may be prescribed according to the sovereign design or, in the context of Nazi Germany where Carl Schmitt lived, in accordance with the President of the Reich´s designs. A hypothetical-deductive methodology is used in this work based on bibliographical research, in particular regarding Carl Schmitt´s theoretical constructions.

  13. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  14. The Development of Enemy Images in Dutch Children: Measurement and Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2005-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that enemies and enemy images are prerequisites in preparedness for war, little information is available about children's understanding of enemies or the presence of enemy images. Based on a pilot study in which assessment instruments were developed and validated, the present study examined the understanding of…

  15. EFEITO DA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO SOLO SOBRE A ABUNDÂNCIA E DIVERSIDADE DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS DE PRAGAS EM VINHEDOS EFFECTS OF COVER CROPS ON THE ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF GRAPEVINE PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ANTÔNIO MATIELLO FADINI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle de pragas da videira no Brasil restringe-se basicamente ao uso de inseticidas, devido à inexistência de trabalhos que visem a complementar o manejo de pragas através de controle biológico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais nas entrelinhas de plantio de videira sobre a abundância e diversidade de potenciais inimigos naturais de pragas da videira no município de Caldas, região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram testadas sete diferentes coberturas de solo (aveia-preta, aveia-preta e ervilhaca, ervilhaca, cobertura morta, uso de herbicida, capina mecânica e mato roçado. A cobertura vegetal do solo influenciou tanto a diversidade quanto a abundância de inimigos naturais, sendo o consórcio de aveia-preta e ervilhaca, cultivadas simultaneamente, o tratamento que proporcionou maior diversidade e abundância de inimigos naturais. Assim, a cobertura vegetal do solo pode, potencialmente, ser um componente importante em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura da videira.The control of grapevine pests in Brazil is only based in the use of chemical products. It is due to the whole absence of experimental works developed to test and evaluate alternative control systems, like the biological control. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different types of cover crops, placed between the cultivation lines of grapevine, in the abundance and diversity of natural control arthropods of grapevine pests. The experiment was conduced in the EPAMIG, Caldas Research Farm, located in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. They Were tested seven different systems of soil covering. The presence of vegetal covering was beneficial to improve the diversity as well as the abundance of biological control agents present on the grapevine crop. The cultivation of black oat and pea together, was the treatment that showed the better result to diversity and abundance. Therefore, the cover

  16. Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and honeybee (Apis Mellifera adansonii L.) Colonies from the Miticivanga- Tshibinda sector east of Kahuzi Biega National Park, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo.

  17. Does enemy damage vary across the range of exotic plant species? Evidence from two coastal dune plant species in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Samiya; Leishman, Michelle R

    2018-02-01

    Release from natural enemies is often cited as a key factor for understanding the success of invasive plant species in novel environments. However, with time invasive species will accumulate native enemies in their invaded range, with factors such as spread distance from the site of introduction, climate and leaf-level traits potentially affecting enemy acquisition rates. However, the influence of such factors is difficult to assess without examining enemy attack across the entire species' range. We tested the significance of factors associated with range expansion (distance from source population and maximum population density), climatic variables (annual temperature and rainfall) and leaf-level traits [specific leaf area (SLA) and foliar nitrogen concentration] in explaining variation in enemy damage across multiple populations of two coastal invasive plants (Gladiolus gueinzii Kunze and Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam.) along their entire introduced distribution in eastern Australia. We found that for H. bonariensis, amount of foliar damage increased with distance from source population. In contrast, for G. gueinzii, probability and amount of foliar damage decreased with decreasing temperature and increasing rainfall, respectively. Our results show that patterns of enemy attack across species' ranges are complex and cannot be generalised between species or even range edges.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of interactions between plants and their enemies: comparison of herbivorous insects and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Kerry; Rank, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions. Specifically, studies of plant-pathogen interactions often adopt a "gene-for-gene" conceptual framework. In contrast, studies of plants and herbivores often investigate escalation or elaboration of plant defense and herbivore adaptations to overcome it. The main exceptions to the general pattern are studies that focus on small, sessile herbivores that share many features with plant pathogens, studies that incorporate both herbivores and pathogens into a single investigation, and studies that test aspects of Thompson's geographic mosaic theory for coevolution. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Maize stemborers distribution, their natural enemies and farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... parasitica Curan (Diptera: Tachnidae) with mean parasitism ranged of between 0 and 8%. Beauveria .... log(x+1) and percentage data were arcsine square root transformed ..... seasonal fluctuations of Lepidopteran cereal.

  20. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... The decrease of egg and larva numbers of T. absoluta were higher in plots released T. ..... four generations in a greenhouse of tomato production in .... Arno J, Sorribas R, Prat M, Montse M, Pozo C, Rodriguez D, Garreta A,.

  1. A compendium of insect pests and natural enemies associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were carried out in 1992 and 1993 late cropping seasons to identify the species of insects and their effect on soyabeans in Calabar, a humid tropical environment. Two treatments were used, (that is sprayed and un- sprayed). Nuvacron (Monocrotophos), a systemic insecticide was applied at the rate of 400g ...

  2. Alfalfa and pastures: sources of pests or generalist natural enemies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine and almond leaf scorch disease are both caused by the bacterial pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. In the Central Valley of California, the green sharpshooter is the most common vector of X. fastidiosa. As alfalfa fields and pastures are considered source habitats for green s...

  3. Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus

  4. Simple landscape modifications for pollinator and arthropod natural enemy enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial arthropods which play an important role in providing ecosystem services (pollination and pest control) have come under threat as a result of intensive agricultural practices and simplification of habitats. Ecological intensification in agricultural landscapes by diversifying the habitat r...

  5. The potential of natural enemies to suppress rice leaffolder populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, de J.

    1996-01-01


    Rice leaffolders Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are considered major pests in many Asian countries. Insecticide use against leaffolders is wide-spread, but may not be justified due to tolerance of the rice

  6. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    mandibles and heads than the scavengers. Bill Beck of Florida A&M University, who identified the hydrilla midge as a species of Polypedilum, feels...that the head and mandibles of this midge resemble those of the scavenger section instead of the herbivore section of the genus, as the types occur in...Lakshmanan, K. K. 1965. " Embryological Studies in the Hydrocharitaceae. IV. Post-Fertilization Development in Hydrilla verticillata Royle," Phyton Rev

  7. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2017-05-07

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a sufficiently adverse environment. In an evolutionary game where two defenders can cooperate to defend a common resource, this paper analyzes the common-enemy hypothesis when adversity is endogenous, in that an attacker sets the number of attacks. As a benchmark, we first consider exogenous adversity, where adversity is not subject to evolution. In this case, the common-enemy hypothesis is predicted when the degree of complementarity between defenders' defensive efforts is sufficiently low. When the degree of complementarity is high, the hypothesis is predicted only when cooperation costs are high; when cooperation costs are instead low, a competing hypothesis is predicted, where adversity discourages cooperation. Second, we consider the case of endogenous adversity. In this case, we continue to predict the competing hypothesis for a high degree of complementarity and low cooperation costs. The common-enemy hypothesis, however, only continues to be predicted for the lowest degrees of complementarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Figuring Reconciliation: Dancing With the Enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S. Sutton

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about fi guring “argument as dance” and one way of conceiving how to live or embody argument as such. Concretely, it displays “argument as war” alongside a road in Mississippi after a white man shoots down James Meredith as he asserts his legal right to vote. And it tells “how to” perceive the shooting as dance by turning fi rstly to the performance of dance fi gured in the beginnings of rhetoric and then secondly, setting forth demystifi ed methods and strategies of body-speech fi guring argument as dance, rather than as war, through performances of Nelson Mandela. More generally, it explores a new meaning or experience of rhetoric by explicitly conjoining two historical times, two geographies, two speakers, enemies and dancers, that are inextricably interconnected. Using a combination of description and analysis, the fi rst is a full display of three photographs picturing argument as war. The whole picture serves as a descriptive compass or guide for making our way analytically through argument as war and into dance language and behavior and their interconnections to argument. The second is a retrospective discussion of the background, dancing/argumentative practices, what is called “blinking on the behalf of the enemy,” of Nelson Mandela. Overall, the strategy of reticulating political times, chronology and political spaces, geography on the one hand, and argument as war and argument as dance on the other hand is to reconcile confl icting measures and to produce a performance practice (of rhetoric of which there is no canon. Cet article représente «l’argumentation comme danse» et présente une façon de concevoir comment éprouver et discerner ainsi l’argumentation. Concrètement, il fait voir «l’argumentation comme guerre» le long d’une route au Mississippi après qu’un homme blanc ait tiré James Meredith alors que ce dernier affi rmait son droit légal de vote. Et il relate «comment» percevoir

  9. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its naturel enemies, and the presences of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  10. «Public Enemy»: from Lenin’s Rhetoric to Stalin’s Ideologeme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga U. Popova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the problem of Soviet ideologeme of the enemy from within in the period of pre-war Stalinism. Stalin’s ideologeme is considered as consistent continuity with Lenin’s enemy rhetoric. The article discloses the development of Lenin’s enemy rhetoric, singles out stages of Stalin’s enemy ideologeme establishment as a part of official ideologic policy and analyses its features.

  11. Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    Separation of Powers Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Eliminating Federal Court Jurisdiction Where There Is No State Court Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1 542 U.S. 466 (2004). Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court In Rasul v. Bush,1 a divided Supreme Court declared that “a state

  12. Who are Cerverí's Worst Enemies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Cabré

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This reading proposes a new interpretation of a poem by Catalan troubadour Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85, an interpretation that departs from the accepted, literal solution to this poem (looking for "enemies" Cerverì descries among the political or familial figures surrounding the poet to show, via an intertextual reading, that these "enemies" are only metaphorical. Cerverì is the proud successor of two centuries of troubadour tradition at the Aragonese court of Pere the Great, facing the influx of fashionable Angevin trends, especially the dance-songs imported from the court of Pere of Arragon's enemy Charles of Anjou. Like Sordello's Ensehnamen, Cerverì's poem 'Una re dey a Deu grazir’ serves as a focal point to refract his present and past career: polemical when his patron was young, more stately now that Cerverí is the public voice of a king. It is a comparison with the Portuguese trovador Johan Soarez Coelho (active at the court of Alfonso III of Portugal until 1279 that conclusively proves the "identity" of Cerveri's "enemies": his own eyes that have betrayed him. The two poets would have interacted at the Toledo court of Alfonso X of Castile in 1269.

  13. "Build That Wall!": Manufacturing the Enemy, yet Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría Graff, Cristina C.

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 presidential campaign and the election of Donald Trump has amplified divisive anti-immigrant sentiment and has further positioned "Mexicans as enemy." Trump's "Build That Wall!" declarative has stoked nativist ire through manufactured narratives that rarely, if ever, consider the United States government's role in the…

  14. Seletividade de inseticidas a Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876 (Dermaptera: Forficulidae e Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae inimigos naturais de Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1818 (Lepdoptera: Pieridae Selectivity of insecticides to Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876 (Dermaptera: Forficulidae and Cotesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae natural enemies of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1818 (Lepdoptera: Pieridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coutitnho Picanço

    2003-04-01

    for A. monuste orseis, and these were used as discriminatory doses to evaluate the degree of selectivity of the insecticides. Deltamethrin and permethrin were highly selective in favor of D. luteipes. Deltamethrin was intermediate selectivity in favor of Cotesia sp., while permethrin was not selective in favor of this parasitoid. Trichlorfon was highly selective in favor of fourth instar nymphs and adults of D. luteipes, and it was intermediate selectivity in favor of Cotesia sp. and first instar nymphs of the predator. Carbaryl was intermediate selectivity in favor of Cotesia sp., but it did not show selectivity in favor of D. luteipes. Methyl parathion did not show selectivity in favor of D. luteipes and Cotesia sp. Adults of D. luteipes were less sensitive to deltamethrin, permethrin and trichlorfon than adults of Cotesia sp. and the inverse happened with carbaryl. Both natural enemies presented high sensibility to methyl parathion. Fourth instar nymphs of and adults of D. luteipes were more sensitive to methyl parathion and trichlorfon than first instar nymphs. Both nymphs and adults of D. luteipes presented similar sensibility to the carbaryl, deltamethrin and permethrin.

  15. Effects of insecticides used in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B control and their selectivity to natural enemies in soybean cropEfeitos dos inseticidas utilizados no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e sua seletividade aos inimigos naturais na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Silva Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent crop seasons, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B has become a serious pest in soybean crops due to high infestations and its control difficulties. Therefore, it is important to search control alternatives in the integrated pest management approach. Thus, it was evaluated in this study the efficacy of the whitefly control using different insecticides in greenhouse conditions and their selectivity to the parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus. Buprofezin 150 g. a.i.ha-1 + mineral oil 0.2% v/v and pyriproxyfen 100 g. a.i.ha-1 were considered the best options for the whitefly management due to combine good pest control efficacy with higher selectivity to the parasitoids except Encarsia formosa for which no treatment was classified as harmless. Betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 g. i.a. ha-1 was efficient on controlling whiteflies nymphs but was not harmless to the studied natural enemies. In general, the treatments including pyretroids compounds (betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 + spiromesifen 60, betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 and lambda-cyhalothrin 26.5 + thiametoxan 35.25 g. a.i. ha-1 were the most harmful to the evaluated parasitoids and therefore it use should be avoid whenever possible. Nas últimas safras a mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae tornou-se praga de importância econômica para a cultura da soja devido à ocorrência de altas infestações e à dificuldade de controle desta praga. Sendo assim, é importante buscar alternativas de manejo com base em um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, avaliaram-se neste trabalho a eficiência de diferentes inseticidas no controle da mosca-branca em casa-de-vegetação e a seletividade destes aos parasitoides Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum e Telenomus remus. Buprofezina 150 g i.a. ha-1 + óleo mineral 0,2% v/v e piriproxifem 100 g. i.a. ha-1 foram consideradas as melhores opções para

  16. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  17. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  18. Enemy-free space and habitat-specific host specialization in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne

    2008-08-01

    The majority of herbivorous insects have relatively specialized food habits. This suggests that specialization has some advantage(s) over generalization. Traditionally, feeding specialization has been thought to be linked to digestive or other food-related physiological advantages, but recent theory suggests that generalist natural enemies of herbivorous insects can also provide a major selective pressure for restricted host plant range. The European swallowtail butterfly Papilio machaon utilizes various plants in the Apiaceae family as hosts, but is an ecological specialist being monophagous on Angelica archangelica in southern Sweden. This perennial monocarp grows in three seaside habitat types: (1) on the barren rocky shore in the absence of any surrounding vegetation, (2) on the rocky shore with some surrounding vegetation, and (3) on species-rich meadows. The rocky shore habitat harbors few invertebrate generalist predators, whereas a number of invertebrate predators abound in the meadowland habitat. Here, we test the importance of enemy-free space for feeding specialization in Papilio machaon by assessing survival of larvae placed by hand on A. archangelica in each of the three habitat types, and by assessing the habitat-specificity of adult female egg-laying behavior by recording the distribution of eggs laid by free-flying adult females among the three habitat types. Larval survival was substantially higher in the rocky shore habitat than in the meadowland and significantly higher on host plants without surrounding vegetation on the rocky shore. Eggs laid by free-flying females were found in all three habitat types, but were significantly more frequent in the rocky shore habitat, suggesting that females prefer to lay eggs in the habitat type where offspring survival is highest. These results show that larval survivorship on the same host plant species can be strongly habitat-specific, and suggest that enemy-free space is an underlying factor that drives

  19. Dangerous enemy in Estonian garden soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersell, V.; Mottus, V.; Taeht, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is thoroughly discussed in the article. Its generation and the heath risks it can cause. The distribution of radon in the soil is analysed (one soil lithotype at a time (kBq/m)). The measurements received on different surveyed sites are compared to the standards allowed for the construction works. There is also the link between lung cancer cases and radon's radiance and incense/smoking. The North of Estonia is the pearl of Estonia landscape. The sea being near, beautiful seaside views attract people and inspire them to build their houses in this kind of surroundings. However, these areas are natural danger sources, as the percentage of radon concentration in the soil is often high or very high. South Estonia also has a lot of spectacular places with high concentration of radon in the soil [et

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Ghoul, Melanie; Molin, Søren

    2013-01-01

    ) patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7) and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga) enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months), were innately phage......-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years), were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) probably due to weaker...

