WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural disasters arsenic

  1. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  2. Natural disasters and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Arsenic: natural and anthropogenic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matschullat, Jörg; Deschamps, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    .... Based on state-of-the-art investigations into the global arsenic cycle, the related human toxicology and available remediation technologies, it assesses arsenic in all the environmental compartments...

  4. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  5. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  6. Economic development and natural disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in

  7. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  8. Natural disasters and agricultural protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Hoogezand, Barry

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off

  9. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  10. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  12. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  13. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  14. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  15. Drought as a natural disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybank, J. [Agvironics Consulting, SK (Canada); Bonsal, B. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Jones, K. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Canadian Climate Centre; Lawford, R. [Canadian Climate Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre; O`Brien, E.G. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Analysis and Policy Div.; Ripley, E.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Wheaton, E. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A discussion of droughts as a major natural disaster in dry areas such as the Canadian Prairies where precipitation patterns are seasonal, was presented. Environmental damages include soil degradation and erosion, vegetation damage, slough and lake deterioration and wildlife loss. The development and application of specific soil moisture and drought indices based on cumulative precipitation deficits have enhanced drought monitoring programs. The identification of precursor conditions raises the possibility that the likelihood of a drought occurring in a particular year or growing season might be predictable. The ability to forecast seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies is potentially feasible using a suitable merging of precursor parameters and modelling methodologies. Research activity to identify and evaluate new mitigative measure should be increased to keep pace with the prospects of drought predictability. 90 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. Monitoring and prediction of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya; Krapivin, V. F.

    2004-01-01

    The problems of natural disaster predicting and accomplishing a synthesis of environmental monitoring systems to collect, store, and process relevant information for their solution are analysed. A three-level methodology is proposed for making decisions concerning the natural disaster dynamics. The methodology is based on the assessment of environmental indicators and the use of numerical models of the environment

  17. Natural disaster and mental health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.

  18. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  19. 2003 hydrological drought - natural disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trninic, Dusan; Bosnjak, Tomislava

    2004-01-01

    An exceptionally dry and warm period from February to early October 2003 resulted in hydrological drought with attributes of a natural disaster in most of the Croatian regions. The paper presents hydrological analysis of the Sava River near Zupanja for the period 1945-2003 (N=59 years). In defining maximum annual volumes of isolated waves below the reference discharges, the following reference discharges were used:Q 30,95% = 202m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 95 % probability, Q 30,80% = 254m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 80 % probability, Q 95% = 297m 3 s -1 - (H = -17cm minimum navigation level = 95 % of water level duration from average duration curve). The analysis results have shown that the hydrological drought recorded during the current year belongs to the most thoroughly studied droughts in 59 years. For example, hydrological analysis of the reference discharge of 297m 3 s -1 has shown that this year drought comes second, immediately after the driest year 1946. However, this year hydrological drought hit the record duration of 103 days, unlike the one from 1946, which lasted 98 days. It is interesting that the hydrological droughts affect the Sava River usually in autumn and summer, rarely in winter, and it has never been recorded in spring (referring to the analysed 1945-2003 period). In conclusion, some recommendations are given for increase in low streamflows and on possible impacts of climate changes on these flows.(Author)

  20. Natural Disasters, Gender and Handicrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    Using original post-disaster household survey data gathered in rural Fiji, this article explores the disaster–gender nexus. Female-headed households are disadvantaged, not because of bias against them in disaster damage or relief, but because of a newly emerging gendered division of labour for dwelling rehabilitation that tightens their constraints on intra-household labour allocation. Female-headed households with damaged dwellings resort to female labour activities connected with informal r...

  1. Disasters and development: natural disasters, credit constraints, and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, T.K.J.; Barry, F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a simple two-period model of the economy, we demonstrate the potential effects of natural disasters on economic growth over the medium to long term. In particular, we focus on the effect of such shocks on investment. We examine two polar cases: an economy in which agents have unconstrained

  2. Removal of arsenic from drinking water by natural adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    MD SHAHNOOR ALAM KHAN

    2017-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in groundwater has been reported in many countries across the world and it is a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to identify prospective natural materials with high arsenic adsorption capacity and durable hydraulic property to produce adequate flow of water. The comparative study identified Skye sand as the best natural adsorbent. The prototype household filter with Skye sand achieved complete removal of arsenic and iron. Arsenic removal by du...

  3. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  4. The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Eakarat Boonreang

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public s...

  5. Socio-economic exposure to natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.marin@uniurb.it [Department of Economics, Society, Politics, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , via Aurelio Saffi, 2, 61029 Urbino (Italy); IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy); Modica, Marco, E-mail: marco.modica@ircres.cnr.it [IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models.

  6. Socio-economic exposure to natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Giovanni; Modica, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models

  7. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  8. Natural Disasters: Planning for Psychological First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Stephanie T

    Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors.

  9. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  10. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  11. A global health problem caused by arsenic from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Shraim, A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology

    2003-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Clinical manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning include non-cancer end point of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, keratosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Epidemiological evidence indicates that arsenic concentration exceeding 50 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the drinking water is not public health protective. The current WHO recommended guideline value for arsenic in drinking water is 10 {mu}g l{sup -1}, whereas many developing countries are still having a value of 50 {mu}g 1{sup -1}. It has been estimated that tens of millions of people are at risk exposing to excessive levels of arsenic from both contaminated water and arsenic-bearing coal from natural sources. The global health implication and possible intervention strategies were also discussed in this review article.

  12. Why are natural disasters not 'natural' for victims?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Edwards, John; Carroll, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Some type of formal or informal social assessment is often carried out in the wake of natural disasters. One often-observed phenomenon in such situations is that disaster victims and their sympathizers tend to focus on those elements of disasters that might have been avoided or mitigated by human intervention and thus assign 'undue' levels of responsibility to human agents. Often the responsibility or blame is directed at the very government agencies charged with helping people cope with and recover from the event. This phenomenon presents particular challenges for those trying to understand the social impacts of such events because of the reflexive nature of such analysis. Often the social analyst or even the government agency manager must sort through such perceptions and behavior and (at least implicitly) make judgments about which assignments of responsibility may have some validity and which are largely the result of the psychology of the disaster itself. This article presents a conceptual framework derived largely from social psychology to help develop a better understand such perceptions and behavior. While no 'magic bullet' formula for evaluating the validity of disaster victims' claims is presented, the conceptual framework is presented as a starting point for understanding this particular aspect of the psychology of natural disasters

  13. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  14. Medical Rehabilitation in Natural Disasters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A; Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-09-01

    To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation intervention in natural disaster survivors and outcomes that are affected. A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO) up to September 2014. Two independent reviewers selected studies reporting outcomes for natural disaster survivors after medical rehabilitation that addressed functional restoration and participation. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program's appraisal tools. A meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity among included trials; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Ten studies (2 randomized controlled trials, 8 observational studies) investigated a variety of medical rehabilitation interventions for natural disaster survivors to evaluate best evidence to date. The interventions ranged from comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation to community educational programs. Studies scored low on quality assessment because of methodologic limitations. The findings suggest some evidence for the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation in reducing disability and improving participation and quality of life and for community-based rehabilitation for participation. There were no data available for associated costs. The findings highlight the need to incorporate medical rehabilitation into response planning and disaster management for future natural catastrophes. Access to rehabilitation and investment in sustainable infrastructure and education are crucial. More methodologically robust studies are needed to build evidence for rehabilitation programs, cost-effectiveness, and outcome measurement in such settings. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  15. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be prepared. Games and Activities Stop Disasters (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) - Online game to learn how to stop various disasters ... | Accessibility Videos and Players Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih. ...

  16. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  17. Arsenic speciation and sorption in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous arsenic speciation, or the chemical forms in which arsenic exists in water, is a challenging, interesting, and complicated aspect of environmental arsenic geochemistry. Arsenic has the ability to form a wide range of chemical bonds with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, resulting in a large variety of compounds that exhibit a host of chemical and biochemical properties. Besides the intriguing chemical diversity, arsenic also has the rare capacity to capture our imaginations in a way that few elements can duplicate: it invokes images of foul play that range from sinister to comedic (e.g., “inheritance powder” and arsenic-spiked elderberry wine). However, the emergence of serious large-scale human health problems from chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water has placed a high priority on understanding environmental arsenic mobility, toxicity, and bioavailability, and chemical speciation is key to these important questions. Ultimately, the purpose of arsenic speciation research is to predict future occurrences, mitigate contamination, and provide successful management of water resources.

  18. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  19. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  20. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  1. Statistical analysis of natural disasters and related losses

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarenko, VF

    2014-01-01

    The study of disaster statistics and disaster occurrence is a complicated interdisciplinary field involving the interplay of new theoretical findings from several scientific fields like mathematics, physics, and computer science. Statistical studies on the mode of occurrence of natural disasters largely rely on fundamental findings in the statistics of rare events, which were derived in the 20th century. With regard to natural disasters, it is not so much the fact that the importance of this problem for mankind was recognized during the last third of the 20th century - the myths one encounters in ancient civilizations show that the problem of disasters has always been recognized - rather, it is the fact that mankind now possesses the necessary theoretical and practical tools to effectively study natural disasters, which in turn supports effective, major practical measures to minimize their impact. All the above factors have resulted in considerable progress in natural disaster research. Substantial accrued ma...

  2. Appropriate Natural Disaster Handling Policy To Guarantee Effectiveness Of Post-Disaster Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Boediningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a very rich country fascinating the beauty of the panoramic so attract much foreign tourists to come and see its beauty. Furthermore Indonesia is a country that often experience natural disasters ranging from floods mount erupted until to Tsunami Indonesia Located in a geographical location that is prone to disaster. Disasters can be caused by both natural and behavioral factors that are not responsible for utilizing and managing natural resources and the environment. In some areas of Indonesia disasters examples that hit the country. So far there are available disaster management regulation tools namely Law Number 24 Year 2007 which provides disaster management framework Pre-disaster comprehend emergency response and post-disaster. Although the law has outlined comprehensive disaster management provisions so far is still focused on the emergency response period. Further actions such as mitigation rehabilitation and reconstruction appear not to be a top priority of disaster management activities. Other issues that are still scattered are coordination rescue aid appropriateness of assistance and distribution spread evenly. Institutional On the mandate of Law 242007 also institutional had been formed National Disaster Management Agency BNPB at the local level throughout and Indonesia.BNPB also set up a technically existing technical unit UPTD of 12 units. A BNPB Institution supported by trained human resources HR trained to be deployed to even the most difficult terrain.

  3. Natural disasters and nontuberculous mycobacteria: a recipe for increased disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Jennifer R; Bernhard, Jon N; Chan, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters.

  4. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization

  5. A New MOOC on Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Gyakum, J. R.; Caissy, K.; Guadagno, A.; Roop, F.; Vungoc, P. A.; Walker, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the summer of 2014 we taught a MOOC course on natural disasters under the auspices of McGillX and edX. The course was principally designed to provide students with an introduction to the science behind naturally hazardous phenomena and natural disasters. An important guiding element of the course was to link the solid earth (volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches) with the oceanic and atmospheric earth (hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino). These Earth components were also coupled by a section on climate change and global warming near the end of the course. This integrated approach demonstrated to students the highly linked nature of the Earth System. The course comprised a variety of materials with which students could engage. For each topic, the professors provided lecture materials as 5-10 minute video blocks sequenced to form a complete lecture of about 90 minutes. Typically the lectures would progress from scientific principles through case studies to mitigation. For nearly every topic we also provided a practical demonstration (e.g., supercooled water driving ice storms, liquid fragmentation driving volcanic eruptions), in order to illustrate principles in a dynamic fashion. Students also worked independently on a wide variety of exercises, and there were two non-cumulative, multiple-choice exams, as well as a case study which students would themselves research and present to their peers in the course. Finally, the professors provided weekly screenside chats to answer students' questions and to provide a more informal learning environment. This variety of approaches enhanced the course content. Two teaching assistants worked full-time during course delivery, ensuring that students received rapid feedback to their questions and issues. The initial course enrollment was approximately 10,000.

  6. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  7. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns.

  8. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  9. Sovereign Risk and Natural Disasters in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the effect of large-scale natural disasters on sovereign default risk. We use a heterogeneous dynamic panel model including a set of more than 380 large-scale natural disasters for about forty emerging market countries in the period 1999-2010. After testing for the

  10. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  11. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  12. Medical rehabilitation after natural disasters: why, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  14. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  15. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  16. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  17. Natural disasters and economic growth: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Valckx, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using more than 750 estimates, we perform a meta-regression analysis of studies examining the relationship between economic growth per capita and natural disasters. The studies considered are very different with respect to the type of disasters considered, the sample of countries and time periods

  18. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Modelling of the relation of natural disasters and the economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is obvious that economy and production and commerce ability of the countries are also under the influence of natural changes. But when the changes and natural challenges finds a high speed or volume, they are called natural incident or natural disaster. Natural incidents, in addition to damages to life and emotion that ...

  20. Natural disasters and suicidal behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Kõlves, Keili E; De Leo, Diego

    2013-03-20

    Various consequences including suicidal behaviours can arise in the aftermath of natural disasters. The aim of the present review was to systematically analyse the existing literature on the potential impact of natural disasters on suicidal behaviours. A systematic search of English-language articles indexed in electronic databases was conducted. The current review covers 42 papers containing empirical analyses of the relationship between natural disasters and suicidal behaviours. In total, 19 papers analysed suicide mortality and 23 non-fatal suicidal behaviours. The effects of earthquakes on suicidal behaviours are the most frequently studied among natural disasters (n=20), followed by hurricanes (n=11). Further, there were four papers about tsunamis, three about floods, three about heat waves and drought, and one investigating the effects of multiple natural disasters. The studies show different directions in suicide mortality following natural disasters. Nevertheless, there seems to be a drop in non-fatal suicidal behaviours in the initial post-disaster period, which has been referred to as the 'honeymoon' phase. A delayed increase in suicidal behaviours has been reported in some studies. However, other factors increasing the risk of suicidal behaviours after natural disasters have been reported, such as previous and current mental health problems. Furthermore, contributing factors, such as economic conditions, should also be considered. The exclusion of non-English articles. In light of the various methodological limitations observed, there is a need for further studies using proper designs. Mental health and suicidal behaviours should continue to be monitored for several years after the disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fiji's worst natural disaster: the 1931 hurricane and flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Stephen W; Blong, Russell J

    2010-07-01

    At least 225 people in the Fiji Islands died as a result of the 1931 hurricane and flood, representing the largest loss of life from a natural disaster in Fiji's recent history. This paper explores the causes of disaster and the potential for recurrence. The disaster occurred because a rare event surprised hundreds of people-especially recently settled Indian farmers-occupying highly exposed floodplains in north-west Viti Levu island. The likelihood of a flood disaster of such proportions occurring today has been diminished by changed settlement patterns and building materials; however, a trend towards re-occupancy of floodplains, sometimes in fragile dwellings, is exposing new generations to flood risks. The contribution of this paper to the global hazards literature is set out in three sections: the ethnicity, gender and age of flood fatalities; the naturalness of disasters; and the merit of choice and constraint as explanations for patterns of vulnerability.

  2. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  3. A governor's guide to emergency management. Volume one, Natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-27

    With lives, infrastructure, and resources at stake, governors must become instant experts in emergency management when their states are affected by natural disaster. The purpose of A Governor's Guide to Emergency Management is to provide governors an...

  4. Amputations in natural disasters and mass casualties: staged approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Nikolaj

    2012-10-01

    Amputation is a commonly performed procedure during natural disasters and mass casualties related to industrial accidents and military conflicts where large civilian populations are subjected to severe musculoskeletal trauma. Crush injuries and crush syndrome, an often-overwhelming number of casualties, delayed presentations, regional cultural and other factors, all can mandate a surgical approach to amputation that is different than that typically used under non-disaster conditions. The following article will review the subject of amputation during natural disasters and mass casualties with emphasis on a staged approach to minimise post-surgical complications, especially infection.

  5. Social vulnerability to climate-induced natural disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This paper conducts an analysis of the socioeconomic determinants of Vietnam's cross-provincial variations in natural disaster vulnerability. The purpose is twofold: (i) to capture disaggregated vulnerability variations normally obscured by national statistics, thereby providing more nuanced...... insights into Vietnam's vulnerability to natural disasters; and (ii) to take advantage of the fact that the overall political system and key institutional structures to a large extent are constant across Vietnam's provinces, which makes the analysis a novel addition to the many disaster studies based...

  6. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Building Philippine SMEs Resilience to Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Marife M.; Domingo, Sonny N.

    2015-01-01

    Disasters are bad for business specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). These catastrophic events can compromise capital, logistics, product market, and labor, which compromise business continuity and recovery. Physical damage and disruptions in supply and labor can cause temporary business closure while structural repairs to buildings and recovery or replacement of damaged equipment needed to restore operations require large amount of resources. The adverse impact may not only b...

  8. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2018-01-01

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. Women and health consequences of natural disasters: Challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.

  10. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  11. Disasters at the interface of nature and society provoke thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaños, Heriberta; Lomnitz, Cinna

    A casual remark, a chance encounter in the corridors of power, decisions made at the administrative level; those are the things disasters are made of. We didn't know this until September 11, 2001.What is a disaster? Natural and social causes, like separate strands, are closely intertwined. In the 5th century, attributing earthquakes to natural causes was a crime: there is a heresy that claims that earthquakes are supposedly caused by the elements of nature rather than by the righteous judgment and wrath of God, quoth Saint Philastrius. It took 14 centuries to replace this paradigm with another: one should not view God as an irrational being, capable of destroying His own temples, in the words of Camilo Henriquez, S.J., after the 1822 Valparaiso earthquake. This was a giant step forward, but it was not enough. We now realize that all disasters are social, as well as natural.

  12. Natural Disasters and Cholera Outbreaks: Current Understanding and Future Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Khan, Rakibul; Colwell, Rita

    2017-03-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a serious global public health threat, especially for those populations lacking access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure. Although association of several diarrheal diseases, e.g., cholera, shigellosis, etc., with climatic processes has been documented, the global human population remains at heightened risk of outbreak of diseases after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, or droughts. In this review, cholera was selected as a signature diarrheal disease and the role of natural disasters in triggering and transmitting cholera was analyzed. Key observations include identification of an inherent feedback loop that includes societal structure, prevailing climatic processes, and spatio-temporal seasonal variability of natural disasters. Data obtained from satellite-based remote sensing are concluded to have application, although limited, in predicting risks of a cholera outbreak(s). We argue that with the advent of new high spectral and spatial resolution data, earth observation systems should be seamlessly integrated in a decision support mechanism to be mobilize resources when a region suffers a natural disaster. A framework is proposed that can be used to assess the impact of natural disasters with response to outbreak of cholera, providing assessment of short- and long-term influence of climatic processes on disease outbreaks.

  13. Weathering Natural Disasters with a Net of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Faster and more efficient coverage on television and the Internet is increasingly exposing children to traumatic images of natural devastation both at home and abroad. Natural disasters, such as the wildfires in California or the trauma caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, have become commonplace. Catastrophic events like these serve as…

  14. Impact of natural disasters on income inequality in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keerthiratne, Subhani; Tol, Richard S.J.

    We explore the relationship between natural disasters and income inequality in Sri Lanka as the first study of this nature for the country. The analysis uses a unique panel data set constructed for the purpose of this paper. It contains district inequality measures based on household income reported

  15. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  16. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  17. Precepting at the time of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Douglas; Bajaj, Sameer; Fehr, Lana; Kapusta, Mike; Woodley, Kristine; Nagji, Alim

    2017-04-01

    Natural disasters strike communities that have varied degrees of preparedness, both physical and psychological. Rural communities may be particularly vulnerable as they often do not have the infrastructure or resources to prepare in advance. The psychological impact of a natural disaster is amplified in learners who may be temporary members of the community and therefore cannot draw on personal support during the crisis. They may turn to their clinical preceptors for guidance. The Slave Lake fire (population 6782) in May 2011 and the High River flood (population 12 920) in June 2013 are examples of natural disasters that have occurred in rural Alberta, Canada. At the time of these critical incidents, three medical students and one family medicine resident from the two provincial medical schools were participating in rotations in these communities. Although disasters occur rarely, there is a need for guidelines for preceptors from the learner perspective. Accordingly, using a modified Delphi approach, we captured the experiences of learners that were then refined into two themes, each containing three recommendations: considerations for action during a natural disaster and considerations for action after the acute crisis has passed. Although disasters occur rarely, there is a need for guidelines for preceptors from the learner perspective IMPLICATIONS: Our recommendations provide suggestions for practical solutions that build on the usual expectations of mentors and may benefit the student-teacher relationship at the time of a disaster and beyond. They are meant to initiate discussion regarding further study aimed towards creating recommendations for preceptor response that may cross disciplines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection.

  19. Natural Arsenic Pollution and Hydrochemistry of Drinking Water of an Urban Part of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mosaferi; Mohammad Shakerkhatibi; Saeid Dastgiri; Mohammad Asghari Jafar-abadi; Alireza Khataee; Samira Sheykholeslami

    2014-01-01

    Natural contamination of surface and groundwater resources with arsenic is a worldwide problem. The present study aimed to investigate and report on the quality of drinking water resources with special focus on arsenic presence in an urban part of Iran. Arsenic concentrations were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). In both surface and groundwater samples, arsenic concentrations ranged from 6 - 61 µg/L with an average value of 39 ± 20 µg/L. Concentration of ar...

  20. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  1. Natural disasters impacting a macroeconomic model with endogenous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Ghil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the macroeconomic response to natural disasters by using an endogenous business cycle (EnBC) model in which cyclical behavior arises from the investment-profit instability. Our model exhibits a larger response to natural disasters during expansions than during recessions. This apparently paradoxical result can be traced to the disasters amplifying pre-existing disequilibria during expansions, while the existence of unused resources during recessions damps the exogenous shocks. It thus appears that high-growth periods are also highly vulnerable to supply-side shocks. In our EnBC model, the average production loss due to a set of disasters distributed at random in time is highly sensitive to the dynamical characteristics of the impacted economy. Larger economic flexibility allows for a more efficient and rapid response to supply-side shocks and reduces production losses. On the other hand, too high a flexibility can lead to vulnerability phases that cause average production losses to soar. These results raise questions about the assessment of climate change damages or natural disaster losses that are based purely on long-term growth models. (author)

  2. Atmospheric natural disasters in Serbia: Management experience and economic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters occur as a result of an action of natural forces and represent limitations in spatial planning and efficient spatial development, with different consequences in terms of scope on humans, living things and tangible property. Consequences can be ecological, economic, in terms of health, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Weather modification management involves policies, methods, techniques and technologies that affect atmospheric features in order to make atmospheric water useful for humans, while eliminating its negative effects. Highly significant risk of natural disasters in Serbia is related to hailstorm disasters and droughts as atmospheric elementary disasters. The goal of this paper is to present certain methodologies and experience in Serbia in the weather modification management, mainly in the hailstorm processes. This paper provides analysis and critical review of the methodology of an action, with the analysis of the economic benefits. Cost-benefit analysis of a hail suppression project in Serbia was performed. The results point to the economic justification of some aspects of artificial influence on weather disasters.

  3. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. 3.5 square meters: Constructive responses to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitsky, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters and their consequences dominate the news almost on a daily basis. Quick-impact preventive and aid measures are essential for the victims to survive. This volume presents a selection of projects which demonstrate impressively how both cutting-edge technology and locally available materials and resources can be used for this purpose.

  6. Using Physical Activity for Emotional Recovery after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic events, such as a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected by the event often have a number of intense emotional reactions. It is important for educators to understand common emotional and psychological responses to disastrous events and to try to help. This article describes a physical activity program…

  7. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  8. Emergency Message Dissemination System for Smartphones During Natural Disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xian; Mazurowski, Maciej; Chen, Zhen; Meratnia, Nirvana

    This paper revolves around the concept of utilizing the modern smartphone communication capabilities to transmit messages through an ad hoc network during a disaster, which renders the traditional cellular base station inaccessible. Due to dynamic and decentralized nature of the considered

  9. Macroeconomics of natural disasters : Meta-analysis and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); S. Lazzaroni (Sara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe use the case of the impact of natural disasters to analyse strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 22 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and

  10. Climate change, natural disasters, and the risk of violent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slettebak, Rune Thorkildsen

    2012-07-01

    This PhD project aims to assess the relation between natural disasters triggered by extreme weather events and the risk of violent conflict. The focus on these natural disasters stems from expectations that climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, combined with frequent suggestions that climate change in general and natural disasters in particular can be expected to trigger more violent conflicts. A number of conflict types, ranging from riots to civil war, are tested. Case studies have found examples where environmental factors have contributed to triggering conflict. However, without systematic assessments, we do not know whether these cases are exceptions or parts of a common pattern. Learning more about this is a prime aim of this thesis. As the effects of climate change are still mainly in the future, I turn to the past for learning more about these connections. Although future relations may differ from those in the past, learning from history is considered the best way of increasing our basis of knowledge on what to expect from the future. The thesis tests two opposing theoretical traditions against each other. On one side is the environmental security literature, which holds that environmentally induced adversity is likely to increase the risk of violent conflict. The other, relatively unknown tradition, called disaster sociology, expects adversity to stimulate altruistic behavior and replace past ascribed identities with new 'communities of sufferers' in the disaster aftermath. In a violent conflict setting, this argument is read as that disasters should reduce conflict risk. Four analyses have been conducted. The first has a global coverage, two focus on India and the last one on Indonesia. The first analysis aims to uncover general trends, while the three others use cases where environmentally driven violence is considered particularly likely, and disaggregated analytical designs that should be well

  11. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Brett M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Methods Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Results Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed.

  12. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  13. Structure and needs of global loss databases about natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Global loss databases are used for trend analyses and statistics in scientific projects, studies for governmental and nongovernmental organizations and for the insurance and finance industry as well. At the moment three global data sets are established: EM-DAT (CRED), Sigma (Swiss Re) and NatCatSERVICE (Munich Re). Together with the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) started a collaborative initiative in 2007 with the aim to agreed on and implemented a common "Disaster Category Classification and Peril Terminology for Operational Databases". This common classification has been established through several technical meetings and working groups and represents a first and important step in the development of a standardized international classification of disasters and terminology of perils. This means concrete to set up a common hierarchy and terminology for all global and regional databases on natural disasters and establish a common and agreed definition of disaster groups, main types and sub-types of events. Also the theme of georeferencing, temporal aspects, methodology and sourcing were other issues that have been identified and will be discussed. The implementation of the new and defined structure for global loss databases is already set up for Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. In the following oral session we will show the structure of the global databases as defined and in addition to give more transparency of the data sets behind published statistics and analyses. The special focus will be on the catastrophe classification from a moderate loss event up to a great natural catastrophe, also to show the quality of sources and give inside information about the assessment of overall and insured losses. Keywords: disaster category classification, peril terminology, overall and insured losses, definition

  14. Draft Updates to the Planning for Natural Disaster Debris Guidance and to Related Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is requesting comment on the draft update of the Planning for Natural Disaster Debris Guidance, along with two other documents. This Guidance is an update of the Planning for Natural Disaster Debris guidance that EPA published in March 2008.

  15. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  16. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  17. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  18. Analysis and consideration for the US criteria of nuclear fuel cycle facilities to resist natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to the safety of nuclear facilities. Fukushima nuclear accident tells us that nuclear safety in siting, design and construction shall be strengthened in case of external events caused by natural disasters. This paper first analyzes the DOE criteria of nuclear fuel cycle facilities to resist natural disasters. Then to develop our national criteria for natural disaster resistance of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is suggested, so as to ensure the safety of these facilities. (authors)

  19. 'Schismo-urbanism': cities, natural disaster, and urban sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerbauer, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines a city and a natural disaster, specifically New Orleans, Louisiana, after Hurricane Katrina of August 2005. Recovery here is ongoing and the process of return is incomplete, with long-term dislocation to other cities in the United States, such as Houston, Texas. The question arises as to how planning and stratification influence evacuation and return/dislocation and how they result in a particular practice of adaptation. This interrelated process is conceptually integrated and termed 'schismo-urbanism' and is analysed within a multidimensional theoretical framework to evaluate aspects of urban sociology and natural disasters. Empirical research is based on a quantitative and qualitative mixed-method case study. Data were collected during two rounds of field research in New Orleans and Houston in 2007 and 2009. As a comparative socio-spatial study of affected and receptor communities, it makes a novel theoretical and methodological contribution to research on urban disasters in the context of continuing and rapid social change, and is targeted at disaster researchers, planning theorists and practitioners, and urbanists. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  20. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousky, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We can expect climate change to alter the frequency, magnitude, timing, and location of many natural hazards. For example, heat waves are likely to become more frequent, and heavy downpours and flooding more common and more intense. Hurricanes will likely grow more dangerous, rising sea levels will mean more coastal flooding, and more-frequent and…

  1. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid reporting...

  2. Teaching a Course in Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P.

    2009-12-01

    One graduation requirement of the University of Hawaii at Manoa is that students must take an “Ethics Focus” class at the Junior/Senior level. It is to the advantage of departments to offer such classes to majors. I designed and taught a class entitled “Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman” in the Spring of ‘09. The prerequisite was an introductory Geology class. The objectives were: (1) To define ethics, from philosophical points of view and as a personal framework for making decisions about issues related to natural disasters. The Chair of the Philosophy Department assisted in the initial classes to teach the basic principles of ethical thinking. (2) To define what constitutes a “natural” disaster vs what constitutes a disaster brought about by the imposition of human imperatives on the natural world (e.g., to build seawalls or not in efforts to mitigate against beach erosion). (3) To explore a variety of controversial issues at the intersections of two or more of the following: natural processes, human society, and the environment (e.g., forecasting the potential for violent volcanic eruption and understanding the effects of such forecasts on the safety of proximal human populations vs economic disaster caused by evacuation or loss of revenue affected by "false alarms"). (4) To improve the students’ oral communication skills, both as individuals and as members of cooperating groups. (5) To develop and practice using ethically- and scientifically-valid frameworks for reaching decisions about controversial science-based issues. (6) To learn about local organizations, businesses, government agencies, the media and individuals in society who are involved with reacting to and developing solutions for response to these events and their related ethical issues. Students wrote 1- to 2-page journal essays on the issues discussed in class each week and a term paper on issues related to a “natural disaster” of their choice. The 3-credit class

  3. Accessing VA Healthcare During Large-Scale Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Pinnock, Laura; Dobalian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters can lead to the closure of medical facilities including the Veterans Affairs (VA), thus impacting access to healthcare for U.S. military veteran VA users. We examined the characteristics of VA patients who reported having difficulty accessing care if their usual source of VA care was closed because of natural disasters. A total of 2,264 veteran VA users living in the U.S. northeast region participated in a 2015 cross-sectional representative survey. The study used VA administrative data in a complex stratified survey design with a multimode approach. A total of 36% of veteran VA users reported having difficulty accessing care elsewhere, negatively impacting the functionally impaired and lower income VA patients.

  4. Towards a natural disaster intervention and recovery framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    Contemporary responses to facilitate long-term recovery from large-scale natural disasters juxtapose between those of humanitarian agencies and governments and those of the affected community. The extent to which these mechanisms articulate is crucial to the recovery propensity of the affected communities. This research examines such action by exploring the relationship between the scale of post-disaster response interventions, the extent of community participation in them, and their impact on community recovery, using a community wealth capital framework. The investigation was applied to a study of the longer-term community recovery of the island of Vilufushi, Republic of Maldives, which was almost completely destroyed by the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. Data were analysed through the employment of a pattern match technique and a holistic recovery network analysis. The research framework, informed by the case-study results, other long-term recovery evaluations, and existing resilience theory, is reconfigured as a testable roadmap for future post-disaster interventions. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  5. Do Local Elites Capture Natural Disaster Reconstruction Funds?

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the allocation of natural disaster reconstruction funds among cyclone victims in rural Fiji. During post-emergency periods, when good information about cyclone damage is available, do local elites, a powerful minority, capture housing construction materials? With effective targeting in both receipt and the amount received, local elites do not capture larger benefits. More severely affected victims are not early recipients, though, because the supply of reconstruction funds...