  1. Masculinity : Male Traits in 1930s Portrayed in Public Enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pita Merdeka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the masculinity of John Dillinger as the main male character inPublic Enemies Film (2009; directed by Michael Mann, and produced by Universal Pictures. This film is clearly described that men who appear strong, physically attractive, charming, and smart fall into the category of masculine.This study used descriptive qualitative method by using Janet Saltzman Chafetz’s concept of masculinity in seven areas or forms such as the physical image, the function in life, the sexual aggressiveness, the emotion, the intelligence, the personality, and other personality characteristics. In the first part of analysis, the research reveals the characteristics of John Dillinger utilizing Edward Jones’ Characterization theory, before assigning them to the seven areas or forms of Chafetz’s concept of masculinity.The result shows that the main male character,John Dillinger adjusts his characteristics based on the person he interacts with.John Dillinger as the main male character in Public Enemies film defines his position as a man in the society in the 1930s. He plays andtakes a dominant role as a leader for his gang members; his lover, Billie Frechette,by caring, protecting, and supporting them. On the other side, Dillinger is apathetic against the authority. He also takes pride in his reputation, and believes that he can achieve ambitions to be on top of the world.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i2.7814

  2. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  3. 'War amongst the people' and the absent enemy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya; Haugegaard, Rikke; Linnet, Poul

    This article scrutinizes the relationship between 'war amongst the people' and the 'cultural turn' in Western military thinking. It is argued that the cultural turn in military thinking is related to an uncertainty about how to wage war in a context where the enemy defies categorisation, and where...... understanding and influencing 'the people' is regarded as essential to military success. While efforts have been made to integrate culture in military planning in order to tackle this uncertainty, there are a number of deficiencies, which prevent culture from becoming the intended enabler to successful...... operations. The purpose of this article is to shed light on these deficiencies and to introduce a new approach to culture, which can inform military planning and operations. This approach takes its departure point in how culture is co-produced in social interactions, and directs attention towards how...

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville-Petri Friman

    Full Text Available Pathogenic life styles can lead to highly specialized interactions with host species, potentially resulting in fitness trade-offs in other ecological contexts. Here we studied how adaptation of the environmentally transmitted bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to cystic fibrosis (CF patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7 and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months, were innately phage-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years, were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella probably due to weaker in vitro growth and protease expression. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa long-term adaptation to CF-lungs could trade off with its survival in aquatic environmental reservoirs in the presence of microbial enemies, while lowered virulence could reduce pathogen opportunities to infect insect vectors; factors that are both likely to result in poorer environmental transmission. From an applied perspective, phage therapy could be useful against chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections that are often characterized by multidrug resistance: chronic isolates were least resistant to phages and their poor growth will likely slow down the emergence of beneficial resistance mutations.

  5. Confronting an Old Enemy: Terrorism and the Changing Face of Military Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jack

    2002-01-01

    .... Existing cultural biases, stove-piped operational processes, and limited analyst recruitment problems have weakened the DOD intelligence community's ability to face the twenty-first century terrorist enemy...

  6. Remembering Independence, Desiring Enemies: Reflections on Nationhood in Contemporary Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Kalpokas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the remembrance of events surrounding the restoration of Lithuanian independence, as well as their repercussions on the present, concentrating on the younger generation that does not have first-hand experience of the period and, therefore, has to rely on other people’s accounts, textbooks, and other sources.If one considers the state and, especially, its social (or communal dimension as impossible totalities, memory and history acquire significant importance as they both provide ‘a magma of significations’, out of which particular signifying structures are instituted in order to anchor meaning and exhort a unifying claim through dominant narratives that tend to subjugate the otherwise inevitable variety of discourses. The discourse of the Lithuanian history textbooks is analysed by outlining its emphasis on unity and self-sacrifice in 1988-1991, and by portraying the Lithuanian history as an unending struggle against enemies and their malevolent plots. Also, considering the accounts of young people, two tendencies are visible: first, a bias towards images of unity and self-sacrifice depicting the period concerned, second, the predilection to employ the categories of ‘aliens’ and ‘enemies’ is evident, significantly affecting perceptions of the present with widespread images of disintegration and decay in the absence of the Other.

  7. The Image of the Enemy as a Stereotype of Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Андреевна Фоменко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the process of stereotype thinking and its verbal expression. We focus our attention on the symbolic vision of our society in the mind of Europeans: Russia is evil, a country where law and democracy have deteriorated. Our aim is to examine the process of mind manipulation and imprinting of the enemy image on the mind of the society by means of communication and show the difficulty of destruction of stereotypes which prevents people of the 21st century from the objective perception of reality. We conducted our study on dictionary entries, articles, B.Obama’s speech in particular, and the extract from David Mitchell’s book “Black Swan Green”. The research is based on the data worked out by a number of sciences: Cultural Linguistics, Psychology, Psycholinguistics, Cross-Cultural Communication. We used the methods of functional and pragmatic analysis of the text. A stereotype is defined as an element of the cultural code which can be decoded by means of language; itt affects the way of thinking, behavior and lexis. Thus, the proposed thesis of a stereotype is supposed to be changing but too slowly. It is concluded that the sterotype “Russia is the enemy” possesses its formal linguistic, mental, and behavioural parametres.

  8. Complex Odor from Plants under Attack: Herbivore's Enemies React to the Whole, Not Its Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA), is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported. PMID:21765908

  9. Complex odor from plants under attack: herbivore's enemies react to the whole, not its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Wijk

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole.We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA, is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture.We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported.

  10. Single-particle states vs. collective modes: friends or enemies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The collective mode arises as the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger spacings between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are "enemies" against each other. However, the nuclear forces are rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing single-particle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, the quantum self-organization occurs: single-particle energies can be self-organized by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger.

  11. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  12. "Autos de Resistência" As an Instrument for Extermination Policy of the "Enemy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Leilane Fontes de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze, through the study of "autos de resistência", its tensions with social inequality. From the understanding of the processes of criminalization - through a Marxist perspective - it was possible to make some observations about the social construction of the "enemy" to then understand how works the extermination policy of these sectors of society. The police structures in the Brazilian context of the "war on drugs", play a key role in the policy of extermination of the "enemy", which is made possible by the "autos de resistência".

  13. Sleeping with the enemy. Trust, dependence and contract in interorganisational relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    'Sleeping with the enemy' refers to the fragile relationship that is built when parties have to cooperate without knowing whether their partner can be trusted. In the development of new products or technologies companies often have to establish such relationships. They depend on each other's

  14. The Influence of Keeping Pheasants in Captivity vs. Nature on the Biological Value of Meat and its Use in Human Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Štefica; Škrivanko, Mario; Periškić, Marin; Bošković, Ivica; Jumić, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    The life of game birds (pheasants) in nature is coupled with a number of difficulties in all seasons of the year. This refers to finding food, breeding, laying eggs, raising the young, fleeing from their natural enemies and lack of protection from unfavorable climatic conditions. The pheasants that live in captivity – aviaries for pheasants – do not have such difficulties – they are fed regularly by quality feed for pheasants, they are protected from bad weather and natural enemies. ...

  15. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Annika [Umeaa Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: annika.nordin@genfys.slu.se; Strengbom, Joachim [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: joachim.strengbom@ebc.uu.se; Ericson, Lars [Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: lars.ericson@eg.umu.se

    2006-05-15

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH{sub 4} {sup +}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3} {sup -}) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} was added to 2 m{sup 2} sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO{sub 3} {sup -}. Bryophytes took up predominately NH{sub 4} {sup +} and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH{sub 4} {sup +} and NO{sub 3} {sup -} to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen.

  16. Population biology of emerald ash borer and its natural enemies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...

  17. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  18. The effect of different natural enemies on the performance of Cirsium arvense in its native range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abela-Hofbauerová, Inés; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2011), s. 394-403 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cirsium arvense * native range * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2011

  19. Enhancement of foreign collection and quarantine evaluation of hemlock woolly adelgid natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Montgomery; Roy Van Driesche; Scott Salom; Wenhua Lu; Guoyue Yu; Jianhua Zhou; Li Li; Shigehiko Shiyake

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this newly funded Forest Service activity are to promote the biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) by (1) hiring an entomologist to work in Asia; (2) revisit known collecting sites and find promising new ones; (3) study the life history and phenology of HWA and its predators; (4) establish protocols...

  20. Responses to ammonium and nitrate additions by boreal plants and their natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Annika; Strengbom, Joachim; Ericson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Separate effects of ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) on boreal forest understorey vegetation were investigated in an experiment where 12.5 and 50.0 kg nitrogen (N) ha -1 year -1 was added to 2 m 2 sized plots during 4 years. The dwarf-shrubs dominating the plant community, Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, took up little of the added N independent of the chemical form, and their growth did not respond to the N treatments. The grass Deschampsia flexuosa increased from the N additions and most so in response to NO 3 - . Bryophytes took up predominately NH 4 + and there was a negative correlation between moss N concentration and abundance. Plant pathogenic fungi increased from the N additions, but showed no differences in response to the two N forms. Because the relative contribution of NH 4 + and NO 3 - to the total N deposition on a regional scale can vary substantially, the N load a habitat can sustain without substantial changes in the biota should be set considering specific vegetation responses to the predominant N form in deposition. - Biota will respond to nitrogen deposition depending on the form of nitrogen

  1. Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

  2. Invasive alien species under attack: natural enemies of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Wielink, van P.; Jong, de P.W.; Gort, G.; Haelewaters, D.; Helder, J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore,

  3. Symbionts modify interactions between insects and natural enemies in the field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrček, Jan; McLean, A. H. C.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2016), s. 1605-1612 ISSN 0021-8790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid * field experiment * host-parasite Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2656.12586/pdf

  4. Honeydew as a food source for natural enemies: Making the best of a bad meal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Van Rijn, P.C.J.; Heimpel, G.E.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of predators and parasitoids require non-prey food as part of their diet. The availability of suitable non-prey food can impact predator–prey and parasitoid–host dynamics and may be critical to the efficacy of biological pest control. A growing body of work addresses the role of floral

  5. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  6. Qualitative Research and the Radical Right: Cats and Dogs and Other Natural Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Cannella, Gaile S.

    This investigation was conducted to explore contemporary critiques that challenge the growing body of scholarly research that would reveal and support diverse understandings of the world. Principal methods for this deconstruction of contemporary critiques include document analysis of writing that examines content and author location and context…

  7. Potential contribution of natural enemies to patterns of local adaptation in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crémieux, L.; Bischoff, A.; Šmilauerová, M.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S. R.; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Edwards, A.R.; Brook, A.J.; Tscheulin, T.; Macel, M.; Lepš, Jan; Müller-Schärer, H.; Steinger, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2008), s. 524-533 ISSN 0028-646X Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : local adaptation * plant-parasite interaction * pathogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.178, year: 2008

  8. Why Fight the Enemy That You Can Reprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    and Autism , and in addition to natural causes of mental health difficulties, there are many man-made accidents that cause brain difficulties. The...learning, scientist were able to genetically create flies that had their “ dopamine -producing brain cells manufacture a membrane protein called P2X2 that

  9. A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rega, Carlo; Bartual, Agustín M.; Bocci, Gionata; Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Jeanneret, Philippe; Werf, van der Wopke; Pfister, Sonja C.; Holland, John M.; Paracchini, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Pest control by natural enemies (natural pest control) is an important regulating ecosystem service with significant implications for the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. The presence of semi-natural habitats and landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of the delivery of this service.

  10. «Unclear Enemy»: Why the Guerrilla War in France in 1814 Failed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Mogilevskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Author of the article analyzes the reasons of the fail of Napoleon’s attempts to set the guerrilla war in France during the campaign of 1814. While the forces of anti-Napoleonic coalition were standing near the border of France, Napoleon did his best to recruit his new army. But the human resources of France were exhausted, and that’s why Napoleon decided to set the guerrillia. But all his proclamations and even his orders were disobeyed - French people were too tired of incessant war, and Napoleon again decided to gain his goals on the battlefield. Besides author shows great efforts of Russian headquarters to avoid the guerrilla war. Alexander I and his allies in theirs proclamations declared that they were fighting only with Napoleon, but not with the French nation. That tactic gave a brilliant result and helped to avoid the patriotic uplift in France in 1814. In this propagandistic war Napoleon was defeated and that cost him his throne. The reasons of Napoleon’s fail, firstly, was the unclear image of the enemy. French emperor didn’t manage to unite French nation against the rival. On the contrary the French Emperor, his enemies managed (in their proclamations and personal conversations to persuade the French people, that the allies had one enemy - the Emperor Napoleon, not the French nation, and the ultimate goal of war - to set peace on the European continent. That was exactly how the allies did set the disunity between Napoleon and his people. Ultimately, the combination of these factors was the reason that a guerrilla war never broke out in France.

  11. Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkes, Tim; Morriën, Elly; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen; Harvey, Jeffrey A; McIntyre, Lauren M; Tamis, Wil L M; van der Putten, Wim H

    2008-12-18

    Many species are currently moving to higher latitudes and altitudes. However, little is known about the factors that influence the future performance of range-expanding species in their new habitats. Here we show that range-expanding plant species from a riverine area were better defended against shoot and root enemies than were related native plant species growing in the same area. We grew fifteen plant species with and without non-coevolved polyphagous locusts and cosmopolitan, polyphagous aphids. Contrary to our expectations, the locusts performed more poorly on the range-expanding plant species than on the congeneric native plant species, whereas the aphids showed no difference. The shoot herbivores reduced the biomass of the native plants more than they did that of the congeneric range expanders. Also, the range-expanding plants developed fewer pathogenic effects in their root-zone soil than did the related native species. Current predictions forecast biodiversity loss due to limitations in the ability of species to adjust to climate warming conditions in their range. Our results strongly suggest that the plants that shift ranges towards higher latitudes and altitudes may include potential invaders, as the successful range expanders may experience less control by above-ground or below-ground enemies than the natives.

  12. Novel multitrophic interactions among an exotic, generalist herbivore, its host plants and resident enemies in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Julie V; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    What happens when an exotic herbivore invades and encounters novel host plants and enemies? Here, we investigate the impacts of host plant quality and plant architecture on an exotic generalist herbivore, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its interactions with resident parasitoids in California. Using artificial diet and five plant species, we found significant effects of diet on the fitness of E. postvittana under laboratory conditions. In the field, based on a common garden experiment with host plants of nine species, we found that larval parasitism varied among plant species by a factor of 2.1 with a higher risk of parasitism on shorter than taller plants. Parasitism of egg masses varied by a factor of 4.7 among plant species with a higher risk of parasitism on taller than shorter plants. In the laboratory, the foraging time of a resident egg parasitoid on excised leaves varied among plant species, but did not correspond to observed egg parasitism rates on these same plants in the field. On leaves of Plantago lanceolata, the probability of egg parasitism decreased with trichome density. Overall, there was a significant effect of host plant on the intrinsic rate of increase of E. postvittana and on the extent of parasitism by resident parasitoids, but no correlation existed between these two effects. The recent decline of E. postvittana in California may be due to the low quality of some host plants and to the many resident enemies that readily attack it, perhaps due to its phylogenetic relatedness to resident tortricids.

  13. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  14. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, John M.; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Entling, Martin H.; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Smith, Barbara M.; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with

  15. The ‘enemy within’ the post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965 is regarded as one of the most significant processes in the ecumenical church history of the 20th century. At that time, a younger generation of Roman Catholic theologians began to make their mark in the church and within the ecumenical theological scene. Their work provided an ecumenical bridge between the Reforming and the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical traditions, notwithstanding the subsequent negative response of the Roman church hierarchy. Despite important advances, recent pontificates significantly altered the theological landscape and undermined much of the enthusiasm and commitment to unity. Roman Catholic theological dissent provided common ground for theological reflection. Those regarded as the ‘enemy within’ have become respected colleagues in the search for truth in global ecclesiastical perspective. This article will use the distinction between the history and the narratives of Vatican II.

  16. No evidence for enemy release during range expansion of an evergreen tree in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Markussen, Bo; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2011-01-01

    aquifolium L. in both the historical and the expanding range in Denmark to study possible effects of geographical position, small-scale distance, and plant types on presence and performance of the monophagous insect leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis Curtis. 3. The leaf miner was present in the entire range of I....... aquifolium in Denmark, and there were no differences in emergence success depending on geographical position. Small-scale distance to existing adult plants inßuenced the activity of the insect on the transplants, and oviposition density was negatively correlated with distance to adult plants. 4. Plant type...... had an effect on leaf miner feeding, oviposition and mining, and the native provenance of I. aquifolium supported higher densities than two cultivars. 5. There was no evidence that enemy release facilitates the current range expansion of I. aquifolium....

  17. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S

    2017-10-01

    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Trait-mediated trophic cascade creates enemy-free space for nesting hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeney, Harold F; Meneses, M Rocio; Hamilton, Chris E; Lichter-Marck, Eli; Mannan, R William; Snyder, Noel; Snyder, Helen; Wethington, Susan M; Dyer, Lee A

    2015-09-01

    The indirect effects of predators on nonadjacent trophic levels, mediated through traits of intervening species, are collectively known as trait-mediated trophic cascades. Although birds are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, clear examples of trait-mediated indirect effects involving bird predators have almost never been documented. Such indirect effects are important for structuring ecological communities and are likely to be negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation, climate change, and other factors that reduce abundance of top predators. We demonstrate that hummingbirds in Arizona realize increased breeding success when nesting in association with hawks. An enemy-free nesting space is created when jays, an important source of mortality for hummingbird nests, alter their foraging behavior in the presence of their hawk predators.

  19. Future's operation areas: new-generation suppression enemy air defence (SEAD) elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazinedar, Ä.°lker

    2015-05-01

    Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles' fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons` ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons' ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces

  20. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  1. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control: a review of European studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John M; Bianchi, Felix Jja; Entling, Martin H; Moonen, Anna-Camilla; Smith, Barbara M; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with agri-environment scheme funding in all EU member states. Understanding the contribution of each habitat type can aid the development of conservation control strategies. Here we review the extent to which the predominant habitat types in Europe support natural enemies, whether this results in enhanced natural enemy densities in the adjacent crop and whether this leads to reduced pest densities. Considerable variation exists in the available information for the different habitat types and trophic levels. Natural enemies within each habitat were the most studied, with less information on whether they were enhanced in adjacent fields, while their impact on pests was rarely investigated. Most information was available for woody and herbaceous linear habitats, yet not for woodland which can be the most common semi-natural habitat in many regions. While the management and design of habitats offer potential to stimulate conservation biocontrol, we also identified knowledge gaps. A better understanding of the relationship between resource availability and arthropod communities across habitat types, the spatiotemporal distribution of resources in the landscape and interactions with other factors that play a role in pest regulation could contribute to an informed management of semi-natural habitats for biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Guantánamo Bay: A Reflection On The Legal Status And Rights Of ‘Unlawful Enemy Combatants’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry D. Gill

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The United States administration’s policy of detaining ‘unlawful enemy combatants’ at the United States military base in Guantánamo Bay falls short of international and domestic law standards. The problem in the authors’ view is not that the United States has decided to designate those captured on the battlefield in Afghanistan as ‘unlawful combatants’ who (allegedly fall outside the scope of international humanitarian law. International humanitarian law has long recognized the existence of such a category. The problem is rather that international humanitarian law has been sporadically and selectively applied and in many respects has been ignored or violated with respect to the detainees held in Guantánamo and elsewhere within the context of the ‘war on terror’. In its recent judgements in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Rumsfeld v. Bush and Rasul v. Bush the United States Supreme Court has not passed an unambiguous and clear judgement on the United States policy towards unlawful enemy combatants. The Court may have rejected the executive’s claim that it has the authority to incarcerate people suspected of terrorist connections without any judicial review, the three decisions have not imposed on the executive a clear framework governing the detention of alleged terrorists. The Court has upheld the government’s power to hold ‘enemy combatants’ according to standards that fall short of the requirements of the Geneva Conventions. Moreover, the due process protection granted to those challenging their status as’ enemy combatant’ is so deferential to the executive that it could render review virtually insignificant.

  3. Analysing perspectives on evil, enemy and divinatory consultation among Participants in Neo-prophetic movements in Pentecostal Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the concept of enemy evil and divinatory consultation among Ghanaian Neo-prophetic Churches in order to open up these concepts for further scholarly probe. The study employs the purposive sampling of participatory method of qualitative research methodology. The instruments used in data collection and analysis include interviews and participant observation. The study examines the historical antecedents of the prophetic phenomenon in Ghana and shows its root in the i...

  4. Biotic resistance via granivory: Establishment by invasive, naturalized, and native asters reflects generalist preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway; John L. Maron

    2011-01-01

    Escape from specialist natural enemies is frequently invoked to explain exotic plant invasions, but little attention has been paid to how generalist consumers in the recipient range may influence invasion. We examined how seed preferences of the widespread generalist granivore Peromyscus maniculatus related to recruitment of the strongly invasive exotic Centaurea...

  5. Variation in natural plant products and the attraction of bodyguards involved in indirect plant defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plants can respond to feeding or egg deposition by herbivorous arthropods by changing the volatile blend that they emit. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) can attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores, such as parasitoids and predators, a phenomenon that is called indirect

  6. Carl Schmitt's attitude towards total war and total enemy on the eve of the outbreak of WWII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Schmitt is usually perceived as the theorist of total state, total war and total hostility. In the article, the author however tries to show that from 1937 to 1944, Schmitt was arguing that total war and total hostility were dangerous for Germany (as well as for the rest of Europe and warned against perpetuation of all efforts to totalize enemy that started in 1914. In his theoretical endeavors in this period there was place for the total state only - and especially for the total state strong enough to resist temptation of declaring total war on total enemy. The total state he recommended Hitler and his Nazi comrades was German Reich, as a part of Europe ordered and divided in the huge spaces (Grossraumordnung. Positioned in the centre of Europe, between the rest of the powers (France, Italy, USSR as well as the Scandinavian states, Germany should be careful enough to wage war only against its Eastern enemies (Poland and maybe USSR and only in order to achieve 'just' borders. Occupying in this way its huge space Germany should devote itself to the task of exploitation of various peoples such as Poles, Chechs and Slovaks, which were perceived as incapable of having their states and doomed to serve the master race - the Germans.

  7. Discourses of Dehumanization: Enemy Construction and Canadian Media Complicity in the Framing of the War on Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Steuter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Canadian news media’s coverage of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. In particular, Canadian newspaper headlines are examined for the way in which an image of the “enemy” is constructed and framed in dominant media discourse. An analysis of the data reveals a pattern of dehumanizing language applied to enemy leaders as well as Arab and Muslim citizens at large in the media’s uncritical reproduction of metaphors that linguistically frame the enemy in particular ways. Particularly, the paper argues that the Canadian media have participated in mediating constructions of Islam and Muslims, mobilizing familiar metaphors in representations that fabricate an enemy-Other who is dehumanized, de-individualized, and ultimately expendable. This dehumanizing language takes the form of animal imagery that equates and reduces human actions with sub-human behaviours. This paper argues that the repeated use of animal metaphors by monopoly media institutions constitute motivated representations that have ideological importance. The consequences of these representations are more than rhetorical, setting the stage for racist backlash, prisoner abuse and even genocide.

  8. ``Sleeping with the enemy''—predator-induced diapause in a mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Annemarie; Veenendaal, René L.; Bruin, Jan; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2008-12-01

    Diapause in arthropods is a physiological state of dormancy that is generally thought to promote survival during harsh seasons and dispersal, but it may also serve to avoid predation in space and time. Here, we show that predation-related odours induce diapause in female adult spider mites. We argue that this response allows them to move into an area where they are free of enemies, yet forced to survive without food. Spider mites are specialised leaf feeders, but—in late summer—they experience severe predation on leaves. Hence, they face a dilemma: to stay on the leaf and risk being eaten or to move away from the leaf and risk death from starvation and thirst. Female two-spotted spider mites solve this dilemma by dramatically changing their physiology when exposed to predation-associated cues. This allows them to disperse away from leaves and to survive in winter refuges in the bark of trees or in the soil. We conclude that the mere presence of predation-associated cues causes some herbivorous mites to seek refuge, thereby retarding the growth rate of the population as a whole: a trait-mediated indirect effect that may have consequences for the stability of predator prey systems and for ecosystem structure.

  9. Law enforcers recognition level emerging threats based on physical appearance and behavior signs the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Radzievskiy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: examine the effectiveness of the training method of differential approach to the choice of means of influence on the action of law enforcers opponent with different levels of aggressiveness. Material : the experiment involved 15 students of the Kyiv National Academy of Internal Affairs and the 15 employees of the State Guard of Ukraine. Results : presented curriculum for special physical and tactical training. The program details the conceptual apparatus of THREATS and DANGERS manifestations of different levels of aggressiveness opponent (case analysis of its motor behavior. The study participants underwent 7 day course focused training. The basis of the course is an advanced theoretical base. The base is aimed at developing knowledge and skills of employees in determining the level of danger. Including threats from testing and modeling episodes of extreme situations the options cadets. Conclusions : In the simulated collision situations with aggressive opponent to the students significantly improved the adequacy of the response to the threat of execution time and within the legal grounds. Recognition was determined by the level of aggressiveness manifest manners enemy, his emotions, motivation, motor behavior, positional arrangement for 2 - 3 seconds. The program contributed to the development of qualities: attention, orientation, perception, motor lead.

  10. Enemy at the gates: Rapid defensive trait diversification in an adaptive radiation of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; Diedericks, Genevieve; Hui, Cang; Makhubo, Buyisile G; Mouton, P le Fras N

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR), the product of rapid diversification of an ancestral species into novel adaptive zones, has become pivotal in our understanding of biodiversity. Although it has widely been accepted that predators may drive the process of AR by creating ecological opportunity (e.g., enemy-free space), the role of predators as selective agents in defensive trait diversification remains controversial. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we provide evidence for an "early burst" in the diversification of antipredator phenotypes in Cordylinae, a relatively small AR of morphologically diverse southern African lizards. The evolution of body armor appears to have been initially rapid, but slowed down over time, consistent with the ecological niche-filling model. We suggest that the observed "early burst" pattern could be attributed to shifts in vulnerability to different types of predators (i.e., aerial versus terrestrial) associated with thermal habitat partitioning. These results provide empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis that predators or the interaction therewith might be key components of ecological opportunity, although the way in which predators influence morphological diversification requires further study. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Financial appraisal of efficiency investments. Why the good may be the worst enemy of the best

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, A. [University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-11-15

    This methodological paper has a didactic goal: improving our understanding of what 'cost optimal energy performance of buildings' means and how financial appraisal of efficiency investments must be set up. Three items merit improvement. First, focus on the endowment character of energy performance of long-living assets like buildings. Second, defining cost optimal requires more than a comparative static trade-off scheme; cost optimal refers to dynamic efficiency, which results from technology dynamics induced by changes in society and policy. Third, financial appraisal is a more complex issue than simple net present value and life cycle cost calculations. It must reflect the time sequential dynamics of real-life processes including real-life decision making. Financial appraisal is embedded in a complex framework made up by three dimensions: future time, doubt and irrevocability. The latter dimension connects with issues like lock-in and path dependency that are generally overlooked in net present value calculations. This may lead to very erroneous recommendations regarding efficiency investments, in particular regarding the energy performance endowment of buildings. Mostly irrevocability is used as an argument to 'wait and learn' what has, for example, blocked the pace of climate policy. But the opposite 'choose or lose' is the logical outcome when the methodology is fed with evidenced expectations. The latter boosts energy efficiency to its boundaries, saving it from the middle-of-the-river quagmire where incomplete appraisals are dropping it too often (making the good the worst enemy of the best)

  12. "Enemies of the People?" Public Health in the Era of Populist Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we review the growth of populist politics, associated with exploitation of what has been termed fake news. We explore how certain words have been used in similar contexts historically, in particular the term "enemy of the people," especially with regard to public health. We then set out 6 principles for public health professionals faced with these situations. First, using their epidemiological skills, they can provide insights into the reasons underlying the growth of populist politics. Second using their expertise in modelling and health impact assessment, they can anticipate and warn about the consequences of populist policies. Third, they can support the institutions that are necessary for effective public health. Fourth they can reclaim the narrative, rejecting hatred and division, to promote social solidarity. Fifth, they can support fact checking and the use of evidence. Finally, they should always remember the lessons of history, and in particular, the way that public health has, on occasions, collaborated with totalitarian and genocidal regimes. PMID:29179293

  13. The convenient enemy – neocons, global jihadists and the road to Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixeira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically, the Iraq War was a product of the encounter of global jihadism and neoconservatism. Prior to September 11, 2001, both were facing enormous difficulties in keeping their appeal as compelling discourses within their respective societies. Nevertheless, 9-11 revived neoconservatism by giving them the ideological enemy neoconservatives were longing calling for, leading to the invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003 which, in turn, reenergized global jihadism.   Em termos ideológicos, a Guerra do Iraque foi resultado do encontro entre jihadismo global e neoconservadorismo. Antes de 11 de setembro de 2001, ambos passavam por enormes dificuldades no sentido de manter seu apelo enquanto discursos legítimos no contexto de suas respectivas sociedades.Entretanto, os ataques de 11 de setembro reavivaram o neoconservadorismo na medida em que forneceu aos neoconservadores o necessário inimigo ideológico clamado pelos mesmos, levando à invasão do Iraque em 20 de março de 2003 que, por sua vez, revitalizou o jihadismo global.

  14. Reconstructing community assembly in time and space reveals enemy escape in a Western Palearctic insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Sinclair, Frazer; Schönrogge, Karsten; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Tavakoli, Majide; Askew, Richard R; Hickerson, Michael J

    2012-03-20

    How geographically widespread biological communities assemble remains a major question in ecology. Do parallel population histories allow sustained interactions (such as host-parasite or plant-pollinator) among species, or do discordant histories necessarily interrupt them? Though few empirical data exist, these issues are central to our understanding of multispecies evolutionary dynamics. Here we use hierarchical approximate Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data for 12 herbivores and 19 parasitoids to reconstruct the assembly of an insect community spanning the Western Palearctic and assess the support for alternative host tracking and ecological sorting hypotheses. We show that assembly occurred primarily by delayed host tracking from a shared eastern origin. Herbivores escaped their enemies for millennia before parasitoid pursuit restored initial associations, with generalist parasitoids no better able to track their hosts than specialists. In contrast, ecological sorting played only a minor role. Substantial turnover in host-parasitoid associations means that coevolution must have been diffuse, probably contributing to the parasitoid generalism seen in this and similar systems. Reintegration of parasitoids after host escape shows these communities to have been unsaturated throughout their history, arguing against major roles for parasitoid niche evolution or competition during community assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The enemy, his gestalt of animal (Schmitt’s and Hegel’s animal functions

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    Bojanić Petar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of Schmitt’s and Kojève’s friendship, and consequently, their correspondence, lies in their common affinity for philosophy of Hegel. When they began corresponding in 1955, Schmitt was something of an academic pariah; in 1933, the legal scholar had joined the Nazi Party, publicly declared his anti-Semitism, was later interrogated (but not charged at Nuremberg, and retired from his post at the University of Berlin in 1946. After his famous lectures on Hegel’s Phenomenology ended in 1939, Kojève joined the Resistance. At the end of the World II War, he wound up in the French ministry of economic affairs, where he worked until his death in 1968. This text is written on the margins of two letters, one written on 14.XII.1955. by Schmitt and the other, Kojève’s answer, dated on 4.I.1956. The subject of those two letters is the interpretation of the enemy in philosophy of Hegel. .