  6. Risk management of a fund for natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C.

    2003-04-01

    Mexico is a country which has to deal with several natural disaster risks: earthquakes, droughts, volcanic eruptions, floods, slides, wild fires, extreme temperatures, etc. In order to reduce the country's vulnerability to the impact of these natural disasters and to support rapid recovery when they occur, the government established in 1996 Mexico's Fund for Natural Disasters (FONDEN). Since its creation, its resources have been insufficient to meet all government obligations. The aim of this project is the development of a dynamic strategy to optimise the management of a fund for natural disasters starting from the example of FONDEN. The problem of budgetary planning is being considered for the modelling. We control the level of the fund's cash (R_t)0money borrowed at time t. For the initial model, we assume that the deterministic payments for risk transfer and debt are made at t=0. We determine c>0 at t=0 and then we try to pull at every moment the process to this objective. Multifractal models in geophysics are physically based stochastic models. A multiplicative cascade model fitted to a data set can be used for generation of synthetic sequences that resemble the original data in terms of its scaling properties. Since recent years, uncertainty concepts based on multifractal fields are being applied to the development of techniques to calculate marginal and conditional probabilities of an extreme rainfall event in a determined zone. As initial point to the development of the model, a multifractal model for extreme rainfall events will be used as part of the input for the stochastic control model. A theme for further research is linking more warning systems to the model. Keywords: risk management, stochastic control, multifractal measures, multiplicative cascades, heavy rainfall events.

  7. Building a Natural Disaster Risk Index for Supply Chain Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Liao; Ozden Bayazit; Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Risk for an organization is associated with uncertainties in all areas of its operations. As firms move toward global sourcing, supply chain risk increases dramatically, which is linked to lower financial performance and market value. One major type of supply chain risk is disruptions caused by natural or man-made disasters. In this paper, major factors causing supply chain disruptions are identified based on resource dependency theory and contingency theory. As a result of the study, a compr...

  8. Natural disasters and the media in Colombia: Information for prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The relation between society and the treatment given by media to natural disasters have scarcely been studied in Colombia. This topic concerns the field of research called science communication. Interdisciplinary focus is needed in order to understand the conditions in which information is produced and the media construction of situation and more precisely public perception and appropriation. Some studies have shown that a tendency exists in media to dwell on the detailed description of success and to pass over explanations on causes and consequences given by scientists and experts. These explanations, when they exist, are limited and are even mixed with those of supernatural character. A closer comprehension of the way information is received is necessary, in order to understand that treatments of this type of information area not simple manipulations carried on by the media. It has been demonstrated that people are able to choose, as far as their imaginations are close to those proposed by media on the topic of natural disasters. Taking into account government and civil society responsibilities on this respect, the present paper, instead of avoiding it, invites to discuss the Colombian media responsibility on the topic of natural disaster prevention

  9. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development.…

  10. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  11. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams.

  12. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline [Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Meer, Jan Roelof van der [University of Lausanne, Department of Fundamental Microbiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams. (orig.)

  13. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  14. Mortuary operations following mass fatality natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Madelyn; Leditschke, Jodie; Bassed, Richard; Cordner, Stephen M; Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-03-01

    This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included. Using the PRISMA-P method of identifying articles, 18 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Although there are numerous articles which describe the mortuary response to mass fatality incidents, few articles analyzed the response, or discussed the roles which supported and enabled the organization to undertake the task of identifying disaster victims. It is thus difficult to determine objectively if the actions and activities outlined in the articles represent best-practice.

  15. Risk assessment of natural disasters in the course of selection of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weicheng; Ai Guigen

    1995-01-01

    Natural disasters are calamities which bring about enormous damage to human beings and their accommodations and equipment. Based on the research of disaster risk and example study of volcanism, we tried to carry out the risk assessment of natural disasters which potentially occur in the candidate area of nuclear waste disposal by three steps of analyses, defining the most frequent occurring area of disasters, determining the parameters of risk assessment and dividing the most dangerous site and risk grades

  16. Crisis Communication during Natural Disasters: Meeting Real and Perceived Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    2017-12-01

    When significant natural disasters strike, our modern information-driven society turns to scientists, demanding information about the event. As part of their civic duty scientists respond, recognizing how the scientific information could be used to improve response to the disaster and reduce losses. However, what we often find is that the demand for information is not for improved response but to satisfy psychological, often subconscious needs. Human beings evolved our larger brains to better survive against larger and stronger predators. Recognizing that a movement of grass and the lack of birdsong means that a predator is hiding would in turn mean a greater likelihood of having progeny. Our ability to theorize comes from the need to create patterns in the face of danger that will keep us safe. From wondering about someone's exercise habits when we hear they have a heart attack, to blaming hurricane victims for not heeding evacuation orders even if they had no means to evacuate, we respond to disasters by trying to make a pattern that means that we will not suffer the same fate. Much of the demand for information after a natural disaster is a search for these patterns. Faced with a random distribution, many people still make patterns that can reduce their anxiety. The result is that meanings are ascribed to the information that is not supported by the data and was not part of the communication as intended by the scientist. The challenge for science communicators is to recognize this need and present the information is a way that both reduces the anxiety that arises from a lack of knowledge or uncertainty while making clear what patterns can or cannot be made about future risks.

  17. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  18. Natural disaster reduction applications of the Chinese small satellite constellation for environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanchao; Fan, Yida; Gao, Maofang

    2013-10-01

    The Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting (SSCEDMF) is an important component of Chinese satellites earth observation system. The first stage of SSCEDMF is composed by "2+1" satellites. The 2 optical satellites (HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B) and 1 S band microwave satellite (HJ-1-C) were successful launched on September 6, 2008 and November 19, 2012 respectively. This article introduced SSCEDMF characteristic and the disaster reduction application system and satellites on-orbit test works, and also analyzed the application capacity in natural disasters included flood, ice flooding, wild fire, severely drought, snow disasters, large area landslide and debris flow, sea ice, earthquake recovering, desertification and plant diseases and insect pests. Furthermore, we show some cases of China's and other countries' new natural disasters forecasting, monitoring, assessment and recovery construction.

  19. Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for drinking-water quality Chemical hazards in drinking-water: arsenic Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee ... Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western ...

  20. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Frederike

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in social capital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National, rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluation of 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but it does not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  1. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  2. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Harville

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ] to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77% or danger (77-79%, compared to those who reported damage (69-71% or evacuation (64-68%. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68. A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  3. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  4. Disaster Management System as an Element of Risk Management for Natural Disaster Systems Using the PESTLE Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, D; Ramachandran, M; Hosseinian Far, A

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed so many natural catastrophes such as earthquakes in Japan, severe floods in the UK, US and many other parts of the world. Consequently businesses have been losing tens of billions of dollars as a result of various natural and man-made disasters. Disaster Management System (DMS) have proven to be important means for reducing risks associated with such damages to businesses. A DMS can minimize and in some cases, eliminates the risks through technical, management or o...

  5. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  6. The impact of natural disasters on firm growth in Vietnam : Interaction with financial constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The theory on the disaster impacts on firm growth is ambiguous and the empirical evidence on this topic is scarce, which hampers the design of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation policies. This paper estimates growth models of the impacts of natural disasters on labour, capital,

  7. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Firm Growth in Vietnam: : Interaction with Financial Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The theory on the disaster impacts on firm growth is ambiguous and the empirical evidence on this topic is scarce, which hampers the design of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation policies. This paper estimates growth models of the impacts of natural disasters on labour, capital,

  8. Natural Disasters, Corpses and the Risk of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Conly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent occurrence of the category 4 Hurricane Katrina devastated the United States? Gulf Coast. The hurricane caused widespread destruction and flooding, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. The mounting death toll was reported at almost 300 deaths as of September 8, 2005 (1,2. The unfolding events and high death toll have left an unusual situation in which there are many decomposing corpses either lying on the streets or floating in the flood waters. The presence of these corpses in open settings, such as in public places and in the water that has inundated much of the city of New Orleans, naturally raises concerns about the occurrence of infectious disease epidemics (3. In the aftermath of large natural disasters, instinctive uncertainties arise among workers and the general population with respect to the appropriate handling and disposal of dead bodies and human remains. Given the recent occurrence of Hurricane Katrina as a large natural disaster and the unprecedented setting of the numerous corpses requiring disposal, it was considered timely to review the infectious disease risks associated with the handling of dead bodies.

  9. [EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN VICTIMS OF NATURAL DISASTERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño García, Teresa; Vega Díaz, Carmen; Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The effects of disasters on physical health tend to be well-known, with short, medium and long term sequelae. On the other hand, not always is have recognized in the same way the effects on mental health, despite having shown that, in situations of disaster or catastrophe there is a psychological signs of suffering increase and increases to a certain extent the psychiatric morbidity and other problem social. It is estimated that between a third and half of the exposed population, it suffers from some psychological manifestation. It has been erroneously thought that children and adolescents, not suffering with the same intensity of especially traumatic situations. In fact it was presumed, given their reactions so different from that of adults, had some protection. Currently, this has denied and minors are considered to be a group of high risk in cases of disasters and emergencies. Investigations carried out, demonstrate that in children and adolescents, the psychological sequels tend to be frequent and affect directly to the physical, mental and social development. Natural disasters are unexpected situations that will produce a serie of emotional reactions of diverse severity in their survivors, especially children, one of the most vulnerable groups due to a less understanding of what happened and difficulty expressing what they feel, having a personality still developing, and so directly affecting their physical, mental and social development. Therefore suffering the emotional scars, they will take longer to resolve and have a lifetime to live with them. These consequences should be treated by a corresponding community nurse and sometimes, depending on the severity and persistence (more than 3 months), a referral will be made to a qualified mental health professional, taking into account a number of recommendation and assesment canons. Parents or tutors with health professionals have an important role in the recovery of their children and their reactions will be

  10. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Clemence; Dor, Frederic; Clozel, Blandine; Goria, Sarah; Seta, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels (μg/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration (μg/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  11. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Clozel, Blandine [BRGM French Geological Survey, Service Geologique Regional Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Goria, Sarah [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-11-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels ({mu}g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration ({mu}g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  12. Public health implications of complex emergencies and natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Amanda; Rochat, Roger; Cookson, Susan T

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, conflict or natural disasters have displaced unprecedented numbers of persons. This leads to conditions prone to outbreaks that imperil the health of displaced persons and threaten global health security. Past literature has minimally examined the association of communicable disease outbreaks with complex emergencies (CEs) and natural disasters (NDs). To examine this association, we identified CEs and NDs using publicly available datasets from the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and United Nations Flash and Consolidated Appeals archive for 2005-2014. We identified outbreaks from World Health Organization archives. We compared findings to identify overlap of outbreaks, including their types (whether or not of a vaccine-preventable disease), and emergency event types (CE, ND, or Both) by country and year using descriptive statistics and measure of association. There were 167 CEs, 912 NDs, 118 events linked to 'Both' types of emergencies, and 384 outbreaks. Of CEs, 43% were associated with an outbreak; 24% NDs were associated with an outbreak; and 36% of 'Both' types of emergencies were associated with an outbreak. Africa was disproportionately affected, where 67% of total CEs, 67% of 'Both' events (CE and ND), and 46% of all outbreaks occurred for the study period. The odds ratio of a vaccine-preventable outbreak occurring in a CE versus an ND was 4.14 (95% confidence limits 1.9, 9.4). CEs had greater odds of being associated with outbreaks compared with NDs. Moreover, CEs had high odds of a vaccine-preventable disease causing that outbreak. Focusing on better vaccine coverage could reduce CE-associated morbidity and mortality by preventing outbreaks from spreading.

  13. Quality Assurance After a Natural Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Collin; Hsu, Yanshen; Mendoza, Sandra; Osman, Iman; Ogilvie, Jennifer; Patel, Kepal; Moreira, Andre L

    2018-04-01

    Biospecimen quality can vary depending on many pre- and post-collection variables. In this study, we consider a natural disaster as a post-collection variable that may have compromised the quality of frozen tissue specimens. To investigate this possible link, we compared the quality of nucleic acids, the level of antigenicity, and the preservation of histology from frozen specimens collected before and after the power outage caused by Hurricane Sandy. To analyze nucleic acid quality, we extracted both DNA and RNA and performed capillary electrophoresis to compare the quality and concentrations of the nucleic acids. To compare antigenicity, frozen sections were cut and immunostained for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), a nuclear transcription protein commonly used as a diagnostic biomarker for multiple cancer types, including thyroid and lung cancers. Positive expression of TTF-1, as noted by homogenous nuclear staining, would demonstrate that the TTF-1 proteins could still bind antibodies and, therefore, that these proteins were not significantly degraded. Furthermore, representative frozen sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were also assessed qualitatively by a trained pathologist to examine any possible histologic aberrations. Due to the similar quality of the tissue samples collected before and after the storm, Hurricane Sandy had no discernable effect on the quality of frozen specimens, and these specimens exposed to the natural disaster are still valuable research tools.

  14. Religion-based social perception of natural disasters in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Pakistan is a fascinating and important region for geological research, but formal field surveys in this region are scarce. Beyond political and logistical challenges, cultural tensions can greatly complicate research efforts. Ninety eight percent of the population of Pakistan are Muslims, and many see a link between natural disasters and divine power. For example, it is widely believed that when the cumulative sins of a society exceed a certain limit then the whole society is punished by God, in the form of earthquakes or other calamities. This perspective encourages a resistance to accepting scientific explanations related to a natural phenomenon. This resistance can extend to scientific research teams and even to disaster response teams. In remote regions of the country where formal education opportunities are limited and the literacy rate is quite low, people are strongly influenced by the views of their local religious leaders. Scientific and humanitarian relief activities greatly benefit from culturally competent dialogue with local religious and community leaders to establish trust and credibility, and (in the longer term) through introduction and discussion of relevant scientific ideas, concepts and practices.

  15. How UNOSAT responds to natural disasters with CERN's help

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the big natural disasters, such as the terrible Asian tsunami at Christmas or the earthquake that hit the same region last Monday, UNOSAT's website proves to be a critical resource for ensuring that relief organizations have the necessary information to plan actions in the field. CERN has played a supportive role in keeping the information flowing. This map, one of many prepared by UNOSAT during the tsunami crisis, shows the low-lying coastlines in the surrounding region. The epicentre is indicated by the red triangle.   On Sunday 26 December, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 struck off the coast of Sumatra, launching one of the most devastating tidal waves ever recorded. UNOSAT, a UN service to provide the international community with geographic information and access to satellite imagery to cope with natural disasters and post-conflict situations, moved immediately into action. UNOSAT involves a consortium of UN and space agencies as well as public and private providers of satellite...

  16. Why natural disaster planning scenarios are often so disastrously wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosub, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Taken together the four hurricanes that impacted the United States in the summer of 2017 demonstrate the difficulties involved in trying to plan for any natural disaster, not simply a major hurricane. They also highlight the extraordinary degree to which small and/or random variations in initial conditions can have enormous consequences on the outcome of an event and on the ability of a society to respond to it. For example, if Harvey had been moving faster, it would have meant less rainfall and hence less flooding in the Houston area whereas a slight change in the path of Irma would have significantly affected which portions of the Florida peninsula would have experienced greater or lesser devastation. In the case of Marie, hurricane intensity and path as well as the terrain in Puerto Rico and the inherent state of its infrastructure greatly complicated relief and recovery efforts there. An additional factor that makes planning scenarios so difficult to develop is that major natural disasters can often be analyzed as a sequence of events. At each juncture in the sequence, the event might evolve along two or more very different pathways, which can lead to different outcomes. Sometimes, as with Nate, an event evolves more or less "as expected" and the planning scenario does what it was supposed to do, namely, help people respond to the event. But to a much greater extent than is usually recognized, small or random variations can drive an event off its expected trajectory and into a response realm that "no one could have foreseen." Even worse is when those small or random variations allow an event to bifurcate and follow two or more different pathways simultaneously, leading to a cascading disaster that totally overwhelms whatever planning and preparation has been put in place. Perhaps the main lessons to be learned from these storms is that planning for any disaster requires greater recognition of the importance of small or random factors and greater appreciation of

  17. Natural Arsenic Pollution and Hydrochemistry of Drinking Water of an Urban Part of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosaferi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural contamination of surface and groundwater resources with arsenic is a worldwide problem. The present study aimed to investigate and report on the quality of drinking water resources with special focus on arsenic presence in an urban part of Iran. Arsenic concentrations were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS. In both surface and groundwater samples, arsenic concentrations ranged from 6 - 61 µg/L with an average value of 39 ± 20 µg/L. Concentration of arsenic, which was up to six times greater than guideline values (10 µg/L indicates the presence of arsenic bearing materials in the geological structure of the region. It was found that the quality of treated surface water produced by the water treatment facility was good in respect to arsenic (9 µg/L and solid content (EC = µs/cm. However, in drinking water samples of wells, total solids (mean EC = 1580 ± 150 µs/cm, total hardness (mean = 479 + 94 mg/L as CaCO3 and arsenic (mean = 42 + 16 µg/L were significantly higher. Correspondingly, there was a significant correlation between arsenic concentration and EC, Na+, K+ and Cl- values. The type of water in most of groundwater samples (70% was determined as HCO3-Na+. Considering the population of the city and probable health effects due to exposure to arsenic through drinking water, comprehensive measures as well as application of arsenic removal processes in water treatment facilities and replacement of contaminated wells with safe wells are required.

  18. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural...

  19. Resilience of Vietnamese refugees: resources to cope with natural disasters in their resettled country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaibo; Aronson, Robert E; Lovelace, Kay A; Strack, Robert W; Villalba, José A

    2013-08-01

    Study findings suggest that refugees are more vulnerable than the general population to mental disorders from disasters. This pilot study explored the nature of Vietnamese refugees' resilience to a potential natural disaster as a first step toward improving their disaster mental health. Interviews were conducted with 20 ethnic Vietnamese and Montagnard adult refugees using a semistructured interview guide. Factors in resilience at both individual and family levels were examined. Our results indicated that these refugees had positive personalities and strong family cohesion. However, although a majority of the participants had experienced natural disasters, they lacked knowledge and specific strategies to cope with these events. The individual participants and their families lacked sufficient information, financial resources, emergency supplies, or social support for a natural disaster. Enhancing refugees' current strengths in responding to disasters, delivering them tailored emergency training, strengthening relationships between refugee service providers and refugee communities, and advocating for refugees' socioeconomic capacity building should be considered.

  20. Longitudinal course of disaster-related PTSD among a prospective sample of adult Chilean natural disaster survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Vicente, Benjamin; Marshall, Brandon Dl; Koenen, Karestan C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia, Sandra; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-04-01

    With an increasing number of individuals surviving natural disasters, it is crucial to understand who is most at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role that pre-existing psychopathology plays in developing PTSD after a disaster. This study uses data from a prospective 5-wave longitudinal cohort (years 2003-11) of Chilean adults from 10 health centres ( N  = 1708). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument. In 2010, the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later, a modified version of the PTSD module of the CIDI was administered. Marginal structural logistic regressions with inverse probability censoring weights were constructed to identify pre-disaster psychiatric predictors of post-disaster PTSD. The majority of participants were female (75.9%) and had a high-school/college education (66.9%). After controlling for pre-disaster PTSD, pre-existing dysthymia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-3.52], brief psychotic disorder (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.21-5.90), anxiety disorders (not including PTSD; OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.27-1.76), panic disorder (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.37-4.42), agoraphobia (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.22-4.10), social phobia (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.06-3.29), specific phobia (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.50-2.86) and hypochondriasis (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.05-4.18) were predictors of post-disaster PTSD. After controlling for pre-disaster anxiety disorders, dysthymia, and non-affective psychotic disorders, individuals with pre-disaster PTSD (vs those without pre-disaster PTSD) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.37-4.65). This is the first Chilean study to demonstrate prospectively that pre-disaster psychiatric disorders

  1. The assessment of vulnerability to natural disasters in China by using the DEA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yiming; Fan Ying; Lu Cong; Tsai, H.-T.

    2004-01-01

    China has been greatly affected by natural disasters, so that it is of great importance to analyze the impact of natural disasters on national economy. Usually, the frequency of disasters or absolute loss inflicted by disasters is the first priority to be considered, while the capability of regions to overcome disasters is ignored. The concept of vulnerability is used to measure the capability to overcome disasters in different regions with distinctive economies. Traditional methods for vulnerability analysis calculate sub-indices based on disaster frequency, loss, the economic impact and the population of each region, and then add the sub-indices to get a composite index for regional vulnerability. But those methods are sensitive to the weights selected for sub-indices when multi-indexes are added up to get an index of total vulnerability. The analytic results are less convincing because of the subjectivity of different weighting methods. A data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model for analysis of regional vulnerability to natural disasters is presented here to improve upon the traditional method. This paper systematically describes the DEA method to evaluate the relative severity of disasters in each region. A model for regional vulnerability analysis is developed, based on the annual governmental statistics from 1989 to 2000. The regional vulnerabilities in China's mainland are illustrated as a case study, and a new method for the classification of regional vulnerability to natural disasters in China is proposed

  2. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2014-06-19

    A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters.

  3. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  4. [Current state of measures to deal with natural disasters at public universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirouchi, Tomoko; Tanka, Mamoru; Shimada, Ikuko; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2012-03-01

    The responsibility of a university after a large-scale, natural disaster is to secure the safety of students' and local residents' lives. The present study investigated the current state of measures at public universities to deal with natural disasters in coordination with the local community. A survey was administered at 77 public universities in Japan from March 25 to May 10, 2011. The survey included questions on the existence of local disaster evacuation sites, a disaster manual, disaster equipment storage, emergency drinking water, and food storage. A total of 51% of universities had designated local evacuation sites. Based on responses for the remaining questions, universities with and without the designated disaster response solutions accounted for 42% and 57%, respectively, for disaster manuals; 55% and 33%, respectively, for disaster equipment; 32% and 13%, respectively, for disaster drinking water storage; and 26% and 7%, respectively, for emergency food storage. A majority of public universities have not created disaster manuals, regardless of whether they have a local evacuation site. The survey results also indicated that most universities have no storage of disaster equipment or emergency supplies.

  5. Learning lessons from natural disasters - sectorial or holistic perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Blumenthal, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. To increase the availability of reports and documents, the Swedish Rescue Services Agency has created the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System, in accordance with a government commission from 2005. The system gathers accident reports, investigations and in-depth analyses, together with societal additional costs and mappings of consequences from central and local governments, NGO's and private actors. Evaluation of the collection reveals large differences in quality, systematic approach, depth and extent, clearly consistent with the lack of coherent harmonization of investigation and reporting approaches. Type of hazard, degree of impact and time elapsed since present are decisive for the collected volume. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most data and analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments, response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of

  6. Storms over the Urban Forest: Planning, Responding, and Regreening-- A community Guide to Natural Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andresen

    1994-01-01

    Natural disasters which can occur in the United States include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and related high-velocity winds, as well as ice storms. Preparing for these natural disasters, which strike urban forests in large cities and small communities, should involve the cooperative effort of a wide array of municipal agencies, private arboricultural companies,...

  7. Lifelong Learning from Natural Disasters: Transformative Group-Based Learning at Philippine Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume; Millora, Christopher Malagad

    2016-01-01

    This study explores reflective experience during transformative, group-based learning among university leaders following a natural disaster such as a typhoon in two Philippine universities. Natural disasters are recurrent phenomena in many parts of the world, but the literature largely ignores their impact on lifelong human learning, for instance…

  8. What do They Know? Guidelines and Knowledge Translation for Foreign Health Sector Workers Following Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin-Bell, Ola

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The incidence of natural disasters is increasing worldwide, with countries the least well-equipped to mitigate or manage them suffering the greatest losses. Following natural disasters, ill-prepared foreign responders may become a burden to the affected population, or cause harm to those needing help. Problem The study was performed to determine if international guidelines for foreign workers in the health sector exist, and evidence of their implementation. A structured literature search was used to identify guidelines for foreign health workers (FHWs) responding to natural disasters. Analysis of semi-structured interviews of health sector responders to the 2015 Nepal earthquake was then performed, looking at preparation and field activities. No guidelines were identified to address the appropriate qualifications of, and preparations for, international individuals participating in disaster response in the health sector. Interviews indicated individuals choosing to work with experienced organizations received training prior to disaster deployment and described activities in the field consistent with general humanitarian principles. Participants in an ad hoc team (AHT) did not. In spite of need, there is a lack of published guidelines for potential international health sector responders to natural disasters. Learning about disaster response may occur only after joining a team. Dunin-Bell O . What do they know? Guidelines and knowledge translation for foreign health sector workers following natural disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):139-146.

  9. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  10. Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspots: Transition to a Regional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Chen, R.; Dilley, M.

    2005-12-01

    The "Hotspots Project" is a collaborative study of the global distribution and occurrence of multiple natural hazards and the associated exposures of populations and their economic output. In this study we assess the global risks of two disaster-related outcomes: mortality and economic losses. We estimate risk levels by combining hazard exposure with historical vulnerability for two indicators of elements at risk-gridded population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per unit area - for six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, and cyclones. By calculating relative risks for each grid cell rather than for countries as a whole, we are able to estimate risk levels at sub-national scales. These can then be used to estimate aggregate relative multiple hazard risk at regional and national scales. Mortality-related risks are assessed on a 2.5' x 2.5' latitude-longitude grid of global population (GPW Version 3). Economic risks are assessed at the same resolution for gridded GDP per unit area, using World Bank estimates of GDP based on purchasing power parity. Global hazard data were compiled from multiple sources. The project collaborated directly with UNDP and UNEP, the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in the creation of data sets for several hazards for which global data sets did not previously exist. Drought, flood and volcano hazards are characterized in terms of event frequency, storms by frequency and severity, earthquakes by frequency and ground acceleration exceedance probability, and landslides by an index derived from probability of occurrence. The global analysis undertaken in this project is clearly limited by issues of scale as well as by the availability and quality of data. For some hazards, there exist only 15- to 25-year global records with relatively crude spatial information. Data on historical disaster losses, and particularly on

  11. Natural disasters in African countries: what can we learn about them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Lukamba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems posed by disasters have become increasingly important for all African governments. Every year a variety of disas ters occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and these are becoming more prevalent. This article presents an analysis of statistical surveys for natural disasters in different regions of Africa over a 30-year period from 1974 to 2003. It shows that disaster frequency is increasing on the continent. The investigation of the data demonstrates that the East Africa region is under the greatest threat from natural disasters. In 2008, climatological disasters, notably droughts, claimed many victims in the eastern part of Africa, with more than one third of the population affected in Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. The region has experienced the highest recorded number of disaster events for the past 30 years, followed by the West Africa region. The Southern Africa region is placed third as far as the frequency of disaster events in sub-Saharan Africa is concerned. The least disaster prone region is central Africa. The observations made in this analysis relate to the economic losses in different regions from the impact of natural disasters. In some instances, recovery from economic loss could not be recouped because of stunted growth and other internal problems in these countries. In addition, this article suggests some strategies to mitigate the problem of natural hazards in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Flood; drought; volcanic eruptions; political governance; climate change; specialised capabilities

  12. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  13. Public Comment Period Open for the Draft Update to the Planning for Natural Disaster Debris Guidance and to Related Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is requesting comment on the draft Planning for Natural Disaster Debris Guidance, and two other documents. The Guidance is an update of the Planning for Natural Disaster Debris guidance that EPA published in March 2008.

  14. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  15. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.

    2017-07-01

    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  16. Arsenic Methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metalloid arsenic enters the environment by natural processes (volcanic activity, weathering of rocks) and by human activity (mining, smelting, herbicides and pesticides). Although arsenic has been exploited for homicidal and suicidal purposes since antiquity, its significan...

  17. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugenia E; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A; Groen, Thomas A; Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L

    2016-08-10

    Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People's Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.

  18. Promoting Positive Adaptation in Adult Survivors of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are…

  19. Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Some Lessons Learned From Natural Disaster in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Alipour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Lack of awareness of mental and social problems of affected people after disaster is one of the most important barriers in successful and stable rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation requires a suitable structure and planning for all stages of disaster management. 

  20. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985–2014: Occurrence and Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters (tau = 0.594, p natural disasters in 1998–2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = −0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods (tau = −0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms (tau = −0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future. PMID:27834899

  1. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985-2014: Occurrence and Damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters ( tau = 0.594 , p natural disasters in 1998-2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = -0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods ( tau = -0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms ( tau = -0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future.

  2. Victimization of people by natural disasters: Spatial and temporal distribution of consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a descriptive statistical analysis of geospatial and temporal distributions of victimized people (killed, injured, affected and damage with specific reference to geophysical, meteorological, climatological, biological and hydrological disasters that have occurred in the world of from 1900 to 2013 year. In addition, people affected by the various natural disasters could be classified as invisible victims as they are not recognized as victims either by the state or society, and consequently they do not receive adequate protection, assistance and support. Statistical research was conducted on data from the international database of the Centre for Research on Disaster Epidemiology Disaster (CRED in Brussels. Temporal analysis examined the distribution and effects of natural disasters on people, at intervals of ten years. The same methodology was adopted for analyses of geospatial distribution of victimized people because of natural disasters by continent. The aim of the research is to determine the geospatial and temporal distribution of victimization of people with natural disasters in the world geospace in the period from 1900 to 2013. The survey results clearly indicate an increase in the number and severity of the consequences of natural disasters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova kreiranja efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  3. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steven

    2012-08-27

    This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals-the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster-are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  4. The cultural politics of mining and natural disaster in Indonesia: by fire and sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeff; Lewis, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters are inevitably the outcome of cultural agonisms. The cultural politics of natural disasters are shaped by competing claims and conceptions of 'nature'. Recent disasters in Indonesia are directly linked to these contending conceptions and the ways in which different social groups imagine risk and reward. The Sidoarjo volcanic mudflow of 2006 represents a volatile and violent exemplar of contending cultural and economic claims. Like other disasters in Indonesia and elsewhere in the developing world, this 'natural' disaster is characterised by differing conceptions of 'nature' as cultural tradition, divine force, and natural resource. A new extractive project in East Java is exhibiting similar economic and cultural agonisms, particularly around the notion of development, environment, self-determination, and tradition. This paper examines the 'disputes over meaning' associated with natural disasters in contemporary societies, and the ways in which they are related to human culture, social organisation, and hierarchical systems of violence. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  5. Medicinal plants and natural products in amelioration of arsenic toxicity: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2017-12-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) is considered a serious public health menace worldwide, as there is no specific, safe, and efficacious therapeutic management of arsenicosis. To collate the studies on medicinal plants and natural products with arsenic toxicity ameliorative effect, active pre-clinically and/or clinically. Literature survey was carried out by using Google, Scholar Google and Pub-Med. Only the scientific journal articles found on the internet for last two decades were considered. Minerals and semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs of natural products were excluded. Literature study revealed that 34 medicinal plants and 14 natural products exhibited significant protection from arsenic toxicity, mostly in preclinical trials and a few in clinical studies. This research could lead to development of a potentially useful agent in clinical management of arsenicosis in humans.

  6. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Study of Elementary School Seachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Teachers, as adult authority figures and people with whom students spend a majority of their day, can play a major role in the lives of children in a disaster-prone community.…

  7. Evaluation of Social Vulnerability to Natural Disasters on a County Scale in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfeng HE; Liping DU; Xiuhua GAO

    2016-01-01

    Social vulnerability evaluation is of important significance to analyzing risks of natural disasters to human society and economy. By using expert investigation and AHP method,12 indicators from four aspects( population,economy,infrastructure and disaster prevention and mitigation capacity) are selected to assess social vulnerability to natural disasters on a county scale in Henan Province. The results show that the population vulnerability and economic vulnerability to natural disasters in the eastern region is generally higher than in the western region,while the areas with high infrastructure vulnerability are mainly located in the northwest; the disaster prevention and mitigation capacity in northwest is higher than in east and south,and this capacity of various districts is obviously higher than that of counties; in terms of the spatial pattern,social vulnerability to natural disasters is roughly higher in a belt from northeast to southwest,and lower on both sides of the belt. The results can provide scientific basis for disaster risk management and disaster prevention and mitigation planning in Henan Province.

  8. Gauging the societal impacts of natural disasters using a capability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2010-07-01

    There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals' capabilities. The DII can be interpreted as the disaster impact per capita. Capabilities are dimensions of individual well-being and refer to the genuine opportunities individuals have to achieve valuable states and activities (such as being adequately nourished or being mobile). After discussing the steps required to construct the DII, this article computes and compares the DIIs for two earthquakes of similar magnitude in two societies at different levels of development and of two disasters (earthquake and wind storm) in the same society.

  9. The role of occupational therapists in the contexts of a natural disaster: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunwha; Law, Mary; DeMatteo, Carol; Stratford, Paul; Kim, Hwan

    2016-08-01

    To identify and inform the experience and roles of occupational therapists (OTs) in the contexts of a natural disaster. This scoping review was conducted via five steps: (1) identify the research question, (2) identify relevant academic articles published between 2000 and 2014 in English, (3) select articles based on the inclusion criteria, (4) chart the data and (5) collate, summarise, and report the results of the selected articles. The results were presented using descriptive numerical and thematic analyses. OTs can prepare a plan for evacuation of people with disabilities and their accommodation before a disaster occurs. Immediately after a disaster, they can provide emergency services for injuries and provide education and training in coping skills for psychological distress via a community-based rehabilitation approach. Consistent services for survivors' mental health and for building the OTs' capacity as part of disaster management are focussed on in the recovery phase. The potential roles of OTs across the spectrum of a natural disaster were identified via this scoping review. This review will help OTs to become involved in a disaster management system for vulnerable groups across the three phases of preparedness to, respond to and recovery from a disaster. Implication for Rehabilitation Occupational therapists can be involved in disaster management to prepare for, respond to and recover from a natural disaster. Consistent services for psychological distress are needed for people affected by a disaster to return to normalcy. Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is an important approach to help a wider group of people respond to a natural disaster in a timely manner.