  16. Molecular analysis of faecal samples from birds to identify potential crop pests and useful biocontrol agents in natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J

    2015-06-01

    Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats.

  17. Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and the quest for discovery of its natural enemies in the Balkan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (CFT), is a hard tick native to the Mediterranean region that is invasive in the southwestern USA. The tick is known to develop on cattle and white tailed deer, and it transmits two lethal diseases, piroplasmosis and babesiosis. Extensive use of acaricides...

  18. Biology and natural enemies of Agrilus fleischeri (Coleoptera:Buprestidae), a newly emerging destructive buprestid pest in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...

  19. Effects of Banana Plantation Pesticides on the Immune Response of Lepidopteran Larvae and Their Parasitoid Natural Enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Smilanich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research on the insect immune response has progressed dramatically within the last two decades, showing that immunity is one of the most effective defenses against foreign invaders. As such, it is important to understand the causes of variation in this response. Here, we investigate the effects of pesticides used in Costa Rican banana plantations on the immune response of the lepidopteran larva, Caligo memnon (Brassolinae. In addition, we performed a parasitism survey of the banana plantations and surrounding forests to provide a broader assessment of pesticide effects on parasitoid populations. All caterpillars for the immune assay were collected from two banana plantations and brought to La Selva Biology Station for immune challenge. Individuals were fed leaves from the plantations (pesticide or leaves from La Selva (pesticide-free, then immune challenged with injected sephadex beads. We found that individuals feeding on pesticide leaves had significantly lower bead melanization compared to individuals feeding on pesticide-free leaves. Nonetheless, the parasitism survey showed that caterpillars from the banana plantations had lower parasitism rates compared to caterpillars from the La Selva forest. This study adds to the growing body of evidence documenting negative effects of pesticides on the insect immune response and on adult parasitoids, and underscores the need for more research at the intersection between ecological entomology and immunology.

  20. Role of Molecular Genetics in Identifying ‘Fine Tuned’ Natural Enemies of the Invasive Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree is a highly successful invasive species in the continental United States, Hawaiian archipelago, several Caribbean Islands, Australia, Bermuda, and a number of other countries worldwide. It also is one of only a few invasive intraspecific hybrids that has been well characterized ...

  1. Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shelton, A. M.; Naranjo, S. E.; Romeis, J.; Hellmich, R. L.; Wolt, J. D.; Federici, B. A.; Albajes, R.; Bigler, F.; Burgess, E. P. J.; Dively, G. P.; Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Malone, L. A.; Roush, R.; Sears, M.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 317-322 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : transgenic insecticidal crops Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2009

  2. Effect of intercropping of maize in citrus orchards on citrus leaf miner infestation and population of its natural enemies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Khan, M.A.; Qasam, M.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of intercropping of maize fodder in months of monsoon (July to October), in Faisalabad, Pakistan, on infestation of citrus leaf miner (CLM) (Phyllocnistis citrella Stanton) and its predators. Lemon, Kinnow, Grapefruit and Musambi intercropped with and without maize were selected for recording data on these insects. Percent leaf miner infestation and number of predators were recorded from randomly selected branches of citrus trees. Results showed that intercropped plots of each variety had low infestation of citrus miner and high population of coccinellids and Chrysoperla carnea and Musambi was 8.40+-0.144 and 12.72+-0.171 in intercropped and 9.12+-0.169 and 14.52+-0.200 in wihtout intercropped plots, respectively. Interaction of population of Chrysoperla carnea and coccinellids was non-significant for months, varieties and intercropping but was significant within months, varieties and intercropping. The possibility of using maize fodder as intercrop in autumn in citrus is discussed. (author)

  3. Evaluation of methyl salicylate lures on populations of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and other natural enemies in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...

  4. Information use by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a specialised natural enemy of herbivorous spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.G.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plants can respond to infestation by herbivores with the emission of specific herbivore-induced plant volatiles. Many carnivorous arthropods that feed on herbivorous prey use these volatiles to locate their prey. Despite the growing amount of research papers on the interactions in tritrophic

  5. Rare fungal infectious agents: a lurking enemy [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skiada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the expanding population of immunocompromised patients and those treated in intensive care units, rare fungal infectious agents have emerged as important pathogens, causing invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. These infections may present either as de novo or as breakthrough invasive infections in high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies receiving prophylactic or empirical antifungal therapy or in patients with central venous catheters. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion because early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Conventional diagnostic methods such as cultures and histopathology are still essential, but rapid and more specific molecular techniques for both detection and identification of the infecting pathogens are being developed and hopefully will lead to early targeted treatment. The management of invasive fungal infections is multimodal. Reversal of risk factors, if feasible, should be attempted. Surgical debridement is recommended in localized mold infections. The efficacy of various antifungal drugs is not uniform. Amphotericin B is active against most yeasts, except Trichosporon, as well as against Mucorales, Fusarium, and some species of Paecilomyces and dimorphic fungi. The use of voriconazole is suggested for the treatment of trichosporonosis and scedosporiosis. Combination treatment, though recommended as salvage therapy in some infections, is controversial in most cases. Despite the use of available antifungals, mortality remains high. The optimization of molecular-based techniques, with expansion of reference libraries and the possibility for direct detection of resistance mechanisms, is awaited with great interest in the near future. Further research is necessary, however, in order to find the best ways to confront and destroy these lurking enemies.

  6. Making a homefront without a battlefront: The manufacturing of domestic enemies in the early Cold War culture 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the Cold War was an undeclared conflict without actual battlefront one of its earliest charcteristics was the emergence in the United States of a homefront-based “war culture” targetting domestic enemies. 1947 witnessed the rise in news media of anxieties over alleged threats to domestic stability: in the first few months of the year, a Crime Scare reactivating pre-war concerns about the Mob and, in the summer, the first reported UFO sightings. In both cases the media and public resp...

  7. The enemy within: Power and politics in the transition to nurse practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna MacLellan

    Full Text Available Background: The period of transition from registered nurse to nurse practitioner is often challenging. While adjusting to their autonomous role, nurse practitioners need to create and define a distinct role for themselves within practice contexts that may be unfamiliar, sometimes unwelcoming and inhospitable. During this time of transition, nurses need well developed negotiation skills and personal attributes including resilience, tenacity, fortitude and determination. Purpose of the research: The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to explore the transition experiences of 10 newly endorsed nurse practitioners in Australia during their first year of practice. This paper focuses on power, control and political manoeuvring that negatively impacted the ׳nurse practitioners׳ transition. A qualitative approach using a modified version of Carspecken׳s five stage critical ethnography, informed by focused ethnography, was the methodology selected for this study. Methods included observations of practice, journaling, face to face and phone interviews which were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Results: “The enemy within” emerged as a dominant theme highlighting issues of power, powerlessness and politics dominating the participant׳s experiences. Power struggles amongst nurses, both overt and covert, and the deliberate misuse of power were frequently encountered. Many of the participants felt powerless and ill-prepared to negotiate the challenging situations in which they found themselves. Many lacked the skills needed to address the negative behaviours they experienced. Conclusions: This paper reports on the experiences of 10 newly endorsed nurse practitioners during their transition to the nurse practitioner role. The impact of the political climate at the time of this study had an undeniable influence on many of the participants׳ transition experiences. Competition for the limited numbers of

  8. Influences of Antagonistic Views of Nature on Understanding of Humanity : In the Case of Rousseau and Nietzsche

    OpenAIRE

    宮島, 光志

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study lies in considering, in the case of Rousseau and Nietzsche, how strongly the antagonistic views of nature influenced the understanding of humanity (human nature). Both Rousseau and Nietzsche criticized the modern European civilization and sought to recover the "nature" in human beings. However, at least, Nietzsche didn't assume that Rousseau was his forerunner. On the contrary, he criticized Rousseau as the greatest enemy. The reason for it can be explained from the diff...

  9. The Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939 and the Image of Enemy in the British Fascist Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Malay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of publications of British Fascists newspapers 'Action' and 'The Blackshirt' during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. The main directions of image of enemy formation are studied on the example of these papers. Forms of presentation and ways of international problems interpreting by far-right publications are studied. The fascist newspaper Action, The Fascist Week and The Blackshirt spoke from the position of nationalism, Imperial identity, anti-liberalism, anti-Soviet and anti-Semitism. The concept of "communism" in the pages of the fascist press has accumulated the most precisely the image of enemy. Articles and notes shaped confusion between "Soviet", "red" and "Communist". The USSR seemed to be "the warmonger" and the "architect of the Civil war in Spain". The destructive role of Soviet Russia in the conflict was proved in the British fascist press. Soviet Union was accused of seeking to plunge Spain and Europe into anarchy. In British fascist publications trend towards stereotyping and myth-making were noticeable, they were opposed to "Western" civilization (as individualistic and "Eastern", "Communist" (oppressive, traditionalist.

  10. Patterns of temporal and enemy niche use by a community of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) coexisting on maples (Acer) as revealed by metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    The diversity of herbivorous insects is often considered a function of host plant diversity. However, recent research has uncovered many examples of closely related herbivores using the same host plant(s), suggesting that partitioning of host plants is not the only mechanism generating diversity. Herbivores sharing hosts may utilize different parts of the same plant, but such resource partitioning is often not apparent; hence, the factors that allow closely related herbivores to coexist are still largely undetermined. We examined whether partitioning of phenology or natural enemies may explain the coexistence of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia; Gracillariidae) associated with maples (Acer; Sapindaceae). Larval activity of 10 sympatric Caloptilia species found on nine maple species was monitored every 2-3 weeks for a total of 13 sampling events, and an exhaustive search for internal parasitoid wasps was conducted using high-throughput sequencing. Blocking primers were used to facilitate the detection of wasp larvae inside moth tissue. We found considerable phenological overlap among Caloptilia species, with two clear peaks in July and September-October. Coexisting Caloptilia species also had largely overlapping parasitoid communities; a total of 13 chalcid and ichneumon wasp species attacked Caloptilia in a nonspecific fashion at an overall parasitism rate of 46.4%. Although coexistence may be facilitated by factors not accounted for in this study, it appears that niche partitioning is not necessary for closely related herbivores to stably coexist on shared hosts. Co-occurrence without resource partitioning may provide an additional axis along which herbivorous insects attain increased species richness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Prayers and Tears of Foucault: Panopticism and the Politics of Dissent in "An Enemy of the People" and "Look Back in Anger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, Mojtaba; Torkamaneh, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the thought of Foucault, this article argues that the anarchistic protagonists of Henrik Ibsen's "An Enemy of the People" (1882) and John Osborne's "Look Back in Anger" (1956) are engaged in a hegemonic battle which puts their identities at stake and ultimately exiles them to isolation. It points out that the very…

  12. Wilhelm Reich's self-censorship after his arrest as an enemy alien: the chilling effect of an illegal imprisonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    After discussing Wilhelm Reich's place in psychoanalysis, the article explores his arrest as an 'enemy alien' in December 1941. Reich's emotional responses to his imprisonment (which was illegal and which lasted nearly a month) are explored. A number of scholars have suggested that many European radical psychoanalysts refrained from sharing their former political ideas once they emigrated to the United States. Following a brief discussion of this pattern of 'silencing,' it is argued that Reich's withholding certain documents from publication was due to a self-imposed censorship, motivated in part by the fear of further governmental interference with his life and work. This fear, however, did not extend to his discussion of his newly developed theory of orgone energy. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Local ordinances as an instrument of social exclusion: the regulation affecting the homeless is administrative law of the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Melero Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses local ordinances, especially the so-called coexistence ordinances, to the extent they affect the daily activities of the homeless. There are three areas of regulation: the prohibition of begging; a ban on sleeping, washing and perform physiological needs in public spaces; and the prohibition of sorting through garbage. This regulation is subjected to a critical analysis, focusing on the fact that has an impact on the fundamental rights of the homeless. The basic parameters of control are the reserve of law and, above all, the principle of proportionality. The conclusion reached is that, in many cases, this regulation is not only illegal, it can also be included within the category Administrative Law of the enemy.

  14. Influence of keeping pheasants in captivity vs. nature on the biological value of meat and its use in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Skrivanko, Mario; Posavcević, Stefica; Periskić, Marin; Bosković, Ivica; Jumić, Vlado

    2008-09-01

    The life of game birds (pheasants) in nature is coupled with a number of difficulties in all seasons of the year. This refers to finding food, breeding, laying eggs, raising the young, fleeing from their natural enemies and lack of protection from unfavorable climatic conditions. The pheasants that live in captivity--aviaries for pheasants--do not have such difficulties--they are fed regularly by quality feed for pheasants, they are protected from bad weather and natural enemies. Our research was aimed at determining the biological value of meat of pheasants grown in the two different settings--in captivity and in nature. The highest weight achieved wild pheasant males (1232.4 +/- 147.36 g). The differences between tested pheasant groups were statistically very high significant (P nutrition.

  15. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  16. Agent-Based Simulation and Analysis of a Defensive UAV Swarm Against an Enemy UAV Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    energy options” [10]. The research of swarm robotics derives much of its inspiration from natural systems. Social insects are known to coordinate their...Monterey, California 9. CPT. Francisco J. Hederra Direccion de Investigacion, Programas y Desarrollo de la Armada Armada de Chile CHILE 10. CAPT Jeffrey Kline, USN(ret.) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 91

  17. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  18. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in their native and introduced range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J; Bosch, Peter J; Gruber, Monica A M; Kapp, Eugene A; Peng, Lifeng; Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Buchanan, Joe; Stanislawek, Wlodek L; Archer, Michael; Corley, Juan C; Masciocchi, Maitè; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England) and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand). We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range). Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  19. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS ENEMIES: A REPLY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has been the subject of passionate attacks. Its novelty, its scientific scope, its intentions and even the honesty of its followers have been questioned. Furthermore, by extension, the concern of psychology on a whole with human well-being has been placed in doubt. In this review, we offer an answer to some disproportionate criticism and make an overview of the existing overwhelming evidence derived from the active, robust research agenda on positive emotions and cognitions (e.g., optimism and their relationship to health and psychological wellness. Psychology cannot ignore a growing general movement in social sciences and in political and economic discussion that places psychological well-being in the legitimate focus of attention. In this regard, positive psychology is contributing, with the best standard tools psychological research, to articulate and support a good part of the research in and promotion of those crucial issues. Finally, it is argued that, based on a true and respectful academic dialogue, psychology must inevitably and fluently integrate the focus on positive functioning for a more inclusive explanation of human nature.

  20. [Love on enemy territory: Belgrade, Cetinje and Lublin under Austro-Hungarian occupation in World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    During World War I, Serbia and Montenegro were under Austro-Hungarian occupation between late 1915/early 1916 and 1918. This article explores the attitude of the occupiers towards prostitution and venereal disease, among the indigenous population as well as among their own soldiers, officers and female support staff. The measures taken were primarily guided by military considerations. For the military, the occupied areas were zones that served particular purposes, such as preserving peace and order behind the front, making use of manpower and resources, and serving as cordon sanitaire. In spite of this, pseudo-peace-like structures evolved in the capitals Belgrade and Cetinje that facilitated the spread of prostitution and venereal disease. In my article, I will look at the scale of the debate and of the proposed countermeasures. It is noticeable that women were usually branded as the perpetrators, while the soldiers were seen as the ones in need of protection. In spite of this, it is apparent how candidly the royal-imperial army dealt with the topic even though it went against the current ideas of morality. The social differentiation that was customary in the imperial and royal army applied here, too. Officers suffering from venereal disease had their own hospitals and brothels and were permitted leave more often (a fact that went against the purpose of these institutions). The topic also received publicity because the military physicians, who were in fact civilians mobilized by the army, chose to publish continuously on the topic. Based on the microcosm of occupied enemy territory, my contribution shows how ideas of morality changed during the war despite traditional gender stereotypes, and the role played by the military in these developments.

  1. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.

  2. "Vem är jag nu?" Känslor och betydelser av genus och plats i digitalt spelande : Affektiva dimensioner av spelande i XCOM: Enemy Within

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I analyze the ways in which gender and space are shaped and made sense of through digital gameplay. Specifically in the turn based strategy game XCOM: Enemy Within for the MacBook Air with a computer mouse as the primary input device. Using a mixed methods approach consisting of gameplay sessions of XCOM and qualitative interviews with two players regarding their gameplay I argue that earlier research on space within game studies has overlooked the ways in which the shaping of s...

  3. A Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanism Finely Tunes the Firing of Type VI Secretion System in Response to Bacterial Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Martina; Feldman, Mario F; García Véscovi, Eleonora

    2017-08-22

    also recently identified as one major component of the gut microbiome in familial Crohn disease dysbiosis. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) stand among the array of survival strategies that Serratia displays. They are contractile multiprotein complexes able to deliver toxic effectors directed to kill bacterial species sharing the same niche and, thus, competing for vital resources. Here, we show that Serratia is able to detect and measure the extent of damage generated through T6SS-delivered toxins from neighboring bacteria and responds by transcriptionally adjusting the expression level of its own T6SS machinery to counterattack the rival. This strategy allows Serratia to finely tune the production of costly T6SS devices to maximize the chances of successfully fighting against enemies and minimize energy investment. The knowledge of this novel mechanism provides insight to better understand bacterial interactions and design alternative treatments for polymicrobial infections. Copyright © 2017 Lazzaro et al.

  4. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  5. Predation and parasitism by native and exotic natural enemies of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs augmented with semiochemicals and differing host stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive species in the United States, and causes severe agricultural damage to a variety of crops. Prior research with other stink bugs has shown that various stimuli, including the aggregation pheromone of a pest can be an important kairo...

  6. Biology and preliminary host range of Hydrotimetes natans Kolbe (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)a natural enemy candidate for biological control of Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae) in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae), otherwise known as cabomba or water fanwort, is a submerged, rooted macrophyte with heavily dissected leaves that produces flowers that extend above the water’s surface. It has been disseminated around the world through the aquarium trade and has become a nox...

  7. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  8. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  9. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  10. Natural enemies implicated in the regulation of an invasive pest: a life table analysis of the population dynamics of the emerald ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a serious invasive forest pest that has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in the United States and Canada. By caging EAB adults on trunks of healthy ash trees, we established three generations of experimental cohorts from ...

  11. Enemy at the Gates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindelang, Steffen; Hagemeyer, Teoman

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction into the initiatives of the European Union and its Member States on foreign (direct) investment screening. It goes on to measure the latest reform of the German investment screening mechanism against the fundamental freedoms, also revealing the remaining regulatory...

  12. Jews enemies of Christianity?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should receive priority (Qumran, the rabbinic literature, Hellenistic–Jewish writings and other ancient Jewish texts, such as 1 Enoch). Other sources to be used include Thomas, Q and the synoptic. Gospels (chapter 2). Also necessary for this distinction is a consistent picture of the world of Judaism within the Roman Empire ...

  13. Museums and Their Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Francis

    1985-01-01

    Since the eighteenth century, both artists and art historians have received educational benefits from public art museums. The main function of public museums, however, has usually been the improvement or refinement of public taste. But in addition to education and pleasure, another museum objective is that of moral improvement. (RM)

  14. Meat Your Enemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Glen; Gond, Jean-Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Radical change can be conceived in terms of the reconceiving of ontological distinctions, such as those separating humans from animals. In building on insights from French pragmatism, we suggest that, while no doubt very difficult, radical change can potentially be achieved by creating “alignment...

  15. Living with the enemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Helen E.; Rhule, Emma; Harding, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis is an invasive alien predator in many countries across the world. The rapid establishment and spread of this species is of concern because of the threat it poses to biodiversity as a generalist predator. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the success of this species...

  16. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...

  17. The "enemies within"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmick, Rahul; Hickson, Ian D

    2017-01-01

    of genome organization or maintenance. The most prominent class of these regions in mammalian cells is defined as chromosome fragile sites, which acquired their name because of a propensity to form visible gaps/breaks on otherwise-condensed chromosomes in mitosis. This fragility is particularly apparent...

  18. The enemy within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of the hazards of radon in our homes. Radon is produced during the constant breakdown of uranium 238 present in building materials and the ground on which buildings stand. Radon itself decays to produce polonium which, if inhaled, can cause lung cancer. Figures indicate that as many as 600 lung cancers a year in the UK may be attributable to radon and this could escalate to 1500 if energy conservation measures reducing draughts become more widespread. (U.K.)

  19. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  20. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  1. « The glittering game » : le jeu des choses dans A Lost Lady et My Mortal Enemy de Willa Cather

    OpenAIRE

    Manresa, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Dans A Lost Lady et My Mortal Enemy, Willa Cather confère aux choses un rôle étonnamment actif au cœur de l’intrigue et un relief inédit au sein de l’écriture. Loin de demeurer tapies dans l’ombre ou figées dans l’arrière-plan des décors, les choses investissent pleinement le devant de la scène diégétique et narrative. Du costume aux détails de la décoration, les choses gouvernent les jeux de modelage réciproque entre l’habitant et l’habitat, visant à transformer l’intérieur des maisons en un...

  2. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  3. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  4. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy P

    2014-12-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  5. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  6. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  7. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  8. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  9. The man-nature relationship and environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Our behaviour and policies with regard to nature and the environment should be guided by a code of ethics, which is to be derived from basic principles and from a pragmatic consideration of the issues at stake. The man-nature relationship has always been ambiguous, nature being seen as both a provider and an enemy. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, man is set apart from nature and called to dominate it, although this attitude has been revised to become one of stewardship. Oriental religions, on the other hand, have a more holistic view and consider humans as an integral part of nature. Modern philosophers have views ranging from anthropocentrism to biocentrism and egocentrism. It is suggested to take a pragmatic approach by which primary human needs are met first and foremost whereas the needs of other living organisms and ecosystems are allowed to prevail over secondary human needs. A plea is made to support the Earth Charter, which embodies in its principles and prescriptions a balanced respect for nature and future human generations

  10. The man-nature relationship and environmental ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Ph

    2004-01-01

    Our behaviour and policies with regard to nature and the environment should be guided by a code of ethics, which is to be derived from basic principles and from a pragmatic consideration of the issues at stake. The man-nature relationship has always been ambiguous, nature being seen as both a provider and an enemy. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, man is set apart from nature and called to dominate it, although this attitude has been revised to become one of stewardship. Oriental religions, on the other hand, have a more holistic view and consider humans as an integral part of nature. Modern philosophers have views ranging from anthropocentrism to biocentrism and egocentrism. It is suggested to take a pragmatic approach by which primary human needs are met first and foremost whereas the needs of other living organisms and ecosystems are allowed to prevail over secondary human needs. A plea is made to support the Earth Charter, which embodies in its principles and prescriptions a balanced respect for nature and future human generations.

  11. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  12. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  13. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD

  14. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  15. From Rowing Between Two Reefs to Sailing in Two Oceans: The End of A Thousand Friends, Zero Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Post, February 4, 2015, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/02/04/susi-best-performing-minister-lsi.html and Hans Nicholas Jong, “Survey Suggests...relations. The prime drivers of Indonesia’s foreign policy, as Paige Johnson Tan assesses, are contextualized to the country’s domestic politics...political and economic conditions, and sometimes even natural disasters, provide a practical limit on Indonesia’s aspirations.102 Tan gives the example

  16. Natural radiation; A radiacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included.

  17. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  18. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  19. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working......Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...

  20. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  1. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  2. The worst enemy of science: clarifying polemics issues on Paul Feyerabend’s Epistemology in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the objections to Feyerabend's epistemology arise from misinterpretations of ideas by this author. Terms and expressions as epistemological anarchism, irrationality, control of science and anything goes can give the false impression that the author's arguments are chaotic and unsustainable. This paper discusses these concepts, opposing the misconceptions about them. In initial and continuing teacher education, this reflection can be useful both for the deconstruction of certain misleading images about the nature of science and for the upbringing of critical citizens acquaintated to the concepts of modern philosophy of science.

  3. Sleeping with the Political Enemy: Woman’s Place in Discourses of Race and Class Struggle in 20th Century Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Bolgár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall argue that the convergence of ideologies operating through the creation of enemies like racism and Bolshevism with discourses regulating gender relations in the Central Europe of the twentieth century had the grave consequence of questioning women’s position in the political community. In short, I shall argue that in the context of racist and Bolshevik discourses, the very fact of being female was in itself a political threat to women. To demonstrate my point, I shall discuss two recent publications. First, I shall analyze the context of the convergence of racist and misogynist discourses in turn-of-the-century Vienna through discussing András Gerő’s book, Neither Woman Nor Jew. Second, I shall explore how the discourse of class struggle affected the political status of Hungarian women in the Stalinist era through discussing Eszter Zsófia Tóth’s book, Kádár’s Daughters.

  4. Writing a love letter to your (perceived enemy: Thích Nhất Hạnh and the rhetoric of nonviolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael PHILLIPS-ANDERSON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist Thích Nhất Hạnh has been a leading figure in the promotion of nonviolent practice throughout the world. We examine his concept of engaged Buddhism, theories of nonviolence, and intersections with rhetorical and communication studies. His approach takes nonviolence beyond the realm of refusing to use physical violence to the recognition that language itself can be violent. In order to understand this approach we detail the concepts of interbeing, loving speech, and deep listening. We examine the role of love in Nhất Hạnh’s theory of nonviolence, comparing it with approaches taken by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Examples are given from many of Nhất Hạnh’s speeches and writings with particular attention paid to a love letter he wrote to US President George W. Bush during the Iraq War. Thích Nhất Hạnh offers the practice of writing a love letter to one’s perceived enemy as a means to persuade for a turn to nonviolence.

  5. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  6. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  7. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...

  8. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Nature Watch Diversity of Bats. G Marimuthu. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 103-110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0103-0110. Author Affiliations.

  9. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  10. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 9. Nature Watch - Coral Reefs and their Fauna: An Underwater Fantasyland. Anuradha Bhat. Feature Article Volume 9 Issue 9 September 2004 pp 62-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Nature Watch: Symbiosis in Coastal Marine Communities. Neelam Pereira. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 245-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Nature Watch - Thinking Like a Tahr: When Males and Females go their Separate Ways. M D Madhusudan. Feature Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 43-47 ...

  13. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...... -- Cows, red cows, and red herrings -- Corollarial and theorematic experiments with diagrams -- Strategies of research: Peirce's enlightenment maxims -- Perspective -- References -- Index....

  14. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Nature Watch - Singapore's Jurong BirdPark: A Study Model. Abraham Verghese. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 74-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  16. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Nature Watch - The Odyssey of the Olive Ridley. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 68-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/07/0068-0078 ...

  17. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Nature Watch - Secrets of the Shieldtails. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 64-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0064-0070 ...

  18. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... 20; Issue 1. Nature Watch: A Tale of Two Turtles. V Deepak. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp 47-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/01/0047-0054. Keywords. Ecology; endemic; India; turtles; tortoises; Western Ghats.

  19. Nerves of steel: Canadians devised formula for international oil ventures behind enemy lines in the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian formula for international success in oil, natural gas and associated services and equipment is described as a blend of stamina in extreme natural environments, an open mind, a sharp eye for technical opportunity, technical creativity, a sharp eye for fitting into foreign communities, and willingness to chart an independent course through global political conflict. By way of background, little known early western ventures into the then-touchiest international arena, the Soviet Union, are described. >From these early ventures in the 1970s resulted some pioneering ideas which, with Canadian refinements, became the cornerstones of today's oilfield technology: mud motors to drive bits with speed and precision, and SAGD or steam-assisted gravity drainage to tap the oil sands. It is well to remember that the industrial intelligence that gave us these fundamental tools was gathered at a time when it was common practice to disparage Russian industry for its shortcomings and inefficiency. Other examples cited are Nexen Inc.,'s successful exploitation of the Masila Block which has been producing an average of 118,300 barrels per day since 1993, which yielded $636 million in corporate cash flow in 2001. Nexen's 'Yemenization' program achieved 65 per cent employment of local hires and set an 80 per cent target for 2009, with scholarships and technology transfer plans serving the goal. This example of attention to community benefits such as employment, civic and health services, goes far towards making up for the Canadian drawback of small size by global industry standards. The independent streak in Canadian international oil and gas enterprise also continues to show most clearly at Talisman Energy, with its globally controversial role in Sudan. Despite continuous wrangling with missionary groups and advocates of U.S. sanctions against Sudan, Talisman Energy was able to persuade the government to make public the government's share in proceeds from the oil

  20. Nerves of steel: Canadians devised formula for international oil ventures behind enemy lines in the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2002-06-03

    The Canadian formula for international success in oil, natural gas and associated services and equipment is described as a blend of stamina in extreme natural environments, an open mind, a sharp eye for technical opportunity, technical creativity, a sharp eye for fitting into foreign communities, and willingness to chart an independent course through global political conflict. By way of background, little known early western ventures into the then-touchiest international arena, the Soviet Union, are described. >From these early ventures in the 1970s resulted some pioneering ideas which, with Canadian refinements, became the cornerstones of today's oilfield technology: mud motors to drive bits with speed and precision, and SAGD or steam-assisted gravity drainage to tap the oil sands. It is well to remember that the industrial intelligence that gave us these fundamental tools was gathered at a time when it was common practice to disparage Russian industry for its shortcomings and inefficiency. Other examples cited are Nexen Inc.,'s successful exploitation of the Masila Block which has been producing an average of 118,300 barrels per day since 1993, which yielded $636 million in corporate cash flow in 2001. Nexen's 'Yemenization' program achieved 65 per cent employment of local hires and set an 80 per cent target for 2009, with scholarships and technology transfer plans serving the goal. This example of attention to community benefits such as employment, civic and health services, goes far towards making up for the Canadian drawback of small size by global industry standards. The independent streak in Canadian international oil and gas enterprise also continues to show most clearly at Talisman Energy, with its globally controversial role in Sudan. Despite continuous wrangling with missionary groups and advocates of U.S. sanctions against Sudan, Talisman Energy was able to persuade the government to make public the government's share in

  1. Feeding the enemy: loss of nectar and nectaries to herbivores reduces tepal damage and increases pollinator attraction in Iris bulleyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-Ru; Yang, Min; Vamosi, Jana C; Armbruster, W Scott; Wan, Tao; Gong, Yan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana , an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana , sacrificing nectar and nectaries to herbivores protects tepals and thus enhances pollinator attraction. We compared rates of pollination and herbivory on different floral tissues in plants with flowers protected from nectar and nectary consumption with rates in unprotected control plants. We found that nectar and nectaries suffered more herbivore damage than did tepals in natural conditions. However, the amount of tepal damage was significantly greater in the flowers with protected nectaries than in the controls; this resulted in significant differences in pollinator visitation rates. These results provide the first evidence that floral nectar and nectaries may be 'sacrificed' to herbivores, leading to reduced damage to other floral tissues that are more important for reproduction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. War is the Enemy of Health. Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahloul, Mohammed Z; Monla-Hassan, Jaber; Sankari, Abdulghani; Kherallah, Mazen; Atassi, Bassel; Badr, Safwan; Abbara, Aula; Sparrow, Annie

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian crisis, now in its fifth year, has created an unprecedented strain on health services and systems due to the protracted nature of the warfare, the targeting of medics and health care infrastructure, the exodus of physicians and nurses, the shortage of medical supplies and medications, and the disruption of medical education and training. Within a few short years, the life expectancy of resident Syrians has declined by 20 years. Over the first 4 years of the conflict, more than 75,000 civilians died from injuries incurred in the violence. More than twice as many civilians, including many women and children, have died prematurely of infectious and noninfectious chronic diseases for want of adequate health care. Doctors, local administrators, and nongovernmental organizations are struggling to manage the consequences of the conflict under substandard conditions, often using unorthodox methods of health care delivery in field hospitals and remotely by telehealth communication. Much-needed medical supplies are channeled through dangerous routes across the borders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey. Physicians in the United States and other western nations have helped Syrian physicians make the most of the situation by providing training on introducing innovations in technology and treatment. Portable ultrasound machines have been introduced and are being used extensively in the management of trauma and shock. This report, prepared by members of the Syrian American Medical Society, documents current needs for health care relief within Syria, focusing on pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine, and some of the efforts currently underway to meet those needs.