  10. In field arsenic removal from natural water by zero-valent iron assisted by solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Lorena; Lienqueo, Hugo; Arenas, Maria; Acarapi, Jorge; Contreras, David; Yanez, Jorge; Mansilla, Hector D.

    2008-01-01

    An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated water is presented. The method is based in the use of steel wool, lemon juice and solar radiation. The method was evaluated using water from the Camarones River, Atacama Desert in northern Chile, in which the arsenic concentration ranges between 1000 and 1300 μg L -1 . Response surface method analysis was used to optimize the amount of zero-valent iron (steel wool) and the citrate concentration (lemon juice) to be used. The optimal conditions when using solar radiation to remove arsenic from natural water from the Camarones river are: 1.3 g L -1 of steel wool and one drop (ca. 0.04 mL) of lemon juice. Under these conditions, removal percentages are higher than 99.5% and the final arsenic concentration is below 10 μg L -1 . This highly effective arsenic removal method is easy to use and inexpensive to implement. - An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated waters by using zero-valent iron, citrate and solar radiation was developed

  11. In field arsenic removal from natural water by zero-valent iron assisted by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Laboratorio de Investigaciones Medioambientales de Zonas Aridas, LIMZA, Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, CIHDE, Arica (Chile)], E-mail: lorenacp@uta.cl; Lienqueo, Hugo; Arenas, Maria [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Acarapi, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7-D, Arica (Chile); Laboratorio de Investigaciones Medioambientales de Zonas Aridas, LIMZA, Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, CIHDE, Arica (Chile); Contreras, David; Yanez, Jorge; Mansilla, Hector D. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2008-12-15

    An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated water is presented. The method is based in the use of steel wool, lemon juice and solar radiation. The method was evaluated using water from the Camarones River, Atacama Desert in northern Chile, in which the arsenic concentration ranges between 1000 and 1300 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Response surface method analysis was used to optimize the amount of zero-valent iron (steel wool) and the citrate concentration (lemon juice) to be used. The optimal conditions when using solar radiation to remove arsenic from natural water from the Camarones river are: 1.3 g L{sup -1} of steel wool and one drop (ca. 0.04 mL) of lemon juice. Under these conditions, removal percentages are higher than 99.5% and the final arsenic concentration is below 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}. This highly effective arsenic removal method is easy to use and inexpensive to implement. - An in situ arsenic removal method applicable to highly contaminated waters by using zero-valent iron, citrate and solar radiation was developed.

  12. Predictors of Youths' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, Flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nina C; Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A

    2016-01-01

    Framed by a previously established conceptual model of youths' posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following a disaster, the current longitudinal study examined the relation of predisaster child characteristics (age, gender, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping), predisaster environmental characteristics (negative life events and supportive and negative friendship interactions), and level of disaster exposure to youths' PTS symptoms in the wake of a natural disaster. Prior to the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood, 239 predominantly Caucasian youth from four elementary and middle schools (ages = 10-15, 56% girls) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, negative life events, and social support in the form of both supportive and negative friendship interactions. Approximately 10 days after returning to school, 125 completed measures of disaster exposure and postflood PTS symptoms. Bivariate correlations revealed that disaster-related PTS symptoms were unrelated to age, gender, or predisaster supportive friendship interactions and significantly positively related to level of disaster exposure and predisaster levels of negative life events, depressive symptoms, rumination, and negative friendship interactions. After controlling for level of disaster exposure and other predisaster child and environmental characteristics, depressive symptoms and negative friendship interactions predicted postdisaster PTS symptoms. The effect of child's flood-related experiences on PTS symptoms was not moderated by any of the preexisting child characteristics or environmental indicators. Faced with limited resources after a natural disaster, school counselors and other health professionals should focus special attention on youths who experienced high levels of disaster-related losses and whose predisaster emotional and interpersonal lives were problematic.

  13. Urinary arsenic concentrations and speciation in residents living in an area with naturally contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement - EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de veille sanitaire, Departement Sante environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de veille sanitaire, Departement Sante environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Labat, Laurence [CHRU de Lille, Laboratoire de Toxicologie et Genopathies, Lille (France); Boltz, Patricia [Centre antipoison et de toxicovigilance de Nancy (France); Le Bouard, Jerome [Direction Regionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Meurthe-et-Moselle (France); Mantey, Karine [Cellule Interregionale d' epidemiologie de l' Est (France); Mannschott, Christian [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales 54, Meurthe-et-Moselle (France); Puskarczyk, Emmanuel [Centre antipoison et de toxicovigilance de Nancy (France); Viller, Frederique [Cellule Interregionale d' epidemiologie de l' Est (France); Momas, Isabelle [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement - EA 4064, Paris (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement - EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-02-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure of residents living in an area with a soil naturally rich in arsenic (As), through urinary measurements. During the summer of 2007, 322 people aged over 7 years and resident in the study area for at least 4 days prior to the investigation were recruited. The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs + MMA + DMA) and speciation were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Geometric means levels of iAs + MMA + DMA were 3.6 {mu}g/L or 4.4 {mu}g/g creatinine. The percent of DMA, As(III) and MMA contribution to urinary arsenic concentrations was respectively 84.2%, 12% and 3.7%. We found significant associations between urinary arsenic concentrations and the consumption of seafood (p = 0.03), the consumption of wine (p = 0.03) and beer (p = 0.001), respectively 3 and 4 days before the investigation. When we focus on the various species, As(V) was rarely detected and DMA is the predominant metabolite composing the majority of measurable inorganic-related As in the urine. Considering the percent of DMA contribution to iAs + MMA + DMA urinary concentrations, almost half of the subjects had 100% of DMA contribution whatever the concentration of urinary As whereas the others had a lower DMA contribution, between 39 and 90%. Arsenic levels reported in this original study in France were between 2 and 4 times lower than in other studies dealing with iAs + MMA + DMA levels associated with soil arsenic exposure. Arsenic levels were similar to those observed in unexposed individuals in European countries, although 10% were above the French guideline values for the general population.

  14. Urinary arsenic concentrations and speciation in residents living in an area with naturally contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Clemence; Dor, Frederic; Labat, Laurence; Boltz, Patricia; Le Bouard, Jerome; Mantey, Karine; Mannschott, Christian; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Viller, Frederique; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure of residents living in an area with a soil naturally rich in arsenic (As), through urinary measurements. During the summer of 2007, 322 people aged over 7 years and resident in the study area for at least 4 days prior to the investigation were recruited. The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs + MMA + DMA) and speciation were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, respectively. Geometric means levels of iAs + MMA + DMA were 3.6 μg/L or 4.4 μg/g creatinine. The percent of DMA, As(III) and MMA contribution to urinary arsenic concentrations was respectively 84.2%, 12% and 3.7%. We found significant associations between urinary arsenic concentrations and the consumption of seafood (p = 0.03), the consumption of wine (p = 0.03) and beer (p = 0.001), respectively 3 and 4 days before the investigation. When we focus on the various species, As(V) was rarely detected and DMA is the predominant metabolite composing the majority of measurable inorganic-related As in the urine. Considering the percent of DMA contribution to iAs + MMA + DMA urinary concentrations, almost half of the subjects had 100% of DMA contribution whatever the concentration of urinary As whereas the others had a lower DMA contribution, between 39 and 90%. Arsenic levels reported in this original study in France were between 2 and 4 times lower than in other studies dealing with iAs + MMA + DMA levels associated with soil arsenic exposure. Arsenic levels were similar to those observed in unexposed individuals in European countries, although 10% were above the French guideline values for the general population.

  15. Natural Disaster Risk and Engagement in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is beset with natural hazards no less than other regions of Earth, but there are some special aspects that require attention. The presence of ice leads to spring river flooding and dynamics of coastal erosion not present in warmer climates. Vast boreal forests are subject to wildfires that are huge pollution events and a positive feedback to climate change through production of CO2, other gases, and black carbon. Darkness and extreme cold that prevail for a significant portion of the year is a challenge to disaster response. Special societal aspects of the Arctic produce vulnerabilities on two scales. One is the development of infrastructure in support of growing extractive industries and Arctic shipping. Reliance on such facilities, which often lack redundancy, and on long supply lines for food and fuel from the south impedes resilience. In 1964, Alaska lost much of its infrastructure to the 9.2 magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. Today, Alaska has greater dependency on external supplies and less internal redundancy. Planning that affects vulnerability of infrastructure is often done by corporations and regulated by government agencies based outside the Arctic. The work of scientists who understood Alaska, both within and outside government, provided information to energy corporations persuading them to include expensive design measures into the Trans Alaska Pipeline for crossing an active fault and preventing thawing of permafrost. This is a success story that should not be forgotten. At the other end of the size scale are isolated off-grid and off-road remote communities with fragile power, water, and sanitation facilities. A disaster there can pose an immediate threat to health and even life. Long-term evacuation and the cost a reconstruction may mean that the community is never re-established. Where such communities are centers of indigneous culture, the culture is threatened. With the goal of identifying best practices with these

  16. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  17. The impact of natural disasters on child health and investments in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters' effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  19. HUMANITARIAN AID DISTRIBUTION FRAMEWORK FOR NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd, S.; Fathi, M. S.; Harun, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Humanitarian aid distribution is associated with many activities, numerous disaster management stakeholders, enormous effort and different processes. For effective communication, humanitarian aid distribution activities require appropriate and up-to-date information to enhance collaboration, and improve integration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a humanitarian aid distribution framework for disaster management in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on a review of the huma...

  20. Identity, place, and bystander intervention: social categories and helping after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark; Thompson, Kirstien

    2004-06-01

    The authors developed a Self-Categorization Theory (SCT) approach to bystander behavior. Participants were 100 undergraduates at an English university. The authors made either a European or a British identity salient. Participants then rated their likelihood of offering both financial and political help after natural disasters in Europe and South America. When European (but not British) identity was salient, participants were less likely to offer help for disasters in South America than Europe. They were also more likely to offer financial help after disasters in Europe when European non-British identity was salient. There were no differences in levels of emotional response to disasters by identity salience. Results indicate that social category relations rather than geographical proximity or emotional reaction are most important in increasing helping behavior after natural disasters.

  1. Posttraumatic Growth as a Response to Natural Disasters in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Melissa; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2018-05-16

    This review examines factors thought to be associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) (demographic variables, exposure, and family and social processes) among youth exposed to natural disasters, describes the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress, and discusses psychological processes (rumination and coping) linked to PTG. Guided by PTG theory and the literature on PTG in adults, research has revealed relationships between PTG and child, environmental, and family and social factors among youth though the results are mixed. Youth's subjective exposure to disasters, their level of posttraumatic stress following the disaster, and the type of psychological processes they employ to cope with the disaster appear to be associated with PTG. Research has garnered preliminary support for PTG in children exposed to natural disasters but additional research is needed to fully explicate these relationships and to understand how these relationships change over time.

  2. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  3. Religiosity, Gender, and Natural Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Disaster-Stricken Regions in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Jahangiri, Katayoun; Khani Jazani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    While religiosity is emerging as one of the more important subjects in disaster management, identifying gender differences in using religion as a coping method has attracted very little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of religiosity on disaster-affected women and men in the setting of Iran. A field-based investigation using a qualitative approach was carried out to achieve the study's purpose. Data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with 25 participants who had been damaged by recent disasters. Two themes, negative and positive effects of religiosity, and five categories were extracted from the data. Women may be influenced by religion more than men, and thus, they can play key roles in strengthening the positive effects of religiosity.

  4. Responses to disasters, natural and man-made, and interventions with social supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This volume focuses on the effects of a range of traumatic events: a natural disaster (Hurricane Andrew), working with the dead (dental identification of bodies following the Mt. Carmel conflagration), and the trauma attendant to the diagnosis of a l...

  5. Effective and equitable supply of gasoline to impacted areas in the aftermath of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this project was on supplying gasoline after a natural disaster. There were two aspects : for this work: determination of which gas stations should be provided with generators (among those that do : not have electric power) and determina...

  6. Responsibilities of the USDA-Food and Nutrition Service in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Toni

    2015-01-01

    USDA makes sure that nutritious USDA Foods are made available to States, Indian Tribal Organizations and Emergency Feeding Organizations to help feed survivors of natural disasters and other emergencies when needed.

  7. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  8. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  9. Field and laboratory arsenic speciation methods and their application to natural-water analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    The toxic and carcinogenic properties of inorganic and organic arsenic species make their determination in natural water vitally important. Determination of individual inorganic and organic arsenic species is critical because the toxicology, mobility, and adsorptivity vary substantially. Several methods for the speciation of arsenic in groundwater, surface-water, and acid mine drainage sample matrices using field and laboratory techniques are presented. The methods provide quantitative determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and roxarsone in 2-8min at detection limits of less than 1??g arsenic per liter (??g AsL-1). All the methods use anion exchange chromatography to separate the arsenic species and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an arsenic-specific detector. Different methods were needed because some sample matrices did not have all arsenic species present or were incompatible with particular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phases. The bias and variability of the methods were evaluated using total arsenic, As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA results from more than 100 surface-water, groundwater, and acid mine drainage samples, and reference materials. Concentrations in test samples were as much as 13,000??g AsL-1 for As(III) and 3700??g AsL-1 for As(V). Methylated arsenic species were less than 100??g AsL-1 and were found only in certain surface-water samples, and roxarsone was not detected in any of the water samples tested. The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in the test samples ranged from 0% to 90% As(III). Laboratory-speciation method variability for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA in reagent water at 0.5??g AsL-1 was 8-13% (n=7). Field-speciation method variability for As(III) and As(V) at 1??g AsL-1 in reagent water was 3-4% (n=3). ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Are recent hurricane (Harvey, Irma, Maria) disasters natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Lijing, C.; Jacobs, P.; Abraham, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Yes and no! Hurricanes are certainly natural, but human-caused climate change is supersizing them, and unbridled growth is exacerbating risk of major damages. The addition of heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere has led to observed increases in upper ocean heat content (OHC). This human-caused increase in OHC supports higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric moisture. These elevated temperatures and increased moisture availability fuel tropical storms, allowing them to grow larger, longer lasting, and more intense, and with widespread heavy rainfalls. Our preliminary analysis of OHC through the August of 2017 shows not only was it by far the highest on record globally, but it was also the highest on record in the Gulf of Mexico prior to hurricane Harvey occurring. The human influence on the climate is also evident in rising sea levels, which increases risks from storm surges. These climatic changes are taking place against a background of growing habitation along coasts, which further increases the risk storms pose to life and property. This combination of planning choice and climatic change illustrates the tragedy of global warming, as evidenced by Harvey in Houston, Irma in the Caribbean and Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico. However, future damages and loss of life can be mitigated, by stopping or slowing human-caused climate change, and through proactive planning (e.g., better building codes, increased-capacity drainage systems, shelters, and evacuation plans). We discuss the climatic and planning contexts of the unnatural disasters of the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season, including novel indices of climate-hurricane influence.

  11. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  12. Novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ya-ling; Liang, Zhuo; Yao, Tian-ming; Sun, Jing-yang; Liang, Ming; Huo, Yu; Wang, Geng; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Liang, Yan-chun; Meng, Wei-hong

    2012-03-01

    Natural disasters have been frequent in recent years. Effective treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease following natural disasters is an unsolved problem. We aimed to develop a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory (Mini Mobile Cath Lab) to provide emergency interventional services for patients with critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters. A feasibility study was performed by testing the Mini Mobile Cath Lab on dogs with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) model in a hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab was transported to the hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area by truck. Coronary angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed on six dogs with STEMI model. The transportation and transformation of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab were monitored and its functioning was evaluated through the results of animal experiments. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab could be transported by truck at an average speed of 80 km/h on mountain roads during daytime in the winter, under conditions of light snow (-15°C to -20°C/-68°F to -59°F). The average time required to prepare the Mini Mobile Cath Lab after transportation, in a wetland area, was 30 minutes. Coronary angiography, and primary PCI were performed successfully. This preliminary feasibility study of the use of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab for emergency interventional treatment of dogs with STEMI indicated that it may perform well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters.

  13. The «Natural Hazard WIKISAURUS»: explanation and understanding of natural hazards to build disaster resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In the Internet and Web 2.0 era, the need of information is increased. Moreover, recent major and minor disasters highlighted that information is a crucial element also in emergency management. Informing the population is now the focal point of any civil protection activity and program. Risk perception and social vulnerability become widely discussed issues "when a disaster occurs": a "day-after" approach that should be replaced by a "day-before" one. Is that a cultural problem? Is it a communication issue? As a matter of fact, nowadays academics, experts, institutions are called to be more effective in transferring natural hazards knowledge (technical, operational, historical, social) to the public, for switching from «protection/passivity» (focused on disaster event) to «resilience» (focused on vulnerability). However, this change includes to abandon the "Elites Knowledge" approach and to support "Open Knowledge" and "Open Data" perspectives. Validated scientific information on natural hazards is not yet a common heritage: there are several cases of misleading or inaccurate information published by media. During recent Italian national emergencies [Flash Floods Liguria-Toscana 2011, Earthquake Emilia-Romagna 2012], social media registered people not only asking for news on the disaster event, but also talking trivially about scientific contents on natural hazards. By considering these facts, in the framework of a phD program in Earth Science, a joint team UNITO-NatRisk and CNR-IIA conceived the web project "Natural Hazards Wikisaurus" [NHW], combining two previous experiences: "HyperIspro" - a wiki on civil protection set up by Giuseppe Zamberletti, former Italian minister of Civil Protection - and "Earth Thesaurus", developed by CNR-IIA. The team decided to start from the «words» using both the collaboration of the wiki concept (open and participatory knowledge) and the power of explanation of a thesaurus. Why? Because a word is not enough, as a term has

  14. Households’ Natural Disaster Preparedness: A View from a Second Class Municipality in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. Bagarinao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of natural disasters occurrence and severity of climate change impacts in recent years makes disaster preparedness a vital decision among households especially in developing countries like the Philippines. The study was conducted to characterize households' respondents through the use of selected socio-demographic variables. It also aimed to determine their adoption of pre-determined disaster preparedness plans and if an empirical relationship could be established between the adoption of a plan and the selected household socio-demographic variables. Using a stimulus-response framework, a natural disaster preparedness survey protocol with emphasis on households' preparedness plans was developed and implemented from May-July 2015 in one of the typhoon and flood-prone municipalities in the Philippines. With 577 respondents, the average households in the study site consist of 5 members, are below estimated poverty threshold, and residing in the area for more than 30 years. There is variability on the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristic of the respondents and their decision to adopt disaster preparedness plans. These findings call for the expansion of the current climate change adaptation and disaster risk management programs and initiatives of the municipality to include enhancement of households' capacity to prepare and deal with impacts of natural disasters.

  15. Family functioning and overprotection following a natural disaster: the longitudinal effects of post-traumatic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A C

    1987-06-01

    The longitudinal impact of a natural disaster on the patterns of interaction in families with latency-aged children is examined. An 11-item questionnaire was developed and two factors were isolated: irritable distress and involvement. A group of 183 disaster-affected families were contrasted with 497 families who had not been exposed to the disaster. Eight months after the disaster, the interaction in the disaster-affected families was characterised by increased levels of conflict, irritability and withdrawal. Maternal overprotection was also a common feature of the pattern of care in these families. Post-traumatic morbidity in parents was the major determinant of the observed changes in family functioning and the overprotection.

  16. Automated microprocessor-controlled atomic absorption analysis of natural water for arsenic and selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Futrell, T.L.; Adams, T.T.

    1978-08-01

    An automated, dual-channel atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium in natural water is now in operation. The instrument was constructed from commercially available optical components, spectral sources, and a sample changer. Automation was achieved by using an in-house-fabricated and programmed microprocessor. The instrument will analyze samples at a rate of 37 per hour, and a quantitative determination of arsenic and selenium to 0.2 μg/l (ppB) can be achieved. Arsenic can be determined with a precision of 19% at 1 μg/l and 6% at 10 μg/l, while selenium can be determined with a precision of 17% at 1 μg/l and 4% at 10 μg/l

  17. Removal of arsenic species from drinking water by Iranian natural and synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menhaje-Bena, R.; Kazemian, H.; Shahtaheri, S.J.; Ghazi-Khansari, M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to find a relatively inexpensive method for removal of arsenic species from drinking water. The uptake capability of Iron (II) modified natural clinoptilolites and relevant synthetic zeolites A and P was investigated toward inorganic arsenic species from drinking water. Results obtained from sorption experiments, using a batch (static) technique showed that, among the investigated zeolites, modified synthetic zeolite A was the most selective sorbent for removal of arsenate and arsenite from drinking water. Through this study the influencing of factories including temperature, concentration, pH, particle size and interferences was evaluated on removal of arsenic species. The synthetic zeolites and their modified forms were also characterized, using XRD, XRF and thermal analysis techniques. (authors)

  18. Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, Karin; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Örtenwall, Per; Gifford, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    In November 2013, the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the Philippines. The typhoon caused severe damage to the medical facilities and many injuries and deaths. Health professionals have a crucial role in the immediate disaster response system, but knowledge of their experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster. Eight health professionals were interviewed five months after the disaster. The interviews were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutic methods. The main theme, being professional and survivor, described both positive and negative emotions and experiences from being both a helper, as part of the responding organization, and a victim, as part of the surviving but severely affected community. Sub-themes described feelings of strength and confidence, feelings of adjustment and acceptance, feelings of satisfaction, feelings of powerless and fear, feelings of guilt and shame, and feelings of loneliness. Being a health professional during a natural disaster was a multi-faceted, powerful, and ambiguous experience of being part of the response system at the same time as being a survivor of the disaster. Personal values and altruistic motives as well as social aspects and stress-coping strategies to reach a balance between acceptance and control were important elements of the experience. Based on these findings, implications for disaster training and response strategies are suggested. Hugelius K , Adolfsson A , Örtenwall P , Gifford M . Being both helpers and victims: health professionals' experiences of working during a natural disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):117-123.

  19. Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Some Lessons Learned From Natural Disaster in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Alipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disasters have adverse impacts on different aspects of human life. Psychosocial Rehabilitation is one of the fields which is usually overshadowed and ignored by physical rehabilitation or its importance does not receive proper attention. This research attempts to study some lessons learned from Psychosocial Rehabilitation based on disaster experiences in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study has a conventional qualitative content analysis design. The participants of study were 15 people with direct experience of earthquake and 12 experts in this field. The study sample was selected by purposeful sampling method and the data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Results: Lack of a suitable system to deliver Psychosocial Rehabilitation, challenge in establishing balance between short-term and long-term social and mental needs, lack of mental and social experts, inefficiency in using social capital and capacities are the most important lessons learned in this field. Conclusion: Lack of awareness of mental and social problems of affected people after disaster is one of the most important barriers in successful and stable rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation requires a suitable structure and planning for all stages of disaster management.

  20. [Natural disasters and health: an analysis of the situation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins de; Silva, Eliane Lima; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Barcellos, Christovam; Costa, André Monteiro; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia Carneiro; Corvalán, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Natural disasters are still insufficiently studied and understood within the scope of public health in this country, with impacts in the short and long term. The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between disasters and their impact on health based on disaster data recorded in the country. The methodology involved the systematization of data and information contained in the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters 1991-2010 and directly from the National Department of Civil Defense (NSCD). Disasters were organized into four categories of events (meteorological; hydrological; climatological; geophysical/geological) and for each of the latter, the data for morbidity, mortality and exposure of those affected were examined, revealing different types of impacts. Three categories of disasters stood out: the hydrological events showed higher percentages of mortality, morbidity and exposure; climatological events had higher percentages of incidents and people affected; the geophysical/geological events had a higher average of exposure and deaths per event. Lastly, a more active participation of the health sector in the post-2015 global political agenda is proposed, particularly events related to sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction.

  1. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  2. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.

  3. A new LoD definition hierarchy for 3D city models used for natural disaster risk communication tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemec, S.; Zlatanova, S.; Duzgun, S.

    2012-01-01

    Taking precautions before a disaster to reduce the causalities and losses engendered by natural disasters is relatively cheaper, and more importantly, better than cure. The authors propose a conceptual framework with the consideration of all stakeholders related to the disaster management to have a

  4. The Potential of Fijian Traditional Housing to Cope with Natural Disasters in Rural Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Fujieda, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Fiji is, as an island country in the Pacific Ocean widely recognized to be vulnerable to natural disasters due to its location and characteristics. Recent studies show the increasing emphasis on a capacity of disaster affected people and communities rather than their vulnerability and on what they can do for themselves. In the light of resilience, indigenous knowledge that has been generated and accumulated over years in adapting to the local environment has the potential to enhance the capac...

  5. Geochemical fates and unusual distribution of arsenic in natural ferromanganese duricrust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huan; Lu, Xiancai; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoye; Zhu, Xiangyu; Xiang, Wanli; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaolin; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng

    2017-01-01

    Preferential enrichment of arsenic in iron oxides relative to manganese oxides has been well documented. In this study, however, a distinct arsenic enrichment is revealed in natural ferromanganese duricrusts, which are commonly found in natural weathering profiles of manganese-bearing carbonate rocks. In the studied ferromanganese duricrust covering Carboniferous carbonates at Qixia Mountain in eastern China, stromotalite-like structures composed by hematite, goethite, pyrolusite and hetaerolite have been observed. Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) mapping and synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analyses reveal that the arsenic content in manganese oxides is elevated with respect to iron oxide phases. For example, the arsenic content of pyrolusite is approximately 5 times as much as that of hematite or hetaerolite. However, the highest arsenic content (0.58 wt% As_2O_5) occurs in 2.75 (±0.96, ±σ) μm micro-bands of hematite ((Fe_xMn"I"I"I_1_-_x)_2O_3, 0.75 < x < 0.83). Although arsenic contents in the Mn-rich hematite micro-bands are extraordinarily high, the amount of hematite with a high Mn content is very low in the duricrust. Hence manganese oxides are suggested to be the major arsenic sink in the ferromanganese duricrust. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra (EXAFS) further shows that all arsenic is present as oxidized As(V) and are bound to Fe/Mn oxides in bidentate binuclear bridging complexes with As−Fe and As−Mn bond distances of 3.24 Å and 3.23 Å, respectively. In addition, it is found that zinc is also more enriched in Mn oxides (besides hetaerolite) than in Fe oxides. The fine hematite crust with low contents of heavy metals could act as a protective seal to separate Mn oxides core with high Zn and As from environmental fluids. This separation could reduce the interaction between them and decrease the release of Zn and As from this ferromanganese duricrusts, which ensures long-term sequestration of

  6. Women's Mental Health and Intimate Partner Violence Following Natural Disaster: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Folkerth, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster. Purpose The purpose of this review was to report the results of a scoping review on the specific mental health effects that commonly impact women following natural disasters, and to develop a conceptual framework with which to guide future research. A scoping review of mental and physical health effects experienced by women following natural disasters in the United States was conducted. Articles from 2000-2015 were included. Databases examined were PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, JSTOR, Web of Science, and databases available through ProQuest, including ProQuest Research Library. A total of 58 articles were selected for inclusion, out of an original 149 that were selected for full-text review. Forty-eight articles, or 82.8%, focused on mental health outcomes. Ten articles, or 17.2%, focused on IPV. Discussion Certain mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and other significant mental health concerns, were recurrent issues for women post-disaster. Despite the strong correlation between experience of mental health consequences after disaster and increased risk of domestic violence, studies on the risk and mediating factors are rare. The specific challenges faced by women and the interrelation between negative mental health outcomes and heightened exposure to IPV following disasters require a solid evidence base in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions. Additional research informed by theory on probable health impacts is

  7. The implementation of local wisdom in reducing natural disaster risk: a case study from West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfadrim, Z.; Toyoda, Y.; Kanegae, H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce some local wisdoms in West Sumatra and propose their challenges that modern values have degraded its knowledge. In a contemporary context, traditional stories (written and oral stories) still relevant to be used and internalized in disaster risk reduction. Traditional knowledge or local wisdom is a system of knowledge derived from long experienced process in the past, adopted and handed over to next generation through evolutionary process. Indigenous or traditional knowledge can be practiced in understanding the nature of natural disaster, to propose the best action in mitigation, to respond in emergency phase, and to suggest more option for recovery process based on previous experience. The paper based on four weeks field research in west Sumatra which is known with their natural hazards due to its geographical location. In the beginning, this paper discusses the nature of local wisdom and how it can be matched in disaster management, then continues to the specific case how the traditional stories in West Sumatera can be internalized and integrated with contemporary disaster risk reduction. This paper proves that local wisdom can be useful as an effective instrument to deal with natural disaster or natural hazard.

  8. How should we screen for depression following a natural disaster? An ROC approach to post-disaster screening in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph R; Adams, Zachary W; Menon, Suvarna V; Youngstrom, Eric A; Bunnell, Brian E; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2016-09-15

    The present study's aim was to provide the foundation for an efficient, empirically based protocol for depression screening following a natural disaster. Utilizing a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analytic approach, the study tested a) what specific disaster-related stressors (i.e., property damage, loss of basic services) and individual-related constructs (i.e., PTSD symptoms, trauma history, social support) conveyed the greatest risk for post-natural disaster depression, b) specific cutoff scores across these measures, and c) whether the significance or cutoff scores for each construct varied between adolescents and adults. Structured phone-based clinical interviews were conducted with 2000 adolescents who lived through a tornado and 1543 adults who survived a hurricane. Findings suggested that in both adolescents and adults, individual-related constructs forecasted greater risk for depressive symptoms following a natural disaster compared to disaster-related stressors. Furthermore, trauma history and PTSD symptoms were particularly strong indicators for adolescent depressive symptoms compared to adult depressive symptoms. Adolescents and adults who reported vulnerable scores for social support, trauma history, and lifetime PTSD symptoms were approximately twice as likely to present as depressed following the natural disaster. Findings from the present study were limited to post-disaster assessments and based on self-reported functioning 6-12 months following the natural disaster. The present study synthesizes the extensive body of research on post-disaster functioning by providing a clear framework for which questions may be most important to ask when screening for depression following a natural disaster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

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    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  10. Households Perceptions on Factors Affecting Resilience towards Natural Disasters in Indonesia

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    Viverita Viverita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most areas in Indonesia are prone to natural disasters. Learning the lessons from the Aceh Tsunami in 2004, areas with high risks of natural disasters are in the process of preparing themselves for such an unexpected event, by increasing their resilience. The objective of this study is to shed more lights on factors affecting the resilience from two sources namely, existing literatures and the application of disaster management in four disaster-prone areas in Indonesia -Padang, Sleman, Cilacap, and Palu. To enrich our analysis, we collect data from the field to compare the preparedness and to get insights on people’s perceptions towards the factors of resilience in those areas.We employ IDI and FGD to identify the factors of resilience and the preparedness in the areas investigated. Thereafter, a preliminary survey is conducted to identify people’s perceptions towards the aspects of resilience in the areas. Results from the survey conducted to 800 households in Padang and Cilacap indicates that from the social aspect, community’s value cohesiveness is one of important factor affecting their resilience towards natural disaster. In addition, when disaster occurred, they heavily relied on the help of debt or selling some of their assets, as well as used cash in hand as emergency funds. In general, respondents in all sample cities are able to re-start their economic activities as soon as two weeks after the event of disaster. In addition, the survey found that most of respondents were aware that the government has programs to educate people on the disaster mitigation.

  11. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

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    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  12. The Influence of Exposure to Natural Disasters on Depression and PTSD Symptoms among Firefighters.