  3. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...... in understanding recent and current practices of climate change and environmental policy. The different chapters in this volume contribute to this debate by offering multidisciplinary perspectives on particular aspects of these two frameworks and through a multidirectional outlook that links the local, national...

  4. Unbounded Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taggart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available nbsp;font face="Times, serif"font size="3"In the Anglo-American reception of John McDowellrsquo;s /font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emMind and World/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3", there has been little attention paid to the developmental aspect of his lsquo;partially re-enchantedrsquo; naturalism. In lsquo;Naturalism Unboundedrsquo;, I argue that McDowellrsquo;s story of our normal upbringing (/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emBildung/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3" presents problems for his claim that we have a lsquo;standing obligationrsquo; to reflect on our perceptual experiences. I follow this critique up with a Hegelian-inspired attempt to retain and revise the vital points he makes about experience./font/font

  5. Natural games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.

  6. Natural games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-10-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

  7. Natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-08-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with natural uranium

  8. Next nature : nature changes along with us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van K.M.; Grievink, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We debate saving nature, we dream about escaping to nature, but rarely do we ask "What is nature?". The Next Nature book radically shifts your notion of nature. Where technology and nature are traditionally seen as opposed, they now appear to merge or even trade places. With our urge to design our

  9. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  10. Ferocious Enemies and Noble Heroes: Images of “Us” and “Them” in Polish American Textbooks (until the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Walaszek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic schools had an important role to play in propagating profiles of “ideal” heroes and members of society among immigrant communities. Consequently, it was often the role of school coursebooks to inform pupils of the messages adults wanted to transmit to the younger generation. In this paper the author attempts to describe contents of various textbooks used in Polish-American parochial schools. Invention of national mythology and simplification of facts was necessary to facilitate the memorizing process as required. But to form group solidarity one also had to identify common enemies. Various textbooks published in the U.S.A. before World War I did not help immigrants’ children to acculturate to their American realities. Being very didactic, they focused mainly on Polish realities and Polish history. Only after World War I did an American presence become more visible in books used in the first grade. In thirties Felicians predominantly used textbooks written in the U.S.A., mainly by S. M. Cyryla (Magdalena Tobaka. The heroes they presented were characterized schematically, and the ideals found therein were alien to Polish-American children. Polska by S. Mary Cyryla, was the book on which this analysis was based. The image of Poles and “other” nations is surprisingly defined in black and white. Foreign nations are depicted as cruel, monstrous, villain, pagan, barbaric, etc. “Us”, the Poles, are seen as brave, just, good, wise, honest, faithful, etc., they “have loved faith, country, and language” etc. Cyryla’s textbook tried to engender feelings of community by dividing the world into “us” and “them”, thereby provoking antagonism towards “them.” Polish personality traits were very much in keeping with the images and self-stereotypes which Polish society had about itself. In constructing a positive and ideal self-image, it was useful for “others” and “strangers” to be depicted as “enemies”.

  11. Make your enemies your allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzi, Brian; Dunlap, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    Rivalries in the workplace can be destructive to both personal career growth and group success. Many attempts to reverse rivalries fail because of the complex way emotion and reason operate in the building of trust. Using a method called the 3Rs, an effective leader can turn a rival into a collaborator, setting the stage for a healthy work life while driving fresh thinking within an organization. Step 1 of the method is redirection, shifting a rival's negative emotions away from the adversarial relationship. This creates an opening for Step 2, reciprocity, through which a relationship can be established. Here, the essential principle is to give before you ask--offering a rival something of clear benefit and "priming the pump" for a future return that requires little effort on the rival's part. Step 3, rationality, sets expectations of the new relationship so that efforts made using the previous steps don't come off as disingenuous. A rival is encouraged to see collaborative opportunities from a reasoned standpoint. A key advantage of the 3Rs is that the method can work to reverse all kinds of rivalries, including those with subordinates, peers, and superiors.

  12. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marloes Mol; Annika van den Berg; Dr. Joke Hermes

    2013-01-01

    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  13. Know Your Enemy, Know Yourself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke; Gjelsvik, Anne

    2013-01-01

    An introduction to the anthology Eastwood's Iwo Jima: Taken together, Eastwood’s diptych Flags of Our Fathers (2006) and Letters from Iwo Jima (2006) form a unique contribution to film history. It was the first time a director made two films at the same time about the same event, which here...... is the battle over Iwo Jima in 1945 during World War II. And it was also the first time an American director made an American film in Japanese, since Letters from Iwo Jima (despite its English title) is entirely in Japanese. Finally, and what motivated us to produce this anthology, it was the first time...

  14. Che: His Own Worst Enemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    comprised of Green Berets, to go to Bolivia and train a Ranger battalion 40 in counter-insurgency operations. Leading this 16-man team was Maj...York: Routledge & Kegan Ltd., 1987. Sinclair, Andrew. Che Guevara. New York: The Viking Press, 1970. Study of the “Diary of ‘Che’ Guevara in

  15. De l'honorable ennemi au compagnon de fortune From the respectable enemy to the one who shares a common destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Györgyi Mate

    2012-05-01

    we shall study what it appears to be a subject that is fundamental as well as recurring, that of the question of honor and the word given. We shall further analyze these questions this along three axes: personal engagement - political and military - religious conversion, where we find al sorts of topics relating to religion and finally coexistence, which is more complex by itself. The texts illustrating those three different approaches are of a great diversity. Within such corpus we may find slave memoirs, epical songwriting, as well as the equally important XIXth century novels. The image of the Ottoman Empire has been through a considerable transformation over time in Hungary. In the fifteenth century one of the first existing European accounts of the country shows a well regulated regime, with moral values that constitute an example the whole Christian world should probably follow. Around the middle of the sixteenth century though, Hans Dernschwam finds that the empire is full of “ridiculous and vicious eccentricities". At the same time the epic poems of Tinódi show that sultan Suleiman was an enemy feared by the western forces. A century later, the poet Miklós Zrínyi makes a legend out of the same monarch. New voices appear during the XIXth century: Jókai’s romanticism depicts the deep oriental soul, while Tömörkény's realism portraits the little people in particular. In the XXth century, the ottoman element may be represented either as the incarnation of an age-long enemy, or as the people Hungarians are peacefully coexisting.

  16. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  17. The Dialectic of the Nature-Society-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2008-07-01

    ecological crisis. The productive forces are in modern society socially and ecologically destructive forces. In late capitalism there is a tendency of commodification and privatization of nature and human knowledge. Especially in the later writings of Marx and Engels one can find formulations that suggest a productivist logic that sees nature as an enemy opposed to man, as a resource and object that must be mastered, exploited, and controlled. But throughout the works of Marx and Engels one can find many passages where they argue that there is an antagonism between capitalism and nature that results in ecological degradation and that a free society is also based on alternative, sustainable relationships between man and nature. The idea of an alternative society-nature-relationship and of nature conservation can already be found in the works of Marx and Engels, they are precursors of ecological thinking. In Orthodox Marxism dialectical thinking has been interpreted as deterministic and mechanic laws and misused for arguing that the Soviet system is a free society. An alternative is a dialectic that stresses human practice and that structures condition alternative possibilities for action. Dialectic thinkers like Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Bloch have argued that nature is a producing subject, a non-teleological subject (Marcuse. Describing nature as a subject implies that if man destroys nature the latter as a producing subject will probably produce uncontrollable negative effects on society and that hence nature should be appropriated in sustainable ways. Matter is a natural subject that acts upon itself, whereas man is a human self-conscious subject that acts upon nature and society.

  18. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...

  19. Do new Access and Benefit Sharing procedures under the Convention on Biological Diversity threaten the future of biological control? Supplemental material (case studies, natural enemy releases, country views concerning ABS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, M.J.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Barratt, I.P.; Bigler, F.; Bolckmans, K.; Cônsoli, F.L.; Haas, F.; Mason, P.G.; Parra, J.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties [i.e. Access and Benefit Sharing

  20. Survival and development of a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its natural enemy, the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera. Pteromalidae), on transgenic Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise S.; Lövei, Gabor L; Székács, András

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) containing a lepidopteran-specific Bt toxin on a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and its parasitoid, Lariophagus distinguendus Förster, was examined in the laboratory to test the impact of transgenic maize on stored...

  1. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding...

  2. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  3. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  4. Virginia Natural Heritage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage About Natural Heritage Overview, Mission Natural Heritage Inventory Community Ecology Program ) | Strategic Plan (PDF) | Executive Progress Report (PDF) | Code of Ethics (PDF) Your browser does not support

  5. Intelligence Aid for Evaluating Enemy Courses of Action (ENCOA): Guide for Manual and HP41-C/HP41-CV Calculator Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    for use by intellignece analysts in field operations, tactical training, and academic DD I 1473wu EDITION OF f OV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...Category Factor t.i Fields of fire 1.2 Cover and concealment 1.0 TERRAIN FACTORS 1. oblt 1.4 Seize/deny key terrain 1.5 Observation 1.o Natural/ artificial ...provisions of terrain. - 1.6 Exploits or accommodates natural and artificial obstacles. 2.0 U.S. FORCE FACTORS *: As related to mission accomplishment

  6. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  7. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  8. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  9. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  10. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  11. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding of what McDowell's own naturalism amounts to. I argue that nothing short of an absolute naturalism will do for a number of McDowell's own purposes, but that it is far from obvious that this is his posi...

  12. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Swedish Electric Power Policy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gündüz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The future of climate and sustainable energy are interrelated. Speaking of one without mentioning the other is quite difficult. The increasing number of natural disasters pose a great threat to the electric power supply security in any part of the world. Sweden has been one of the countries that have suffered from unacceptably long blackouts. The tremendous outcomes of the power interruptions have made the field of the economic worth of electric power reliability a popular area of interest among researchers. Nature has been the number one enemy against the supply security of the electricity. This paper introduces a recent and thorough electric power reliability analysis of Sweden and focuses on the country’s struggle against climate change-related natural disasters via updating the country’s electric power policy to improve its service quality. The paper highlights the Gudrun storm of 2005 as a case study to demonstrate the severe impacts of extreme weather events on the energy systems. The economic damage of the storm on the electric power service calculated to be around 3 billion euros.

  14. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  15. Enemies of the People?” Public Health in the Era of Populist Politics; Comment on “The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin McKee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, we review the growth of populist politics, associated with exploitation of what has been termed fake news. We explore how certain words have been used in similar contexts historically, in particular the term “enemy of the people,” especially with regard to public health. We then set out 6 principles for public health professionals faced with these situations. First, using their epidemiological skills, they can provide insights into the reasons underlying the growth of populist politics. Second using their expertise in modelling and health impact assessment, they can anticipate and warn about the consequences of populist policies. Third, they can support the institutions that are necessary for effective public health. Fourth they can reclaim the narrative, rejecting hatred and division, to promote social solidarity. Fifth, they can support fact checking and the use of evidence. Finally, they should always remember the lessons of history, and in particular, the way that public health has, on occasions, collaborated with totalitarian and genocidal regimes.

  16. "Enemies of the People?" Public Health in the Era of Populist Politics Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-04-15

    In this commentary, we review the growth of populist politics, associated with exploitation of what has been termed fake news. We explore how certain words have been used in similar contexts historically, in particular the term "enemy of the people," especially with regard to public health. We then set out 6 principles for public health professionals faced with these situations. First, using their epidemiological skills, they can provide insights into the reasons underlying the growth of populist politics. Second using their expertise in modelling and health impact assessment, they can anticipate and warn about the consequences of populist policies. Third, they can support the institutions that are necessary for effective public health. Fourth they can reclaim the narrative, rejecting hatred and division, to promote social solidarity. Fifth, they can support fact checking and the use of evidence. Finally, they should always remember the lessons of history, and in particular, the way that public health has, on occasions, collaborated with totalitarian and genocidal regimes. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  18. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  19. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  20. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  3. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  4. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  5. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  6. Naturalisms and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Willem

    1997-01-01

    Such terms as materialism, naturalism, and near synonyms evoke strong negative reactions among many believers. However, the notion of naturalism has various meanings; implications for religion differ for the several varieties of naturalism. In this paper I analyze epistemological and ontological

  7. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  8. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  9. Nature in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Frøkjær, Thorleif

    Nature and nature phenomena’ has formed a specific curriculum theme in Danish preschool since early childhood curriculum was prescribed by law in 2004. However, recent evaluations show that the implementation of an early childhood curriculum has not produced an increased pedagogical focus...... on ‘nature and nature phenomena’ in preschools (EVA 2012). This finding, along with an increased political interest in goals and measurable outcome of early childhood curriculum (Broström 2012), will be the starting point in our ambition to carry out a more thorough qualitative investigation into links...... between preschool teachers’ understanding and interest in teaching nature and the rather poor evaluation....

  10. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    .), genetic and evolutionary strategies, artificial immune systems etc. Well-known examples of applications include: aircraft wing design, wind turbine design, bionic car, bullet train, optimal decisions related to traffic, appropriate strategies to survive under a well-adapted immune system etc. Based......During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms...

  11. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  12. On nature and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  13. A Natural Love of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, David G. I.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on the chemistry of natural products from the author?s group that led to the receipt of the ACS Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products is reviewed. REDOR NMR and synthetic studies established the T-taxol conformation as the bioactive tubulin-binding conformation, and these results were confirmed by the synthesis of compounds which clearly owed their activity or lack of activity to whether or not they could adopt the T-taxol conformation. Similar studies wit...

  14. A comparison of the recruitment success of introduced and native species under natural conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habacuc Flores-Moreno

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that introduced species have recruitment advantages over native species. However, this idea has not been widely tested, and those studies that have compared survival of introduced and native species have produced mixed results. We compiled data from the literature on survival through germination (seed to seedling survival, early seedling survival (survival through one week from seedling emergence and survival to adulthood (survival from germination to first reproduction under natural conditions for 285 native and 63 introduced species. Contrary to expectations, we found that introduced and native species do not significantly differ in survival through germination, early seedling survival, or survival from germination to first reproduction. These comparisons remained non-significant after accounting for seed mass, longevity and when including a random effect for site. Results remained consistent after excluding naturalized species from the introduced species data set, after performing phylogenetic independent contrasts, and after accounting for the effect of life form (woody/non-woody. Although introduced species sometimes do have advantages over native species (for example, through enemy release, or greater phenotypic plasticity, our findings suggest that the overall advantage conferred by these factors is either counterbalanced by advantages of native species (such as superior adaptation to local conditions or is simply too small to be detected at a broad scale.

  15. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  16. Invited Commentary: Little Steps Lead to Huge Steps-It's Time to Make Physical Inactivity Our Number 1 Public Health Enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(9):621-632) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices. The masses are already equipped to routinely quantify their activity, and now we have the opportunity and responsibility to provide evidenced-based, tailored physical activity goals. We have evidenced-based physical activity guidelines, mass distribution of devices to track activity, and now scientific support indicating that meeting the physical activity goal, as assessed by these devices, has substantial health benefits. All of the pieces are in place to make physical inactivity a national priority, and we now have the opportunity to positively affect the health of millions of Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  18. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  19. Natural Ventilation in Atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per; Hendriksen, Ole Juhl

    This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions.......This case study comprises a monitoring programme as well as a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a natural ventilated atrium. The purpose has been to analyse the performance of a typical natural ventilation system in Denmark under both summer and winter conditions....

  20. Nature-based integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Oratuomi, Joose; Hellgren, Daniela

    Increased attention to, and careful planning of the integration of migrants into Nordic societies is ever more important. Nature based integration is a new solution to respond to this need. This report presents the results of a Nordic survey and workshop and illustrates current practices of nature...... based integration by case study descriptions from Denmark, Sweden Norway and Finland. Across Nordic countries several practical projects and initiatives have been launched to promote the benefits of nature in integration and there is also growing academic interest in the topic. Nordic countries have...... the potential of becoming real forerunners in nature based integration even at the global scale....

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  3. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Nature as Dissonant Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    accepts that nature it not existing outside culture as something that be restored to its original state, but a contemporary product created and managed with certain objectives in mind, nature restoration like heritage production are prone to same kind of dissonance – our nature is not necessary...... their nature. According to Ashworth cultural dissonance can be managed in a number of different way depending on which type of plural society is preferred. Many of these management strategies consciously or unconsciously involve some form of denial, neglect, destruction, reinterpretation or marginalizing...

  5. Oklo natural reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Isao

    1985-01-01

    In 1954, Professor Kazuo, Kuroda of Arkansas University in USA published the possibility that spontaneously generated natural nuclear reactors existed in prehistoric age. In 1972, 18 years after that, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique published that in the Oklo uranium deposit in Gabon, Africa, a natural nuclear reactor was found. This fact was immediately informed to the whole world, but in Japan, its details have not necessarily been well known. The chance of investigating into this fact and visiting the Oklo deposit by the favor of COMUF, the owner of the Oklo deposit, was given, therefore, the state of the natural reactors, which has been known so far, is reported. At present, 12 natural reactors have been found in the vicinity of the Oklo deposit. The natural reactors were generated spontaneously in uranium deposits about 1.7 billion years ago when the isotopic abundance of U-235 was 3 %, and the chain reaction started naturally. When the concentration of U-235 lowered, the reaction stopped naturally. The abnormality in the U-235 abundance in natural uranium was found, and the cause was pursued. The evidence of the existence of natural reactors was shown. (Kako, I.)

  6. A mathematical nature walk

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2009-01-01

    How heavy is that cloud? Why can you see farther in rain than in fog? Why are the droplets on that spider web spaced apart so evenly? If you have ever asked questions like these while outdoors, and wondered how you might figure out the answers, this is a book for you. An entertaining and informative collection of fascinating puzzles from the natural world around us, A Mathematical Nature Walk will delight anyone who loves nature or math or both. John Adam presents ninety-six questions about many common natural phenomena--and a few uncommon ones--and then shows how to answer them using mostly b

  7. Nature as Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    The potential for biomimicry lies far beyond the direct imitation of natural forms. Guest-editor Terri Peters describes how Janine Benyus, the biologist and innovation consultant, is using biomimicry to create performance metrics from natural technologies and processes for assessing aspects...

  8. Modeling Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiages, Christopher A.; Lotter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In their research, scientists generate, test, and modify scientific models. These models can be shared with others and demonstrate a scientist's understanding of how the natural world works. Similarly, students can generate and modify models to gain a better understanding of the content, process, and nature of science (Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug…

  9. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  10. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  11. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  12. Nature Foil Reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

  13. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  14. Exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a seminar on the exposure to enhanced natural radiation and its regulatory implications held in 1985 at Maastricht, the Netherlands. The themes of the working sessions included sources of enhanced natural radiation, parameters influencing human exposure, measurement and survey programmes, technical countermeasures, risk and assessment studies, philosophies of dose limitations and national and international policies. (U.K.)

  15. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  16. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  17. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics.

  19. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  20. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  1. Closer to Nature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2015-01-01

    discourses in order to sell one image of animal welfare in intensive animal production while the actual production at the same time presupposes a quite different paradigm of animal welfare. Specifically, product advertising utilizes representations tied to concepts of naturalness in depictions of both animal...... lives and product processes as “natural”. Product marketing suggests a coherence between nature, production process (farm, animal), and end product, thereby creating associations that the lives of production animals are lived in nature and that their products bring a wholesome and sustainable...

  2. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  3. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  4. Living in cities, naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Terry; Kahn, Peter H

    2016-05-20

    Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The unnatural racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2014-06-01

    In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagrams of natural deductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, S V

    1982-01-01

    The concept of natural deductions was investigated by the author in his analysis of the complexity of deductions in propositional computations (1975). Here some natural deduction systems are considered, and an analytical procedure proposed which results in a deduction diagram for each system. Each diagram takes the form of an orientated, charge graph, features of which can be used to establish the equivalence of classes of deductions. For each of the natural deduction systems considered, a system of equivalent transformation schemes is derived, which is complete with respect to the given definition of equivalence. 2 references.

  7. Web life: Ask Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Ask Nature is a site devoted to biomimicry, an interdisciplinary field in which practitioners study how animals and plants solve problems, and then use those solutions to develop better human technologies.

  8. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  9. Sciences & Nature: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciences & nature publish original works in French or in English that have not been ... This page should provide a summary (200 words maximum) in French and English .... one copy of the journal where his article is published, and 10 offprints.

  10. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  11. The Nature of Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the nature of grammar as "universalness". The universal grammar indicates that all the languages in the world have identical grammar. This is discussed from three aspects, which gives insight into grammar acquisition.

  12. Art, Technology and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilla Skovbjerg Paldam and Jacob Wamberg trace the Kantian heritage of radically separating art and technology, and inserting both at a distance to nature, suggesting this was a transient chapter in history. Thus, they argue, the present renegotiation between art, technology and nature is reminiscent......Since 1900, the connections between art and technology with nature have become increasingly inextricable. Through a selection of innovative readings by international scholars, this book presents the first investigation of the intersections between art, technology and nature in post-medieval times....... Transdisciplinary in approach, this volume’s 14 essays explore art, technology and nature’s shifting constellations that are discernible at the micro level and as part of a larger chronological pattern. Included are subjects ranging from Renaissance wooden dolls, science in the Italian art academies, and artisanal...

  13. Historic Natural Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2001, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) contracted with the California State University, Chico Research Foundation...

  14. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 � 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  15. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  16. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  17. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  18. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  19. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  20. Solitonic natural orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the natural amplitudes of the harmonium atom in its ground state on the confinement strength ω is thoroughly investigated. A combination of rigorous analysis and extensive, highly accurate numerical calculations reveals the presence of only one positive-valued natural amplitude ("the normal sign pattern") for all ω ≥1/2 . More importantly, it is shown that unusual, weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) corresponding to additional positive-valued natural amplitudes emerge upon sufficient weakening of the confinement. These solitonic NOs, whose shapes remain almost invariant as their radial positions drift toward infinity upon the critical values of ω being approached from below, exhibit strong radial localization. Their asymptotic properties are extracted from the numerical data and their relevance to calculations on fully Coulombic systems is discussed.

  1. Biomimetics: nature based innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the concept that nature offers numerous sources of inspiration for inventions related to mechanisms, materials, processes, and algorithms, this book covers the topic of biomimetics and the inspired innovation...

  2. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  3. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  4. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  5. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  6. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  7. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran,K.; Natchimuthu,N.

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  8. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  9. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  10. The system of nature

    CERN Document Server

    D'Holbac, Baron

    1999-01-01

    "The source of Man's unhappiness is his ignorance of Nature."D'Holbach believed that the misery he saw in mankind around him was caused by religion and its superstitious beliefs - that there was a God who controlled destiny and would reward or punish individuals. The System of Nature was written to replace these delusions with a schema of understanding based solely on the physical workings of nature. "Let Man study this nature, let him learn her laws, contemplate her energies." For d'Holbach the soul is only the physical body, understood from a certain point of view, which dies when the body dies. All the events and the nature of the world can be understood in terms of the motion and properties of matter; even the tiniest causes contribute to huge events - a simple change in the diet of an Emperor (or some other such insignificant cause), he suggests might have been capable of "saving kingdoms." For him, nature's laws are fixed and necessary, and if Man wants to find happiness it is best to accept this - if g...

  11. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera: A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Jeong Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the

  12. Natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many electric utilities and industrial boiler fuel users have invested in dual fuel use capability which has allowed them to choose between natural gas, residual fuel oil, and in some instances, coal as boiler fuels. The immediate reason for this investment was the need for security of supply. Wellhead regulation of natural gas prices had resulted in shortages during the 1970s. Because many industrial users were given lowest priority in pipeline curtailments, these shortages affected most severely boiler fuel consumption of natural gas. In addition, foreign supply disruptions during the 1970s called into question the ready availability of oil. Many boiler fuel users of oil responded by increasing their ability to diversify to other sources of energy. Even though widespread investment in dual fuel use capability by boiler fuel users was initially motivated by a need for security of supply, perhaps the most important consequence of this investment was greater substitutability between natural gas and resid and a more competitive boiler fuel market. By the early 1980s, most boiler fuel users were able to switch from one fuel to another and often did for savings measured in pennies per MMBtu. Boiler fuel consumption became the marginal use of both natural gas and resid, with coal a looming threat on the horizon to both fuels

  13. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  14. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  15. Symmetries in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, K

    1988-05-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.

  16. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  18. Natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of establishing realistic options for deregulation in the natural gas industry, this paper first considers the structural evolution of this industry and evidences how it differs from the petroleum industry with which it exhibits some essential characteristics in common. This comparison is made in order to stress that, contrary to popular belief, that which is without doubt good for the petroleum industry is not necessarily so also for the natural gas industry. The paper concludes with separate analyses of the natural gas markets in the principal industrialized countries. Arguments are provided to show that the 'soft' deregulation option for the natural gas industry is not feasible, and that 'total' deregulation instead, backed by the passing of a suitable package of anti-trust laws 'unbundling' the industry's four major activities, i.e., production, storage, primary and secondary distribution, is the preferable option. The old concept of guaranteed supplies for minor users of natural gas should give way to the laws of supply and demand governing inter-fuel competition ensured through the strict supervision of vigilance committees

  19. Okulo natural reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Minoru

    1993-01-01

    French CEA has reported in 1972 that natural nuclear reactors existed in Okulo uranium deposit in Gabon in Africa, that caused nuclear fission chain reaction (Okulo phenomena) spontaneously two billion years ago. The fission products and transuranic elements produced by the natural reactors have been preserved in strata without movement while subjected to geological phenomena for such very long years. 16 zones of the natural reactors have been discovered so far. The geological features of the Okulo uranium deposit are explained. The total amount of 235 U lost by the chain reaction was estimated to be about 6t, and the fission products were about 6t. The Okulo phenomena offered the valuable results of the synthetic formation disposal test that the nature has carried out for such long years. The significance of the study on natural analog is discussed. Organic substances and the mechanism of holding and movement of uranium and fission nuclides, the stability of uraninite and the age measurement of the deposit by Nd-Sm process are reported as the main results. (K.I.)

  20. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K. Letourneau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nations salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this region is a mosaic of fresh vegetable fields, coastal meadow, chaparral shrubs, riparian and woodland habitat. We tested for relationships between the percent cover of crops, riparian and other natural landscape vegetation and the species richness of parasitic wasps and flies foraging in crops, such as broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and interpreted our results with respect to the decrease in natural habitat and increase in cropland cover prompted by a local microbial contamination event in 2006. Our key results are that: (1 as cropland cover in the landscape increased, fewer species of parasitoids were captured in the crop field, (2 parasitoid richness overall was positively associated with the amount of riparian and other natural vegetation in the surrounding 500m, (3 different groups of parasitoids were associated with unique types of natural vegetation, and (4 parasitism rates of sentinel cabbage aphid and cabbage looper pests were correlated with landscape vegetation features according to which parasitoids caused the mortality. Although individual species of parasitoids may thrive in landscapes that are predominantly short season crops, the robust associations found in this study across specialist and generalist parasitoids and different taxa (tachinid flies, ichneumon wasps, braconid wasps shows that recent food safety practices targeting removal of natural vegetation around vegetable fields in an attempt to eliminate wildlife may harm natural enemy communities and reduce ecosystem services. We argue that enhancing biological diversity is a key goal for transforming agroecosystems for future productivity, sustainability and public health.

  1. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior......, and the problem of surviving the hostile forces of nature. Moreover, the supernatural elements of the novel resonate with evolved intuitions about non-material, moral forces at work in the world. That is why the novel continues to engage readers worldwide. Most critics, however, have overlooked or distorted...... the psychological underpinnings of the novel and the crucial function of the supernatural elements in the meaning structure of the novel. Hence we need an evolutionary psychological perspective which builds on recent findings in the sciences of human nature to account for the novel’s meaning, effects, and continued...

  2. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  3. nature in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-08-01

    The object of the issue is a wonderful museum on the Kulikovo Field designed by Sergey Gnedovsky. The unusual architecture of the new museum makes it akin to the earth’s tectonic fault caused by an intolerable tension in expectation of the battle (pp. 113-123. Oleg Yavein and Ilya Lezhava bring us back to the classic of the 20th century Mies van der Rohe and his unique dialogue with nature (pp. 162-175. Relationship between architecture and nature is a rich and limitless theme, like both of these substances. That is why the new Project Baikal issue contains, as usual, more questions than answers. Such is the nature of our journal.

  4. Natural Gas Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of Natural Gas. Natural gas Regulation clarifies and consolidates the legal and institutional framework for development of the industry through six principal elements: 1) Establishment of a vision of the industry. 2) Development of regulatory objectives. 3) Determination of relationships among industry participants. 4) Clear specification of the role of PEMEX in the industry. 5) Definition of the functions of the Regulatory authority. 6) Creation of a transition regime. In parallel with the development of the substantive legal framework, the law of the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) was also enacted by Congress in October 1995 to strength the institutional framework and implement the legal changes. This law defines the CRE as an agency of the Energy Ministry with technical, operational, and budgetary autonomy, and responsibility for implementing natural gas industry regulation. (Author)

  5. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  6. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    generation and shock coping. In addition, a multi-method approach (utilizing income, transect inventory and free-list data) demonstrates the significant economic importance of agroforestry environments, particularly managed fallows, when compared with natural forests. Interventions aimed at sustaining...... by both high vulnerability (e.g., residents with flood-vulnerable cultivation) and limited availability/diversity of environmentally-sourced coping products. Finally, future research and development initiatives should take into account not just natural forests or agricultural systems, but also......This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...

  7. Natural photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  8. Antiplasmodial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Nogueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

  9. Natural rubber: leather composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ravichandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations. Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings, heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.

  10. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  11. Natural photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  12. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  13. Anthropologie de la nature

    OpenAIRE

    Descola, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    En apparence, l’anthropologie de la nature est une sorte d’oxymore puisque, depuis plusieurs siècles en Occident, la nature se caractérise par l’absence de l’homme, et l’homme par ce qu’il a su surmonter de naturel en lui. Mais la nature n’existe pas comme une sphère de réalités autonomes pour tous les peuples. En postulant une distribution universelle des humains et des non-humains dans deux domaines ontologiques séparés, nous sommes bien mal armés pour analyser tous ces systèmes d’objectiva...