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    Pennington, Michelle L; Carpenter, Thomas P; Synett, Samantha J; Torres, Victoria A; Teague, Jennifer; Morissette, Sandra B; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Keane, Terence M; Zimering, Rose T; Gulliver, Suzy B

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Firefighters represent an important population for understanding the consequences of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors. Hypothesis/Problem The researchers were interested in the effects of pre-employment disaster exposure on firefighter recruits' depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the first three years of fire service and hypothesized that: (1) disaster-exposed firefighters would have greater depression and PTSD symptoms than non-exposed overall; and (2) depression and PTSD symptoms would worsen over years in fire service in exposed firefighters, but not in their unexposed counterparts. In a baseline interview, 35 male firefighter recruits from seven US cities reported lifetime exposure to natural disaster. These disaster-exposed male firefighter recruits were matched on age, city, and education with non-exposed recruits. A generalized linear mixed model revealed a significant exposure×time interaction (e coef =1.04; Pdisaster exposure only. This pattern persisted after controlling for social support from colleagues (e coefficient=1.05; Pdisaster exposure only, even after controlling for social support. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms did not vary between exposure groups. Pennington ML , Carpenter TP , Synett SJ , Torres VA , Teague J , Morissette SB , Knight J , Kamholz BW , Keane TM , Zimering RT , Gulliver SB . The influence of exposure to natural disasters on depression and PTSD symptoms among firefighters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):102-108.

  13. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Cristina Manfrini; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Denham, Sharon A; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2017-02-13

    Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  14. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract: Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  15. How much more exposed are the poor to natural disasters? Global and regional measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namsuk

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a simple indicator to measure the exposure to natural disasters for the poor and non-poor population, in order to assess the global and regional trend of natural hazard and poverty. Globally, poor people are two times more exposed to natural disasters than the non-poor in the twenty-first century. The time trend varies across regions, with poor people in East Asia and Pacific being most exposed to natural disasters, followed by those in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The change of exposure measure over time is decomposed into two factors: a pure exposure change, which could be fuelled by climate change; and a concentration component. The result shows that the total net increase of exposure between the 1970s and the 2000s is driven significantly by the increased concentration of the poor (26 per cent) in disaster-prone areas, whereas the contribution of that factor remains very small for the non-poor (six per cent). © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  16. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  17. NATURAL DISASTERS EFFECTS’ FINANCING THROUGH INSURANCE IN ROMANIA (2010-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-CONSTANTIN DĂNULEȚIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyse the necessity and evolution of the natural disasters effects’ financing through insurance in Romania. There are emphasized the legislation changes that affected the compulsory and voluntary insurance mechanisms and the results of the implementation of the compulsory insurance for natural disasters system at the national level, but also at the regional level. On this analysis, the article concludes about the causes of the evolutions highlighted, suggesting that the frequent changes of legislation, the low level of financial education of a large part of population, the un-applying of fines by local authorities for the people not respecting the law are one of the most important causes.

  18. Differential Dynamic Evolutionary Model of Emergency Financial Service Supply Chain in Natural Disaster Risk Management

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    Shujian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A government-market-public partnership (GMPP could be a feasible arrangement for providing insurance coverage for natural disaster. Firstly, we put forward GMPP management mode. Secondly, the emergency financial service supply chain for natural disaster risk is built from the view of supply chain. Finally, the objective of this paper is to obtain insights into the cooperative and competitive relationship in GMPP system. We establish the cooperative and competitive differential dynamic evolutionary models and prove the existence of equilibrium solutions in order to solve the coordination problems. In conclusion, the equilibrium solutions can be achieved among the insurers, the operating governments, and the public.

  19. All-Cause Hospital Admissions Among Older Adults After a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Abir, Mahshid; Choi, HwaJung; Cooke, Colin; Iwashyna, Theodore

    2017-08-05

    We characterize hospital admissions among older adults for any cause in the 30 days after a significant natural disaster in the United States. The main outcome was all-cause hospital admissions in the 30 days after natural disaster. Separate analyses were conducted to examine all-cause hospital admissions excluding the 72 hours after the disaster, ICU admissions, all-cause inhospital mortality, and admissions by state. A self-controlled case series analysis using the 2011 Medicare Provider and Analysis Review was conducted to examine exposure to natural disaster by elderly adults located in zip codes affected by tornadoes during the 2011 southeastern superstorm. Spatial data of tornado events were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Severe Report database, and zip code data were obtained from the US Census Bureau. All-cause hospital admissions increased by 4% for older adults in the 30 days after the April 27, 2011, tornadoes (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). When the first 3 days after the disaster that may have been attributed to immediate injuries were excluded, hospitalizations for any cause also remained higher than when compared with the other 11 months of the year (incidence rate ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07). There was no increase in ICU admissions or inhospital mortality associated with the natural disaster. When data were examined by individual states, Alabama, which had the highest number of persons affected, had a 9% increase in both hospitalizations and ICU admissions. When all time-invariant characteristics were controlled for, this natural disaster was associated with a significant increase in all-cause hospitalizations. This analysis quantifies acute care use after disasters through examining all-cause hospitalizations and represents an important contribution to building models of resilience-the ability to recover from a disaster-and hospital surge capacity

  20. The role of anger and ongoing stressors in mental health following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Alkemade, Nathan; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Gallagher, Colin; Pattison, Phillipa; Lusher, Dean; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Kellet, Connie; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    Research has established the mental health sequelae following disaster, with studies now focused on understanding factors that mediate these outcomes. This study focused on anger, alcohol, subsequent life stressors and traumatic events as mediators in the development of mental health disorders following the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires, Australia's worst natural disaster in over 100 years. This study examined data from 1017 (M = 404, F = 613) adult residents across 25 communities differentially affected by the fires and participating in the Beyond Bushfires research study. Data included measures of fire exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol abuse, anger and subsequent major life stressors and traumatic events. Structural equation modeling assessed the influence of factors mediating the effects of fire exposure on mental health outcomes. Three mediation models were tested. The final model recorded excellent fit and observed a direct relationship between disaster exposure and mental health outcomes (b = .192, p disaster exposure and development of mental health problems. The findings have significant implications for the assessment of anger post disaster, the provision of targeted anger-focused interventions and delivery of government and community assistance and support in addressing ongoing stressors in the post-disaster context to minimize subsequent mental health consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Knowledge to Action - Understanding Natural Hazards-Induced Power Outage Scenarios for Actionable Disaster Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, B.; Robinson, C.; Koch, D. B.; Omitaomu, O.

    2017-12-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 identified the following four priorities to prevent and reduce disaster risks: i) understanding disaster risk; ii) strengthening governance to manage disaster risk; iii) investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience and; iv) enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. While forecasting and decision making tools are in place to predict and understand future impacts of natural hazards, the knowledge to action approach that currently exists fails to provide updated information needed by decision makers to undertake response and recovery efforts following a hazard event. For instance, during a tropical storm event advisories are released every two to three hours, but manual analysis of geospatial data to determine potential impacts of the event tends to be time-consuming and a post-event process. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a Spatial Decision Support System that enables real-time analysis of storm impact based on updated advisory. A prototype of the tool that focuses on determining projected power outage areas and projected duration of outages demonstrates the feasibility of integrating science with decision making for emergency management personnel to act in real time to protect communities and reduce risk.

  2. Medium-Term Health of Seniors Following Exposure to a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Oscar; Maltais, Danielle; Gingras-Lacroix, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    The article aims to describe the medium-term impacts of a major earthquake event (Chile, February 27, 2010) on 26 seniors. The authors adopted a qualitative study approach. Data obtained using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) show the presence of manifestations of posttraumatic stress in the majority of respondents. In addition, data collected in interviews demonstrated a progressive deterioration of the health of respondents over a period of 4 years following the disaster. Seniors are particularly vulnerable to the effects of material loss, emotional stress, and postdisaster health complications. These impacts are exacerbated by low economic status. Furthermore, broader research is necessary involving elderly living in poverty who have survived natural disasters and others without such experiences, in order to better identify and differentiate between health complications associated with exposure to disaster events and those linked more strictly with natural aging processes.

  3. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged.

  4. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

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    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  5. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Communicating with children and adolescents about the risk of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtbust, Liv Gunvor Hove; Dyregrov, Atle; Djup, Heidi Wittrup

    2018-01-01

    A vast number of people annually are affected by natural disasters. Children are at risk of losing their lives and suffer mentally or physically after such events. The fostering of resilience and preparedness ahead of disasters can reduce untoward effects of disastrous events. Risk communication and disaster education are considered important aspects of disaster preparedness, but little is known about whether such strategies influence children's behaviour when natural disasters occur or how they cope in the aftermath. This paper presents and discusses various strategies that promote preparedness activities to save lives. To a minor extent, it also includes strategies that can promote coping in the aftermath. Strategies such as informational campaigns, educational activities, psychoeducation and parental guidance are addressed. The literature to date indicates that schools are a suitable arena for risk communication, and that adolescents themselves should be involved and engaged in the communication strategies. However, the relationship between knowledge of preparedness strategies and the resulting preparedness actions is largely unknown. It is unknown whether changes in awareness and attitudes have resulted in actual behaviour change. It is advocated that preparedness activities and parental involvement should supplement information-based strategies.

  7. Arsenic contamination of natural waters in San Juan and La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, J; Watts, M J; Shaw, R A; Marcilla, A L; Ward, N I

    2010-12-01

    (III) and As(V) concentrations in San Juan ranged from 4-138 μg l(-1) to San José de Jáchal region) and 23-346 μg l(-1) and 0.04-76 μg l(-1) for groundwater, respectively. This translates to a relative As(III) abundance of 69-100% of the total arsenic in surface waters and 32-100% in groundwater. This is unexpected because it is typically thought that in oxidising conditions (surface waters), the dominant arsenic species is As(V). However, data from the SPE methodology suggests that As(III) is the prevalent species in San Juan, indicating a greater influence from reductive processes. La Pampa groundwater had As(III) and As(V) concentrations of 5-1,332 μg l(-1) and 0.09-592 μg l(-1) for EC and 32-242 μg l(-1) and 30-277 μg l(-1) As for LU, respectively. Detectable levels of MA(V) were reported in both provinces up to a concentration of 79 μg l(-1) (equating to up to 33% of the total arsenic). Previously published literature has focused primarily on the inorganic arsenic species, however this study highlights the potentially significant concentrations of organoarsenicals present in natural waters. The potential for separating and preserving individual arsenic species in the field to avoid transformation during transport to the laboratory, enabling an accurate assessment of in situ arsenic speciation in water supplies is discussed.

  8. Using Spacecraft in Climate and Natural Disasters Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Galyna; Kotlov, Vladyslav; Khorischenko, Oleksandr; Davydova, Angelica; Heti, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Since the beginning of the space age it become possible the global monitoring of the planet Earth's state. Since the second half of the 20th century there are observations of the atmosphere's state and the Earth's climate have been held by a spacecraft. Also become possible large-scale monitoring of climate change. An attempt was made to define the role of infrasound in the interaction between a space weather, climate and biosphere of the Earth using spacecraft sensors recording. Many countries are involving in the detection of earthquakes, predicting volcanic eruptions and floods and also the monitoring of irregular solar activity. Understanding this leads to the conclusion that international cooperation for the protection of humanity is not only a political priority in the international arena, but also a question of the quality of living standards of any state. Commonly known following monitoring systems: Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), FUEGO program (Spain), Sentinel-Asia program (Japan) and International aerospace system for monitoring of global phenomena (MAKCM, Russia). The Disaster Monitoring Constellation for International Imaging (DMCii) consists of a number of remote sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. The DMC has monitored the effects and aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004), Hurricane Katrina (August 2005), and many other floods, fires and disasters. The individual DMC satellites are: 1. First generation satellites (AlSAT-1 - Algeria, BilSAT - Turkey, NigeriaSAT-1 - Nigeria, UK-DMC - United Kingdom); 2. Second generation satellites (Beijing - China, UK-DMC 2 - United Kingdom, Deimos-1 - Spanish commercial, NigeriaSAT-2 and NigeriaSAT-X). The sun-synchronous orbits of these satellites are coordinated so that the satellites follow each other around an orbital plane, ascending north

  9. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  10. After the Storm: Helping Children Cope with Trauma after Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Krystal T.; Douglas, Denika Y.

    2018-01-01

    Though adults undoubtedly suffer tremendous stress in the aftermath of natural disasters such as Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria, it is often the most vulnerable, the children, who are most traumatized and possess the fewest coping skills. Signs of child psychological trauma such as symptoms commonly associated with posttraumatic stress…

  11. Coping with Natural Disasters: Lessons Learnt by a Head of Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Since the first of the 29 significant earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks that the University of Canterbury (New Zealand) community has endured in the last year, Beverly Lord has learned a few lessons as a departmental head in a university during a time of natural disaster. Herein, she organizes and describes these lessons under five…

  12. The Academic Impact of Natural Disasters: Evidence from L'Aquila Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses a standard difference-in-differences approach to examine the effect of the L'Aquila earthquake on the academic performance of the students of the local university. The empirical results indicate that this natural disaster reduced students' probability of graduating on-time and slightly increased students' probability of dropping…

  13. Reducing the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Following Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohay, Heather; Forbes, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer long-term psychological disturbance following exposure to a natural disaster. Evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship exists, so that children and adolescents who experience the most intense or extensive exposure to the risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are likely to develop…

  14. Student Application for Special Consideration for Examination Performance Following a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, David; Garrill, Ashley; Johnston, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances beyond their control negatively affect performance in assessments. Typically, such situations affect only one student (e.g. medical emergencies) but we consider the impact of a natural disaster that led to all students being eligible for…

  15. Appreciation for Support for Japan in Responding to the Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Nishiyama, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    March 11, 2011, began the most difficult natural disaster ever experienced in Japan. Earthquakes, a massive tsunami, and multiple breaches at nuclear power plants have changed the lives of many Japanese people including children, teachers, and parents. Throughout this difficult time, Japanese school psychologists and teachers have been supported…

  16. What Can School Principals Do to Support Students and Their Learning during and after Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters can happen at any time. The impact they have on students, their families and the teachers relies on strategic and calm leadership by school principals. As schools are situated within communities, principals not only have a role leading within the school, they are also viewed as community leaders. This paper focuses on six New…

  17. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  18. Practitioners' Experiences Creating and Implementing an Emotional Recovery and Physical Activity Program Following a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    On April 27, 2011 a series of tornadoes tore through the southeast United States. Sixty-four percent of the counties in the state of Alabama were directly affected by these storms. After a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected show numerous intense emotional reactions. Recovery programs can be set up to enable them to…

  19. Treating natural disaster victims is dealing with shortages: An orthopaedics perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewo, Punto; Magetsari, Rahadyan; Busscher, Henk J.; van Horn, Jim R.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2008-01-01

    During natural disasters such as earthquakes or tsunamis, most of the casualties are known to suffer from musculoskeletal injuries. This leads to an enormous need of orthopaedic (surgical) implants such as osteosynthesis plates, which are difficult to provide in developing countries that rely on

  20. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  1. BRIDGING THE STRATEGIC TO OPERATIONAL GAP: AIR MOBILTY IN NATURAL DISASTER RELIEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    adequate resources are tasked for the operation. Disaster relief, by nature, is not afforded the same luxury as a traditional military operation... exclusion zone around the plant. The establishment of the exclusion zone substantially hindered operations into Sendai, the nearest mobility-capable...additional infrastructure consideration for the airspace was the nuclear exclusion zone. Ultimately, aircraft and surface vessels, unless specifically

  2. Contagion Effect of Natural Disaster and Financial Crisis Events on International Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world bustling with global trade, a natural disaster or financial crisis in one country (or region can cause substantial economic losses and turbulence in the local financial markets, which may then affect the economic activities and financial assets of other countries (or regions. This study focuses on the major natural disasters that occurred worldwide during the last decade, especially those in the Asia–Pacific region, and the economic effects of global financial crises. The heteroscedasticity bias correlation coefficient method and exponential general autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model are employed to compare the contagion effect in the stock markets of the initiating country on other countries, determining whether economically devastating factors have contagion or spillover effects on other countries. The empirical results indicate that among all the natural disasters considered, the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China caused the most substantial contagion effect in the stock markets of neighboring Asian countries. Regarding financial crises, the financial tsunami triggered by the secondary mortgage fallout in the United States generated the strongest contagion effect on the stock markets of developing and emerging economies. When building a diversified global investment portfolio, investors should be aware of the risks of major natural disasters and financial incidents.

  3. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology-Considering the Context of Natural and Technological Disasters: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks. The special issue is intended to bridge the gap between these two areas of applied science, with the audience being experienced clinicians or clinicians in training. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The psychosocial impact of natural disasters among adult survivors: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsini, Sri; West, Caryn; Ed Tt, Grad Dip; Res Meth, Grad Cert; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the psychosocial impact of natural disasters on adult (over the age of 18 years) survivors. Databases searched included PsycInfo, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid SP, Scopus, and Science Direct. The search was limited to articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2012. A total of 1,642 abstracts and articles were obtained during the first search; 39 articles were retained. The results indicate that PTSD is the most-studied psychosocial impact after a disaster. Mental health nurses have a significant role to play in supporting survivors and can assist with the development of resilience in community members.

  5. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  6. Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. García-Lara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of natural groundwater by arsenic (As is a serious problem that appears in some areas of Northern Central Mexico (NCM. In this research, As was removed from NCM wells groundwater by the electrocoagulation (EC technique. Laboratory-scale arsenic electroremoval experiments were carried out at continuous flow rates between 0.25 and 1.00 L min−1 using current densities of 5, 10, and 20 A m−2. Experiments were performed under galvanostatic conditions during 5 min, at constant temperature and pH. The response surface methodology (RSM was used for the optimization of the processing variables (flow rate and current density, response modeling, and predictions. The highest arsenic removal efficiency from underground water (99% was achieved at low flow rates (0.25 L min−1 and high current densities (20 A m−2. The response models developed explained 93.7% variability for As removal efficiency.

  7. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate=4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance=2.8 cm, current density=5.78 mA/cm(2), A/V ratio=0.248 cm(-1). The NOM removal according to UV(254) absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m(3). According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Perry W; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-07-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism.

  9. Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.

  10. [El niño phenomenon and natural disasters: public health interventions for disaster preparedness and response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

  11. Mitigating Local Natural Disaster through Social Aware Preparedness Using Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supadli, Irwan; Saputri, Andini; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    During and after natural disaster, such as, eruption of vulcano, many people have to abandon their living place to a temporary shelter. Usually, there could be several time for the occurrence of the eruption. This situation, for example, happened at Sinabung vulcano, located in Karo district of North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The people in the disaster area have become indifferent. In terms of the society, the local natural disaster problem belong to a complex societal problem. This research is to find a way what should be done to these society to raise their social awareness that they had experienced serious natural disaster and they will be able to live normally and sustainable as before. Societal complexity approach is used to solve the problems. Social studies referred to in this activity are to analyze the social impacts arising from the implementation of the relocation itself. Scope of social impact assessments include are The social impact of the development program of relocation, including the impact of construction activities and long-term impact of construction activity, particularly related to the source and use of clean water, sewerage system, drainage and waste management (solid waste), Social impacts arising associated with occupant relocation sites and the availability of infrastructure (public facilities, include: worship facilities, health and education) in the local environment (pre-existing). Social analysis carried out on the findings of the field, the study related documents and observations of the condition of the existing social environment Siosar settlements.

  12. Climate and natural disasters in Latin America. El Nino and prevention police

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, V.; Margottini, C.

    1999-01-01

    El Nino is the best known but hardly the only natural disaster affecting Latin America and many developing countries in other regions. In the context of sustainable world development, preventing and mitigating the damage caused by these calamities is a duty that entails national and international obligations of a political, socio-economic, technical, scientific and cultural nature. Last May the problem was addressed at an important international conference in Rome discussed in the present paper [it

  13. Towards Automated Analysis of Urban Infrastructure after Natural Disasters using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Colin

    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, are an unpreventable component of the complex and changing environment we live in. Continued research and advancement in disaster mitigation through prediction of and preparation for impacts have undoubtedly saved many lives and prevented significant amounts of damage, but it is inevitable that some events will cause destruction and loss of life due to their sheer magnitude and proximity to built-up areas. Consequently, development of effective and efficient disaster response methodologies is a research topic of great interest. A successful emergency response is dependent on a comprehensive understanding of the scenario at hand. It is crucial to assess the state of the infrastructure and transportation network, so that resources can be allocated efficiently. Obstructions to the roadways are one of the biggest inhibitors to effective emergency response. To this end, airborne and satellite remote sensing platforms have been used extensively to collect overhead imagery and other types of data in the event of a natural disaster. The ability of these platforms to rapidly probe large areas is ideal in a situation where a timely response could result in saving lives. Typically, imagery is delivered to emergency management officials who then visually inspect it to determine where roads are obstructed and buildings have collapsed. Manual interpretation of imagery is a slow process and is limited by the quality of the imagery and what the human eye can perceive. In order to overcome the time and resource limitations of manual interpretation, this dissertation inves- tigated the feasibility of performing fully automated post-disaster analysis of roadways and buildings using airborne remote sensing data. First, a novel algorithm for detecting roadway debris piles from airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) point clouds and estimating their volumes is presented. Next, a method for detecting roadway flooding in aerial

  14. Natural hazards, disasters and human kind: Whither ecosystem management?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    in the way of powerful natural forces. Abandoning vulnerable geomorphic features, managed retreat, or safer setback with intervening forested landforms are feasible long-term options. The incalculable human misery that ultimately follows ia an ideal...

  15. Proposal for Holistic Assessment of Urban System Resilience to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, David; Kilar, Vojko; Rus, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Urban system is a complex mix of interdependent components and dynamic interactions between them that enable it to function effectively. Resilience of urban system indicates the ability of a system to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. In the relevant literature, most studies consider individual components separately. On the other hand, the purpose of this paper is to assess the urban system as a whole, considering all relevant components and their interactions. The goal is a study of possibilities for holistic evaluation of urban system resilience to natural disasters. Findings from the preliminary study are presented: (i) the definition of urban system and categorization of its components, (ii) a set of attributes of individual components with impact on disaster resilience of the entire system and (iii) review of different methods and approaches for resilience assessment. Based on literature review and extensive preliminary studies a new conceptual framework for urban resilience assessment is proposed. In the presented paper, a conceptual model of urban system by abstraction of its components as nodes (buildings), patches - specific nodes with spatial properties (open space), links (infrastructures) and base layer (community) is created. In the suggested model, each component is defined by its own quantitative attributes, which have been identified to have an important impact on the urban system resilience to natural disasters. System is presented as a mathematical graph model. Natural disaster is considered an external factor that affects the existing system and leads to some system distortion. In further analyses, mathematical simulation of various natural disasters scenarios is going to be carried out, followed by comparison of the system functionality before and after the accident. Various properties of the system (accessibility, transition, complexity etc.) are going to be analysed with

  16. A Century of Australian Natural Disasters and How to Reduce the Toll from Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study reviews Australian experience of natural disasters over the last century and considers how to reduce this nation's vulnerability to such events in the future. In line with global experience, the cost of Australian weather-related natural disasters has been increasing, while loss of life has decreased, with extreme heat events responsible for more fatalities than all other natural perils combined, baring epidemics. However when disaster costs arising from historical events are normalised to current day exposure, no long-term trend emerges. Moreover the frequency of these losses shows no sign of increasing since 1950. In other words, the rising cost of natural disasters can be firmly sheeted home to the fact that there are now more of us living in vulnerable places with more to lose. In view of the above, emergency management and government risk management and strategic planning should focus on plausible large event scenarios, whatever their cause. If we wish to reduce disaster losses, land-use planning has to become risk-informed and building codes need to consider potential economic impacts, rather than just life safety. Insurers can play a role by pricing risk correctly and sending clear signals to homeowners (and governments) to stimulate risk-reducing behaviours. The tools to achieve fine-grained risk assessments are increasingly available. The success of the regulated use of the building code in tropical cyclone-prone regions in Australia and the performance of modern seismic building codes in New Zealand, shows what can be achieved when there is a demonstrated need and political will.

  17. Geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in (natural) anaerobic groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.A.; Lee, M.-K.; Shamsudduha, M.; Dhakal, P.; Uddin, A.; Chowdury, M.T.; Ahmed, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Here new data from field bioremediation experiments and geochemical modeling are reported to illustrate the principal geochemical behavior of As in anaerobic groundwaters. In the field bioremediation experiments, groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh was amended with labile water-soluble organic C (molasses) and MgSO 4 to stimulate metabolism of indigenous SO 4 -reducing bacteria (SRB). In the USA, the groundwater was contaminated by Zn, Cd and SO 4 , and contained 1000 μg/L) under geochemical conditions consistent with bacterial Fe-reducing conditions. With time, groundwater became more reducing and biogenic SO 4 reduction began, and Cd and Zn were virtually completely removed due to precipitation of sphalerite (ZnS) and other metal sulfide mineral(s). Following precipitation of chalcophile elements Zn and Cd, the concentrations of Fe and As both began to decrease in groundwater, presumably due to formation of As-bearing FeS/FeS 2 . By the end of the six-month experiment, dissolved As had returned to below background levels. In the initial Bangladesh experiment, As decreased to virtually zero once biogenic SO 4 reduction commenced but increased to pre-experiment level once SO 4 reduction ended. In the ongoing experiment, both SO 4 and Fe(II) were amended to groundwater to evaluate if FeS/FeS 2 formation causes longer-lived As removal. Because As-bearing pyrite is the common product of SRB metabolism in Holocene alluvial aquifers in both the USA and Southeast Asia, it was endeavored to derive thermodynamic data for arsenian pyrite to better predict geochemical processes in naturally reducing groundwaters. Including the new data for arsenian pyrite into Geochemist's Workbench, its stability field completely dominates in reducing Eh-pH space and 'displaces' other As-sulfides (orpiment, realgar) that have been implied to be important in previous modeling exercises and reported in rare field conditions. In summary, when anaerobic bacterial metabolism

  18. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Britt-Marie; Thunholm, Bo; Oestergren, Inger; Falk, Rolf; Mjoenes, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Approximately 50 % of all drinking water is extracted from groundwater. For private supply of drinking water almost 100 % emanates from groundwater. For approximately 1.2 of the 9 million Swedish citizens, private wells are the primary water source where 700 000 get their water from wells drilled in the bedrock. Radioactive elements and metals that occur naturally in the bedrock can be found in the well water. The radioactive elements include radon-222 ( 222 Rn), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra) as well as polonium-210 ( 210 Po) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb), which are long-lived progeny of radon. In 2001 SGU and SSI initiated a collaboration to investigate the occurrence of radioactive elements and metals in water from private wells. Data sampling and analysis was completed in 2006. The aim of the project was to map the occurrence of radioactive elements in drinking water from private wells and to estimate their respective dose contribution. Another aim was to map metals and other elements in the water, to study temporal variations and possible co-variations between analysed elements. Sampling was conducted in a random fashion throughout the country. However, in regions where bedrock and soils are known to show enhanced concentrations of radioactive elements and arsenic the sampling density was increased. The analyses comprises: total beta activity, total alpha activity, radium-226, radon-222, uranium, aluminium, chloride, calcium, vanadium, chromium, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zink, arsenic, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, barium, lead, thorium, boron, sodium, manganese, potassium, silica, alkalinity, sulfate, fluoride, phosphate, nitrate, pH and electric conductivity. In a few cases chemistry analyses of polonium-210 and lead-210 have been done. It was observed that the south-western part of Sweden, with exception for granite areas in the county of Bohuslaen, has relatively low concentrations of natural radioactive elements in the drinking water. The

  19. Emergency housing after natural disaster; Shizen saigaigo no oukyu kyoju kankyo seibi sisutemu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masami [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1998-12-16

    In Japan, there were some serious disasters in recent years. In 1991, Unzen-Fugendake erupted and more than 1,000 people were forced to take refuge from their houses. In 1993, Hokkaido-Nanseioki earthquake attacked the south-east area of Hokkaido and more than 3,557 houses were destroyed. In Japan, the government supplies the temporary housing to those who lost house from the natural disasters. The purpose of supplying temporary houses mentioned in the disaster relief law (established in 1947) prescribes the purpose of temporary housing that to rescue the poor who can not afford getting a shelter with their own funds. But actual condition of temporary housing is completely different. Government supplies temporary housing to all those who request temporary housing. The term of using temporary house tend to become longer. The regulation about temporary housing has not been yet up to dated. Many problems concerning about temporary housing originate in outdated regulation. The temporary housing have to be ranked in the part of restoration process from natural disaster. (author)

  20. Improving Decision Making about Natural Disaster Mitigation Funding in Australia—A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. van den Honert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses from natural disasters pose significant challenges to communities and to the insurance industry. Natural disaster mitigation aims to reduce the threat to people and assets from natural perils. Good decisions relating to hazard risk mitigation require judgments both about the scientific and financial issues involved, i.e., the efficacy of some intervention, and the ethical or value principles to adopt in allocating resources. A framework for selecting a set of mitigation options within a limited budget is developed. Project selection about natural disaster mitigation options needs to trade off benefits offered by alternative investments (e.g., fatalities and injuries avoided, potential property and infrastructure losses prevented, safety concerns of citizens, etc. against the costs of investment. Such costs include capital and on-going operational costs, as well as intangible costs, such as the impact of the project on the visual landscape or the loss of societal cohesion in the event of the relocation of part of a community. Furthermore, dollar costs of any potential project will need to be defined within some prescribed budget and time frame. Taking all of these factors into account, this paper develops a framework for good natural hazard mitigation decision making and selection.

  1. Natural Disasters, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in China―An Empirical Study Using Provincial Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital instead of physical capital. Geological disasters did not trigger local economic growth from 1999–2011. Generally, natural disasters overall had no significant impact on economic growth from 1985–1998. Thus, human capital reinvestment should be the aim in managing recoveries, and it should be used to regenerate the local economy based on long-term sustainable development.

  2. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  3. Automated method for the determination of total arsenic and selenium in natural and drinking water by HG-AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistón, Mariela; Silva, Javier; Pérez-Zambra, Ramiro; Dol, Isabel; Knochen, Moisés

    2012-04-01

    A multicommutated flow system was designed and evaluated for the determination of total arsenic and selenium by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS). It was applied to the determination of arsenic and selenium in samples of natural and drinking water. Detection limits were 0.46 and 0.08 μg l(-1) for arsenic and selenium, respectively; sampling frequency was 120 samples h(-1) for arsenic and 160 samples h(-1) for selenium. Linear ranges found were 1.54-10 μg l(-1) (R = 0.999) for arsenic and 0.27-27 μg l(-1) (R = 0.999) for selenium. Accuracy was evaluated by spiking various water samples and using a reference material. Recoveries were in the range 95-116%. Analytical precision (s ( r ) (%), n = 10) was 6% for both elements. Compared with the Standard Methods, APHA, 3114B manual method, the system consumes at least 10 times less sample per determination, and the quantities of acid and reducing agent used are significantly lower with a reduction in the generation of pollutants and waste. As an additional advantage, the system is very fast, efficient and environmentally friendly for monitoring total arsenic and selenium levels in waters.

  4. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  5. The European Union Solidarity Fund: An Important Tool in the Recovery After Large-Scale Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria IONCICĂ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the situation of the European Union Solidarity Fund, as an important tool in the recovery after large-scale natural disasters. In the last millennium, the European Union countries have faced climate change, which lead to events with disastrous consequences. There are several ex-post financial ways to respond to the challenges posed by large-scale natural disasters, among which EU Solidarity Fund, government funds, budget reallocation, donor assistance, domestic and/or external credit. The EU Solidarity Fund was created in 2002 after the massive floods from the Central Europe as the expression of the solidarity of EU countries. Romania has received financial assistance from the EU Solidarity Fund after the occurrence of major natural disasters, regional and neighbouring country disasters. The assessment of large-scale natural disasters in EU is very important and in order to analyse if there is a concentration of large-scale natural disasters in EU we used the Gini coefficient. In the paper, the method of the statistical analysis and the correlation between several indicators were used to study the financial impacts of large-scale natural disasters in Europe, and especially in Romania.

  6. Does natural disaster influence people's risk preference and trust? An experiment from cyclone prone coast of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Natural catastrophic events may have enormous negative effects on economic growth. People affected by the disaster might be risk averse because of anxiety about the future uncertainty of economic returns. The purpose of this empirical study is to highlight the effect of natural disasters...... (specifically coastal cyclonic storm surges) on individuals' risk preference and level of trust. This study also aims to disentangle risk propensity from trust. It reveals that natural disasters can significantly reduce people's risk-taking attitudes, whereas the catastrophic events have no influence...... on trusting behavior. The study suggests that risk attitudes are significantly negatively correlated with trust....

  7. Macroeconomics of Natural Disasters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Meta-Analysis Versus Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara

    2015-06-01

    We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. A political economy analysis of decision-making on natural disaster preparedness in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rono-Bett, Karen C

    2018-01-01

    Most deaths from natural disasters occur in low- or middle-income countries; among them, countries in the Horn of Africa - where Kenya lies. Between September 2015 and September 2016, 23.4 million people in this region faced food insecurity because of the 2015 El Niño, characterised by floods and droughts. The importance of effective government decision-making on preparedness and response are critical to saving lives during such disasters. But this decision-making process occurs in a political context which is marred by uncertainty with other factors at play. Yet, good practice requires making investments on a 'no-regrets' basis. This article looks at the factors influencing Kenya's decision-making process for natural disasters, the preparedness for the 2015 El Niño as a case study. I explored what stakeholders understand by 'no-regrets investments' and its application. I assessed financial allocations by government and donors to disaster preparedness. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and financial analyses, this article presents evidence at national and subnational levels. The findings indicate that in making decisions relating to preparedness, the government seeks information primarily from sources it trusts - other government departments, its communities and the media. With no existing legal frameworks guiding Kenya's disaster preparedness, the coordination of preparedness is not strong. It appears that there is a lack of political will to prioritise these frameworks. The no-regrets approach is applied predominantly by non-state actors. Because there have been 'non-events' in the past, government has become overcautious in committing resources on a no-regrets basis. Government allocation to preparedness exceeds donor funding by almost tenfold.

  9. A political economy analysis of decision-making on natural disaster preparedness in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Rono-Bett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most deaths from natural disasters occur in low- or middle-income countries; among them, countries in the Horn of Africa – where Kenya lies. Between September 2015 and September 2016, 23.4 million people in this region faced food insecurity because of the 2015 El Niño, characterised by floods and droughts. The importance of effective government decision-making on preparedness and response are critical to saving lives during such disasters. But this decision-making process occurs in a political context which is marred by uncertainty with other factors at play. Yet, good practice requires making investments on a ‘no-regrets’ basis. This article looks at the factors influencing Kenya’s decision-making process for natural disasters, the preparedness for the 2015 El Niño as a case study. I explored what stakeholders understand by ‘no-regrets investments’ and its application. I assessed financial allocations by government and donors to disaster preparedness. Based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions and financial analyses, this article presents evidence at national and subnational levels. The findings indicate that in making decisions relating to preparedness, the government seeks information primarily from sources it trusts – other government departments, its communities and the media. With no existing legal frameworks guiding Kenya’s disaster preparedness, the coordination of preparedness is not strong. It appears that there is a lack of political will to prioritise these frameworks. The no-regrets approach is applied predominantly by non-state actors. Because there have been ‘non-events’ in the past, government has become overcautious in committing resources on a no-regrets basis. Government allocation to preparedness exceeds donor funding by almost tenfold.

  10. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the

  11. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  12. [Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1 304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1 304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  13. Internasional Symposium On Lowland Technology (ISLT 2012) SUbstainability of Lowlands to Climated Change and Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Lawalenna

    2011-01-01

    ???Lowland??? denotes regions of low elevation, which are particularly vulnerable to climatic and environmental changes. For example, global warming, which appears to be causing a rise in sea level, must ultimately affect the safety of coastal dikes and other coastal infrastructures, as well as threaten the water and ecological systems in lowland areas. Lowland regions are also particularly susceptible to natural disasters. Action is now required for the development of new tech...

  14. Local government, political decentralisation and resilience to natural hazard-associated disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Tselios, Vasileios; Tompkins, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Natural hazards affect development and can cause significant and long-term suffering for those affected. Research has shown that sustained long-term disaster preparedness combined with appropriate response and recovery are needed to deliver effective risk reductions. However, as the newly agreed Sendai framework recognises, this knowledge has not been translated into action. This research aims to contribute to our understanding of how to deliver longer term and sustained risk reduction by eva...

  15. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi; Cheng, Changxiu; Yang, Jing; Yang, Shanli

    2018-01-01

    This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI) and an attractive index (AAI) to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.

  16. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shen

    Full Text Available This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015 are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI and an attractive index (AAI to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.

  17. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi; Cheng, Changxiu; Yang, Jing; Yang, Shanli

    2018-01-01

    This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. “Prediction model”, “social vulnerability”, and “landslide inventory map” are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI) and an attractive index (AAI) to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts. PMID:29351350

  18. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. ► Highest NOM removal according to UV 254 was 77% relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 μg/l), relative to raw groundwater. ► Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m 3 and 66 g Al/m 3 . - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm 2 , A/V ratio = 0.248 cm −1 . The NOM removal according to UV 254 absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m 3 . According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  19. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: emohora@ifc.org [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  20. Selective reduction of arsenic species by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry. Part 2 - sample storage and arsenic determination in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quináia Sueli P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Total arsenic, arsenite, arsinate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were selectively determined in natural waters by hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry, using sodium tetrahydroborate(III as reductant but in different reduction media. River water samples from the north region of Paraná State, Brazil, were analysed and showed arsenate as the principal arsenical form. Detection limits found for As(III (citrate buffer, As(III + DMA (acetic acid and As(III + As(V (hydrochloric acid were 0.6, 1.1 and 0.5 mg As L-1, respectively. Sample storage on the proper reaction media revealed to be a useful way to preserve the water sample.

  1. Flooding experience at Veracruz: not only a natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Nava Bringas, M.; Ochoa Martinez, C.; Local; regional impacts of global change

    2013-05-01

    The Veracruz state lies on the middle of the Gulf of Mexico in Mexican Republic; has a surface of 72815 Km2 represent almost the 4% of Mexico. Due to the complex topography, the rainfall, runoff and the extreme weather the 33% of Mexican water goes trough Veracruz, and every year the presence of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes impacts on the habitants of Veracruz (7.5 millions). For Veracruz the Sierra Madre is the natural border on the West and on the East the Gulf of Mexico. It is located from 17°10' to 23°38' (N) and between 93° to 99° (W). We will try to get the find out the primary information source for the floods on 2005 and 20010 and correlate with the laws on environment and civil protection for Veracruz. In 1999 a tropical depression more than 200 000 persons and more than 20 died, in 2005 Stan hurricane affected more than a million persons but no one died. In 2010 the effects of hurricane Karl were similar but a few days after the tropical depression Mathew affected 150 000 persons more and 15 people died. The patterns of people habitat in Veracruz since middle of XX century follows the oil industry develop at south east Mexico, so the risk increased as the population density increased, that's a critical reason to concluded that is not only cause - effect issue on Veracruz. So if the extreme events increase as consequence of the climate variability and climate change the vulnerability on this region will not be address in prevention policies, and the future scenario on adaptation will be a deep complex problem to solve from all perspectives.Reported impactst; Extreme events. Data from Veracruz Government.

  2. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-01

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  3. Effective and equitable supply of gasoline to impacted areas in the aftermath of a natural disaster : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this project was on supplying gasoline after a natural disaster. There were two aspects : for this work: determination of which gas stations should be provided with generators (among those that do : not have electric power) and determina...

  4. Enhancing arsenic removal from groundwater at household level with naturally occurring iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Kumari Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of drinking water low in Arsenic (As prevents arsenic poisoning. The presence of high concentrations of iron (Fe in groundwater under the alluvial plains of the large rivers in Southeast Asia is a prerequisite for the simple removal of As. This study investigated the mechanisms and possibilities for enhancing As removal with naturally occurring Fe in a reliable, low cost and sustainable way. The results of the study show that As removal with Fe is greatly enhanced by the addition of an oxidizing agent (preferably KMnO4 immediately after the pumping of groundwater. Further enhancement of As removal in the presence of Fe can be achieved by adding a small volume of a concentrated basic solution of MnO4- and AlO2-, which has a combined oxidation, coagulation and buffering capacity. Best results were obtained when this solution was mixed with the groundwater immediately after its pumping until a pale pink color appeared. Maximum required reaction time was 10 minutes and subsequent filtration of the water was able to reduce the As concentration to near zero. Concentrations of MnO4- and AlO2- can be varied in the solution to achieve sufficient As removal to suit different Fe/As ratios and the presence of interfering co-occurring anions.

  5. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-01-01

    Background People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. Aims To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam ? an area char...

  6. Mental health implications for older adults after natural disasters--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Georgina; Lie, David; Siskind, Dan J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Raphael, Beverly; Crompton, David; Kisely, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters affect the health and well-being of adults throughout the world. There is some debate in the literature as to whether older persons have increased risk of mental health outcomes after exposure to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. To date, no systematic review has evaluated this. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health and psychological distress experienced by older adults. A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress. We identified six papers with sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.11 times more likely to experience PTSD symptoms and 1.73 more likely to develop adjustment disorder when exposed to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. Given the global rise in the number of older adults affected by natural disasters, mental health services need to be prepared to meet their needs following natural disasters, particularly around the early detection and management of PTSD.

  7. Natural Disaster as a Reason to Annul the Nuclear Liability: From National and International Law’s Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, D.

    2016-01-01

    One serious issue that deserves more attention from Indonesia before constructing its first NPP, regarding its ''ring of fire'' geological position, is the natural disaster as a reason to annul the nuclear liability. Article 32 of Act No 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy stipulates that ''nuclear installation operator shall not be responsible for the damage caused by a nuclear accident that occurred as a direct impact of a domestic or international armed conflict or natural disaster that exceeded the design limits and acceptance criteria set by the regulatory body.'' In its explanation natural disaster includes earthquakes. This article adopts the provision of article IV paragraph 3b 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. But, in 1997 Amendment Protocol, this provision has been deleted. Natural disasters often referred to as an ''act of god'' because it occurs outside the control of the human. Nevertheless, not all natural disasters could cause the operator to annul its civil liability. The most important question is: ''has the operator taken all necessary preventive actions to prevent accidents, before and during the natural disaster?''

  8. The role of obstetrics and gynecology national societies during natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, André; Adrien, Lauré

    2015-07-01

    When a natural disaster occurs, such as an earthquake, floods, or a tsunami, the international response is quick. However, there is no organized strategy in place to address obstetric and gynecological (ob/gyn) emergencies. International organizations and national ob/gyn societies do not have an organized plan and rely on the good will of volunteers. Too often, local specialists are ignored and are not involved in the response. The massive earthquake in Haiti in 2010 exemplifies the lack of coordinated response involving national organizations following the disaster. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) engaged rapidly with Haitian colleagues in response to the obstetric and gynecological emergencies. An active strategy is proposed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  10. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

  11. Natural Disasters under the Form of Severe Storms in Europe: the Cause-Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For more than 100 years, from 1900 to 2008, there were almost 400 storms natural disasters in Europe, 40% of which occurred in the 1990s. The international prognoses for the world weather suggest a tendency toward increasing in frequency and intensity of the severe storms as the climate warms. In these circumstances, for a researcher in the field of Environmental Economics, a natural question occurs, on whether people can contribute to reducing the frequency and the magnitude of severe storms that produce disastreous social and economic effects, by acting on their causes. In researching an answer to support the public policies in the field, a cause-effect analysis applied to Europe might make a contribution to the literature in the field. This especially considering the fact that international literature regarding the factors influencing global warming contains certainties in regard to the natural factors of influence, but declared incertitudes or skepticism in regard to anthropogenic ones. Skepticism, and even tension arised during the international negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009 in regard to the agreement for limiting global warming, with doubts being raised about the methods used by experts of the International Climate Experts Group (GIEC, and thus the results obtained, which served as a basis for the negotiations. The object of critics was in regard to the form, and at times in regard to the content. It was not about contesting the phenomenon of Global warming during the negotiations, but the methods of calculation. The methodology relies on qualitative (type top down and quantitative (type correlations bottom up cause-effect analysis of the storm disasters in Europe. Based on the instruments used, we proposed a dynamic model of association of the evolution of storm disasters in Europe with anthropogenic factors, with 3 variants. Results: The diagram cause-effect (Ishikawa or fishbone diagram and quantitative correlation of sub

  12. Arsenate and Arsenite Sorption on Magnetite: Relations to Groundwater Arsenic Treatment Using Zerovalent Iron and Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a zerovalent iron corrosion product; it is also formed in natural soil and sediment. Sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on magnetite is an important process of arsenic removal from groundwater using zerovalent iron-based permeable reactive ba...

  13. Evidence for the value of health promotion interventions in natural disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Fazal, Nadia; Gravel, Geneviève; Papowitz, Heather

    2017-12-01

    A rapid review of literature was conducted to identify effective health promotion (HP) intervention strategies that relate to the management of disasters from natural hazards, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery measures. Searches were conducted in formal literature from 2000 to 2011 and then updated to 2013. Out of 719 relevant abstracts, 57 studies were selected for more detailed review. In total, 16 studies were annotated for the narrative synthesis; these articles all reported an outcome-oriented evaluation of an HP-related intervention in a natural disaster situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) or vulnerable populations in high-income countries (HIC). These 16 studies were also assessed for quality of their evaluation design. Although it was not possible to select only strong study designs, LMIC weak designs were matched with stronger designs in HIC most of the time. A narrative synthesis was conducted to report the results. In the preparedness and mitigation stages, there were six articles referring to four HP strategies. In the response and recovery phases, there were 10 articles referring to an additional four HP strategies. HP plays a role in regaining a sense of control after disaster through: engaging victims of disaster in group decisions (including children), collaboration and networking, recognition of local strengths and assets, conducting community needs assessments, respecting local knowledge, training local resources as part of an ongoing system and use of pre-existing community focal points or organizations as trusted locations for community services and reconnections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  15. Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method and SIR Algorithm for Prevention of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).

  16. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  18. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, F.; Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As +5 ) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As +5 adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As +5 are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  19. Traditional and non-traditional approaches to the prediction of natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century the number of disasters in the world increased approximately two times. Damage from disasters cost an average of 230 billion dollars per year. Recently, the death toll in the disaster has reached 230,000 - 1 000,000 per year. Along with earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, increased the number of forest and steppe fires. These processes are not fully known global, geophysical and space reasons. Of great importance are perennial not until the end of the study of natural cycles. There is evidence that the state of the planet's surface affect processes in the Earth's core. Understanding the causes and prediction of the tragic events require an integrated effort based on the synthesis of various sciences as well as history which has knowledge about the disasters of the past. Factor that reduces the risk is constant monitoring, including both distant and contact methods. However, its possibility is limited. Firstly, due to the high cost of global, especially space monitoring. Secondly, due to the unpredictability of some processes. In December 2004, the countries of Southeast Asia hit by the tsunami. The death gotten 250 000 people. Animals in this cataclysm appeared to stay safety and advance left the danger zone. Animals are able to predict hazards having no materials predecessors. Participants nuclear tests show - a day before the explosion of the animals escape dangerous zone. This means that animals have the ability to predict the catastrophic events. The most important abiotic factor, the physical nature of which is still not clear is time. One of the scientists, who achieved some success in the study of time, was N.Kozyrev (1908-1983). He devoted his life to the study of the phenomenon of time and attempt to systematize the knowledge of him as a physical substance. Kozyrev in his theoretical calculations and experiments found the new field - the field of time (chrono-information). Through it can instantly and accurately transmit

  20. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  1. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is still in its infancy. Social scientists have historically regarded natural disasters as exogenous or essentially random perturbations. More recent scholarship treats disaster shocks as endogenous, with pre-existing social, economic and political conditions determining the form and magnitude of disaster impacts. One apparently robust conclusion is that direct economic losses from natural disasters, similar to human losses, are larger (in relative terms) the poorer a country is, yet cross-country regressions show that disasters may accrue economic benefits due to new investments in productive infrastructure, especially if the investment is funded by externally provided capital (Work Bank assistance, private donations, etc) and do not deplete national savings or acquire a debt burden. Some econometric studies also show that the quality of a country's institutions can mitigate the mortality effects of a disaster. The effects on income inequality are such that the poor suffer greater 'asset shocks' and may never recover from a disaster leading to a widening of existing disparities. Natural disasters affect women more adversely than men in terms of life expectancy at birth. On average they kill more women than men or kill women at a younger age than men, and the more so the stronger the disaster. The extent to which women are more likely to die than men or to die at a younger age from the immediate disaster impact or from post-disaster events depends not only on disaster strength itself but also on the socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. Existing research on the economic effects of disasters focus almost exclusively on the impact on economic growth - the growth rate of GDP. GDP however is only a partial indicator of welfare, especially for countries that are in the lower ranks of development status. Very poor communities are typically involved in subsistence level activities or in the

  2. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  3. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  4. Six years after the wave. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Arinell, Hans; Arnberg, Filip K

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of long-term trajectories of distress after disasters are unclear, since few studies include a comparison group. This study examines trajectories of recovery among survivors in comparison to individuals with indirect exposure. Postal surveys were sent to Swedish tourists, repatriated from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (n=2268), at 1, 3, and 6 years after the tsunami to assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) and poor mental health. Items were used to ascertain high and moderate disaster exposure groups and an indirect exposure comparison group. Long-term PTS trajectories were best characterized by a resilient (72.3%), a severe chronic (4.6%), a moderate chronic (11.2%) and a recovering (11.9%) trajectory. Trajectories reported higher levels of PTS than the comparison group. Exposure severity and bereavement were highly influential risk factors. These findings have implications regarding anticipation of long-term psychological adjustment after natural disasters and need for interventions after a single traumatic event with few secondary stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote sensing-based detection and quantification of roadway debris following natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Colin; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; Aros-Vera, Felipe; Holguín-Veras, José

    2016-05-01

    Rapid knowledge of road network conditions is vital to formulate an efficient emergency response plan following any major disaster. Fallen buildings, immobile vehicles, and other forms of debris often render roads impassable to responders. The status of roadways is generally determined through time and resource heavy methods, such as field surveys and manual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. Airborne lidar systems provide an alternative, cost-effective option for performing network assessments. The 3D data can be collected quickly over a wide area and provide valuable insight about the geometry and structure of the scene. This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing debris in roadways using airborne lidar data. Points falling within the road extent are extracted from the point cloud and clustered into individual objects using region growing. Objects are classified as debris or non-debris using surface properties and contextual cues. Debris piles are reconstructed as surfaces using alpha shapes, from which an estimate of debris volume can be computed. Results using real lidar data collected after a natural disaster are presented. Initial results indicate that accurate debris maps can be automatically generated using the proposed method. These debris maps would be an invaluable asset to disaster management and emergency response teams attempting to reach survivors despite a crippled transportation network.

  6. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xueqin [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Social Development and Public Policy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Ning [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yuan, Shuai, E-mail: syuan@nmemc.org.cn [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-12-15

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54 years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10 years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters. - Highlights: • A method to estimate the multidimensional joint return periods is presented. • 2D function allows better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors. • Three-dimensional simulation has obvious advantages in extreme value fitting. • Joint return periods are closer to the reality

  7. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54 years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10 years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters. - Highlights: • A method to estimate the multidimensional joint return periods is presented. • 2D function allows better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors. • Three-dimensional simulation has obvious advantages in extreme value fitting. • Joint return periods are closer to the reality

  8. The relationship between social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms among youth exposed to a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S; Osborne, Melissa C; Piscitello, Jennifer; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Background : Children are a vulnerable population following a natural disaster, due to their age and dependence on adults. The primary presenting problem children report after disasters is posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Prior research suggests that PTSS is inversely related to social support, which is often disrupted after a disaster. Objective : This study examined the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers) and PTSS in children affected by Hurricane Katrina. The research contributes to the literature by examining the mechanisms that drive this relationship over time. Methods : In this study, 426 children were followed over four timepoints, beginning 3-7 months after Hurricane Katrina and concluding 25-27 months post-hurricane. Three path models analysed the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers, measured by the Social Support Scale for Children) and PTSS (measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index). Covariates included child age, minority status, gender, perceived life threat, and actual life threat. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed from the final models. Global fit indices were examined to determine model fit. Results : In the parent and peer social support models, PTSS exhibited statistically significant effects on social support from one wave to the next. In the teacher model, this was only true between Waves 2 and 3. Social support showed a statistically significant effect on PTSS between Wave 2 and Wave 3 in the peer model (standardized estimate = -0.26, p  social support to PTSS were significant in the parent and teacher models. Conclusion : Findings support a social selection model in which PTSS undermine social support, particularly in the first two years post-disaster. If these findings are replicated, this suggests that, in cases of limited funding, PTSS should be prioritized, given their cascading effects on social support.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Nurses\\' Crisis Management in Natural Disasters in Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Natural disasters are considered as events that are beyond human control and usually result in death and different injuries; they also significantly affect public health. The lack of proper sanitation and communal life creates numerous problems. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and performance of nurses (since nurses work more than others in disasters in disaster management. Materials & Methods: This was a cross–sectional and descriptive study. The 220 participants of this study were selected by stratified random sampling method. Data was collected by questionnaire taken from similar studies in the field of nursing whose reliability was confirmed by the relevant specialists and its validity was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (0.83. Data analyses included Spearman test, analysis of different levels of the independent variables (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis test or t- test, and comparing means as well as the related data (non-parametric. Results: In this study, the average age of staff was 33.94±6.4 and years of their work experience was 10.5 ±7.14. The nurses' average level of knowledge about crisis management was 13.05±5.24 out of 22.  The mean grade scores of attitude to crisis management was 28.94±3.39 out of 33, further, their function in crisis management was 45.88±6.5 out of 57. Discussion: Due to the increased frequency of occurrence and consequences of the disaster and the special role of health care services before, during, and after the occurrence of such incidents, the results were not suitable. Then, it was concluded that proper preparation is essential for nurses as the largest providers of information and health services to people, so their performance must be measured which is the objective of this study.

  10. Atmospheric Emissions, Depositions, and Transformations of Arsenic in Natural Ecosystem in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun B. Mukherjee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption.

  11. What does nature have to do with it? Reconsidering distinctions in international disaster response frameworks in the Danube basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Shanna N.; Secchi, Silvia; Bruch, Carl; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2017-12-01

    This article examines the international policy and institutional frameworks for response to natural and man-made disasters occurring in the Danube basin and the Tisza sub-basin, two transnational basins. Monitoring and response to these types of incidents have historically been managed separately. We discuss whether the policy distinctions in response to natural and man-made disasters remain functional given recent international trends toward holistic response to both kinds of disasters. We suggest that these distinctions are counterproductive, outdated, and ultimately flawed, illustrate some of the specific gaps in the Danube and the Tisza, and conclude by proposing an integrated framework for disaster response in the Danube basin and Tisza sub-basin.

  12. What does nature have to do with it? Reconsidering distinctions in international disaster response frameworks in the Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. McClain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the international policy and institutional frameworks for response to natural and man-made disasters occurring in the Danube basin and the Tisza sub-basin, two transnational basins. Monitoring and response to these types of incidents have historically been managed separately. We discuss whether the policy distinctions in response to natural and man-made disasters remain functional given recent international trends toward holistic response to both kinds of disasters. We suggest that these distinctions are counterproductive, outdated, and ultimately flawed, illustrate some of the specific gaps in the Danube and the Tisza, and conclude by proposing an integrated framework for disaster response in the Danube basin and Tisza sub-basin.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E. J.; Atwoli, L.; Kawakami, N.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Piotrowski, P.; King, A. J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Alonso, J.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gluzman, S.; Haro, J. M.; de Jonge, P.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Mneimneh, Z.; Pennell, B.-E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Salmerón, D.; Takeshima, T.; Kessler, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20–40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3–5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Method Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Results Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0–3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Conclusion Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions. PMID:27573281

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Atwoli, L; Kawakami, N; Navarro-Mateu, F; Piotrowski, P; King, A J; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S; Haro, J M; de Jonge, P; Karam, E G; Lee, S; Kovess-Masfety, V; Medina-Mora, M E; Mneimneh, Z; Pennell, B-E; Posada-Villa, J; Salmerón, D; Takeshima, T; Kessler, R C

    2017-01-01

    Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20-40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3-5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0-3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions.

  15. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  16. Aspects of Global Health Issues: Diseases, Natural Disasters, and Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Global health issues are concerns of all public health officials throughout the world. This entails reviewing aspects such as the impact of poverty and the lack of access to quality health care, ignored global killers such as Diseases (Infectious diseases-Malaria, HIV/AIDS), Natural Disasters (Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, and Armed Conflict), Health in the Media, and the Involvement of Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. These issues are challenges to many needless deaths. Global initiatives are not advancing as they should, such as access to drugs and medications, which some are political.

  17. Natural Disasters in a Two-Sector Model of Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Masako Ikefuji; Ryo Horii

    2006-01-01

    Using an endogenous growth model with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth when the use of a polluting input (e.g., fossil fuels) intensifies the risk of capital destruction through natural disasters. We find that growth is sustainable only if the tax rate on the polluting input increases over time. The long-term rate of economic growth follows an inverted V-shaped curve relative to the growth rate of the environmental tax, and it...

  18. Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Swedish Electric Power Policy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gündüz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The future of climate and sustainable energy are interrelated. Speaking of one without mentioning the other is quite difficult. The increasing number of natural disasters pose a great threat to the electric power supply security in any part of the world. Sweden has been one of the countries that have suffered from unacceptably long blackouts. The tremendous outcomes of the power interruptions have made the field of the economic worth of electric power reliability a popular area of interest among researchers. Nature has been the number one enemy against the supply security of the electricity. This paper introduces a recent and thorough electric power reliability analysis of Sweden and focuses on the country’s struggle against climate change-related natural disasters via updating the country’s electric power policy to improve its service quality. The paper highlights the Gudrun storm of 2005 as a case study to demonstrate the severe impacts of extreme weather events on the energy systems. The economic damage of the storm on the electric power service calculated to be around 3 billion euros.

  20. Microbial effects on the release and attenuation of arsenic in the shallow subsurface of a natural geochemical anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahota, Petr; Falteisek, Lukáš; Redlich, Aleš; Rohovec, Jan; Matoušek, Tomáš; Čepička, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Critical factors leading to arsenic release and attenuation from the shallow subsurface were studied with multidisciplinary approach in the natural gold–arsenic geochemical anomaly at Mokrsko (Czech Republic). The results show that microbial reduction promotes arsenic release from Fe(III) (hydr)oxides and Fe(III) arsenates, thereby enhancing dissolved arsenic in the shallow groundwater at average concentration of 7.76 mg/L. In the organic-rich aggregates and wood particles, however, microbial sulfate reduction triggers the formation of realgar deposits, leading to accumulation of As in the distinct organic-rich patches of the shallow subsurface. We conclude that precipitation of realgar in the shallow subsurface of soil/sediment depends on specific and non-trivial combination of water and rock chemistry, microbial community composition and spatial organisation of the subsurface zone, where speciation in saturated environments varied on a centimeter scale from reduced (decomposed wood, H 2 S and realgar present) to oxidized (goethite and arsenate minerals are present). Highlights: •Very high As(III) concentrations were detected in the shallow groundwater. •Arsenic is bound to Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, Fe(III) arsenates and newly-formed realgar. •Reductive dissolution of Fe(III) and As(V) minerals by bacteria leads to mobilization of arsenic. •Precipitation of realgar is constrained to anaerobic domains around and within organic particles. -- Microbial reduction of Fe(III) and As(V) minerals leads to mobilization of As and induces a mineralogical transition toward realgar formation

  1. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  2. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  3. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  4. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  6. Modelling Individual Evacuation Decisions during Natural Disasters: A Case Study of Volcanic Crisis in Merapi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the size of human populations increases, so does the severity of the impacts of natural disasters. This is partly because more people are now occupying areas which are susceptible to hazardous natural events, hence, evacuation is needed when such events occur. Evacuation can be the most important action to minimise the impact of any disaster, but in many cases there are always people who are reluctant to leave. This paper describes an agent-based model (ABM of evacuation decisions, focusing on the emergence of reluctant people in times of crisis and using Merapi, Indonesia as a case study. The individual evacuation decision model is influenced by several factors formulated from a literature review and survey. We categorised the factors influencing evacuation decisions into two opposing forces, namely, the driving factors to leave (evacuate versus those to stay, to formulate the model. The evacuation decision (to stay/leave of an agent is based on an evaluation of the strength of these driving factors using threshold-based rules. This ABM was utilised with a synthetic population from census microdata, in which everyone is characterised by the decision rule. Three scenarios with varying parameters are examined to calibrate the model. Validations were conducted using a retrodictive approach by performing spatial and temporal comparisons between the outputs of simulation and the real data. We present the results of the simulations and discuss the outcomes to conclude with the most plausible scenario.

  7. Summer of sorrow: measuring exposure to and impacts of trauma after Queensland's natural disasters of 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Susan L; Berry, Helen L; McDermott, Brett M; Harper, Catherine M

    2013-10-21

    To assess the population prevalence of property, income and emotional impacts of the 2010-2011 Queensland floods and cyclones. Cross-sectional telephone-based survey using a brief trauma exposure and impact screening instrument, conducted between 11 March and 6 June 2011, of 6104 adults who answered natural disaster and mental health questions. Natural disaster property damage exposure and emotional wellbeing impacts. Two-thirds of respondents (62%) reported being affected by the disasters, with property damage exposure ranging from 37.2% (suburb or local area) to 9.2% (own home, with 2.1% living elsewhere at least temporarily). Income was reduced for 17.0% of respondents and 11.7% of income-producing property owners reported damage to those properties. Trauma impacts ranged from 14.3% of respondents feeling "terrified, helpless or hopeless" to 3.9% thinking they might be "badly injured or die". Up to 5 months after the disasters, 7.1% of respondents were "still distressed" and 8.6% were "worried about how they would manage". Adults of working age and residents of regional and remote areas and of socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were disproportionately likely to report exposure to damage and emotional impacts. Weather-related disasters exact a large toll on the population through property damage and resultant emotional effects. Vulnerable subpopulations are more severely affected. There is a need for realistic, cost-effective and rapid-deployment mass interventions in the event of weather disasters.

  8. An Evaluation of the Buffering Effects of Types and Sources of Support on Depressive Symptoms Among Natural Disaster-Exposed Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Sou, Kalon; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Fangjing; Chang, Kay; Latkin, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Social support is a key protective factor for people exposed to natural disasters. The effect of type and source of this support is not well documented. Investigations are needed to identify the specific modifying role of received and perceived support from family and friends on the association between disaster exposure and depressive symptoms. Face-to-face household interviews were conducted in 2014 with a random sample of 751 adults recruited from Yuexiu and Tianhe districts in Guangzhou, China. Sampling was accomplished through spatial epidemiological methods. Participants' exposure to disaster, depressive symptoms, and social support networks was recorded on tablet devices. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the potential moderating role of social support on depression symptoms. A total of 30.24% reported natural disaster exposure. Disaster exposure and received family support were significantly and positively related to depressive symptoms. In contrast, perceived family support moderated the relationship between disaster exposure and depressive symptoms. No association was found between support from friends and depressive severity. Perceived family support buffered the effect of disaster exposure in this sample, while received family support was associated with increased depression. Perceived family support is an important resource among those who experience disaster exposure and actual provision of family support may be harmful or miscarried. Natural disasters are becoming increasingly prevalent in Asia. According to the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP, 2015a), a total of 119 disaster events, accounting for more than half of the total number of disasters occurred in the world, took place in Asia in 2014, affecting 79.6 million people, among whom 6050 died. The Chinese Mainland experienced several major natural disasters, including the earthquake in Wechuan, Sichuan Province, in 2008 and natural disasters affected more

  9. Human-itarian aid? Two forms of dehumanization and willingness to help after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Luca; Baldissarri, Cristina; Lattanzio, Sara; Loughnan, Steve; Volpato, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The present research explores the distinct effects of animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization on willingness to help natural disaster victims. We examined Japanese and Haitians, two national groups recently struck by earthquakes. We showed that Italian participants differently dehumanized the two outgroups: Japanese were attributed low human nature (dehumanized as automata), whereas Haitians were attributed low human uniqueness (dehumanized as animal-like). Ninety participants were then randomly assigned to the Japanese or Haitian target group condition. Mediation analyses showed that animalistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Haitians, whereas mechanistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Japanese, even when controlling for attitudes. Importantly, reduced empathy explained the effects of both forms of dehumanization on intergroup helping. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Burning questions: Exploring the impact of natural disasters on community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Pey Wen; Singleton, Judith

    The past decade has seen a rapid change in the climate system with an increased risk of extreme weather events. On and following the 3rd of January 2013, Tasmania experienced three catastrophic bushfires, which led to the evacuation of several communities, the loss of many properties, and a financial cost of approximately AUD$80 million. To explore the impacts of the 2012/2013 Tasmanian bushfires on community pharmacies. Qualitative research methods were undertaken, employing semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of seven Tasmanian pharmacists. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and two different methods were used to analyze the text. The first method utilized Leximancer ® text analytics software to provide a birds-eye view of the conceptual structure of the text. The second method involved manual, open and axial coding, conducted independently by the two researchers for inter-rater reliability, to identify key themes in the discourse. Two main themes were identified - 'people' and 'supply' - from which six key concepts were derived. The six concepts were 'patients,' 'pharmacists,' 'local doctor,' 'pharmacy operations,' 'disaster management planning,' and 'emergency supply regulation.' This study identified challenges faced by community pharmacists during Tasmanian bushfires. Interviewees highlighted the need for both the Tasmanian State Government and the Australian Federal Government to recognize the important primary care role that community pharmacists play during natural disasters, and therefore involve pharmacists in disaster management planning. They called for greater support and guidance for community pharmacists from regulatory and other government bodies during these events. Their comments highlighted the need for a review of Tasmania's three-day emergency supply regulation that allows pharmacists to provide a three-day supply of a patient's medication without a doctor's prescription in an emergency situation. Copyright

  11. Association of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with migraine and headache after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Lowe, Sarah R; Asad, Asad L; Subramanian, S V; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Previous research shows that migraine and general headache symptoms increase after traumatic events. Questions remain about whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) produces migraine/headache symptoms, or if individuals afflicted by migraine/headache are especially likely to develop PTSD. We test whether PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster are associated with higher odds of reporting frequent headaches/migraines postdisaster. We decompose PTSD into intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptom clusters to examine which, if any, are uniquely related to headache/migraine postdisaster. We use prospectively collected pre- and postdisaster data to explore whether overall PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with migraine/headache in a sample of Hurricane Katrina survivors. We account for severity of hurricane exposure and control for baseline migraine and headache problems to reduce the probability that heightened PTSD susceptibility among those who already suffered from the conditions could explain observed associations. PTSD symptoms were associated with higher odds of experiencing frequent headaches or migraines with a standard deviation change in PTSD score corresponding to over twice the odds (95% confidence interval [1.64, 2.68]) of having trouble with frequent headaches or migraines in the post-Katrina period. Each additional point on the intrusion subscale (sample M [SD] = 1.6 [1.1]) was associated with 55% higher odds of reporting frequent headache/migraine (95% confidence interval [1.03, 2.33]), but we found no association with avoidance or hyperarousal symptoms. Clinicians and disaster planners should be aware that disaster survivors might be at heightened risk of migraine/headache episodes, and those experiencing intrusive reminders may be most affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Neutralization of arsenic pollutants, contained in natural waters: The theoretical analysis of solubility of some arsenates and optimization of the processes

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Litynska; Nataliia Tolstopalova; Igor Astrelin

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic belongs to chemical elements, which are often found in natural waters and make it unsuitable for consumption without special treatment. Neutralization of arsenic pollutants of natural waters by converting them into insoluble form is one of the perspective methods of dearsenication. Precipitation (by iron or aluminium coagulants, lime) and adsorption (by oxides and hydroxides of iron, aluminium or manganese) are among the most popular dearsenication methods. The use of these chemicals ...

  13. ICT-based hydrometeorology science and natural disaster societal impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, A.; Clematis, A.; Craig, G. C.; Kranzmueller, D.

    2009-09-01

    In the Lisbon strategy, the 2005 European Council identified knowledge and innovation as the engines of sustainable growth and stated that it is essential to build a fully inclusive information society. In parallel, the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (Hyogo, 2005), defined among its thematic priorities the improvement of international cooperation in hydrometeorology research activities. This was recently confirmed at the joint press conference of the Center for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) with the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Secretariat, held on January 2009, where it was noted that flood and storm events are among the natural disasters that most impact human life. Hydrometeorological science has made strong progress over the last decade at the European and worldwide level: new modelling tools, post processing methodologies and observational data are available. Recent European efforts in developing a platform for e-science, like EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE), SEE-GRID-SCI (South East Europe GRID e-Infrastructure for regional e-Science), and the German C3-Grid, provide an ideal basis for the sharing of complex hydrometeorological data sets and tools. Despite these early initiatives, however, the awareness of the potential of the Grid technology as a catalyst for future hydrometeorological research is still low and both the adoption and the exploitation have astonishingly been slow, not only within individual EC member states, but also on a European scale. With this background in mind, the goal of the Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology Study (DRIHMS) project is the promotion of the Grid culture within the European hydrometeorological research community through the diffusion of a Grid platform for e-collaboration in this earth science sector: the idea is to further boost European research excellence and competitiveness in the fields of hydrometeorological research and Grid

  14. An approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk from natural disasters in a geographic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Plamena; Stoyanov, Krasimir

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach for a complex assessment of the geo-ecological risk of a certain geographic region on the basis of quantitative and qualitative datum about the potential natural disasters. A fuzzy logic model is designed. The type of the threats, consequences and interdependencies between infrastructure objects are taken into account. The geographic region is considered as a complex system of interconnected and mutually influencing elements. The expected damages are directly and/or indirectly connected with life quality deterioration. Keywords: Risk, Geo-ecological risk, Damages, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Natural disasters

  15. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  16. A Writing Intensive Course in "Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P.

    2011-12-01

    One course with a contemporary ethics focus is a graduation requirement under the University of Hawaii at Manoa's General Education rules. The goal of the University of Hawaii General Education Committee is to encourage faculty to design ethics-focus courses for each field of undergraduate concentration. Undergraduate students are also required to take 5 writing intensive courses. It is permitted to combine the ethics and writing intensive foci in a given course, as long as one third of the course is devoted to each focus. The course I designed uses current disasters as the subject matter, thus course content varies from year to year. The prerequisite for enrollment is one introductory course in geoscience, to ensure students are familiar with basic geologic processes. I bring in geo-professionals, active in the fields we study, to discuss with students the realities of dealing with civil authorities, elected officials, the media, and the public during a natural disaster. This is one of the aspects of the course the students most enjoy. Such a course could be designed for any locality. Learning outcomes by which the students' work is assessed are as follows. The best student: (1) clearly identifies the inherent ethical choices and implications involved in the professional geoscientist's role during contemporary natural hazard situations; (2) gives evidence of understanding the effects of perspective, context, personal views as pertains to natural hazards; (3) specifies the decision-makers and stakeholders involved in hazard situations; (4) integrates clear descriptions of relevant ethical ambiguities/dilemmas into the overall analysis of a given hazard situation; (5) draws upon frameworks, principles of ethics to develop pertinent arguments and/or positions; (6) develops and presents alternate arguments/positions; (7) discusses and/or debates ethical issues with sensitivity to others' perspectives and the context, while also defending own position with logic and

  17. Preparation and response to radiation and nuclear emergencies in case of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegueria, Pablo Jerez; Lafortune, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of natural disasters in cities and communities has grown by different causes in different parts of the world. There are several examples of the impact that have caused extreme natural events in facilities and activities in which ionizing radiation are used. The recent example of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichi with release of radioactive substances to the environment caused by an earthquake and a tsunami show the need of the increasing improvement in the safety of facilities and activities that use ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in general. Planning and response to events of this nature is another aspect that is important and needs attention. The IAEA documents offer a comprehensive and effective guide to achieve an appropriate degree of readiness to respond to nuclear and radiological emergencies in any situation. However, there are specific challenges for planning and response posed a radiological emergency caused by an extreme natural event or occurring simultaneously with this. The present work deals with essential aspects to take into account by the authorities who coordinate the planning and response to radiological emergencies to deal with extreme natural events

  18. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Unpacking the social construction of 'natural' disaster through policy discourses and institutional responses in Mexico: the case of Chalco Valley's floods, State of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón-Durand, F. d. J.

    2009-01-01

    This research analyses 'natural' disaster policies for Mexico. The objective is to demonstrate that 'natural' disaster and the policies oriented to prevent them are socially constructed. It adopts a constructionist perspective because it is concerned with the understanding of collective social constructions of meaning and knowledge that are determined by political and social processes. This study focuses on the relation between the discourses of disaster causality, policy problem construction...

  20. Risk communication of terrorist acts, natural disasters, and criminal violence: comparing the processes of understanding and responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Wolbransky, Melinda; Shah, Sanjay; Kelly, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Risk communication is an important vehicle for the scientific understanding of the perception of and response to various kinds of threats. The present study provides apparently the first empirical attempt to compare perceptions, decision-making, and anticipated action in response to threats of three kinds: natural disaster, violent crime, and terrorism. A total of 258 college undergraduates were surveyed using a vignette-based, 2 × 2 × 3 between-subjects design that systematically manipulated threat imminence (high vs. low), risk level (high vs. low), and nature of the threat (natural disaster vs. crime vs. terrorism). There were substantial differences in participants' perceptions and reported actions in response to natural disaster, relative to the other domains of risk, under conditions of high risk. The risk of natural disaster was more likely to lead participants to report that they would change their daily activities and to relocate. It was also more likely than terrorism to lead to action securing the home. It appears that the mechanisms for perception, decision-making, and action in response to threats cannot be generalized in a straightforward way across these domains of threat. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of factors influencing levels of human losses from natural hazards at the global scale, for the period 1980–2000. This model was designed for the United Nations Development Programme as a building stone of the Disaster Risk Index (DRI, which aims at monitoring the evolution of risk. Assessing what countries are most at risk requires considering various types of hazards, such as droughts, floods, cyclones and earthquakes. Before assessing risk, these four hazards were modelled using GIS and overlaid with a model of population distribution in order to extract human exposure. Human vulnerability was measured by crossing exposure with selected socio-economic parameters. The model evaluates to what extent observed past losses are related to population exposure and vulnerability. Results reveal that human vulnerability is mostly linked with country development level and environmental quality. A classification of countries is provided, as well as recommendations on data improvement for future use of the model.

  2. Automated Detection of Buildings from Heterogeneous VHR Satellite Images for Rapid Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically detecting buildings from multiple heterogeneous and uncalibrated very high-resolution (VHR satellite images for a rapid response to natural disasters. In the proposed method, a simple and efficient visual attention method is first used to extract built-up area candidates (BACs from each multispectral (MS satellite image. After this, morphological building indices (MBIs are extracted from all the masked panchromatic (PAN and MS images with BACs to characterize the structural features of buildings. Finally, buildings are automatically detected in a hierarchical probabilistic model by fusing the MBI and masked PAN images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to supervised classification methods in terms of recall, precision and F-value.

  3. Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tiktin, Efrat

    2017-07-01

    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals. The discussion focuses on three applications: the decision to include an intensive care unit, the decision to include obstetrics and neonatal units, and the treatment policy for compound fractures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. How natural disasters affect citizens’ political attitudes? Case of Georgia 2012 parliamentary election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Machurishvili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of research about evaluation natural disasters influence on citizens political attitudes reviewing Georgia 2012 parliamentary election case – election result in the eastern part of Georgia, taking into consideration 2012 summer flood, which preceded voting in four districts of Kakheti. Paper aim is to answer theoretically and empirically important question: How social welfare is related to the district-level election outcomes. Theoretical framework is a theory of retrospective voting. Research is based on a qualitative research methodology, basic methodological approach being the method of case study. In the frame of the research two alternative hypothesis are tested. Present paper will contribute to the academic debates around the issue of citizens retrospective voting.

  5. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  6. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High ammonium (NH_4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH_4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH_4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ"1"5N_N_H_4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality

  7. Reality of Risk of Natural Disasters in Georgia and a Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gobejishvili, Ramin; King, Lorenz; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century, the protection of the population from natural disasters, the preservation of land resources and the safe operation of a complex infrastructure and costly engineering facilities have become the primary socio-economic, demographic, political and environmental problems worldwide. This problem has become more acute in recent years when the natural cataclysms in terms of a population increase, progressive urbanization and use of vulnerable technologies have acquired even larger scales. This holds true especially for mountainous countries as Georgia, too. Natural-catastrophic processes as landslides, mudflows, rockfalls and erosion, and their frequent reoccurrence with harmful impacts to population, agricultural lands and engineering objects form a demanding challenge for the responsible authorities. Thousands of settlements, roads, oil and gas pipelines, high-voltage power transmission lines and other infrastructure may be severely damaged. Respective studies prove that the origin and activation of landslide-gravitational and mudflow processes increase year by year, and this holds true for almost all landscapes and geomorphological zones of Georgia. Catastrophic events may be triggered by (1) intense earthquakes, (2) extreme hydro-meteorological events, probably on the background of global climatic changes (3) large-scale human impacts on the environment. Societies with a low level of preparedness concerning these hazards are especially hit hard. In view of this urgent task, many departmental and research institutions have increased their efforts within the limits of their competence. First of all, it is the activity of the Geological Survey of Georgia (at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment Protection of Georgia) which mapped, identified and catalogued the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and occurrences of hazardous processes

  8. Incorporating Real-time Earthquake Information into Large Enrollment Natural Disaster Course Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Villasenor, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although most would agree that the occurrence of natural disaster events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods can provide effective learning opportunities for natural hazards-based courses, implementing compelling materials into the large-enrollment classroom environment can be difficult. These natural hazard events derive much of their learning potential from their real-time nature, and in the modern 24/7 news-cycle where all but the most devastating events are quickly out of the public eye, the shelf life for an event is quite limited. To maximize the learning potential of these events requires that both authoritative information be available and course materials be generated as the event unfolds. Although many events such as hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic eruptions provide some precursory warnings, and thus one can prepare background materials to place the main event into context, earthquakes present a particularly confounding situation of providing no warning, but where context is critical to student learning. Attempting to implement real-time materials into large enrollment classes faces the additional hindrance of limited internet access (for students) in most lecture classrooms. In Earth 101 Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs Reality, taught as a large enrollment (150+ students) general education course at Penn State, we are collaborating with the USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) to develop efficient means to incorporate their real-time products into learning activities in the lecture hall environment. Over time (and numerous events) we have developed a template for presenting USGS-produced real-time information in lecture mode. The event-specific materials can be quickly incorporated and updated, along with key contextual materials, to provide students with up-to-the-minute current information. In addition, we have also developed in-class activities, such as student determination of population exposure to severe ground

  9. Immobilization and Natural Attenuation of Arsenic in Surface and Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, P. A.; Illera, V.; Choi, S.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding of molecular-scale biogeochemical processes that control the mobilization and distribution of As and other oxyanions can be used to develop remediation strategies that take advantage of natural geochemical and hydrologic gradients. Arsenic and other toxic oxyanions can be mobilized at low bulk sediment concentrations (ppm range) and thus, treatment technologies are challenged by low contaminant concentrations, widespread sources, variable pH and Eh conditions, and inaccessibility of subsurface environments. In situ chemical amendments to soils and sediments can be used to decrease the mobility and bioaccessibility of As and oxyanions through sorption to, or precipitation with, stabilizing phases. At a site near San Francisco Bay (CA, USA), treatment of As-contaminated soils with sulfate-cement amendments has effectively immobilized As. Laboratory experiments with field soils and spectroscopic characterizations showed that in high pH cement-type treatments, As is precipitated in ettringite-type phases (Ca-Al sulfates), whereas in low pH ferrous sulfate treatments, As is associated with an iron-arsenate phase (angellelite). The presence of As-associated ettringite-type phases in field sediments amended more than a decade ago indicates long-term stability of these neophases, as long as environmental conditions are relatively constant. At sites of subsurface contamination, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation approach for As is gaining interest and acceptance. Successful implementation of MNA requires a mechanistic understanding of As sequestration processes and of the subsurface conditions that may enhance or reduce long-term effectiveness. At a former military site (MA, USA), naturally occurring As was mobilized from sediments as a result of reducing conditions from addition of organic carbon as a biodegradation treatment of chlorinated solvents. Elevated As concentrations were not detected further than about 30 m downgradient of the

  10. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  11. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  12. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The Psychological State of Elementary School Children as Assessed by Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.; Seyle, D. Conor; Mayawati, E. Haksi; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters. As a result, Indonesian residents are likely to be exposed repeatedly to significant traumatic events. Researchers and clinicians working in such areas face the challenge of assessing large groups of people exposed to trauma and…

  13. Natural Disasters in the Middle-East and North Africa With a Focus on Iran: 1900 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ghomian

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The trends of natural disasters frequency from 1900 to 2015 in MNA has increased and effective mitigation and preparedness is necessary, both at individual and governance levels. This issue in the middle income and developing countries in MNA should be considered as a high priority in national planning.

  14. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  15. Synergies across the natural resources management fields in Southern Africa: Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bocchino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For various reasons, Southern Africa may be considered the playground as well as the thinking tank for many theories and practices in the natural resources management field. History has contributed to reshape conservation practices through colonial times, and recent wars have led to the relocation of people from their homelands and the appropriation by people of previously protected areas due to socio-economic pressures. Contemporary practices stemming from sustainable development have not yielded the expected results in resolving critical socio-economic stresses that impact on environmental health. Furthermore, human health has deteriorated in remote rural areas due to the failures of governance systems and the perpetration of non-participatory models for natural resources management, especially conservation. This paper seeks to explore how two relatively new approaches, Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health, can together tap into the theoretical and practical gaps left by previous paradigms in order to instill a sustainable development approach that can benefit both people and natural resources in remote and poor rural areas.

  16. Chronic natural arsenic exposure affecting histoarchitecture of gonads in Black Bengal goats (Capra aegagrushircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Wares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a major water pollutant that may cause serious health hazard (e.g., infertility in human and animal. We evaluated the changes in histoarchitecture of testes and ovaries of adult Black Bengal goats (n=10 reared in arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh. Grossly, we found insignificant variations among the testes and ovaries, but histological evaluation revealed an extensive alteration in morphology of both testes and ovaries in the arsenic affected goats. In testes, the thickening of tunica albugenia and trabeculae, widening of intertubular space between seminiferous tubules, and narrowing in diameter of seminiferous tubules were observed. In ovaries of arsenic affected goats, significant decrease in number of primary follicles and antral follicles were observed. The diameters of secondary and antral follicles were significantly reduced. The granulosa layer of antral follicles showed marked thickening. The findings indicate that chronic arsenic exposure alters the histoarchitecture of both male and female gonads in Black Bengal goat, and thereby may affect their reproductive performance.

  17. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  18. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  19. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  20. Natural attenuation process via microbial oxidation of arsenic in a high Andean watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Eduardo D; Rámila, Consuelo d P; Vargas, Ignacio T; Escauriaza, Cristian R; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Regan, John M; Pasten, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    Rivers in northern Chile have arsenic (As) concentrations at levels that are toxic for humans and other organisms. Microorganism-mediated redox reactions have a crucial role in the As cycle; the microbial oxidation of As (As(III) to As(V)) is a critical transformation because it favors the immobilization of As in the solid phase. We studied the role of microbial As oxidation for controlling the mobility of As in the extreme environment found in the Chilean Altiplano (i.e., > 4000 meters above sea level (masl) and Azufre River sub-basin, where the natural attenuation of As from hydrothermal discharge (pH 4-6) was observed. As(III) was actively oxidized by a microbial consortium, leading to a significant decrease in the dissolved As concentrations and a corresponding increase in the sediment's As concentration downstream of the hydrothermal source. In-situ oxidation experiments demonstrated that the As oxidation required biological activity, and microbiological molecular analysis confirmed the presence of As(III)-oxidizing groups (aroA-like genes) in the system. In addition, the pH measurements and solid phase analysis strongly suggested that the As removal mechanism involved adsorption or coprecipitation with Fe-oxyhydroxides. Taken together, these results indicate that the microorganism-mediated As oxidation contributed to the attenuation of As concentrations and the stabilization of As in the solid phase, therefore controlling the amount of As transported downstream. This study is the first to demonstrate the microbial oxidation of As in Altiplano basins and its relevance in the immobilization of As. © 2013.

  1. Depressive symptoms following natural disaster in Korea: psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungkun; Cho, Yongrae

    2017-11-28

    Depressive symptoms have been recognized as one of the most frequent complaints among natural disaster survivors. One of the most frequently used self-report measures of depressive symptoms is the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CES-D in a sample of natural disaster survivors. Thus, the present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean language version of the CES-D (KCES-D) for natural disaster survivors. We utilized two archived datasets collected independently for two different periods in 2008 in the same region of Korea (n = 192 for sample 1; n = 148 for sample 2). Participants were survivors of torrential rains in the mid-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. For analysis, Samples 1 and 2 were merged (N = 340). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the one-factor model, the four-factor model, and the bi-factor models, as well as the second-order factor model. Composite reliability was computed to examine the internal consistency of the KCES-D total and subscale scores. Finally, Pearson's r was computed to examine the relationship between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The four-factor model provided the best fit to the data among the alternatives. The KCES-D showed adequate internal consistency, except for the 'interpersonal difficulties' subscale. Also regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate positive correlations were observed between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The results support the four-factor model and indicate that the KCES-D has adequate psychometric properties for natural disaster survivors. If these findings are further confirmed, the KCES-D can be used as a useful, rapid, and inexpensive screening tool for assessing depressive symptoms in natural disaster survivors.

  2. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    different times of the day and night. This is important for two reasons: 1) certain surface processes (i.e., development of coastal fog banks) occur at times other than local solar noon, making it difficult to collect relevant data from traditional satellite platforms, and 2) it provides opportunities for the ISS to collect data for short-duration events, such as natural disasters, that polar-orbiting satellites may miss due to their orbital dynamics - in essence, the ISS can be "in the right place at the right time" to collect data. An immediate application of ISS remote sensing data collection is that the data can be used to provide information for humanitarian aid after a natural disaster. This activity contributes directly to the station's Benefits to Humanity mission. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the International Disaster Charter, or IDC) is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data related to natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. In the United States, the lead agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request, or activation, is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, Earth scientists in the JSC ARES Directorate, in association with the ISS Program Science Office, coordinate targeting and data collection with the USGS. If data is collected, it is passed back to the USGS for posting on its Hazards Data Distribution System and made available for download. The ISS was added to the USGS's list of NASA remote sensing assets that could respond to IDC activations in May 2012. Initially, the NASA ISS sensor systems available to respond to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), an internal multispectral visible-near infrared wavelength system mounted in the WORF

  3. Remediation following Man-made or Natural Disasters -Homeland Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops procedures mitigate contamination and to remediate the environment following public health and environmental incidents and disasters. Contamination incidents involving urban areas could require the decontamination of

  4. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF OPENSTREETMAP DATA AFTER NATURAL DISASTERS: A CASE STUDY OF HAITI UNDER HURRICANE MATTHEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI has been widely adopted as an alternative for authoritative geographic information in disaster management considering its up-to-date data. OpenStreetMap, in particular, is now aiming at crisis mapping for humanitarian purpose. This paper illustrated that natural disaster played an essential role in updating OpenStreetMap data after Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew in October, 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of updated OSM data was conducted in this paper. Correlation of features was also studied to figure out whether updates of data were coincidence or the results of the hurricane. Spatial pattern matched the damaged areas and temporal changes fitted the time when disaster occurred. High level of correlation values of features were recorded when hurricane occurred, suggesting that updates in data were led by the hurricane.

  5. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Openstreetmap Data after Natural Disasters: a Case Study of Haiti Under Hurricane Matthew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Li, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been widely adopted as an alternative for authoritative geographic information in disaster management considering its up-to-date data. OpenStreetMap, in particular, is now aiming at crisis mapping for humanitarian purpose. This paper illustrated that natural disaster played an essential role in updating OpenStreetMap data after Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew in October, 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of updated OSM data was conducted in this paper. Correlation of features was also studied to figure out whether updates of data were coincidence or the results of the hurricane. Spatial pattern matched the damaged areas and temporal changes fitted the time when disaster occurred. High level of correlation values of features were recorded when hurricane occurred, suggesting that updates in data were led by the hurricane.

  6. Meta-analytic review of psychological interventions for children survivors of natural and man-made disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2014-09-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers' level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research.

  7. Tracking natural and anthropogenic origins of dissolved arsenic during surface and groundwater interaction in a post-closure mining context: Isotopic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of stream waters and groundwater is a real issue in Au-As mine environments. At the Salsigne Au-As mine, southern France, arsenic contamination persists after closure and remediation of the site. In this study, natural and anthropogenic arsenic inputs in surface water and groundwater are identified based on (87)Sr/(86)Sr, and δ(18)O and δ(2)H isotopic composition of water. In the wet season, downstream of the remediated zone, the arsenic contents in stream water and alluvial aquifer groundwater are high, with values in the order of 36 μg/L and 40 μg/L respectively, while upstream natural background average concentrations are around 4 μg/L. Locally down-gradient of the reclaimed area, arsenic concentrations in stream water showed 2 peaks, one during an important rainy event (101 mm) in the wet season in May, and a longer one over the dry period, reaching 120 and 110 μg/L respectively. The temporal variations in arsenic content in stream water can be explained i) during the dry season, by release of arsenic stored in the alluvial sediments through increased contribution from base flow and decreased stream flow and ii) during major rainy events, by mobilization of arsenic associated with important surface runoff. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios associated with increasing arsenic content in stream waters downstream of the reclaimed area are significantly lower than that of the natural Sr inherited from Variscan formations. These low (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are likely to be associated with the decontaminating water treatment processes, used in the past and still at present, where CaO, produced from marine limestone and therefore showing a low (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, is used to precipitate Ca3(AsO4)2. The low Sr isotope signatures will then impact on the Sr isotope ratio of (1) the Ca-arsenate stored in tailing dams, (2) effluent currently produced by water treatment process and (3) groundwater draining from the overall site. Furthermore, Δ(2)H shows

  8. Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentration in Natural Water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.; Wen, L.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation in the arsenic (As) concentration of natural water has been studied the first time in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in Tibet, China. Samples were collected in the lake, river and spring across the whole area in April (spring) and July (summer), 2014. In April the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR from high to low were: lake (38.1μg/L, n=47, range 8.6-131.0μg/L) > river (24.3μg/L, n=83, range 4.3-77.1μg/L) > spring (19.1μg/L, n=12, range 12.0-29.4μg/L). In July the same order of the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR was found: lake (14.1μg/L, n=57, range 5.8-68.5μg/L) > river (7.3μg/L, n=106, range 3.6-22.9μg/L)> spring (6.7μg/L, n=9, range 4.8-8.2μg/L).The average arsenic concentrations in April were almost three times higher than those in July. In both season, the higher concentrations of arsenic were distributed in the upper reaches above the two biggest lakes of Gyaring and Ngoring Lakes in SAYR. The two big lakes buffered the naturally generated arsenic concentration in surface water, suggesting the important ecological role of the lakes. Generally, the lower concentrations in July probably were due to 1. the dilution effect of the precipitation; 2 the change of water sources. In April when the permafrost and mountain snow started to thaw and melt, ground water with high arsenic concentration was the main water source with high concentration of arsenic; but in July, with the increase of the temperature, mountain snow, permafrost would contribute more than in April, in addition, the main arsenic contributor groundwater was diluted by the precipitation recharge. Since in spring, lake and river water arsenic concentration decreased with almost the same magnitude., assuming the dilution effect dominant. The exported arsenic from SAYR in April (903.4Kg) were twice more than it in July (449.1Kg), because the flowrates were similar in the two months, the water source of the runoff components was

  9. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED, a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology: We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results: Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion: Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions: Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  10. Natural disaster risk analysis for critical infrastructure systems: An approach based on statistical learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis has historically been developed for situations in which measured data about the overall reliability of a system are limited and expert knowledge is the best source of information available. There continue to be a number of important problem areas characterized by a lack of hard data. However, in other important problem areas the emergence of information technology has transformed the situation from one characterized by little data to one characterized by data overabundance. Natural disaster risk assessments for events impacting large-scale, critical infrastructure systems such as electric power distribution systems, transportation systems, water supply systems, and natural gas supply systems are important examples of problems characterized by data overabundance. There are often substantial amounts of information collected and archived about the behavior of these systems over time. Yet it can be difficult to effectively utilize these large data sets for risk assessment. Using this information for estimating the probability or consequences of system failure requires a different approach and analysis paradigm than risk analysis for data-poor systems does. Statistical learning theory, a diverse set of methods designed to draw inferences from large, complex data sets, can provide a basis for risk analysis for data-rich systems. This paper provides an overview of statistical learning theory methods and discusses their potential for greater use in risk analysis

  11. Temporal-Spatial Patterns of Natural Disaster and Societal Impact in Historical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies pertinent to the relationship between climate change and human society in historical China from both temporal and spatial perspectives are extremely rare at present. In this research, panel data on natural disasters (flood and drought) and their societal impacts (famine, cannibalism, war and the variation of population density) at provincial and decadal scales during 1-1910 AD were applied to mathematical statistics such as correlation, regression and Granger causality analysis as well as raster overlay and spatial visualization. Results show that generally there is high consistency among different variables and most of them cluster in eastern part of China, especially in the north. More in-depth examinations indicate that drought is the primary contributor to famine and cannibalism compared with flood, whatever in time and space domain; whilst severe even out-of-control famine (i.e. cannibalism) is more likely to incur war than ordinary famine per se. Also, the pivotal role of population in the nexus of meteorological catastrophes and human miseries is affirmed that population is not only affected by natural calamities and social disorder but also exerts its effect on war. Our findings may lay the foundation for further insightful probes in scientific community and provide some implications for contemporary policymakers with respect to climatic anomalies-induced social crises in the future.

  12. Real-Time Vehicle Routing for Repairing Damaged Infrastructures Due to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the task of repairing damaged infrastructures as a series of multidepot vehicle-routing problems with time windows in a time-rolling frame. The network size of the tackled problems changes from time to time, as new disaster nodes will be added to and serviced disaster nodes will be deleted from the current network. In addition, an inaccessible disaster node would become accessible when one of its adjacent disaster nodes has been repaired. By the “take-and-conquer” strategy, the repair sequence of the disaster nodes in the affected area can be suitably scheduled. Thirteen instances were tested with our proposed heuristic, that is, Chen et al.'s approach. For comparison, Hsueh et al.'s approach (2008 with necessary modification was also tested. The results show that Chen et al.'s approach performs slightly better for larger size networks in terms of objective value.

  13. Stability of Arsenic Species in Soils Contaminated Naturally and in an Anthropogenic Manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doušová, B.; Martaus, A.; Filippi, Michal; Koloušek, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 187, 1-4 (2008), s. 233-241 ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : arsenic forms * mobility * HFO Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2008

  14. Diel variation of arsenic, molybdenum and antimony in a stream draining natural As geochemical anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Nováková, B.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mihaljevič, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Filippi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2013), s. 84-93 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : arsenic * molybdenum * antimony * trace elements * diel cycle Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2013

  15. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L

    2017-08-01

    Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

  16. Online-data Bases On Natural-hazard Research, Early-warning Systems and Operative Disaster Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, R. L.; Zentel, K.-O.; Wenzel, F.; Hövel, M.; Hesse, A.

    In order to benefit from synergies and to avoid replication in the field of disaster re- duction programs and related scientific projects it is important to create an overview on the state of art, the fields of activity and their key aspects. Therefore, the German Committee for Disaster Reduction intends to document projects and institution related to natural disaster prevention in three databases. One database is designed to docu- ment scientific programs and projects related to natural hazards. In a first step data acquisition concentrated on projects carried out by German institutions. In a second step projects from all other European countries will be archived. The second database focuses on projects on early-warning systems and has no regional limit. Data mining started in November 2001 and will be finished soon. The third database documents op- erational projects dealing with disaster prevention and concentrates on international projects or internationally funded projects. These databases will be available on the internet end of spring 2002 (http://www.dkkv.org) and will be updated continuously. They will allow rapid and concise information on various international projects, pro- vide up-to-date descriptions, and facilitate exchange as all relevant information in- cluding contact addresses are available to the public. The aim of this contribution is to present concepts and the work done so far, to invite participation, and to contact other organizations with similar objectives.

  17. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  18. Natural disaster-induced environmental migration from the Indian subcontinent resulting in malaria outbreak in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Maria; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological disasters such as floods and hurricanes can severely damage human life, natural and built environment and economic development. Consequently, they can result in environmental migration (EM). In case of infectious disease (ID) outbreaks during the post-disaster period and subsequent EM, environmental refugees from endemic regions serve as ID carriers to their new residence sites altering the spatial ID distribution and incidence. The continuous massive influx of environmental refugees from malaria endemic regions to non-endemic ones can build up a parasite reservoir among naive host populations. Initially, serum specimens were collected in 2012 from asymptomatic individuals, 298 Greeks and 721 immigrants residing in areas of documented local malaria transmission in Laconia (Southern Peloponnese) and in Eastern Attica, Greece. Sera were tested for antibodies against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum using the Malaria-Ab ELISA (IBL International GMBH, Hamburg, Germany). Taking into account that Greece has been declared malaria free by the WHO since 1974, we conducted an extensive and systematic literature review related to natural disasters leading among others to increased malaria risk in Indian Subcontinent and respective forced EM in order to detect relative possible causes of reintroduction and localized outbreaks of malaria in Greece. Regarding the country of origin, information was available for 685 (95%) of the 721 immigrants. Of the 678 immigrants from Indian Subcontinent, 627 (92.5%) originated from Pakistan, 24 (3.53%) Afghanistan, 24 (3.53%) India and 3 (0.44%) Bangladesh. Of the 721 immigrants, 582 and 124 resided in Laconia and Eastern Attica respectively. Seventy-one immigrants residing in Laconia and 14 in Eastern Attica were positive for antimalarial antibodies, while none of the 298 Greeks residing in Laconia (N=248) and Attica (N=50) was found positive. Based on already published scientific data, Pakistan has been exposed

  19. Application of natural citric acid sources and their role on arsenic removal from drinking water: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Islam, Sk Mijanul; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chatterjee, Debashis; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-11-15

    Solar Oxidation and Removal of Arsenic (SORAS) is a low-cost non-hazardous technique for the removal of arsenic (As) from groundwater. In this study, we tested the efficiency of natural citric acid sources extracted from tomato, lemon and lime to promote SORAS for As removal at the household level. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory using both synthetic solutions and natural groundwater samples collected from As-polluted areas in West Bengal. The role of As/Fe molar ratios and citrate doses on As removal efficiency were checked in synthetic samples. The results demonstrate that tomato juice (as citric acid) was more efficient to remove As from both synthetic (percentage of removal: 78-98%) and natural groundwater (90-97%) samples compared to lemon (61-83% and 79-85%, respectively) and lime (39-69% and 63-70%, respectively) juices. The As/Fe molar ratio and the citrate dose showed an 'optimized central tendency' on As removal. Anti-oxidants, e.g. 'hydroxycinnamates', found in tomato, were shown to have a higher capacity to catalyze SORAS photochemical reactions compared to 'flavanones' found in lemon or lime. The application of this method has several advantages, such as eco- and user- friendliness and affordability at the household level compared to other low-cost techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  1. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruno S; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2010-03-16

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions.

  2. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruno S.; Savage, David A.; Torgler, Benno

    2010-01-01

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions. PMID:20194743

  3. [Operating room during natural disaster: lessons from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Satomi, Susumu; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2012-03-01

    Objective of this study is to clarify damages in operating rooms after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. To survey structural and non-structural damage in operating theaters, we sent questionnaires to 155 acute care hospitals in Tohoku area. Questionnaires were sent back from 105 hospitals (70.3%). Total of 280 patients were undergoing any kinds of operations during the earthquake and severe seismic tremor greater than JMA Seismic Intensity 6 hit 49 hospitals. Operating room staffs experienced life-threatening tremor in 41 hospitals. Blackout occurred but emergency electronic supply unit worked immediately in 81 out of 90 hospitals. However, emergency power plant did not work in 9 hospitals. During earthquake some materials fell from shelves in 44 hospitals and medical instruments fell down in 14 hospitals. In 5 hospitals, they experienced collapse of operating room wall or ceiling causing inability to maintain sterile operative field. Damage in electric power and water supply plus damage in logistics made many operating rooms difficult to perform routine surgery for several days. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake affected medical supply in wide area of Tohoku district and induced dysfunction of operating room. Supply-chain management of medical goods should be reconsidered to prepare severe natural disaster.

  4. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures.

  5. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  6. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  7. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  8. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides minerals were saturated

  9. Social capital and cognitive decline in the aftermath of a natural disaster: a natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Kondo, Katsunori; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We examined prospectively whether social capital mitigates the adverse effects of natural disaster on cognitive decline. The baseline for our study was established seven months before the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter (59.0% response rate). Approximately two and a half years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as incidence of cognitive disability (82.1% follow-up rate). Our primary outcome was cognitive disability (measured on an 8-level scale) assessed by in-home assessment. The experience of housing damage was associated with risk of cognitive impairment (coefficient = 0.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.06). Factor analysis of our analytic sample (n = 3,566) established two sub-scales of social capital: a cognitive dimension (perceptions of community social cohesion) and a structural dimension (informal socializing and social participation). Fixed effects regression showed that informal socializing and social participation buffered the risk of cognitive decline resulting from housing damage. Informal socializing and social participation may prevent cognitive impairment following natural disaster. National Institutes of Health (R01AG042463-04), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  10. Using the Data From Accidents and Natural Disasters to Improve Marine Debris Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximenko, N. A.; Hafner, J.; MacFadyen, A.; Kamachi, M.; Murray, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of satisfactory marine debris observing system, drift models provide a unique tool that can be used to identify main pathways and accumulation areas of the natural and anthropogenic debris, including the plastic pollution having increasing impact on the environment and raising concern of the society. Main problems, limiting the utility of model simulations, include the lack of accurate information on distribution, timing, strength and composition of sources of marine debris and the complexity of the hydrodynamics of an object, floating on the surface of a rough sea. To calculate the drift, commonly, models estimate surface currents first and then add the object motion relative to the water. Importantly, ocean surface velocity can't be measured with the existing instruments. For various applications it is derived from subsurface (such as 15-meter drifter trajectories) and satellite (altimetry, scatterometry) data using simple theories (geostrophy, Ekman spiral, etc.). Similarly, even the best ocean general circulation models (OGCM's), utilizing different parameterizations of the mixed layer, significantly disagree on the ocean surface velocities. Understanding debris motion under the direct wind force and in interaction with the breaking wind waves seems to be a task of even greater complexity. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the data of documented natural disasters (such as tsunamis, hurricanes and floods) and other accidents generating marine debris with known times and coordinates of start and/or end points of the trajectories, can be used to calibrate drift models and obtain meaningful quantitative results that can be generalized for other sources of debris and used to plan the future marine debris observing system. On these examples we also demonstrate how the oceanic and atmospheric circulations couple together to determine the pathways and destination areas of different types of the floating marine debris.

  11. Single and combined effects of phosphate, silicate, and natural organic matter on arsenic removal from soft and hard groundwater using ferric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Bang, Sunbaek; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2017-06-01

    In order to assess the effects of phosphate, silicate and natural organic matter (NOM) on arsenic removal by ferric chloride, batch coprecipitation experiments were conducted over a wide pH range using synthetic hard and soft groundwaters, similar to those found in northern Vietnam. The efficiency of arsenic removal from synthetic groundwater by coprecipitation with FeCl3 was remarkably decreased by the effects of PO4 3-, SiO4 4- and NOM. The negative effects of SiO4 4- and NOM on arsenic removal were not as strong as that of PO4 3-. Combining PO4 3- and SiO4 4- increased the negative effects on both arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+) removal. The introduction of NOM into the synthetic groundwater containing both PO4 3- and SiO4 4- markedly magnified the negative effects on arsenic removal. In contrast, both Ca2+ and Mg2+ substantially increased the removal of As3+ at pH 8-12 and the removal of As5+ over the entire pH range. In the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+, the interaction of NOM with Fe was either removed or the arsenic binding to Fe-NOM colloidal associations and/or dissolved complexes were flocculated. Removal of arsenic using coprecipitation by FeCl3 could not sufficiently reduce arsenic contents in the groundwater (350 μg/L) to meet the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 μg/L), especially when the arsenic-rich groundwater also contains co-occurring solutes such as PO4 3-, SiO4 4- and NOM; therefore, other remediation processes, such as membrane technology, should be introduced or additionally applied after this coprecipitation process, to ensure the safety of drinking water.

  12. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts’ knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts’ preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n − 1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  14. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liao, Huchang; Li, Zongmin; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-04-13

    Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts' knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts' preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n-1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  15. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian C. Scrymgeour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are pivotal to an effective societal response to a range of critical events, including disasters. This presents nurses with many significant and complex challenges that require them to function effectively under highly challenging and stressful circumstances and often for prolonged periods of time. The exponential growth in the number of disasters means that knowledge of disaster preparedness and how this knowledge can be implemented to facilitate the development of resilient and adaptive nurses and health care organizations represents an important adjunct to nurse education, policy development, and research considerations. Although this topic has and continues to attract attention in the literature, a lack of systematic understanding of the contingencies makes it difficult to clearly differentiate what is known and what gaps remain in this literature. Providing a sound footing for future research can be facilitated by first systematically reviewing the relevant literature. Focused themes were identified and analyzed using an ecological and interactive systems framework. Ten of the 12 retained studies included evacuation, revealing that evacuation is more likely to occur in an aged care facility than a hospital. The unpredictability of an event also highlighted organizational, functional, and competency issues in regard to the complexity of decision making and overall preparedness. The integrative review also identified that the unique roles, competencies, and demands on nurses working in hospitals and residential health care facilities during a natural disaster appear invisible within the highly visible event.

  16. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-06-01

    People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam, an area characterized by high risk for natural disasters and poverty. 1000 individuals were randomly selected from 5 provinces in central coastal Vietnam. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally for exposure to major storms and other traumatic events (Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; PDS), financial stress (Chronic Financial Stress Scale), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PDS), somatic syndrome (SCL-90-R), alcohol dependency (ICD-10), self-perceived general physical health (SF 36), and functional impairment (PDS life functioning section); caseness was determined using the various measures' algorithms. 22.7% percent of the sample ( n =227) met caseness criteria in one or more mental health domains, and 22.1% ( n =221) reported moderate to severe functional impairment. Lifetime exposure to typhoons and other major storms was 99% ( n =978), with 77% ( n =742) reporting traumatic major storm exposure. Moderate to high levels of financial stress were reported by 30% ( n =297). Frequency of exposure to major storms was not associated with increased risk for mental health problems but traumatic exposure to a major storm was. Overall, the strongest predictor of mental health problems was financial stress. Number of traumatic typhoons and other major storms in turn were significant predictors (r 2 = .03) of financial stress. The primary predictor of alcohol dependency was male gender, highlighting the importance of gender roles in development of alcohol abuse in countries like Vietnam. Individuals

  17. Urinary Arsenic in Human Samples from Areas Characterized by Natural or Anthropogenic Pollution in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichilli, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Ronchi, Anna Maria; Gorini, Francesca; Bustaffa, Elisa

    2018-02-09

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and has a potentially adverse impact on human health. We compared the distribution of concentrations of urinary inorganic arsenic plus methylated forms (uc(iAs+MMA+DMA)) in four Italian areas with other international studies, and we assessed the relationship between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and various exposure factors. We conducted a human biomonitoring study on 271 subjects (132 men) aged 20-44, randomly sampled and stratified by area, gender, and age. Data on environmental and occupational exposure and dietary habits were collected through a questionnaire. Arsenic was speciated using chromatographic separation and inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Associations between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and exposure factors were evaluated using the geometric mean ratio (GMR) with a 90% confidence interval by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The 95th percentile value of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) for the whole sample (86.28 µg/L) was higher than other national studies worldwide. A statistical significant correlation was found between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and occupational exposure (GMR: 2.68 [1.79-4.00]), GSTT gene (GMR: 0.68 [0.52-0.80]), consumption of tap water (GMR: 1.35 [1.02-1.77]), seafood (GMR: 1.44 [1.11-1.88]), whole milk (GMR: 1.34 [1.04-1.73]), and fruit/vegetables (GMR: 1.37 [1.03-1.82]). This study demonstrated the utility of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) as a biomarker to assess environmental exposure. In a public health context, this information could be used to support remedial action, to prevent individuals from being further exposed to environmental arsenic sources.

  18. Urinary Arsenic in Human Samples from Areas Characterized by Natural or Anthropogenic Pollution in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Minichilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is ubiquitous and has a potentially adverse impact on human health. We compared the distribution of concentrations of urinary inorganic arsenic plus methylated forms (uc(iAs+MMA+DMA in four Italian areas with other international studies, and we assessed the relationship between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA and various exposure factors. We conducted a human biomonitoring study on 271 subjects (132 men aged 20–44, randomly sampled and stratified by area, gender, and age. Data on environmental and occupational exposure and dietary habits were collected through a questionnaire. Arsenic was speciated using chromatographic separation and inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Associations between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA and exposure factors were evaluated using the geometric mean ratio (GMR with a 90% confidence interval by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The 95th percentile value of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA for the whole sample (86.28 µg/L was higher than other national studies worldwide. A statistical significant correlation was found between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA and occupational exposure (GMR: 2.68 [1.79–4.00], GSTT gene (GMR: 0.68 [0.52–0.80], consumption of tap water (GMR: 1.35 [1.02–1.77], seafood (GMR: 1.44 [1.11–1.88], whole milk (GMR: 1.34 [1.04–1.73], and fruit/vegetables (GMR: 1.37 [1.03–1.82]. This study demonstrated the utility of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA as a biomarker to assess environmental exposure. In a public health context, this information could be used to support remedial action, to prevent individuals from being further exposed to environmental arsenic sources.

  19. Urinary Arsenic in Human Samples from Areas Characterized by Natural or Anthropogenic Pollution in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichilli, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Ronchi, Anna Maria; Gorini, Francesca; Bustaffa, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous and has a potentially adverse impact on human health. We compared the distribution of concentrations of urinary inorganic arsenic plus methylated forms (uc(iAs+MMA+DMA)) in four Italian areas with other international studies, and we assessed the relationship between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and various exposure factors. We conducted a human biomonitoring study on 271 subjects (132 men) aged 20–44, randomly sampled and stratified by area, gender, and age. Data on environmental and occupational exposure and dietary habits were collected through a questionnaire. Arsenic was speciated using chromatographic separation and inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Associations between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and exposure factors were evaluated using the geometric mean ratio (GMR) with a 90% confidence interval by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The 95th percentile value of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) for the whole sample (86.28 µg/L) was higher than other national studies worldwide. A statistical significant correlation was found between uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) and occupational exposure (GMR: 2.68 [1.79–4.00]), GSTT gene (GMR: 0.68 [0.52–0.80]), consumption of tap water (GMR: 1.35 [1.02–1.77]), seafood (GMR: 1.44 [1.11–1.88]), whole milk (GMR: 1.34 [1.04–1.73]), and fruit/vegetables (GMR: 1.37 [1.03–1.82]). This study demonstrated the utility of uc(iAs+MMA+DMA) as a biomarker to assess environmental exposure. In a public health context, this information could be used to support remedial action, to prevent individuals from being further exposed to environmental arsenic sources. PMID:29425136

  20. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

  1. Arsenic levels in the soils and macrophytes of the 'Entremuros' after the Aznalcollar mine spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, M.A.; Carlisle, M.; Pain, D.J.; Williams, R.; Green, D.; Osborn, D.; Meharg, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In April 1998, a holding lagoon containing pyrite ore processing waste rich in arsenic, failed and released 5-6 million m 3 of highly polluting sludge and acidic water. Over 2700 ha of the internationally important Don-tilde ana National and Natural Parks were contaminated. The area of Natural Park to sustain the greatest impact was known as the Entremuros. This paper presents 0-5 cm soil monitoring data from the Entremuros, from sampling campaigns 6 and 18 months after the disaster; as well as macrophyte root, rhizome and stem data from samples taken 18 months after the spill. Results show a clear, decreasing, north-south arsenic soil pollution trend, both 6 and 18 months after the spill, and suggest a small reduction in total soil arsenic levels occurred over time; although a significant increase in extractable arsenic is also noted. The two macrophytes (Typha dominguensis and Scirpus maritimus) studied herein are not accumulating arsenic in stem parts, however, accumulation of arsenic on iron plaque on the roots of these plants may be occurring. Further work is recommended in order to determine the ecotoxicological significance of this process in relation to the avian food-chains of Don-tilde ana, and elsewhere. - Capsule: Arsenic associated with iron plaque on macrophyte roots may pose an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores

  2. Unsupervised Multi-Scale Change Detection from SAR Imagery for Monitoring Natural and Anthropogenic Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, Olaniyi A.

    Radar remote sensing can play a critical role in operational monitoring of natural and anthropogenic disasters. Despite its all-weather capabilities, and its high performance in mapping, and monitoring of change, the application of radar remote sensing in operational monitoring activities has been limited. This has largely been due to: (1) the historically high costs associated with obtaining radar data; (2) slow data processing, and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling that was provided by spaceborne radar-based satellites. Recent advances in the capabilities of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors have developed an environment that now allows for SAR to make significant contributions to disaster monitoring. New SAR processing strategies that can take full advantage of these new sensor capabilities are currently being developed. Hence, with this PhD dissertation, I aim to: (i) investigate unsupervised change detection techniques that can reliably extract signatures from time series of SAR images, and provide the necessary flexibility for application to a variety of natural, and anthropogenic hazard situations; (ii) investigate effective methods to reduce the effects of speckle and other noise on change detection performance; (iii) automate change detection algorithms using probabilistic Bayesian inferencing; and (iv) ensure that the developed technology is applicable to current, and future SAR sensors to maximize temporal sampling of a hazardous event. This is achieved by developing new algorithms that rely on image amplitude information only, the sole image parameter that is available for every single SAR acquisition.. The motivation and implementation of the change detection concept are described in detail in Chapter 3. In the same chapter, I demonstrated the technique's performance using synthetic data as well as a real-data application to map wildfire progression. I applied Radiometric Terrain Correction (RTC) to the data to

  3. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  4. Natural Arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, Florida: Wide Ranging Implications for ASR, Phosphate Mining, Private Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, O. V.; Pichler, T.

    2004-12-01

    organic material, clays, and iron oxides contain lower As concentrations contrasted to pyrite; (5) Pyrite occurs in framboidal and euhedral forms. Because phosphorous, arsenic and sulfur are chemically closely related, they often occur together in nature, thus posing a potential problem for the phosphate industry. There have been several occurrences of swine fatalities due to arsenic poisoning as a result of phosphate feed supplements. Information about the concentration, distribution and mineralogical association of naturally occurring As is important, because this is a first step to forecast its behavior during anthropogenic induced physico-chemical changes in the aquifer. Recently, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities in central Florida reported As concentrations in excess of 100 μ g/L in recovered water. The ASR storage zone is the Suwannee Limestone, which directly underlies the Hawthorn sediments. It is crucial to the future of ASR in this area to understand the source and distribution of arsenic in the overlying Hawthorn Group and the cycling of arsenic in the Florida platform.

  5. Developing a Performance Assessment Framework and Indicators for Communicable Disease Management in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Communicable disease management (CDM) is an important component of disaster public health response operations. However, there is a lack of any performance assessment (PA) framework and related indicators for the PA. This study aimed to develop a PA framework and indicators in CDM in disasters. In this study, a series of methods were used. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was performed in order to extract the existing PA frameworks and indicators. Then, using a qualitative approach, some interviews with purposively selected experts were conducted and used in developing the PA framework and indicators. Finally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for weighting of the developed indicators. The input, process, products, and outcomes (IPPO) framework was found to be an appropriate framework for CDM PA. Seven main functions were revealed to CDM during disasters. Forty PA indicators were developed for the four categories. There is a lack of any existing PA framework in CDM in disasters. Thus, in this study, a PA framework (IPPO framework) was developed for the PA of CDM in disasters through a series of methods. It can be an appropriate framework and its indicators could measure the performance of CDM in disasters.

  6. Nutrition interventions for children aged less than 5 years following natural disasters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma

    2016-09-20

    The objective of this paper was to review various nutritional interventions targeted at under-five children in countries that had suffered from natural disasters and to analyse their effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Systematic review. Countries that had suffered from natural disasters. Children aged natural disaster. Primary nutrition-related outcomes were stunting, wasting and underweight. The secondary nutrition-related outcome was anaemia. Of the 1218 studies that the reviewers agreed on, five matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this narrative synthesis. Four studies were longitudinal and one was cross-sectional in design. Food supplementation was an integral part of nutritional interventions in all the included studies. The most consistent nutritional outcome in all five included studies was reduced prevalence of wasting, followed by reduced prevalence of underweight in four, stunting in three and anaemia in one of the five included studies. The largest reduction in the prevalence of wasting and underweight was reported by the study in Sri Lanka. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to weak. Integrated nutrition interventions using locally available health resources yielded the best results. However, sound evidence on the most effective interventions is still lacking. Intervention studies with comparison groups are necessary to obtain more robust evidence on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Arsenic: it's extent of pollution and toxicosis: An animal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic poisoning is now considered as one of the biggest environmental disaster and a major public health issue. Incidence of arsenicpoisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. While Bangladesh and West Bengal (India account for the most of the incidence, occasional reports from Mexico, Taiwan and mainland China have also appeared.It is a natural metalloid found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment as it is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. Ground water arsenic is the major source of poisoning in animals and human. About 80% of ingested arsenic is absorbed and metabolized in liver and then excreted through urine and faeces while upon chronic exposure, it is deposited in liver, kidney and skin. Human populations are also being exposed to this poison by consuming the milk of affected animal.Inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic compared to organic forms. Acute toxicity is rare in nature in comparison to chronic toxicity, which is prevalent in contaminated areas. Most non-ruminants are more susceptible to intoxication than ruminants. Chronic exposure of arsenic in animals and human beings causes severe adverse effects in the form of lowered immunity, diseases and production performances. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 53-58

  8. Neutralization of arsenic pollutants, contained in natural waters: The theoretical analysis of solubility of some arsenates and optimization of the processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Litynska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic belongs to chemical elements, which are often found in natural waters and make it unsuitable for consumption without special treatment. Neutralization of arsenic pollutants of natural waters by converting them into insoluble form is one of the perspective methods of dearsenication. Precipitation (by iron or aluminium coagulants, lime and adsorption (by oxides and hydroxides of iron, aluminium or manganese are among the most popular dearsenication methods. The use of these chemicals entails the formation of poorly soluble arsenates. Since the possibility of the release of arsenic compounds into the water due to the dissolution of formed arsenates depends on its solubility under appropriate conditions, it is necessary to have information about the dependence of arsenates solubility on pH. According to the calculations the solubilities of arsenates of iron(III, aluminium, manganese(II and calcium are highly dependent on pH. At pH

  9. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  10. The natural disasters and the urban asset modifications: the Melito Irpino case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, Sabina; Spiga, Efisio

    2017-04-01

    The history of Melito Irpino, a small village in southern Italy is particular, though not unique in its genre. The development of its urban asset was, in fact, strongly affected by natural disasters such as hydrogeological and seismic events, which determined its transfer to another location. Due to its landslides and flooding it has been included since the beginning of the twentieth century among the unstable centers to be consolidated. The landslides were caused by peculiar geological characteristics of which the substrate essentially origins from different consistency Flysch elements. From the seismic point of view, Melito Irpino is part of the first category of the new seismic classification of the Campania Region. The most devastating earthquakes that damaged Melito date back to December 1456, which hit central and southern Italy and 5th June , 1688 which had the Sannio as epicentral area, both with l0 = XI MCS and M> 7 [1456: l0= XI MCS, Mw 7.2; 1688: l0 = XI MCS, Mw 7.O.] During the twentieth century, it was involved in two other disastrous earthquakes that caused serious damage to the village in 1930 with an intensity VIII and in 1962 with I = IX MCS and VIII ESI-07 intensity. The earthquake of 21st August 1962 was fatal for the village of Melito. In December of the same year it was left with 2182 inhabitants and 800 houses, most of which were unstable, 300 were to be demolished, 50 unrepairable and 200 were still uninhabitable yet repairable. From a geological point of view the situation turned even more dramatically when the whole valley area stretching from the old Ufita River bridge and the historical center of Melito was affected by a series of large slope instability such as rock falls, complex rotational slip, de facto complicating an extremely compromised situation. This was sufficient to encourage the transfer of the entire village in an other location. After more than half a century and considering the effects of two important earthquakes in 1962

  11. Teen Dating Violence and Substance Use Following a Natural Disaster: Does Evacuation Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; van den Berg, Patricia; Thomas, John F. “Fred”; Northcutt, James; Thomas, Christopher; Freeman, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In September of 2008 the Texas coast was directly hit by Hurricane Ike. Galveston was flooded by 14 feet of storm surge, affecting most of the Island’s housing and infrastructure. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether youth who did not evacuate (11%), and subsequently were exposed to Hurricane Ike, exhibit higher rates of substance use and physical and sexual teen dating violence (both perpetration and victimization), relative to adolescents who did evacuate. Setting Public high school in southeast Texas that was in the direct path of Hurricane Ike. Participants An anonymous survey was administered in March 2009 to 1,048 high-school students who returned to Galveston post-storm (41% Hispanic, 23% African-American, 27% White). Main Outcome Measures Teen dating violence and substance use. Results Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios, adjusting for age and ethnicity, were computed. Compared to boys who evacuated, non-evacuating boys were more likely to perpetrate physical dating violence and sexual assault, and to be a victim of sexual assault. Non-evacuating boys and girls were more likely than those who did evacuate to report recent use of excessive alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Conclusions School personnel, medical personnel, and mental health service providers should consider screening for evacuation status in seeking to identify those adolescents who most need services after a natural disaster. Further, in addition to addressing internalized emotions and psychological symptoms associated with experiencing trauma, intervention programs should focus on reducing externalized behavior such as substance use and teen dating violence. PMID:22010597

  12. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  13. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  14. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 2. ; Slope failures and rockfalls. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 2. ; Dosha saigai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    Although landslide, slope failure, debris flow, rock fall, etc. are included in disasters caused by earth and sand, this report focuses only on slope failures. It is very difficult to discuss various soil engineering problems concerning earth and sand disasters in the Shikoku district from dynamic aspect. Therefore, this report is made focusing on perfunctory classification. As regards slope failures, there are natural and embankment (artificial) slope failures, but only natural slope failures are discussed in this report. The numbers of annually investigated areas in 4 prefectures in the Shikoku district and frequencies of failures for each geological group are tabulated for explanation. Transverse shape figure, longitudinal section, slope of ground level, land form where surface water and ground water tend to concentrate, etc. can be considered as factors for the occurrence of landslides. The relationship between those topographical factors and the frequency of failure occurrence is investigated. Failure of cut slope and the relation between rainfall and slope failure are outlined. Examples of rock fall disasters are introduced to point out the difficulty in predicting the occurrence of rock falls. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Companion Animals in Natural Disasters: A Scoping Review of Scholarly Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Cheryl; Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    During a disaster, people may make evacuation decisions based on their companion animal's welfare, therefore exposing themselves, their companion animals, and emergency responders to increased risk for injury or death. The loss and suffering of companion animals in disasters causes deep distress, diminishing people's capacity to rebuild their lives. This scoping review presents scholarly research studies and reviews relating to people and their companion animals in the context of disasters, with an aim of informing researchers, policymakers, and practitioners and providing direction for future research. Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, articles in scholarly journals from 2004 to 2014 are discussed. Analysis included 38 articles: 20 research studies, 12 reviews, and 6 editorials. Findings revealed 2 central themes: companion animals as a risk factor to human health and safety and companion animals being "at risk" themselves. An emerging theme was "responsibility": Who is responsible for companion animals in disasters and how? Understanding the implications of human-nonhuman animal relationships for disaster response and having a broader public consensus on what is owed to animals at times of emergency are important to community preparedness and resilience.

  16. Development of an Android App for notification and reporting of natural disaster such as earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Steffen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Disasters like the Tohoku tsunami in March 2011 and the earthquake in Haiti in January 2010, have shown clearly that the rapid detection of possible negative impact on population and infrastructure is crucial for the rapid organization of effective counter measures integration activities. It has turned out that effective planning of relief and rescue measures requires both information provided by governmental authorities and feedback of the general public. Every citizen experiencing the events directly on site becomes a potential witness and can provide valuable information about the disaster. Citizens can use various information channels to communicate and share their experiences. During the last years, the crowdsourcing approach has gained the attention of users of modern communication and information systems. The term crowdsourcing describes the interactive collaboration of voluntary users on the Internet, working on a common topic. A similar approach is mobile crowdsourcing which evolved in the quickly growing community of smartphone users: Crowdsourcing platforms provide additional application scenarios for modern smartphone. Smartphone users are enabled to compose and share reports immediately at the scene of the disaster. A growing number of modern smartphones also includes sensors for taking pictures and to determine the current geographical position. This additional content can significantly enhance the value of a disaster event report. The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the management of crisis situations. Part of the project is the development of an application for the Android smartphone platform. This application enables access to an continuously updated situation report for current natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis based on incoming crowdsourced reports. The App is used to immediately sent

  17. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

  18. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira Lopes

    Full Text Available Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post

  19. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  20. Adolescents' perceived risk and personal experience with natural disasters: an evaluation of cognitive heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G

    1996-02-01

    Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.

  1. Climate change and natural disasters – integrating science and practice to protect health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Rainer; Ebi, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydro-meteorological disasters are the focus of this paper. The authors examine, to which extent climate change increases their frequency and intensity. Methods Review of IPCC-projections of climate-change related extreme weather events and related literature on health effects. Results Projections show that climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of a range of extreme weather events over coming decades. Conclusions There is a need for strengthened collaboration between climate scientists, the health researchers and policy-makers as well as the disaster community to jointly develop adaptation strategies to protect human. PMID:23273248

  2. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  3. Determination of Inorganic Arsenic in Natural Water by Solid Phase Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Amares Chatt, A.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is generally known for its toxicity. The toxicity and mobility of As in the environment are dependent on the chemical forms or species in which it exists. Arsenic (III) and (V) are the most often determined species in environmental water, soil and sediment, while organic As species are common constituents of biological tissue and fluids. It is well known that inorganic As, such as arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are more toxic than their organic counterparts. This study is conducted to investigate the separation of each As inorganic species using solid phase extraction (SPE) technique. The technique utilizes SPE column for selective retention of As species, followed by elution and measurement of eluted fractions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for total As. Several type of SPE columns namely strongly anion exchange (SAX), strongly cation exchange (SCX), weakly anion exchange (WAX) and weakly cation exchange (WCX) were tested using three different types of media including deionized water, succinic acid and acetic acid containing inorganic As species. The SPE technique is suitable for on-site separation and preservation of As species from water. (author)

  4. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  5. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELİCE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    Highways, Located in the city and intercity locations are generally prone to many kind of natural disaster risks. Natural hazards and disasters that may occur firstly from highway project making to construction and operation stages and later during the implementation of highway maintenance and repair stages have to be taken into consideration. And assessment of risks that may occur against adverse situations is very important in terms of project design, construction, operation maintenance and repair costs. Making hazard and natural disaster risk analysis is largely depending on the definition of the likelihood of the probable hazards on the highways. However, assets at risk , and the impacts of the events must be examined and to be rated in their own. With the realization of these activities, intended improvements against natural hazards and disasters will be made with the utilization of Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method and their effects will be analyzed with further works. FMEA, is a useful method to identify the failure mode and effects depending on the type of failure rate effects priorities and finding the most optimum economic and effective solution. Although relevant measures being taken for the identified risks by this analysis method , it may also provide some information for some public institutions about the nature of these risks when required. Thus, the necessary measures will have been taken in advance in the city and intercity highways. Many hazards and natural disasters are taken into account in risk assessments. The most important of these dangers can be listed as follows; • Natural disasters 1. Meteorological based natural disasters (floods, severe storms, tropical storms, winter storms, avalanches, etc.). 2. Geological based natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, etc) • Human originated disasters 1. Transport accidents (traffic accidents), originating from the road surface defects (icing

  6. Accountability for the Human Rights Implications of Natural Disasters : A Proposal for Systemic International Oversight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies; Cubie, Dug

    2015-01-01

    The practical and operational challenges of responding to disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes are well known, so the recent decision by the UN Human Rights Council to commission research on best practices and challenges in the promotion and protection of human rights in

  7. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous sources of different radioactive substances, irradiating installations are used in many manufacturing, transportation, industrial, oil-producing, nuclear energy, sterilization and multi-purpose scientific research enterprises of Azerbaijan and the storage of radioactive waste and nuclear materials is built in the territory of special plant of the Ministry of Emergency Situations.Control of safety of operational procedures of the radioactive sources and samples of nuclear materials is carried out by the State Agency on Settlement of Nuclear and Radiological Activity at the Ministry of Emergency Situations. An increase in the concentration of inorganic and organic xenobiotics was observed in water samples taken from the transcontinental Araz River.The territory of Azerbaijan and Armenia is characterized by high seismic activity. Therefore, the occurrence of cases of anthropogenic catastrophe, the spread of radioactive substances, nuclear materials and waste on the territory of environmental objects, disturbance of tightness of installations on electricity generation from nuclear fuel in the Metsamor NPP, emission of radioactive fuel on the environment, pollution of grounds and water reservoirs by radioactive isotopes isn't excluded in case of natural disasters.Complex studies were conducted to determine the radioactive background, exposure dose rate, the radiation intensity of all types of radioactive radiation (α, β, γ, UV and X-rays) for purification of contaminated areas of the environment, soil, water reservoirs from radioisotopes. Complex organoleptic, radiochemical, analytical-chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out to study the chemical composition and degree of contamination of soil, water sources, vegetation by inorganic and organic xenobiotics and radioisotopes in all regions of the republic.Mineralization of water samples /evaporation/, soil /extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1: 4, filtration

  8. Trajectories of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among youth exposed to both natural and technological disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Weems, Carl F; King, Lucy S; Hansel, Tonya C

    2015-12-01

    Theorists and researchers have demonstrated multiple trajectories of symptoms following disasters (Ecology and Society, 13, 2008, 9), highlighting the importance of obtaining more knowledge about exposed youth who demonstrate resilience as well as those who suffer chronic difficulties. This paper examines trajectories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following exposure to hurricanes and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to increase understanding of resilience and chronic reactions to both natural and technological disasters. A multiwave longitudinal design was used to follow N = 4,619 youth who were evaluated for PTSD symptoms, hurricane exposure, and oil spill exposure/stress at four time points over a period of 4 years. Trajectories were identified with cluster analyses and multilevel modeling. Individual trajectories were statistically identified consistent with theory. The largest group exhibited stable-low symptoms (52%), a second group showed steep declines following initial symptoms (21%), a third group exhibited increasing symptoms (18%), and a fourth group showed stable-high symptoms (9%). Both hurricane exposure and oil spill stress predicted trajectories and overall levels of PTSD symptoms. Results identified an effect of oil spill stress and hurricane exposure on symptom levels and trajectories of exposed youth. Results provide prospective data to support theories of multiple symptom trajectories following disasters and reinforce the importance of research that utilizes a developmental perspective to consider the long-term effects of disasters in youth. Findings highlight the importance of identifying symptoms and predictors of resilience as well as factors that contribute to resilience. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Natural arsenic and uranium accumulation and remobilization in different geological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banning, Andre Wilhelm

    2012-03-05

    Despite the fact that both As and U represent geogenic trace elements potentially toxic to humans, little information is available on the development of their enrichments in German sediments and their potential impact on groundwater quality, let alone a systematic overview of the country's natural occurrences. This work aims at characterizing accumulation processes in aquifers actually or potentially affected by elevated concentrations of As and/or U, and their timings in geological history. The five selected study areas provide different geological and stratigraphical backgrounds. Identification of As and U sources, and structural derivation of their environmental reservoirs as well as remobilization mechanisms potentially resulting in trace element release to groundwater were assessed. Drinking water supply in Franconia/Northern Bavaria is dependent on groundwater extraction from terrestrial Upper Triassic sandstones where elevated concentrations of geogenic U and As exceeding German drinking water limitations were identified. Characterization of aquifer material in terms of geochemical and mineralogical composition, trace elements distribution on a microscale and their mineralogical fractionation and mobilization behaviour showed that uraniferous francolite/hematite inclusions within the aquifer sandstones (''active arkoses'') represent important sources for U and As in the study area. Francolite exhibits biologically, structurally and radiation-enhanced solubility; loss of both U and As during weathering was documented. Jurassic shallow marine Fe ores from the Upper Rhine Graben exhibit significant bulk As hosted in mainly goethite ooids slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. The study indicates that As accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants, esp. heavy metals. Conditions for As accumulation varied during deposition, visible on a macro- (outcrop) as well as on a microscale (single Fe ooid). However, the

  10. Natural arsenic and uranium accumulation and remobilization in different geological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banning, Andre Wilhelm

    2012-03-05

    Despite the fact that both As and U represent geogenic trace elements potentially toxic to humans, little information is available on the development of their enrichments in German sediments and their potential impact on groundwater quality, let alone a systematic overview of the country's natural occurrences. This work aims at characterizing accumulation processes in aquifers actually or potentially affected by elevated concentrations of As and/or U, and their timings in geological history. The five selected study areas provide different geological and stratigraphical backgrounds. Identification of As and U sources, and structural derivation of their environmental reservoirs as well as remobilization mechanisms potentially resulting in trace element release to groundwater were assessed. Drinking water supply in Franconia/Northern Bavaria is dependent on groundwater extraction from terrestrial Upper Triassic sandstones where elevated concentrations of geogenic U and As exceeding German drinking water limitations were identified. Characterization of aquifer material in terms of geochemical and mineralogical composition, trace elements distribution on a microscale and their mineralogical fractionation and mobilization behaviour showed that uraniferous francolite/hematite inclusions within the aquifer sandstones (''active arkoses'') represent important sources for U and As in the study area. Francolite exhibits biologically, structurally and radiation-enhanced solubility; loss of both U and As during weathering was documented. Jurassic shallow marine Fe ores from the Upper Rhine Graben exhibit significant bulk As hosted in mainly goethite ooids slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. The study indicates that As accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants, esp. heavy metals. Conditions for As accumulation varied during deposition, visible on a macro- (outcrop) as well as on a microscale (single Fe ooid). However, the risk of As release to

  11. Natural arsenic and uranium accumulation and remobilization in different geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, Andre Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that both As and U represent geogenic trace elements potentially toxic to humans, little information is available on the development of their enrichments in German sediments and their potential impact on groundwater quality, let alone a systematic overview of the country's natural occurrences. This work aims at characterizing accumulation processes in aquifers actually or potentially affected by elevated concentrations of As and/or U, and their timings in geological history. The five selected study areas provide different geological and stratigraphical backgrounds. Identification of As and U sources, and structural derivation of their environmental reservoirs as well as remobilization mechanisms potentially resulting in trace element release to groundwater were assessed. Drinking water supply in Franconia/Northern Bavaria is dependent on groundwater extraction from terrestrial Upper Triassic sandstones where elevated concentrations of geogenic U and As exceeding German drinking water limitations were identified. Characterization of aquifer material in terms of geochemical and mineralogical composition, trace elements distribution on a microscale and their mineralogical fractionation and mobilization behaviour showed that uraniferous francolite/hematite inclusions within the aquifer sandstones (''active arkoses'') represent important sources for U and As in the study area. Francolite exhibits biologically, structurally and radiation-enhanced solubility; loss of both U and As during weathering was documented. Jurassic shallow marine Fe ores from the Upper Rhine Graben exhibit significant bulk As hosted in mainly goethite ooids slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. The study indicates that As accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants, esp. heavy metals. Conditions for As accumulation varied during deposition, visible on a macro- (outcrop) as well as on a microscale (single Fe ooid). However, the

  12. Biogeochemistry of arsenic in natural waters: The importance of methylated species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.C.D.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Water samples from a number of lakes and estuaries, mostly in California, showed measurable concentrations of methylated arsenic (equivalent to 1-59% of total As) with the exception of one highly alkaline lake. Neither depleted phosphate concentrations nor high dissolved salts correlated with the appearance of methylated forms of As. A temporal study of As speciation in Davis Creek Reservoir, a seasonally anoxic lake in northern California, demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid increased sufficiently to become the dominant form of dissolved As within the surface photic zone during late summer and fall. Methylated forms decreased while arsenate increased when the lake over-turned in early December, which suggested a degradation of dimethylarsinic acid to arsenate.

  13. The causes and circumstances of drinking water incidents impact consumer behaviour: Comparison of a routine versus a natural disaster incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-11-18

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two "Boil Water" notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine "Boil Water" notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a "Boil Water" notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  14. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Rundblad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3% than the routine incident (35.4%. For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food.

  15. The Causes and Circumstances of Drinking Water Incidents Impact Consumer Behaviour: Comparison of a Routine versus a Natural Disaster Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Knapton, Olivia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    When public health is endangered, the general public can only protect themselves if timely messages are received and understood. Previous research has shown that the cause of threats to public health can affect risk perception and behaviours. This study compares compliance to public health advice and consumer behaviour during two “Boil Water” notices issued in the UK due to a routine incident versus a natural disaster incident. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1000 randomly selected households issued a routine “Boil Water” notice. Findings were then compared to a previous study that explored drinking water behaviour during a “Boil Water” notice issued after serious floods. Consumers affected by the routine incident showed a significant preference for official water company information, whereas consumers affected by the natural disaster preferred local information sources. Confusion over which notice was in place was found for both incidents. Non-compliance was significantly higher for the natural disaster (48.3%) than the routine incident (35.4%). For the routine incident, compliance with advice on drinking as well as preparing/cooking food and brushing teeth was positively associated with receiving advice from the local radio, while the opposite was true for those receiving advice from the water company/leaflet through the post; we suggest this may largely be due to confusion over needing boiled tap water for brushing teeth. No associations were found for demographic factors. We conclude that information dissemination plans should be tailored to the circumstances under which the advice is issued. Water companies should seek to educate the general public about water notices and which actions are safe and unsafe during which notice, as well as construct and disseminate clearer advice on brushing teeth and preparing/cooking food. PMID:25411725

  16. Monitoring and evaluating recovery from natural disasters using remote sensing - towards creating guidelines on the use of satellite images in the context of disaster recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Brown, D.; Spence, R.; Chenvidyakarn, T.; Adams, B.; Bevington, J.; Platt, S.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Juntarashote, K.; Khan, A.

    2009-04-01

    The use of high-resolution optical satellite images is being investigated for evaluating and monitoring recovery after natural disasters. Funded by EPSRC, UK, the aim of the RECOVERY project is to develop indicators of recovery that can exploit the wealth of data now available, including those from satellite imagery, internet-based statistics and advanced field survey techniques. The final output will be a set of guidelines that suggests how remote sensing can be used to help monitor and evaluate the recovery process after natural disasters. The final guideline that will be produced at the end of the two year project, which started in February 2008, will be freely available to aid agencies and anyone that is interested. Currently there is no agreed standard approach for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery aid, although international frameworks such as PDNA (Post-Disaster Needs Assessment, United Nations Development Program, European Commission and World Bank) is currently being developed, and TRIAMS (Tsunami Recovery and Impact Assessment and Monitoring System, by UNDP and WHO) is being implemented to monitor the recovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. The RECOVERY project consists of three phases. Phase 1 was completed by September 2008 and focused on user needs survey, developing the recovery indicators and satellite image data identification/acquisition. The user needs survey was conducted to identify whether there were any indicators that the aid community would like to see prioritised. The survey result suggested that most indicators are equally important. Based on this result and also referring to the TRIAMS framework, a comprehensive list of indicators were developed which belong to six large categories, i.e. housing, infrastructure, services, livelihood, environment, social/security, risk reduction. For the RECOVERY project, two case study sites have been identified, i.e. the village of Baan Nam Khem on the west coast of Thailand, which was heavily

  17. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  18. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  19. Collaborative Science: Human Sensor Networks for Real-time Natural Disaster Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Aulov, O.; Martineau, J.; Brown, S.; Conte, T.; CenterHybrid Multicore Productivity Research

    2010-12-01

    processing systems used to extract the physical quantifiable data from the “human sensor network” such as natural language tools, the semantic web, image analysis techniques which can be employed to form a collaborative framework for other real time situation analysis undergoing similar natural or human caused disasters. We believe this innovative approach of extracting geophysical data from the social media sources is unprecedented in bridging geosciences with social sciences. In the near future, we plan on expanding the collaboration with researchers from University of Minnesota (U/MN) and Florida International University(FIU). Currently U/MN is working on a project of deploying aquabots (aquatic robots) in the Gulf in order to sample water properties at different depths as well as on the surface and FIU has developed a real time Terrafly processing system incorporating high resolution commercial and gov’t satellites and aircraft data.

  20. Community-based livelihood management in relations to natural disaster - A study on Teknaf (coastal) area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, R.

    2017-06-01

    Teknaf is an Upazila under Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh, it’s a coastal area with strong influenced by the Naaf river estuary of the Bay of Bengal. The study outlines the major livelihood groups or community in the area. It was observed that the livelihoods are severely affected by climatic and non-climatic changes. For example, the increased salinity of both soil and water has seriously affected all livelihood resources, in particular agriculture, fishery, livestock and forestry. The increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters - floods and cyclones, has made it difficult for the local people to secure their livelihood. In addition to natural factors, several anthropogenic factors remain the major form of vulnerability for the farmers, fishers and other livelihood sections of the society. This study was an exploratory research with questionnaire survey by random sampling, focus group discussion, and review secondary data. The study observed that the local people have evolved many local adaptive practices to deal with the difficult climatic conditions. Outcome of the study is capacity building of the community with in their available resource; combined crop and fish culture need to encourage; control excessive collection of Natural resources like marine fish, forest tree, alternative income generating activities for farmers & fisherman at lean season and disaster situation need to start.

  1. Arsenic levels in the soils and macrophytes of the 'Entremuros' after the Aznalcollar mine spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, M.A. [Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.taggart@abdn.ac.uk; Carlisle, M. [Department of Geography and Environment, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Pain, D.J. [RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Williams, R. [RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, D. [Department of Geography and Environment, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Osborn, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Meharg, A.A. [Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    In April 1998, a holding lagoon containing pyrite ore processing waste rich in arsenic, failed and released 5-6 million m{sup 3} of highly polluting sludge and acidic water. Over 2700 ha of the internationally important Don-tilde ana National and Natural Parks were contaminated. The area of Natural Park to sustain the greatest impact was known as the Entremuros. This paper presents 0-5 cm soil monitoring data from the Entremuros, from sampling campaigns 6 and 18 months after the disaster; as well as macrophyte root, rhizome and stem data from samples taken 18 months after the spill. Results show a clear, decreasing, north-south arsenic soil pollution trend, both 6 and 18 months after the spill, and suggest a small reduction in total soil arsenic levels occurred over time; although a significant increase in extractable arsenic is also noted. The two macrophytes (Typha dominguensis and Scirpus maritimus) studied herein are not accumulating arsenic in stem parts, however, accumulation of arsenic on iron plaque on the roots of these plants may be occurring. Further work is recommended in order to determine the ecotoxicological significance of this process in relation to the avian food-chains of Don-tilde ana, and elsewhere. - Capsule: Arsenic associated with iron plaque on macrophyte roots may pose an ecotoxicological risk to certain herbivores.

  2. Institutional Capacity for Natural Disasters: Methodology for Case Studies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    environmental management • DRR strategies intergrated with climate change adaptation • Food security for resilience • Protection of critical public...increasingly devastating disasters, which can threaten the productivity of wealthy countries or regions within countries, while also weighing down poor... productive than the national average, then more money will be spent on DRR to protect them and their contribution to the economy/tax base. If they are a drain

  3. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Logistics Networks During the Immediate Response Phase of Three Different Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Conference. Washington: IEEE. Mankiw , N. (2007). Essentials of economics . Mason: Thomson South-Western. Margesson, R., & Taft-Morales, M. (2010). Haiti...last decade affected the global demographic, social, and economic environment in a way that had not happened before. The size of many disasters...homeless. The demographic, social, and economic impact varied from domestic to international in scope as well. The effects were devastating, especially

  4. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides; Adsorcion de arsenico en zeolita natural pretratada con oxidos de magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Z, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Blvd. Benito Juarez s/n, 21900 Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D., E-mail: fleridam@iq.uson.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamentos de Geologia e Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As{sup +5}) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As{sup +5} adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As{sup +5} are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  5. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelar, A.C., E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Ferreira, W.M. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Pemberthy, D. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Grupo Catálisis Ambiental, Calle 70 No. 52-2, Medellín (Colombia); Abad, E. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Amaral, M.A. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup −1}). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. - Highlights: • PCDD/Fs dl- PCBs is not a matter since levels below the LOD in phosphate materials subject of study. • Significant accumulation of As and U in Limestone. Th was originally found in dicalcium phosphate. • High concentration of U in dicalcium phosphate suggests that a special attention should be paid.

  6. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  7. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 1. ; Landslide. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 1. ; Chisuberi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, R [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    There are more than ten thousand places in Japan which are in danger of landsliding, and they are mostly distributed in Hokuriku and Shikoku districts. Shikoku is a district which suffers many typhoon disasters, and the rate of ground disasters among the typhoon disasters has been getting higher in recent years. Reports are made on the general characteristics and soil mechanical properties of fractured zone landslides, which are the majority of landslides occurred in the Shikoku district. Most of the landslides in the Shikoku district occurred in Sanbagawa zone, south of the central tectonic line, and little landslides occurred in the granite zone in the Inland Sea area. Although rocks in landslided areas are fractured, little progress is observed for clay formation. The scales of the landslides are from several tens of meters to over 1km, with the average of about 20m, in length and from 200 to 300m in width. Although some of them have the depth of more than 50m, the average is about 20m. Descriptions are made on the relationship between the movement of landslide and rainfall, strength constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata, and the variance in the dynamic constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  8. The academic medical centre and nongovernmental organisation partnership following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Babak; Mehta, Samir; Ashburn, Michael; Nakashima, Koji; Gupta, Rajan; Dombroski, Derek; Schwab, C William

    2012-10-01

    The global response to the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti revealed the ability to mobilise medical teams quickly and effectively when academic medical centres partner non-governmental organisations (NGO) that already have a presence in a zone of devastation. Most established NGOs based in a certain region are accustomed to managing the medical conditions that are common to that area and will need additional and specialised support to treat the flux of myriad injured persons. Furthermore, an NGO with an established presence in a region prior to a disaster appears better positioned to provide sustained recovery and rehabilitation relief. Academic medical centres can supply these essential specialised resources for a prolonged time. This relationship between NGOs and academic medical centres should be further developed prior to another disaster response. This model has great potential with regard to the rapid preparation and worldwide deployment of skilled medical and surgical teams when needed following a disaster, as well as to the subsequent critical recovery phase. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  9. Neural Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli Prospectively Predicts the Impact of a Natural Disaster on Psychiatric Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Hajcak, Greg; Danzig, Allison P; Black, Sarah R; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-09-01

    Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York (n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  11. Naturally occurring arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, southwestern Florida: Potential implication for phosphate mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazareva, Olesya; Pichler, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    To understand the mineralogical association, concentration, and distribution of arsenic (As) in the Hawthorn Group, the chemical and mineralogical composition of 362 samples that were collected from 16 cores in southwestern Florida were examined in detail. In the study area, the Hawthorn Group consisted primarily of a basal carbonate unit (the Arcadia Formation) and an upper siliciclastic unit (The Peace River Formation). The Peace River Formation contains appreciable amounts of phosphate and is currently being exploited for phosphate ore. Samples were taken from cores of each formation at intervals of 7.5 m. In addition, to the interval samples, sections likely to have high As concentrations, such as zones with pyrite crystals, hydrous ferric oxides, green clays, and organic material, were collected and analyzed. Bulk As concentrations were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) after digestion with aqua regia (3:1 HCl and HNO 3 ). The elements Fe, Al, Si, Mg, Ca, S, and P were measured on the same solutions by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The identification of discrete minerals was aided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical compositions within the sample matrix and in individual minerals were obtained by electron-probe microanalysis (EMPA). This detailed mineralogical and geochemical study demonstrated that: (1) As in the Hawthorn Group varied from formation to formation and was mostly concentrated in trace minerals, such as pyrite; (2) average As concentrations significantly changed from 8.8 mg/kg (σ = 8.6 mg/kg) in the Peace River Formation to 3.0 mg/kg (σ = 3.7 mg/kg) in the Tampa Member of the Arcadia Formation. Arsenic concentrations for all Hawthorn samples varied from 0.1 to 69.0 mg/kg; (3) pyrite, with one exception, occurred as framboids and was unevenly distributed throughout the Hawthorn Group; (4) pyrite framboids were located inside a francolite (carbonate

  12. Exceedance probability map: a tool helping the definition of arsenic Natural Background Level (NBL) within the Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination affects worldwide shallower groundwater bodies. Starting from the actual knowledges around arsenic origin into groundwater, we know that the major part of dissolved arsenic is naturally occurring through the dissolution of As-bearing minerals and ores. Several studies on the shallow aquifers of both the regional Venetian Plain (NE Italy) and the local Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (DBVL) show local high arsenic concentration related to peculiar geochemical conditions, which drive arsenic mobilization. The uncertainty of arsenic spatial distribution makes difficult both the evaluation of the processes involved in arsenic mobilization and the stakeholders' decision about environmental management. Considering the latter aspect, the present study treats the problem of the Natural Background Level (NBL) definition as the threshold discriminating the natural contamination from the anthropogenic pollution. Actually, the UE's Directive 2006/118/EC suggests the procedures and criteria to set up the water quality standards guaranteeing a healthy status and reversing any contamination trends. In addition, the UE's BRIDGE project proposes some criteria, based on the 90th percentile of the contaminant's concentrations dataset, to estimate the NBL. Nevertheless, these methods provides just a statistical NBL for the whole area without considering the spatial variation of the contaminant's concentration. In this sense, we would reinforce the NBL concept using a geostatistical approach, which is able to give some detailed information about the distribution of arsenic concentrations and unveiling zones with high concentrations referred to the Italian drinking water standard (IDWS = 10 µg/liter). Once obtained the spatial information about arsenic distribution, we can apply the 90th percentile methods to estimate some Local NBL referring to every zones with arsenic higher than IDWS. The indicator kriging method was considered because it

  13. Prioritizing Motivational and Satisfactorily Factors of Volunteer Medical and Health Personnel in Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this research revealed that to absorb a higher number of volunteers in health and treatment organizations, commitment and purposeful aspects must be emphasized on, as by improving the motivational and satisfaction factors, we can expect that satisfaction and retention level increases in volunteers. Furthermore, by knowing the volunteers’ motivations, the managers of the health and treatment organizations can provide their retention and satisfaction and play a key role in crisis management during disasters by exploiting the volunteer services.

  14. [Construction and validation of a socio-environmental vulnerability index for monitoring and management of natural disasters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Martins, Raphael Nascimento; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Fróes

    2014-10-01

    Floods account for approximately 40% of natural disasters that occur around the world and they are therefore considered a major public health problem. While floods constitute a global problem, data from the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction showed that almost all of the deaths or individuals affected are concentrated in developing countries. It is assumed that, although they have natural causes, the consequences of floods also involve social issues. To try to predict such vulnerability in the occurrence of natural disasters, a social and environmental index that shows the degree of vulnerability of a location was developed in this paper. This index was developed using multivariate analysis involving factor analysis and demographic, social and environmental variables. The index was applied in the municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro and compared with the official figures of the Civil Defense Unit. The results found suggest that the proposed index meets the expectation of predicting the vulnerability of the local population.

  15. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  16. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  17. Community emergency department utilization following a natural disaster (the Goderich Tornado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavoo, Samuel D; Khemlin, Alexander; Appavoo, Donna M; Flynn, Candi J

    2016-01-01

    On 21 August 2011 an F3 tornado hit the Canadian town of Goderich, Ontario, leaving 40 people injured and one dead. Specific medium-term changes in utilization of health care following a disaster have not been analyzed in medical literature. Documenting the emergency department utilization through this subacute period would be helpful to enable institutions and healthcare practitioners to be better prepared for future events. A medical chart review was conducted at the Alexandra Marine and General Hospital in Goderich. All emergency department visits made during the 30 days after the Tornado in 2011 (intervention group), 30 days prior to the tornado in 2011 (primary control group), and during the similar calendar period of 30 days after the tornado in 2010 (seasonal control group) were reviewed. Medical diagnoses of all patients who presented at the emergency department were collected and compared. Fewer people presented to the emergency department following the tornado than during the control periods, and those who did were significantly older than those who presented in the control periods (pptornado in a rural Ontario community. This information serves to inform the medical community and other hospitals how to increase their level of preparedness should a comparable disaster occur again in the future.

  18. Opportunities of forest roads usage as emergency access road for natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Vatandaşlar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the applicability of forest roads as emergency access and evacuation corridor for an alternative to motorways following a prospective earthquake in İstanbul. For this purpose, various disaster scenarios were created in the district of Beykoz and the shortest routes between critical points were determined through network analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS. Results indicated that access was possible between Beykoz city center and shelter, hospital, fire station, disaster management center, and military area via forest roads even if motorways became unusable. However, distance generally got longer and time of arrival increased on the routes of forest road. The increase in time of arrival was attributed to decrease in average cruising speed in addition to the increase in distance. This limitation can be overcome by enhancing the geometric standards of forest roads and completing superstructure operations. Results are important for revealing that forest roads can be used in other fields besides forestry activities, they can strengthen decision support system of managers, and enable first aid crew to reach the scene in the minimal time.

  19. Developing Initial Response Products Using Data from Optical and SAR Earth Observing Platforms for Natural Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. R.; Molthan, A.; Dabboor, M.

    2016-12-01

    After a disaster occurs, decision makers require timely information to assist decision making and support. Earth observing satellites provide tools including optical remote sensors that sample in various spectral bands within the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared. However, views from optical sensors can be blocked when clouds are present, and cloud-free observations can be significantly delayed depending upon on their repeat cycle. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers several advantages over optical sensors in terms of spatial resolution and the ability to map the Earth's surface whether skies are clear or cloudy. In cases where both SAR and cloud-free optical data are available, these instruments can be used together to provide additional confidence in what is being observed at the surface. This presentation demonstrates cases where SAR imagery can enhance the usefulness for mapping natural disasters and their impacts to the land surface, specifically from severe weather and flooding. The Missouri and Mississippi River flooding from early in 2016 and damage from hail swath in northwestern Iowa on 17 June 2016 are just two events that will be explored. Data collected specifically from the EO-1 (optical), Landsat (optical) and Sentinel 1 (SAR) missions are used to explore several applicable methodologies to determine which products and methodologies may provide decision makers with the best information to provide actionable information in a timely manner.

  20. Use of external fixators for damage-control orthopaedics in natural disasters like the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Syed; Saeed, Ayesha; Ch, Asad

    2014-08-01

    In the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the great many injured with multiple fractures and open wounds provided a unique opportunity to practice damage-control orthopaedics. External fixators remain a time-tested tools for operating surgeons on such occasions. The locally manufactured, readily available Naseer-Awais (NA) external fixator filled such needs of this disaster with good outcome. This is a retrospective descriptive study of 19,700 patients that presented over seven months to the two centres established by the lead author (SMA) in Muzaffarabad and Mansehra just one night after the 2005 earthquake. A series of local and foreign orthopaedic surgeon teams operated in succession. The computerised patient data collection of 1,145 operations was retrospectively analysed. Of the 19,700 patients presenting to the SMA centres, 50% had limb injuries. Total fracture fixations were 1,145, of which 295 were external fixations: 185 were applied on the lower limb and 90 on upper limb, the majority were applied on tibia. External fixators are valuable damage-control tools in natural disasters and warfare injuries. The locally manufactured NA external fixator served the needs of the many limb injuries during the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

  1. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  2. Design and Laboratory Level Production of High Energy Survival Tablets for Athletes, Tourists and People who Faced Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nezami Asl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People affected by natural disasters like flood or earthquakes and also athletes like mountain climbers and also sailors who continuously go to jungles or deserts, might get into trouble in the nature and need help to get back to their home and therefore, they might need high energy supplements to keep them alive up to the time they find a food source. The goal of this study was to design and make these laboratory prototypes of high energy tablets. Methods: For making tablets 15 different formulations were designed and made in the laboratory and then were tested to be suit. We objected to design formulations that could provide at least 20 kcal per each tab and amount of daily protein (about 25 grams, Tablets were design to provide not only the minimum energy needed but also the minimum protein needs and daily requirements of some vitamins and minerals of a healthy male adult. Results: Laboratory samples of 5 gram high energy (21 Kcal were produced. The best formulation that had the capacity to be converted into tablets consisted of olive oil (16%, maltodextrin (36%, high biological value protein powder (25%, sesame seed (17% and wheat germ (6%. 25 tablets should be taken each day which provides 525 kcal energy, 25g protein and different vitamins and minerals, daily; therefore, they will provide the minimum energy needs for at least 10 days if provided in 1.2 kg packs.  Conclusion: The production of high energy tab rations can provide minimum energy needs for at least 7 days for athletes, tourists and people who face natural disasters when there is no access to any other food resources because they occupy the minimum volume and their production is accessible in Iran.

  3. Nutrition interventions for children aged less than 5 years following natural disasters: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma

    2015-11-30

    Malnutrition among children is a serious public health problem in the aftermath of any natural disaster. We will review the various nutrition interventions for children aged natural disasters occurred and analyse the effect on nutrition-related outcomes. We will conduct a systematic review on nutrition intervention studies following natural disasters that were published between January 2000 and December 2015. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool will be used for randomised controlled trials and Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS) will be used for non-randomised studies. The quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. If sufficient data are available, we will conduct meta-analyses to establish the relationship between nutrition interventions and nutrition outcome indicators. All statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager (Rev Man) V.5.3 for Windows. Heterogeneity of the data will be tested using the standard χ(2) test. A fixed-effect model will be used for the studies with high heterogeneity (p value>0.10, I(2)≤50%). For dichotomous and continuous data, relative risk (RR) and mean difference with 95% CI will be used respectively. Subgroup analysis will be performed for studies with low heterogeneity (p value ≤0.10). We will use Z score with the level of significance set at p value <0.05 to test the total effect. Funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval will not be required. The results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the media. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42015023243 was registered on 1 June 2015. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  4. Life course transitions and natural disaster: marriage, birth, and divorce following Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Catherine L; Cole, Steve W

    2002-03-01

    Change in marriage, birth, and divorce rates following Hurricane Hugo in 1989 were examined prospectively from 1975 to 1997 for all counties in South Carolina. Stress research and research on economic circumstances suggested that marriages and births would decline and divorces would increase in affected counties after the hurricane. Attachment theory suggested that marriages and births would increase and divorces would decline after the hurricane. Time-series analysis indicated that the year following the hurricane, marriage, birth, and divorce rates increased in the 24 counties declared disaster areas compared with the 22 other counties in the state. Taken together, the results suggested that a life-threatening event motivated people to take significant action in their close relationships that altered their life course.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  6. A general approach for the estimation of loss of life due to natural and technological disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Lentz, A.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing the safety of engineering systems in the context of quantitative risk analysis one of the most important consequence types concerns the loss of life due to accidents and disasters. In this paper, a general approach for loss of life estimation is proposed which includes three elements: (1) the assessment of physical effects associated with the event; (2) determination of the number of exposed persons (taking into account warning and evacuation); and (3) determination of mortality amongst the population exposed. The typical characteristics of and modelling approaches for these three elements are discussed. This paper focuses on 'small probability-large consequences' events within the engineering domain. It is demonstrated how the proposed approach can be applied to various case studies, such as tunnel fires, earthquakes and flood events.

  7. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  8. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Jean Birks, S.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Widespread naturally occurring As in groundwater with concentrations up to 179 μg/L. • 50% of the 816 water wells sampled exceeded 10 μg/L of As. • As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the groundwater samples. • Shallow groundwater As is derived from arsenian pyrite oxidation. • In deeper sediments, As release is associated with Fe(III) reduction. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest

  9. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  10. Sabuk Janur: tools to move community participation in reducing natural disasters and environment (case study at Lawu mount slope in Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, E.; Purnomo, S. H.; Komariah; Wibowo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Globalization in general both traditional values and local knowledge that exist in a society, but this is different in the community of mountain slope lawu on the Java Island precisely in Karanganyar regency of Central Java is still maintained local cultural values to maintain sustainability Springs. This is a foothold for cheaper the benefits of community culture that play an important role in environmental conservation and social solidarity to cope with natural disasters and the environment. The research method used is qualitative with explanatory case study approach. The results showed that the Myth of Sabuk Janur proved able to build public awareness in preserving the environment and overcoming natural disasters and the environment. The high level of community participation in every development is evident from every stage of community participation in a program. Where the solidarity of social visible in all conditions, namely social solidarity in the nature of the in-celebration and the nature of overcoming the disaster that befall. The preservation of local cultural values is still done because of the existence of the identity of local communities. This is because the integration of national value and local potential becomes a prerequisite in every development plan. Thus the cultural approach is an effective strategy in solving the problems exist in an area, especially in overcoming natural disasters and the environment.

  11. Participatory and evidence-based recommendations for urban redevelopment following natural disasters: older adults as policy advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael; Keeling, Sally; Wilkinson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To develop community-generated recommendations to inform urban environmental remediation following earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and share these with local decision-makers during a participatory action research process. This study employed three focus group discussions to critique mixed-methods and multiphase results and develop evidence-based recommendations. Participants included 30 volunteers and 8 knowledgeable advisers aged 65 years and older. Participant recommendations addressed the remediation of earthquake-affected suburbs, access to transportation, age-friendly design, safer communities, resilient support agencies, and restoration of resources for social and cultural activities. Older collaborators identified salient barriers to active ageing and options for post-earthquake redevelopment that had not previously been considered in research or policy. Independently living older adults are well placed to work with researchers to develop recommendations to improve the urban environment following natural disasters as well as in times of relative stability. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  13. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Nicot, J.P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3-164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ≥ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2-43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman's ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO 2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ 2 H: -65 to -27; δ 18 O: -9.1 to -4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying Triassic Dockum aquifer. Mobilization

  14. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Nicot, J.-P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3–164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ⩾ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2–43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman’s ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ2H: −65 to −27; δ18O: −9.1 to −4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying

  15. Multi-Agent Simulation of Allocating and Routing Ambulances Under Condition of Street Blockage after Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Rajabifard, A.

    2017-09-01

    In response to natural disasters, efficient planning for optimum allocation of the medical assistance to wounded as fast as possible and wayfinding of first responders immediately to minimize the risk of natural disasters are of prime importance. This paper aims to propose a multi-agent based modeling for optimum allocation of space to emergency centers according to the population, street network and number of ambulances in emergency centers by constraint network Voronoi diagrams, wayfinding of ambulances from emergency centers to th