  14. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  15. Natural User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara , António

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra This project’s main subject are Natural User Interfaces. These interfaces’ main purpose is to allow the user to interact with computer systems in a more direct and natural way. The popularization of touch and gesture devices in the last few years has allowed for them to become increasingly common and today we are experiencing a transition of interface p...

  16. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  17. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  18. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    -consuming and/or expensive, limiting sampling frequency. The use of faster methods, such as flow cytometry, has become more frequent in phytoplankton studies, although comparisons between this technique and traditional ones are still scarce. This study aimed to assess if natural phytoplankton communities...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  19. Training and natural immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, Erik

    2000-01-01

    these subjects were used to eliminate day-to-day variation in the immunological tests. Independently of diet, training increased the percentage of CD3-CD16+ CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells from [mean (SEM)] 14 (1) % to 20 (3) % (P = 0.05), whereas the NK-cell activity, either unstimulated or stimulated...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  20. Natural Heavy Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study how, as a result of the scanning of supersymmetry breaking during the cosmological evolution, a relaxation mechanism can naturally determine a hierarchy between the weak scale and the masses of supersymmetric particles. Supersymmetry breaking is determined by QCD instanton effects, in an extremely minimal setup in which a single field drives the relaxation and breaks supersymmetry. Since gauginos are lighter than the other supersymmetric particles by a one-loop factor, the theory is a realisation of Split Supersymmetry free from the naturalness problem.

  1. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  2. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  3. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  4. Battles Fought in Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdottir, Ulrika S.

    2015-01-01

    Using horticultural activities and nature experiences to aid the recovery of returning soldiers has a long history. An increasing number of practical experiences and a few research studies confirm the fact that it may well be beneficial. A review by Varning Poulsen et al. (Under review) describes......, based on evidence and practical experience, to develop a transparent nature-based treatment program for war veterans suffering from PTSD. The treatment took place at the University of Copenhagen’s forest therapy garden. A qualitative research study documented and investigated the project. The lessons...

  5. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  6. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  7. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  8. Are you your own worst enemy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herle, D.; Swann, A. [Gandalf Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heightened attention has been placed on the need for long term sustainable energy as a result of energy cost volatility, concern over the environment, and adequate production capability. This presentation discussed opinions on renewable energy sources such as solar energy and provided information about a national proportionate quantitative online survey among 1500 Canadians that categorized consumers into three groups when it came to making purchasing or behavior decisions based on the environment. These groups included the strong environmentalist; the moderates; and the overwhelmed and unconvinced. The presentation also provided information on an international literature review on residential solar applications and the segment of early adopters in each of the three categories. Topics that were discussed under the strong environmentalist group included cost savers with environmental leanings; energy independence for the technologically minded; and new home construction solar ordinances. The presentation also addressed barriers, a value proposition, and messaging. Sales and marketing issues were also discussed along with optimal media and marketing channels for early adopters. It was concluded that while radio, print, and television are recommended media, out of home advertising and general television advertisement beyond specialty shows and channels is not.

  9. The enemy in your own camp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Online reviews are a growing market, but it is struggling with fake reviews. They undermine both the value of reviews to the user, and their trust in the review sites. However, fake positive reviews can boost a business, and so a small industry producing fake reviews has developed. The two sides......, by assessing the detectability of different fake review generation strategies. We use generative models to produce reviews based on meta-information, and evaluate their effectiveness against deception-detection models. We find that meta-information helps detection, but that NLP-generated reviews conditioned...

  10. Are you your own worst enemy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herle, D.; Swann, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heightened attention has been placed on the need for long term sustainable energy as a result of energy cost volatility, concern over the environment, and adequate production capability. This presentation discussed opinions on renewable energy sources such as solar energy and provided information about a national proportionate quantitative online survey among 1500 Canadians that categorized consumers into three groups when it came to making purchasing or behavior decisions based on the environment. These groups included the strong environmentalist; the moderates; and the overwhelmed and unconvinced. The presentation also provided information on an international literature review on residential solar applications and the segment of early adopters in each of the three categories. Topics that were discussed under the strong environmentalist group included cost savers with environmental leanings; energy independence for the technologically minded; and new home construction solar ordinances. The presentation also addressed barriers, a value proposition, and messaging. Sales and marketing issues were also discussed along with optimal media and marketing channels for early adopters. It was concluded that while radio, print, and television are recommended media, out of home advertising and general television advertisement beyond specialty shows and channels is not

  11. Punishing the enemies of all mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulers, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    How do we and how should we punish perpetrators of international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide? Is it fair to hold individuals responsible for their role in manifestations of this type of collective violence? Do the punishments issued by international criminal

  12. With Friends Like These, Who Needs Enemies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadegård, Mira Chandhok

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. I define it here as discursive and hegemonic. Structural discrimination is presented as an analytical approach with which to understand and identify aspects...

  13. The amazing bats: Friends, enemies or allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a group of extraordinarily specialized vertebrates and are the only mammals capable of flying; their nocturnal habits have stigmatized them to such an extent that in the Hollywood film productions Count Dracula of the Carpathian Mountains was considered the first vampire man; even before Batman himself. In ecosystems, bats are actors with leading roles, 70% of them are insectivores, pollinators, or frugivorous and contribute to the regeneration of forests by disseminating seeds. Some are even fish hunters. Although their large population is mostly distributed in the tropics, they are cosmopolitan and are also found in the Northern Hemisphere. The population of these bats has been displaced in the South American tropics, due to, among many factors, illegal mining, pesticide spraying, indiscriminate deforestation to provide pasture for cattle, and the invasion of their habitats by humans (1.

  14. RECCE: SMALL TEAM MISSIONS BEHIND ENEMY LINES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    operations against the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) and its ... The book is written predominantly on the level of tactics, techniques ..... reading for SANDF members, as well as aspiring ones, since it addresses key.

  15. Syndromic craniosynostosis: sleeping with the enemy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Driessen (Caroline)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCraniosynostosis refers to the premature fusion of one or several calvarian sutures. For transient skull distortion during birth, as well as to facilitate growth of the brain, the seven bones of the calvarian are separated by six major calvarian sutures (Figure 1). The sutures function

  16. The open library and its enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the age of electronics an open society – one in which questions can be asked, where critical thinking is not just permitted but encouraged and where investigation rather than ideology is used to seek out the truth about the world (the open society according to Karl Popper – has also to be an open data society because reusable, structured data has become the main machine for doing the heavy lifting of moving knowledge around, just as books move ideas around. An open library is one that embodies the Open Definition in its working practices, one that is available and accessible, open to all participants, and which offers services that can be freely shared. Such institutions are pillars of any open data society.

  17. WOMEN, THEIR OWN WORST ENEMIES: A COMPARATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    dichotomy between the man and the woman, some writers, especially within the African ..... considered docile and submissive and that masculinity is best identified with .... communicator; A Journal of Culture and Media Art, Vol.1. No 2 Michael ...

  18. SCRUB versus trade: Enemies or allies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), scrubbing and emission allowance trading will play complementary roles. This paper reviews Phase I announced strategies and presents projections of technology controls, coal switching and industry-wide SO 2 removal costs under different assumptions about trading. The principal uncertainties characterizing today's planning environment are discussed -- ranging from changing expectations for fuel costs to swings in allowance prices and questions about regulation and new operating procedures. Economic forecasting is difficult. A clearer picture of Phase 2 strategies is emerging from EPRI's integrated analysis of fuel, technology and allowance markets -- based on collaboration between A. Van Horn and K. White (management consultants) and T. Hewson (Energy Ventures Analysis). About half the SO 2 reductions required in Phase 2 are likely to come from technology controls and half from coal switching. With trading, the highest cost open-quotes scrubsclose quotes and open-quotes switchesclose quotes can be avoided, more upgrading of low-cost scrubbing is expected, and the role of switching grows to a small extent. Additional benefits from trading, averaging and banking allowances are: better sequencing of technology controls, less stringent specs for equipment, and added flexibility/risk-sharing opportunities in contract arrangements

  19. Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    calculation, and here we have at times miscalculated. We have been able to degrade al Qaeda’s capabilities, eliminate its planners, chase its leaders, and...The United States has not been able to crush al Qaeda. We have been able to degrade its capabilities, eliminate its planners, chase its leaders, and...and Magnus Ranstorp (eds.), Terrorism in the Information Age—New Frontiers? Stockholm: Forsvarshogskolan, 2004. Parfrey, Adam (ed.), Extreme Islam

  20. Enhance Nature Exploration with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Patricia; Mahan, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Kids and nature seem like a natural combination, but what was natural a generation ago is different today. Children are spending less time outdoors but continue to need nature for their physical, emotional, and mental development. This fact has led author Richard Louv to suggest that today's children are suffering from "nature-deficit disorder"…

  1. Patterns in natural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewalt, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, `Patterns in natural systems’ the formation and evolution of patterns as solutions of several partial differential systems are studied. These mathematical systems model three different biological and ecological processes. First, the way that plankton concentrates in the water column,

  2. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  3. THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLELAND, DONALD L.

    THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

  4. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  5. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  6. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which...

  7. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  8. Wasserpflanzen in der Natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Christensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Unsere Aquarienpflanzen kommen in der Natur vor oder sind Zuchtformen natürlicher Arten. Dennoch konnten erst sehr wenige Aquarianer diese Pflanzen in ihrer natürlichen Umgebung beobachten. Oft stellten sie fest, dass die Pflanzen meist ganz anders aussehen als im Aquarium. Neben einem ständigen...

  9. Patagonia: nature and territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fabián Schweitzer

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the place occupied by Patagonia in today’s fin de siècle scenario of commodities, hegemony crisis and multi-polar world emergence concurring with the convergence of consumerist guidelines, all of which would apparently lead to an in-depth socio-ecological crisis as well as to an accelerated dispute over nature and territory sense.

  10. Nature teaching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2002-01-01

    -living nature a number of striking statical and kinematical peculiarities have been observed. The paper will try to isolate and describe some of these observations and their relation to our engineered structures based on human thinking. The paper will deal with basic aspects as geometry, topology, redundancy...

  11. Demystifying Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…

  12. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  13. Natural gas industry regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the reception of the EU Directive on the internal gas market, it is quite necessary to avoid the mistakes already made in the case of electricity. A possible cause is there suggested which may help rearrange the natural gas industry and market in Italy. It's four points are: general interests, national peculiarities, public policies, regulatory framework [it

  14. How Is Nature Asymmetric?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. How Is Nature Asymmetric? - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation ... Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  15. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  16. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  17. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  18. Rehabilitating Afghanistan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in late 1979. During the next 23 years, the war between the Mujahideen Resistance and the Soviet forces, the ensuing civil war, and eventual take over by the Taliban caused enormous harm to the natural resources of Afghanistan. In 2003, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) was asked by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service to provide...

  19. Sciences & Nature: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Sciences & Nature · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Nature remedies human damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkonen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Ecolution Ltd puts its emphasis on technologies which use nature's own methods. This technology is best suited to the bioremediation of old industrial sites, saw mills or oil- contaminated areas. The results of biopurification are consistently good and, in comparison with burning, the costs are low

  1. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  2. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  3. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  4. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  5. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Leah W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents three science activities targeted to help urban students learn about nature: (1) observing coloration patterns of pigeons; (2) measuring local rainfall and comparing it to other areas; and (3) conducting a biodiversity study by observing a patch of lawn. (YDS)

  6. A new nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, Anders

    ”A New Nature - 9 ARCHITECTURAL CONDITIONS BETWEEN LIQUID AND SOLID” opbygger en tankegang om arkitektur som tilstande i modsætning til arkitektur som form og type.  Ved at se på verden som tilstande og organiseringer mellem ”flydende” og ”fast”, homogent og heterogent m.v., er det muligt...

  7. Nature Identical Prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    ; such as low naturalness (DiSyn) and dependence on huge amounts of background data (UnitSyn). We present a hybrid model based on high-level speech data. As preliminary tests show, prosodic models combining DiSyn style at the phone level with UnitSyn style at the supra-segmental levels may approach Unit...

  8. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  9. Nature, Education and Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In this essay it is argued that the educational philosophy of John Dewey gains in depth and importance by being related to his philosophy of nature, his metaphysics. The result is that any experiental process is situated inside an event, an existence, a thing, and I try to interpret this "thing" as schools or major cultural events such…

  10. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. New force in nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eoetvoes experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework

  12. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  13. Natural products as photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immigration, social cohesion, and naturalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    social trust do not connect with issues of naturalization at all. Other conceptions of social cohesion are either politically controversial, problematic as part of the justification of stricter naturalization requirements, or in fact justify less demanding naturalization requirements....

  15. Design, science and naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David

    2008-09-01

    The Design Argument is the proposition that the presence of order in the universe is evidence for the existence of God. The Argument dates at least to the presocratic Greek philosophers, and is largely based on analogical reasoning. Following the appearance of Aquinas' Summa Theologica in the 13th century, the Christian Church in Europe embraced a Natural Theology based on observation and reason that allowed it to dominate the entire world of knowledge. Science in turn advanced itself by demonstrating that it could be of service to theology, the recognized queen of the sciences. During the heyday of British Natural Theology in the 17th and 18th centuries, the watchmaker, shipbuilder, and architect analogies were invoked reflexively by philosophers, theologians, and scientists. The Design Argument was not systematically and analytically criticized until David Hume wrote Dialogues on Natural Religion in the 1750s. After Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859, Design withered on the vine. But in recent years, the Argument has been resurrected under the appellation "intelligent design," and been the subject of political and legal controversy in the United States. Design advocates have argued that intelligent design can be formulated as a scientific hypothesis, that new scientific discoveries validate a design inference, and that naturalism must be removed as a methodological requirement in science. If science is defined by a model of concentric epistemological zonation, design cannot be construed as a scientific hypothesis because it is inconsistent with the core aspects of scientific methodology: naturalism, uniformity, induction, and efficient causation. An analytical examination of claims by design advocates finds no evidence of any type to support either scientific or philosophical claims that design can be unambiguously inferred from nature. The apparent irreducible complexity of biological mechanisms may be explained by exaptation or scaffolding. The argument

  16. Natural light illumination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Yang, Shu-Hua; Pan, Po-Hsuan; Chou, Kao-Hsu; Lee, Yu-Chi; Lee, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2010-12-10

    In recent years, green energy has undergone a lot of development and has been the subject of many applications. Many research studies have focused on illumination with sunlight as a means of saving energy and creating healthy lighting. Natural light illumination systems have collecting, transmitting, and lighting elements. Today, most daylight collectors use dynamic concentrators; these include Sun tracking systems. However, this design is too expensive to be cost effective. To create a low-cost collector that can be easily installed on a large building, we have designed a static concentrator, which is prismatic and cascadable, to collect sunlight for indoor illumination. The transmission component uses a large number of optical fibers. Because optical fibers are expensive, this means that most of the cost for the system will be related to transmission. In this paper, we also use a prismatic structure to design an optical coupler for coupling n to 1. With the n-to-1 coupler, the number of optical fibers necessary can be greatly reduced. Although this new natural light illumination system can effectively guide collected sunlight and send it to the basement or to other indoor places for healthy lighting, previously there has been no way to manage the collected sunlight when lighting was not desired. To solve this problem, we have designed an optical switch and a beam splitter to control and separate the transmitted light. When replacing traditional sources, the lighting should have similar characteristics, such as intensity distribution and geometric parameters, to those of traditional artificial sources. We have designed, simulated, and optimized an illumination lightpipe with a dot pattern to redistribute the collected sunlight from the natural light illumination system such that it equals the qualities of a traditional lighting system. We also provide an active lighting module that provides lighting from the natural light illumination system or LED auxiliary

  17. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  18. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  19. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V=Δ"4(1+acos (ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ϵ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  20. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged