WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural coastal foredunes

  1. Zonation and habitat selection on a reclaimed coastal foredune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geomorphic / floristic variables are useful as general habitat indicators on coastal foredunes. Variables used in this study were vegetation cover, plant community structure and sand movement. Three distinct zones, four habitats and six subhabitats were identified. Zonation and habitat selection appeared to be related to ...

  2. Zonation and habitat selection on a reclaimed coastal foredune

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-11-08

    Nov 8, 1988 ... Geomorphic / floristic variables are useful as general habitat indicators on coastal foredunes. Variables used in this study were vegetation cover, plant community structure and sand movement. Three distinct zones, four habitats and six subhabitats were identified. Zonation and habitat selection appeared to ...

  3. RPAS Monitoring of the Morphological Evolution of Coastal Foredunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, Yuri; Corbau, Corinne; Elena, Zambello; Russo, Valentina; Pellegrinelli, Alberto; Simeoni, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    The coastal environment is in rapid and continuous evolution and it is easily affected by many natural and antropic factors. Beaches are often backed by vegetated dunes and fulfill many different valuable ecosystem functions. They act as protective buffers against storm surge, wave attack and erosion, providing a unique habitat for flora and fauna. Coastal embryo dunes, found above mean high water, are dynamic landform being able to supply sand to the beach when needed. They may form rapidly and may be rapidly destructed due to high tides and storm waves or human interferences. The southern part (3 km long) of Rosolina (Adriatic Sea, Italy) is characterized by a wide beach bordered by a complex dune system. The geomorphological characteristics of embryo dunes have been identified by using an RPAS in order to develop a fast and low-cost surveying technique. The aircraft has flown at a 50 meters altitude, taking photos with a 12Mpix RGB camera and a GSD of about 1 cm. The images overlap of 80% in the flight direction and 60% laterally. Fourteen targets have been collocated in the area as ground control points and were surveyed using Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) GNSS. Images and GCPs were elaborated in Agisoft PhotoScan to generate the model. A similar NRTK survey has been performed to integrate the wrong data (due to vegetation) for the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM) in a first step and finally to validate the model obtained through UAV photogrammetry through a comparison with specially surveyed points. The creation of a DEM from photos is one of main tasks and its accuracy is critical. A challenge in this work was to recognize the vegetation in the sand dunes area to exclude all the points not belonging to the ground. This was possible through a classification process based on slope detection. Finally, the suitable elevation accuracy has been reached and the survey has revealed a complex dune system characterized by: • on the upper part of the

  4. Coastal dune dynamics in response to excavated foredune notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Arens, S. M.; Kuipers, M.; Donker, J. J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dune management along developed coasts has traditionally focussed on the suppression of the geomorphic dynamics of the foredune to improve its role in sea defence. Because a stabilized foredune acts as an almost total barrier to aeolian transport from the beach, the habitat diversity in the more landward dunes has degraded. With the overarching objective to mitigate this undesirable loss in biodiversity, dune management projects nowadays increasingly intend to restore aeolian dynamics by reconnecting the beach-dune system with notches excavated through the foredune. Here, we use repeat topographic survey data to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal dune system in the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland to five notches excavated in 2012-2013 within an 850-m stretch of the 20-m high established foredune. The notches were dug in a V-shape (viewed onshore), with a width between approximately 50 and 100 m at the top, a (cross-dune) length between 100 and 200 m, and excavation depths between 9 and 12.5 m. The 1 × 1 m digital terrain models, acquired with airborne Lidar and UAV photogrammetry, illustrate that during the 3-year survey period the notches developed into a U-shape because of wall deflation, and that up to 8-m thick and 150-m long depositional lobes formed landward of the notches. Sand budget computations showed that the sand volume of the entire study area increased by about 22,750 m3/year, which, given the 850-m width of the study area, corresponds to an aeolian input from the beach of approximately 26.5 m3/m/year. Between 2006 and 2012 all wind-blown beach sand deposited on the seaward side of the foredune; since 2013, the notches have caused 75% of the sand to be deposited landward of the foredune. This highlights that the notches are highly effective conduits for aeolian transport into the back dunes. Future monitoring is required to determine for how long the notches will stimulate aeolian dynamics and if (and when) vegetation eventually

  5. Impact of coastal management practice on long-term foredune behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Bochev-van der Burgh, Lisette M.

    2010-05-01

    Coastal dunes located in densely populated areas provide various services to man, such as protection against flooding during storm surges, recreation, and nature conservation. As a result, man will interfere with the natural dynamics of coastal dunes if these negatively affect these functions. For example, local storm erosion of the foredune will reduce the safety level of dunes as flooding defence, or the resulting steep dune front can be perceived as a public safety issue (collapse). Usually, the applied management interventions aim at restoring the pre-storm situation. As such they result in an increased recovery rate from an erosional event as compared to post-storm recovery rates occurring without human intervention. The above raises the question whether the usually localized and intermittent human interventions will actually interfere with the long term evolution of the foredune area. And if so, whether these short term management interventions can turn out to be detrimental to the persistence of these functions in the long run. Especially for the flooding defence functionality this is of importance, as we can expect natural drivers of coastal behaviour, such as storm climatology and mean sea level stand, to change over the next century. To increase insight in the above issues we performed a case study on the behaviour of managed foredunes along the Holland coast (The Netherlands). Information on the morphologic behaviour was extracted by EOF-analysis from a 40 year data set (1965-2004) of annual, high-resolution elevation surveys of the subaerial part of coastal profile along about 90 km of coastline. Information on the applied dune management during this period was retrieved from documents as well as from interviews with coastal managers with long-term involvement in the actual dune maintenance practice in the studied area. It appeared that during the studied period the coastal management policy changed from being essentially reactive in nature to being pro

  6. Coastal foredune evolution: the relative influence of vegetation and sand supply in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Ruggiero, Peter; Seabloom, Eric W; Hacker, Sally D

    2015-05-06

    Biophysical feedbacks between vegetation and sediment are important for forming and modifying landscape features and their ecosystem services. These feedbacks are especially important where landscape features differ in their provision of ecosystem services. For example, the shape of coastal foredunes, a product of both physical and biological forces, determines their ability to protect communities from rising seas and changing patterns of storminess. Here we assessed how sand supply and changes in vegetation over interannual (3 year) and decadal (21 year) scales influenced foredune shape along 100 km of coastline in the US Pacific Northwest. Across 21 years, vegetation switched from one congeneric non-native beachgrass to another (Ammophila arenaria to A. breviligulata) while sand supply rates were positive. At interannual timescales, sand supply rates explained the majority of change in foredune height (64-69%) and width (56-80%). However, at decadal scales, change in vegetation explained the majority of the change in foredune width (62-68%), whereas sand supply rates explained most of the change in foredune height (88-90%). In areas with lower shoreline change rates (±2 m yr(-1)), the change in vegetation explained the majority of decadal changes in foredune width (56-57%) and height (59-76%). Foredune shape directly impacts coastal protection, thus our findings are pertinent to coastal management given pressures of development and climate change. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, J.G.S.; Poortinga, A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal

  8. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Joep G S; Poortinga, Ate; Riksen, Michel J P M; Maroulis, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal variations in foredune erosion and accretion were studied in relation to proxies for aeolian transport potential and storminess using yearly elevation measurements from 1965 to 2012 for six sections of the Dutch coast. Longshore differences in the relative impacts of erosion and accretion were examined in relation to local beach width. The results show that temporal variability in foredune accretion and erosion is highest in narrow beach sections. Here, dune erosion alternates with accretion, with variability displaying strong correlations with yearly values of storminess (maximum sea levels). In wider beach sections, dune erosion is less frequent, with lower temporal variability and stronger correlations with time series of transport potential. In erosion dominated years, eroded volumes decrease from narrow to wider beaches. When accretion dominates, dune-volume changes are relatively constant alongshore. Dune erosion is therefore suggested to control spatial variability in dune-volume changes. On a scale of decades, the volume of foredunes tends to increase more on wider beaches. However, where widths exceed 200 to 300 m, this trend is no longer observed.

  9. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 2: Modeling Approaches for Meso-Scale Morphologic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    five parametric models are reviewed that address different aspects of dune erosion and accretion. The models range from time-independent scaling ...for Meso- Scale Morphologic Evolution by Margaret L. Palmsten1, Katherine L. Brodie2, and Nicholas J. Spore2 PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics...expand both observations and modeling approaches across meso-timescales, which are more directly related to the operational scale of coastal dune and

  10. Coastal Foredune Evolution, Part 1: Environmental Factors and Forcing Processes Affecting Morphological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    coastal storms. ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-56 February 2017 7 • Hydrodynamic, aeolian, and ecological processes must be integrated to accurately predict...VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-56 February 2017 9 Houser, C., C. Hapke, and S. Hamilton. 2008. Controls on coastal...Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. Nordstrom, K. F., and N. L. Jackson. 1993. The role of wind direction in eolian transport on a narrow

  11. Erosion of Coastal Foredunes: A Review on the Effect of Dune Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland. The results report an average belowground biomass for buried shoots of 322.8 grams per m2 (g/m2) and 14.1...Kobayashi et al. (2013) conducted a small-scale experiment to examine the effects of woody plants, represented by buried dowels, on dune erosion and...Engineering 141(1). Bird, E. 2008. Coastal geomorphology: an introduction. 2nd Edition. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons. Bridges, T. S., P. W

  12. Evolution of foredune texture following dynamic restoration, Doughboy Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlechner, T. M.; Ryu, W.; Hilton, M. J.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Growing concern regarding the geomorphic and associated biotic effects of dune management practises has led to an increase in the number of dune restoration projects globally. Most recent projects aim to enhance the efficiency of aeolian sediment dynamics and increase dune mobility by decreasing vegetation cover, but we lack objective measures to evaluate such projects. Here we demonstrate the use of landscape metrics to quantify the evolution of foredune texture following the removal of vegetation. A long-term program of marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) eradication in southern New Zealand (Doughboy Bay, Stewart Island) is examined. Four metrics: bare sand area, patch adjacency, complexity, and the range of proximity, are used to classify a series of foredune textures beginning with the pre-restoration state through the phases of marram removal, to the current state. Foredune texture at Doughboy Bay has evolved from a semi-stable to an active state as the consequence of restoration. Two metrics, bare sand and adjacency, appear to be particularly good measures of change following marram removal. Patterns and rates of change for these metrics are consistent with ground observations of increased 'naturalness' (native plant communities, sand mobility) over the same period. The set of landscape metrics derived for Doughboy Bay were compared to similar sets measured for a nearby foredune system where marram invasion has not occurred, and where conditions presumably represent equilibrium foredune texture. Since the removal of marram at Doughboy Bay and the consequent remobilization of the sand surface, the foredune texture has increased in similarity to that of the reference site, indicating a favourable shift in plant cover as a result of the restoration program. We conclude that landscape metrics can be used to track changes in foredune morphology following restoration. Second, the planning, management, and monitoring of coastal dune restoration programs will benefit

  13. Establishment, growth and degeneration of Ammophila arenaria in coastal sand dunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    This study deals with the establishment, growth, and degeneration of Ammophila arenaria (marram grass), a grass species that dominates the vegetation in coastal foredunes. Following natural

  14. Modelling foredune dynamics in response to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, J.G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal dunes are prominent features along many of the world’s sandy shorelines. They are valued for their contributions to flood protection, biodiversity, fresh water supply and recreation. The most seaward dune ridge or foredune is the most dynamic part, showing fluctuations in size and

  15. Mediterranean Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation: Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the conservation status of coastal dune systems in Tuscany (Italy). Emphasis was given to the presence and abundance of plant communities identified as habitat in accordance with the Directive 92/43/EEC. Twenty transects perpendicular to the shoreline were randomly positioned on the whole coastal area (30 km in length) in order to sample the full spectrum of plant communities. Vegetation zonation and relationships with the most frequent disturbance factors in the study area—beach cleaning, coastline erosion, presence of paths and roads, bathing settlements and trampling—were investigated through principal coordinate analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Natural factors, such as distance from the sea and total length, were also considered. Differences in the conservation status of the sites were found, ranging from the total disappearance of the foredune habitats to the presence of the complete psammophilous (sand-loving) plant communities. Erosion, trampling, and paths were found to be closely correlated with degradation and habitat loss. Furthermore, the overall plant species diversity of dunes was measured with NHDune, a modified version of the Shannon index; while the incidence of invasive taxa was calculated using N, a naturalness index. However, these diversity indices proved to be a weaker bioindicator of ecosystem integrity than habitat composition along transects. A possible strategy for the conservation and management of these coastal areas could be to protect the foredunes from erosion and limit trampling through the installation of footbridges or the use of appropriate fences.

  16. The application of LiDAR to investigate foredune morphology and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas B.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-02-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been used to investigate coastal landform morphology, evolution, and change for almost a decade. Repeated airborne LiDAR surveys can provide the scientific community with significant observations of how shorelines have evolved, which may then enable forecasts of future patterns of change. However, there have been few studies that have considered the application of this new technology to the specific study of foredune morphology and vegetation. The accuracy and appropriateness of airborne LiDAR needs to be assessed, particularly where the density of vegetation may obscure the underlying topography, prior to interpreting derived geomorphic features. This study: i) tests the vertical accuracy of airborne LiDAR in 37 foredune systems along the coast of south-eastern Australia, and ii) demonstrates that it can be used to describe foredune morphology and vegetation in considerable detail. There was a strong correlation between the remotely-sensed LiDAR-derived elevation and field topographic and vegetation surveys (R2 = 0.96). A protocol for obtaining foredune geomorphic and botanical parameters is described. It enables widespread biogeomorphic characterisation along coasts for which LiDAR data is available, which can benefit both coastal managers and researchers alike.

  17. Geomorphological analysis and classification of foredune ridges based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Sistilli, Flavia; Scarelli, Frederico; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Along the North Adriatic Sea coast (Italy), vulnerability to climate change is further aggravated by anthropogenic influences, such as strong subsidence rate due to deep groundwater and gas abstraction, tourism and industry impacts. In this context, conservation and restoration of coastal sand dunes become extremely important especially because of their importance in terms of 'natural' coastal defense. This paper proposes an innovative geomorphological approach based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning - TLS, which allows us to measure and monitor morphometric dune evolution with high precision and details. Several TLS surveys were performed along the Ravenna coast (Adriatic Sea, Italy) and the resulting Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were analyzed in order to classify the foredune ridges in three geomorphological sub-zones. The topographic, areal and volumetric variations over time of geomorphological units were calculated by GIS tools in order to identify seasonal trends or particular pattern. Meteo-marine climate conditions were also analyzed and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to correlate changes in morphology with meteo-marine forcing factors, highlighting the ones that most influence dune evolution and dynamics.

  18. Internal architecture of foredunes and their dynamics resolved by GPR (Regneville inlet, Normandy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliette, Baumann; Dujardin, Jean-Rémi; Duringer, Philippe; Robin, Nicolas; Schuster, Mathieu; Bano, Maksim

    2014-05-01

    Foredunes are the foremost dunes formed on the backshore of beaches by aeolian sand deposition trapped by vegetation. They are classical large scale features that develop along a large part of sandy coasts of the world. There are many papers covering various aspects of foredune (initiation, evolution, dynamics) but their internal architecture which reflects their dynamics is still not well known. Active and relic foredunes from the Regneville inlet have been surveyed with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). GPR is a non-invasive geophysical method based on high frequency electromagnetic wave propagation which can provide very detailed and continuous images of the subsurface. One of the goals of GPR measurements is to determine the geometries of fine structures by imaging the structures of sedimentary deposits. The GPR profiles have been obtained by using the 100, 250, 500 and 800 MHz shielded antenna and the acquisition mode was a constant offset. Direct field observations (natural outcrops and trenches) along modern foredunes during different hydrodynamic conditions complete their sedimentary/architectural characterization and bring a strong control for the interpretation of the GPR profiles. GPR allowed here to identify buried erosional surfaces and depositional stratifications. A conceptual model developing their formation and evolution can then be proposed: it starts with a phase of wave erosion followed by a more complex phase of eolian sand accumulation (vertical aggradation, lateral accretion). Shore-perpendicular GPR profiles reveal that the internal architecture of foredunes is marked by several sharp and seaward concave truncations which correspond to ancient marine scarps. They are the result of the erosion by waves of a foredune during storms or high-tides. Some of these scarps can be detected from the geomorphology (steps in the topographic profile, change in vegetation type), others not because they are sealed by blown sands accumulation (smoothed

  19. Integrated coastal policy via Building with Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis which appears here is excerpted from the book Integrated Coastal Zone Development via Building with Nature® (Waterman 2008a, 2008b). Although this approach was first applied in the Netherlands, it has gradually been recognized worldwide as a harmonious means of creating land areas for

  20. Reconstructing Holocene shore displacement and Stone Age palaeogeography from a foredune sequence on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muru, Merle; Rosentau, Alar; Preusser, Frank; Plado, Jüri; Sibul, Ivo; Jõeleht, Argo; Bjursäter, Stefan; Aunap, Raivo; Kriiska, Aivar

    2018-02-01

    Holocene shore displacement and the palaeogeography of Late Mesolithic and Late Neolithic settlements on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, were reconstructed using foredune sequence luminescence dating, sedimentological data supported by ground-penetrating radar analysis, and GIS-based landscape modelling. The foredune ridges consist of very well to well sorted fine- to medium-grained aeolian sand and are underlain by seaward dipping foreshore sediments. The studied sequence of 38 ridges was formed between 6.91 ± 0.58 ka and 2.54 ± 0.19 ka ago, and represents a period of falling relative sea level. Foredune plain progradation, with average rates of 0.3-0.6 m per year, was controlled by isostatic land uplift, which caused a continuous withdrawal of shorelines to lower elevations. The dated foredune succession was used to reconstruct the coastal palaeogeography of the island. Palaeogeographical reconstructions show that during two phases of Late Mesolithic habitation, at ca. 7.2 cal. ka BP and 6.2 cal. ka BP, seal hunters settled the coastal zone of Ruhnu Island. Based on tool material and pottery type they could have originated from Saaremaa Island, which according to palaeoreconstruction of the Gulf of Riga, was located approximately 70 km northwest of Ruhnu Island during the Late Mesolithic. Later signs of human occupation, radiocarbon dated to ca. 4.7 cal. ka BP, were from the centre of the island, hundreds of metres away from the shore at about 8 m above its contemporary sea level. This Late Neolithic habitation shows a clearly different pattern than earlier coastal settlement, and suggests a shift in subsistence strategy towards agriculture and animal husbandry.

  1. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  2. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  3. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Studying coastal zones as a territorial concept (Integrated coastal zone management) is an essential issue for managers, as they have to consider many different topics (natural hazards, resources management, tourism, climate change…). The recent approach in terms of "coastal vulnerability" studies (since the 90's) is the main tool used nowadays to help them in evaluating impacts of natural hazards on coastal zones, specially considering climate change. This present communication aims to highlight the difficulties in integrating this concept in risk analysis as it is usually practiced in natural hazards sciences. 1) Coastal vulnerability as a recent issue The concept of coastal vulnerability mainly appears in the International panel on climate change works of 1992 (IPCC. 2001), where it is presented as essential for climate change adaptation. The concept has been defined by a common methodology which proposes the assessment of seven indicators, in regards to a sea level rise of 1m in 2100: people affected, people at risk, capital value at loss, land at loss, wetland at loss, potential adaptation costs, people at risk assuming this adaptation. Many national assessments have been implemented (Nicholls, et al. 1995) and a global assessment was proposed for three indicators (Nicholls, et al. 1999). The DINAS-Coast project reuses this methodology to produce the DIVA-tool for coastal managers (Vafeidis, et al. 2004). Besides, many other methodologies for national or regional coastal vulnerability assessments have been developed (review by (UNFCCC. 2008). The use of aggregated vulnerability indicators (including geomorphology, hydrodynamics, climate change…) is widespread: the USGS coastal vulnerability index is used worldwide and was completed by a social vulnerability index (Boruff, et al. 2005). Those index-based methods propose a vulnerability mapping which visualise indicators of erosion, submersion and/or socio economic sensibility in coastal zones

  4. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  5. Use of Natural and Nature-Based Features for Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, C.; Bridges, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) have been used for decades to support a variety of objectives in coastal systems. Beach and dune projects have been a longstanding part of flood risk reduction strategies in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. Coastal restoration projects supporting wetlands, seagrass, oysters and other habitats and communities have been undertaken around the world to restore ecosystem functions. In more recent years there has been a growing interest in developing a technically sound engineering approach for integrating NNBF, in combination with conventional flood defense systems (e.g., levees, seawalls, etc.), for more comprehensive and sustainable flood defense systems. This interest was further stimulated by the outcomes of recent storm events, including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the United States, which have given rise to a range of studies and projects focused on the role of coastal landscape features in flood risk management. The global dialogue that has been underway for several years—including within the Engineering with Nature program in the United States—has revealed the demand for an authoritative guidance on the use of NNBF in shoreline management. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has initiated a collaborative project involving participants from several countries and organizations representing government, academia, and the private sector to develop international guidelines to inform the planning, design, construction, and operation or NNBF projects to support coastal resilience. This paper will describe the key issues and objectives informing the work of the international team that is developing the guidelines.

  6. Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

  7. Natural and artificial radioactivity in coastal regions of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Cook, G.T.; Baxter, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The transport and bioaccumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in the coastal regions of UK have been investigated. The magnitude of radionuclide concentration variation throughout the UK coastline has been quantified and where appropriate source terms have been identified. Sites bordering the Irish Sea show the highest levels of artificial radioactivity which are derived from past Sellafield discharges. Enhanced concentrations of natural radioactivity were found in all Whitehaven samples, in sediment at Blackhall Colliery near Hartlepool and in mussels at Aberdeen. Highest radionuclide concentrations were present in Whitehaven mussels - 3124Bqkg -1 dry weight of 210 Po. Excluding sites bordering the Irish Sea, levels of natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 232 Th, 238 U) were greatly in excess of the artificial radionuclide concentrations in all sample types. The biological preference for accumulation of 210 Po relative to its grandparent 210 Pb is evident. 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios range between 2 and 40 in mussels, winkles and seaweed but only between 0.24 and 1.3 in sediments and sea water. Radiologically, the highest radiation exposure to the public evident from the results would be from the ingestion of Whitehaven mussels (3.2mSv y -1 ), the greatest single contribution being from technologically enhanced 210 Po. (Author)

  8. Beach Resilience to Coastal Structures on a Natural Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Medellín, G.; Hofman, A.; Tereszkiewicz, P.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; López-González, J.

    2016-12-01

    Beach resilience plays an important role on reducing coastal risk associated to either natural or human induced perturbations affecting the coast. Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate beach resilience in Sisal, Yucatán. Both impermeable and permeable 14-m groins were designed to asses the impact of coastal structures on the beach morphology during a 24-hour period. The experiments were conducted in the spring of 2015 and 2016, allowing the assessment of both structures under similar forcing conditions. Intense sea breeze events (W>12 m/s) generated high-angle short-waves, driving alongshore transport in the swash zone. Wind, waves, tides, and currents were measured concurrently and are correlated with beach morphology evolution data derived from intense monitoring conducted during the structure deployment. The impermeable structure induced a significant beach accretion (>60 m3/day) in the updrift side of the structure causing a tremendous impact downdrift. On the other hand, the permeable groin induced a smaller but still significant accretion (40 m3/day), allowing sediment bypass throughout the structure. Furthermore, the beach surveying continued after structures removal in order to estimate the beach recovery capability. Field observations show that the impact of the structure on the morphology is negligible six days after structure removal for the impermeable groin and only one day for the permeable structure. The latter suggests the high beach resilience of the study area. We acknowledge field support provided by researchers and students at the LIPC-UNAM. Financial support was provided by CONACYT (Projects LN271544 and Cátedras 1146), DGAPA-UNAM (PAPIIT-IN107315) and Grupo BARI.

  9. Biodiversity and ecology of soil fungi in a primary succession of a temperate coastal dune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.; Summerbell, R.C.; de Boer, W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Gamsformerly, W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungal communities were studied in an actively developing coastal dune system at Goeree Island, the Netherlands. A shore to inland sampling transect was laid out, extending from coastal brackish marshes to recently formed foredunes to older dune pastures to adjacent woodlands. Soil samples from

  10. Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Griffin, Robert; Maldonado, Sergio; Silver, Jessica; Suckale, Jenny; Guerry, Anne D

    2017-07-01

    Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Coastal bacterioplankton community dynamics in response to a natural disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Yeo

    Full Text Available In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition.

  12. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  13. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  14. From grey to green: Efficacy of eco-engineering solutions for nature-based coastal defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca L; Konlechner, Teresa M; Ghisalberti, Marco; Swearer, Stephen E

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is increasing the threat of erosion and flooding along coastlines globally. Engineering solutions (e.g. seawalls and breakwaters) in response to protecting coastal communities and associated infrastructure are increasingly becoming economically and ecologically unsustainable. This has led to recommendations to create or restore natural habitats, such as sand dunes, saltmarsh, mangroves, seagrass and kelp beds, and coral and shellfish reefs, to provide coastal protection in place of (or to complement) artificial structures. Coastal managers are frequently faced with the problem of an eroding coastline, which requires a decision on what mitigation options are most appropriate to implement. A barrier to uptake of nature-based coastal defence is stringent evaluation of the effectiveness in comparison to artificial protection structures. Here, we assess the current evidence for the efficacy of nature-based vs. artificial coastal protection and discuss future research needs. Future projects should evaluate habitats created or restored for coastal defence for cost-effectiveness in comparison to an artificial structure under the same environmental conditions. Cost-benefit analyses should take into consideration all ecosystem services provided by nature-based or artificial structures in addition to coastal protection. Interdisciplinary research among scientists, coastal managers and engineers is required to facilitate the experimental trials needed to test the value of these shoreline protection schemes, in order to support their use as alternatives to artificial structures. This research needs to happen now as our rapidly changing climate requires new and innovative solutions to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities to an increasingly uncertain future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Natural and traditional defense mechanisms to reduce climate risks in coastal zones of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ataur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme events linked to hydro-meteorological processes viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion and erosion etc. These hazards give rise to extensive damage to property and loss of lives every year. Further, anthropogenic activities in the coastal zones are accentuating environmental degradation causing widespread suffering. Cyclones and tornadoes in particular damage infrastructures and crops every year affecting the economy of the country negatively. Some naturally adapted plants as well as landscapes usually reduce the speed of cyclones and tornadoes and thus, protect the coastal zones. However, human activities have destroyed many of the forests and landscapes. Sundarbans and Chokoria Sundarbans mangrove forests of Bangladesh are under a great threat of extinction due to illicit logging and agricultural expansion. At least 34 plant species of tropical forest are on the verge of extinction. Many animals e.g., cats, bears, porcupines, wild boars, pythons and anteaters are in the process of being wiped out from the coastal areas. Among the marine and coastal species, Red crabs, jelly-fish, sharks, and dolphins are also rare but these were the major species prior to 1980s. This study revealed that during the recent decades there has been massive plantations and construction of embankment and polderization but these and other measures have been found to be impractical and ineffective in reducing disasters in coastal areas. There is a need for integration of traditional coping practices and wisdoms with modern approaches. Available knowledge on some of these traditional practices has been documented for establishing a sustainable policy for management of coastal zones of Bangladesh. By combining traditional and scientific management of coastal ecosystem with mangroves and other plants following triple-tier mechanism and habitat, it is

  16. Natural radioactivity in the coastal sediment of East Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo

    2008-08-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the sediments at the coastal area of East Malaysia were undertaken. The purpose of this study is to provide baseline data on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the region as well as reveal information on the transportation of radionuclides in the environment. Activity concentration of background radionuclides such as K-40, Ra-226 and Ra-228 of these samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that these radionuclides were present in mean concentration of 577 ± 75, 23.0 ± 1.7, 34.8 ± 3.3, and 462 ± 59, 30.0 ± 2.0, 38.7 ± 3.5 Bq/kg, in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra e q) and representative level index, I γr were also calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. (Author)

  17. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L Nel

    Full Text Available Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes, it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  18. Coastal microbial mat diversity along a natural salinity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Fillinger, L.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to

  19. Coastal Microbial Mat Diversity along a Natural Salinity Gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H.; Fillinger, L.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to

  20. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting freshwater lenses in coastal dunes of the Adriatic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Davide; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco; Giambastiani, Beatrice Maria Sole

    2017-08-01

    This study characterizes the near-shore portion of the shallow coastal aquifer included in the Ravenna area (Northern Italy) with special attention to the roles of coastal dunes as freshwater reservoirs and their buffer on groundwater salinity. The paper focuses on the presence and evolution of freshwater lenses below coastal dunes and highlights the existing differences between preserved natural dunes and dunes strongly affected by human intervention. The influence that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, such as land cover, local drainage network, and beach erosion have on the presence, size and evolution of the freshwater lenses in the aquifer is quantified and discussed. The methodology includes multiple seasonal monitoring and sampling campaigns of physical (water level, salinity, and temperature) and chemical (major cations and anions) groundwater parameters. Results indicate that freshwater lenses, where existing, are limited in thickness (about 1-2 m). Proximity to drainage ditches as well as limited dune elevation and size do not allow the formation and permanent storage of large freshwater lenses in the aquifer below the dunes. The pine forest land cover, that replaced the typical bush or sand cover, intensifies evapotranspiration reducing net infiltration and freshwater storage. The cation species distribution in the water shows that a freshening process is ongoing in preserved natural sites with stable or advancing beaches, whereas a salinization process is ongoing in anthropogenic-impacted areas with strongly-fragmented dune systems. Currently, the thin freshwater lenses in the shallow Ravenna coastal aquifer are limited in space and have no relevance for irrigation or any other human activity. The dune-beach system, however, is the recharge zone of the coastal aquifer and its protection is important to reduce water and soil salinization, which in turn control the health of the whole coastal ecosystem.

  1. Coastal microbial mat diversity along a natural salinity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Bolhuis

    Full Text Available The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to the dunes resulting in gradients of environmental factors perpendicular to the beach. These gradients are due to the input of seawater at the low water mark and of freshwater from upwelling groundwater at the dunes and rainfall. The result is a natural and dynamic salinity gradient depending on the tide, rainfall and wind. We studied the microbial community composition in thirty three samples taken every ten meters along this natural salinity gradient by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of rRNA gene fragments. We looked at representatives from each Domain of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya and with a particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints together with pigment composition revealed three distinct microbial mat communities, a marine community dominated by diatoms as primary producers, an intermediate brackish community dominated by Cyanobacteria as primary producers and a freshwater community with Cyanobacteria and freshwater green algae.

  2. Verification of mid-ocean ballast water exchange using naturally occurring coastal tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Kathleen; Boehme, Jennifer; Coble, Paula; Cullen, Jay; Field, Paul; Moore, Willard; Perry, Elgin; Sherrell, Robert; Ruiz, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    We examined methods for verifying whether or not ships have performed mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) on four commercial vessels operating in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. During BWE, a ship replaces the coastal water in its ballast tanks with water drawn from the open ocean, which is considered to harbor fewer organisms capable of establishing in coastal environments. We measured concentrations of several naturally occurring chemical tracers (salinity, six trace elements, colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence and radium isotopes) along ocean transects and in ballast tanks subjected to varying degrees of BWE (0-99%). Many coastal tracers showed significant concentration changes due to BWE, and our ability to detect differences between exchanged and unexchanged ballast tanks was greatest under multivariate analysis. An expanded dataset, which includes additional geographic regions, is now needed to test the generality of our results

  3. Flow and sediment transport dynamics in a slot and cauldron blowout and over a foredune, Mason Bay, Stewart Island (Rakiura), NZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Hilton, Michael; Konlecher, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    This study is the first to simultaneously compare flow and sediment transport through a blowout and over an adjacent foredune, and the first study of flow within a highly sinuous, slot and cauldron blowout. Flow across the foredune transect is similar to that observed in other studies and is primarily modulated by across-dune vegetation density differences. Flow within the blowout is highly complex and exhibits pronounced accelerations and jet flow. It is characterised by marked helicoidal coherent vortices in the mid-regions, and topographically vertically forced flow out of the cauldron portion of the blowout. Instantaneous sediment transport within the blowout is significant compared to transport onto and/or over the adjacent foredune stoss slope and ridge, with the blowout providing a conduit for suspended sediment to reach the downwind foredune upper stoss slope and crest. Medium term (4 months) aeolian sedimentation data indicates sand is accumulating in the blowout entrance while erosion is taking place throughout the majority of the slot, and deposition is occurring downwind of the cauldron on the foredune ridge. The adjacent lower stoss slope of the foredune is accreting while the upper stoss slope is slightly erosional. Longer term (16 months) pot trap data shows that the majority of foredune upper stoss slope and crest accretion occurs via suspended sediment delivery from the blowout, whereas the majority of the suspended sediment arriving to the well-vegetated foredune stoss slope is deposited on the mid-stoss slope. The results of this study indicate one mechanism of how marked alongshore foredune morphological variability evolves due to the role of blowouts in topographically accelerating flow, and delivering significant aeolian sediment downwind to relatively discrete sections of the foredune.

  4. Natural radioactivity of coastal sediments as 'tracer' in dynamic sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2008-01-01

    Natural radiometric survey of the sediments of sea bottom provided some qualitative sediment transport features, characteristics and parameters similar with those obtained with radiotracers, in particular the resultant direction and mechanism of sediment transport were made evident. This simple and low cost technique can be used for sediment transport studies as complementary to other techniques. The radiometric survey of the sediments of sea bottom and beaches in the gulfs of Vlora and Durres has provided the following major conclusions: Vlora: 1. Waves coming from the west move sends normal to the beach line. The influence of waves of this sector is up to depth 15 m, where is the boundary between sand and silt. 2. There was an accumulation zone from the Vjosa river mouth till nearly 3 km to the south, which was nourished by the fluvial sediments. From 3 to 7.3 km there was another zone, which seemed to be in erosion. In this zone, there was the mouth of old river of Vjosa that is not bringing any more sediments, and consequently the zone was under erosion. Further to the south is another accumulation zone nourished with sediments that are eroded above. 3. There were found alternating erosion and accretion zones south of Vjosa river, that indicates more a local transport phenomena than any long distance alongshore drift transport in the investigated zone. Durres: 1. There was not any visible granulometric selection of sea bottom sediments in the gulf of Durres. 2. There was an indication of sediment transport trend from south to the north of the gulf under the influence of waves coming from the south sector. 3. There was evidence of silting process, in particular in the first part of the navigation channel near the harbour

  5. Water and solute fluxes in dry coastal dune grasslands: the effects of grazing and increased nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, M.J.; van Boxel, J.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A five-year monitoring study has been carried out to examine the combined effects of grazing and atmospheric nitrogen deposition on water and solute fluxes in dry coastal dune grasslands. Two vegetation types were studied: (a) a short, species-rich stand on calcareous sand (foredune site) and (b) a

  6. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, W.; Middelburg, J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A.

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  8. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  9. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  10. Development of a coastal dune vulnerability index for Mediterranean ecosystems: A useful tool for coastal managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, D.; Pinna, M. S.; Alquini, F.; Cogoni, D.; Ruocco, M.; Bacchetta, G.; Sarti, G.; Fenu, G.

    2017-03-01

    Coastal dune ecosystems have been severely degraded as a result of excessive natural resource exploitation, urbanisation, industrial growth, and worldwide tourism. Coastal management often requires the use of vulnerability indices to facilitate the decision-making process. The main objective of this study was to develop a Mediterranean dune vulnerability index (MDVI) for sandy coasts, starting from the existing dune vulnerability index (DVI) proposed by Garcia-Mora et al. (2001) related to the oceanic coasts. Given that the Mediterranean sandy coasts are quite different from the Atlantic coasts, several adjustments and integrations were introduced. Our proposed index is based on the following five main group of factors: geomorphological conditions of the dune systems (GCD), marine influence (MI), aeolian effect (AE), vegetation condition (VC), and human effect (HE), for a total of 51 variables derived (and adapted) from the bibliography or proposed for the first time in this study. For each coastal site, a total vulnerability index, ranging from 0 (very low vulnerability) to 1 (very high vulnerability), was calculated as the unweighted average of the five partial vulnerability indices. Index computation was applied to 23 coastal dune systems of two different contexts in Italy, i.e. peninsular and continental island territories representative of the W-Mediterranean Basin, in order to compare the dune systems with different geomorphology, shoreline dynamics, and human pressure. In particular, our research addressed the following two questions: (1) Which variables are the most critical for the Italian coastal systems? (2) How can the coastal dune vulnerability index be used to develop appropriate strategies of conservation and management for these ecosystems? Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling separated the peninsular from the insular sites, both of which were characterised by low to moderate values of vulnerability (0.32 < MDVI < 0.49). The most

  11. Use of 15N Natural Abundance and N Species Concentrations to Assess N-Cycling in Constructed and Natural Coastal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aelion, W.C.M.; Engle, M.R.; Aelion, W.C.M.; Ma, H.

    2010-01-01

    Natural abundance of N stable isotopes used in combination with concentrations may be useful indicators of N-cycling in wetlands. Concentrations and 15 N signatures of NO 3 -, NH 4 and sediment organic nitrogen (SON) were measured in two impacted coastal golf course retention ponds and two natural marshes. Limited NO 3 was detected in natural site surface water or pore water, but both isotopic signature and concentrations of NO 3 - in surface water of impacted sites indicated anthropogenic inputs. In natural sites, NH 4 concentrations were greatest in deeper pore water and least in surface water, suggesting diffusion predominates. The natural sites had greater % SON, and 15 N indicated that the natural sites also had greater NH 4 + released from SON mineralization than impacted sites. In NO 3 --limited systems, neither concentrations nor 15 N natural abundance was able to provide information on N-cycling, while processes associated with NH 4 + were better elucidated by using both concentrations and 15 N natural abundance

  12. Use of N Natural Abundance and N Species Concentrations to Assess N-Cycling in Constructed and Natural Coastal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marjorie Aelion

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural abundance of N stable isotopes used in combination with concentrations may be useful indicators of N-cycling in wetlands. Concentrations and N signatures of NO3−, NH4+, and sediment organic nitrogen (SON were measured in two impacted coastal golf course retention ponds and two natural marshes. Limited NO3− was detected in natural site surface water or pore water, but both isotopic signature and concentrations of NO3− in surface water of impacted sites indicated anthropogenic inputs. In natural sites, NH4+ concentrations were greatest in deeper pore water and least in surface water, suggesting diffusion predominates. The natural sites had greater %SON, and N indicated that the natural sites also had greater NH4+ released from SON mineralization than impacted sites. In NO3−-limited systems, neither concentrations nor N natural abundance was able to provide information on N-cycling, while processes associated with NH4+ were better elucidated by using both concentrations and N natural abundance.

  13. Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

  14. Determination of natural Ra isotopes in samples from northern Sao Paulo state coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Washington Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims the determination of natural Ra isotopes in coastal samples collected at Ubatuba region, with the application of the obtained inventories to estimate coastal water mixing rates and assess submarine groundwater discharge. Since these radionuclides are present in sea water in trace form (10''- 16 g/ L), the methodology included pre-concentration of huge volumes of sea water using MnO 2 coated acrylic fiber, leaching of these fibers in HCl media and co-precipitation of the long-lived Ra isotopes with BaSO 4 . Before long-lived radium isotopes determination, the isotopes 223 Ra e 224 Ra were quantified using a delayed coincidence system. The delayed coincidence system utilizes the difference in decay constants of the short-lived Po daughters of radon 219 Rn and 220 Rn to identify alpha particles derived from its decay products. The activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by gross alpha and beta counting respectively, of the Ba(Ra)SO 4 precipitate in low-level gas flow proportional detector. Considering the results obtained in 2002 and 2003, the coastal waters exchange time were estimated for Flamengo, Fortaleza and Mar Virado embayments using the activity concentrations of 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. (author)

  15. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  16. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  17. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  18. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  19. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  20. Effects of a Changing Climate on Seasonal Variation in Natural Recharge of Unconfined Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Irregular rainfall patterns throughout the year result in the discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which has an effect on the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. The thickness of the freshwater lenses is important in the context of farmland salinization and coastal ecosystems survival. This study presents numerical models that simulate continuous and discontinuous recharge in sandy coastal aquifers and the thickness of resulting fresh water lenses under current and future climate scenarios. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LOCCLIM FAO and from the IPCC SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration. Potential recharge was defined as the difference between the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in twelve locations around the world: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand), Hong Kong, Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. These locations have shallow coastal aquifers along low lying coasts and comparable aquifer structure, which is the result of similar sediment supply and deposition in the Holocene as well as by the sea level changes from the last ice age to the present time. Particular attention has been paid to temporal variations of natural recharge that can vary from continuous recharge throughout the year to discontinuous recharge. The most dramatic reduction in the magnitude of potential annual recharge by the end of this century will occur at lower latitudes (Mumbai, Singapore, Hong Kong and Mekong). The most pronounced change in length of the dry period occurs for Kobe (Japan) and Singapore even though the total annual amount of recharge remains practically the same. The Influence of variable recharge on the size of freshwater lenses surrounded by saline water is simulated with the SEAWAT model. Models where the recharge is applied

  1. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  2. Sunlight inactivation of human viruses and bacteriophages in coastal waters containing natural photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Andrea I; Peterson, Britt M; Boehm, Alexandria B; McNeill, Kristopher; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-02-19

    Sunlight inactivation of poliovirus type 3 (PV3), adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and two bacteriophage (MS2 and PRD1) was investigated in an array of coastal waters to better understand solar inactivation mechanisms and the effect of natural water constituents on observed inactivation rates (k(obs)). Reactor scale inactivation experiments were conducted using a solar simulator, and k(obs) for each virus was measured in a sensitizer-free control and five unfiltered surface water samples collected from different sources. k(obs) values varied between viruses in the same water matrix, and for each virus in different matrices, with PV3 having the fastest and MS2 the slowest k(obs) in all waters. When exposed to full-spectrum sunlight, the presence of photosensitizers increased k(obs) of HAdV2, PRD1 and MS2, but not PV3, which provides evidence that the exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanism, involving damage by exogenously produced reactive intermediates, played a greater role for these viruses. While PV3 inactivation was observed to be dominated by endogenous mechanisms, this may be due to a masking of exogenous k(obs) by significantly faster endogenous k(obs). Results illustrate that differences in water composition can shift absolute and relative inactivation rates of viruses, which has important implications for natural wastewater treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS), and the use of indicator organisms for monitoring water quality.

  3. Identifying social factors that undermine support for nature-based coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Lauren I; Humphries, Austin T

    2018-04-15

    Human use and degradation of coastal ecosystems is at an all-time high. Thus, a current challenge for environmental management and research is moving beyond ecological definitions of success and integrating socioeconomic factors. Projects and studies with this aim, however, have focused primarily on monetary valuations of ecosystem functions, overlooking the behaviors and psycho-social motivations of environmental management. Using a nature-based salt marsh restoration project on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, we assess the role of human attitudes and preferences in evaluating social success for ecosystem management. We use structural equation modeling to compare the strengths of social variables in predicting restoration project support, and find public understanding to be a more important predictor than personal values. Our results show that even among stakeholders with strong pro-environmental values, a weak understanding of the management initiative can undermine support. We also find that project support does not necessarily translate to the prioritization of similar management strategies. Instead, when individuals consider overall management priorities, differences arise between particular resource user-groups. This suggests that strong public support for individual initiatives can misconstrue complexities in stakeholder preferences that emerge in more comprehensive management considerations. Future investigations of the psycho-social components of management solutions should address the potentially tiered nature of human preferences, as well as whether public perceptions of management effectiveness act as an additional context-dependency of social viability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  5. The immigration model and its implications of natural radionuclides of coastal groundwater in Xiamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minggang; Huang Yipu; Chen Min; Liu Guangshan

    2004-01-01

    The natural radionuclides in groundwater systems are considered to reside in three pools: dissolved, sorbed (on rock surface), and solid. Transfer of radionuclides between the dissolved and solid pools is accomplished chiefly by dissolution, (co-)precipitation and/or a-recoil. The mass balance equations model of the natural radionuclides of dissolved and adsorbed phase reservoir in groundwater is established by setting certain conditions and parameters. The modeling equations form the basic of our assessment of the effects of sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, and advection-diffusion in radionuclide transport in the groundwater. The interaction between groundwater and rock in Xiamen coastal aquifers were studied quantitatively using this model, which gave us reasonable explanation for the spatial distribution of natural radium, radon isotopes activities and their activities ratio. α-recoil supply rates of 222 Rn (P r,Rn-222 ) and 224 Ra (P α,Ra-224 ) range from 0.09 x 10 3 to 3.44 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 and from 0.13 x l0 3 to 4.91 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 , respectively. P α,Ra-224 is also found to be larger than P r,Rn-222 in every station, revealing that aquifer solids contain more thorium than uranium in studied area. Both of P r,Rn-222 and P α,Ra-224 of coastal groundwater decreased seaward, revealing a-recoil supplying rates of 222 Rn and 224 Ra by aquifers rock decreased gradually, which gave good explanation of the spatial distribution characters of above two nuclides. P r,Rn-222 /A Rn-222 increase seaward from 0.3 to 0.9 along the major paths, with the average value of 0.6. Such results reveal that the primary source of groundwater 222 Rn in these areas is α-recoil of 226 Ra decay in solid pool, and its relative increase along the paths. Another source of 222 Rn is 226 Ra decay in tile sorbed pool (R f,Ra-226 ·A Ra-226 ), which attributes about 40 percent of total source of coastal groundwater 222 Rn. P α,Ra-224 /A Ra-224 ranges

  6. The immigration model and its implications of natural radionuclides of coastal groundwater in Xiamen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Minggang; Huang Yipu; Chen Min; Liu Guangshan

    2005-01-01

    The natural radionuclides in groundwater systems are considered to reside in three pools: dissolved, sorbed (on rock surface), and solid. Transfer of radionuclides between the dissolved and solid pools is accomplished chiefly by dissolution. (co-)precipitation and/or α-recoil. The mass balance equations model of the natural radionuclides of dissolved and adsorbed phase reservoir in groundwater is established by setting certain conditions and parameters. The modeling equations form the basic of our assessment of the effects of sorption-desorption, dissolution-precipitation, and advection-diffusion in radionuclide transport in the groundwater. The interaction between groundwater and rock in Xiamen coastal aquifers were studied quantitatively using this model, which gave us reasonable explanation for the spatial distribution of natural radium, radon isotopes activities and their activities ratio. α-recoil supply rates of 222 Rn (P r,Rn-22 -2) and 224 Ra (P a,Ra-224 ) range from 0.09 x l0 3 to 3.44 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 and from 0.13 x 10 3 to 4.91 x 10 3 x 10 3 atoms·m -3 ·s -1 , respectively. P a,Ra-224 is also found to be larger than P r,Rn-222 in every station, revealing that aquifer solids contain more thorium than uranium in studied area. Both of P r,Rn-222 and P a,Ra-224 of coastal groundwater decreased seaward, revealing α-recoil supplying rates of 222 Rn and 224 Ra by aquifers rock decreased gradually, which gave good explanation of the spatial distribution characters of above two nuclides. P r,Rn-222 /A Rn-222 increase seaward from 0.3 to 0.9 along the major paths, with the average value of 0.6, Such results reveal that the primary source of groundwater 222 Rn in these areas is α-recoil of 226 Ra decay in solid pool, and its relative increase along the paths. Another source of 222 Rn is 226 Ra decay in the sorbed pool (R f,Ra-226 ·A Ra-226 ), which attributes about 40 per cent of total source of coastal groundwater 222 Rn. P α,Ra-224 /A Ra-224

  7. Global spatial distribution of natural riverine silica inputs to the coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Dürr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica, SiO2, in dissolved (DSi and particulate (PSi form, is both a major product of continental weathering as well as an essential nutrient in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Here we present estimates of the spatial distribution of riverine silica fluxes under natural conditions, i.e. without human influence, to ~140 segments of the global coastal zone. Focussing on the construction of the DSi budget, natural DSi concentration is multiplied with discharge of rivers for each segment for documented basins and segments. Segments with no documentation available are estimated using clustered information based mainly on considerations of local lithology, climate, and lake retention. We approximate fluxes of particulate silica in various forms (PSi from fluxes of suspended matter, calculated from existing models. Results have been established for silica fluxes, concentrations and yields for drainage basins of the different continents, oceans basins as well as coastal segment basins. For the continental surfaces actually draining into the oceans (exorheic regions, representing 114.7 million (M km2, 371 M t y−1 of DSi and 8835 M t y−1 of PSi are transported, corresponding to a mean concentration of 9.5 mg l−1 and 226 mg l−1, and to a mean yield of 3.3 t km−2 y−1 and 77 t km−2 y−1, respectively. DSi yields exceeding 6.6 t km−2 y−1, i.e. >2× the global average, represent 17.4% of the global continental ice-free exorheic area but correspond to 56.0% of DSi fluxes. Pacific catchments hold most of the hyper-active areas (>5× global average, suggesting a close connection between tectonic activity and DSi fluxes resulting from silicate weathering. The macro-filters of regional and marginal seas intercept 33% and 46% of the total dissolved and particulate silica fluxes. The mass of DSi received from rivers

  8. Coastal Human Actions on Natural Morph-dynamics around RIA of FOZ (NW Spain). Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, J. Javier; Veiga, Efren M.; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    This work approaches the natural littoral processes and their changes induced by human activities around the Cantabrian RIA of FOZ (Galicia, NW Spain). Ria is a specific Spanish term for referring the estuary figured on the sea flooded mouth of a river valley. Although located in Galicia the RIA of FOZ is a Cantabrian Ria. The "Cantabrian rias" clearly differ from the "Galician rias" in their lower degree of tectonic complexity, in their smaller dimensions and in their more advanced current state of infilling (Diez, 1996). While Galician is a Pacific coast Cantabrian was generated as a mainly Atlantic coast. The sedimentary deposits of the Cantabrian rias are mainly from marine origin, being from fluvial origin (Asensio, 1979) just the finest components. The predominant Cantabrian littoral transport goes eastwards and, as consequence of it, the sedimentary littoral spits closing the mouths in coasts normally grow in the same sense. But there are many cases, like in the Ria of Foz, where the spit progresses in an apparent westwards atypical way. This work shows that it is due to combined wind wave phenomena of refraction, diffraction and reflection, which will be detailed. But the human activities interfere in these natural processes. Different port constructions have been made in the Ria of Foz from 1931 to 1977. Their final effects in the morph-dynamics obligate to introduce one construction for regenerate the spit in 1986. The performance, effectiveness and impact of all these port constructions are studied in detail and what are their influences in natural processes for finally applying this knowledge in risks management. Keywords: Rias, Littoral processes, Coastal morph-dynamics, Human induced driving, Risk management.

  9. The response and recovery of coastal beach-dune systems to storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eugene; Lynch, Kevin; Wilkes Orozco, Sinead; Castro Camba, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    This two year field monitoring project examines the response and recovery of a coastal beach-dune system in the west coast of Ireland (The Maharees, Co. Kerry) to storms. Historic analyses were completed using maps, aerial photography, and DGPS surveys with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. The results establish that the average shoreline recession along the 1.2 km site is 72 m during the past 115 years. The coastal monitoring experiment aims to link micro-scale aeolian processes and meso-scale beach-dune behaviour to identify and quantify sediment exchange between the beach and dune under different meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions. Geomorphological changes on the beach and near-shore bar migration were monitored using repeated monthly DGPS surveys and drone technology. Topographical data were correlated with atmospheric data obtained from a locally installed Campbell Scientific automatic weather station, oceanographic data from secondary sources, and photogrammetry using a camera installed at the site collecting pictures every 10 minutes during daylight hours. Changes in surface elevation on the top of the foredune caused by aeolian processes are measured using erosion pin transects. The preliminary results illustrate that natural beach building processes initiate system recovery post storms including elevated foreshores and backshores and nearshore sand bar migration across the entire 1.2 km stretch of coastline. In parallel with the scientific work, the local community have mobilized and are working closely with the lead scientists to implement short term coastal management strategies such as signage, information booklets, sand trap fencing, walkways, wooden revetments, dune planting in order to support the end goal of obtaining financial support from government for a larger, long term coastal protection plan.

  10. The coproduction of knowledge and policy in coastal governance: Integrating mussel fisheries and nature restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Franke; Puente Rodriguez, Daniel; Swart, Jacobus; van der Windt, Henny

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of coastal governance is to connect a variety of knowledge systems. The purpose of this paper is to show how a coastal governance practice can emerge and stabilize, such that actors with disparate knowledge systems collaborate towards the shared goal of sustainable resource

  11. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.Z.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P.M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon in Natural, Cultivated, and Restored Depressional Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, D E; Rabenhorst, M C; Lang, M W; McCarty, G W; Needelman, B A

    2016-03-01

    Aerial extent of wetland ecosystems has decreased dramatically since precolonial times due to the conversion of these areas for human use. Wetlands provide various ecosystem services, and conservation efforts are being made to restore wetlands and their functions, including soil carbon storage. This Mid-Atlantic Regional USDA Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project study was conducted to evaluate the effects and effectiveness of wetland conservation practices along the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. This study examined 48 wetland sites in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina under natural, prior converted cropland, and 5- to 10-yr post wetland restoration states. The North Carolina sites mainly contained soils dominated by organic soil materials and therefore were analyzed separately from the rest of the sites, which primarily contained mineral soils. Soil samples were collected using the bulk density core method by horizon to a depth of 1 m and were analyzed for percent carbon. The natural wetlands were found to have significantly greater carbon stocks (21.5 ± 5.2 kg C m) than prior converted croplands (7.95 ± 1.93 kg C m; wetlands (4.82 ± 1.13 kg C m; wetlands, and the relatively young age of the restored sites. Wetlands were either restored by plugging drainage structures, with minimal surface disturbance, or by scraping the surface (i.e., excavation) to increase hydroperiod. Sites restored with the scraping technique had significantly lower carbon stocks (2.70 ± 0.38 kg C m) than those restored by passive techniques (6.06 ± 1.50 kg C m; = 0.09). Therefore, techniques that involve excavation and scraping to restore hydrology appear to negatively affect C storage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  15. Natural resources economical activities in coastal area of Rio de la Plata: report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, V.; Garibotto, S.; Gorfinkiel, D.; Pena, C.; Resnichenko, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated management of coastal zone covers multiple problems, often conflicts on the use of coastal resources that is different productive capacities, the presence of a variety of important actors a degree of relationship with the river and its surroundings, this is due to the pressures on coastal resources in a given area may be higher due to the activities that take place outside this area. Colonia, San Jose, Canelones and Maldonado are the departments of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay to which they have studied the impact on the national economy, economic characteristics of the population, business, mining, farming, tourism fores tal activities.

  16. Improving the Management of Coastal Natural Resources by Engaging and Empowering the Youth: A case study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, E.

    2013-12-01

    In rural communities of Africa, environmental programs aiming at creating awareness on environmental issues, such as climate change, have the potential to incorporate and support the youth by strengthening their knowledge, skills, attitudes and ability to adapt to a changing physical environment. Along the coastal region of Ghana, the perception of climate change involves both young and old generations within their communities. However, most educational programs in climate change adaptation and mitigation are often targeted at adults, leaving out the participation of the youth. In most cases, this is explained by the traditional idea that adults are regarded as the educators in the community. This work investigates the roles that young people can play in environmental educational programs at the community level, especially for coastal migrant populations. Young generations may be motivators of interest, changers of attitude, and creators of awareness towards the elder generations. Different tools aimed at engaging the youth population such as interactive programs of environmental communication and management are used in this work. Using these tools, the youth will be empowered to be more involved in the decision making process, they will educate their parents, newer generations and other stakeholders and, they will organize themselves to protect the coastal natural resources. Such roles and actions have the potential of transforming communities characterized for their environment degradation by over-exploiting their local natural resources towards a community based in the exploitation of the coastal resources within a preservation context. This work also shows the resistance of the older generations to promote educational changes related to the management of the coastal resources and how this is perceived by the younger generation, who will become the future leaders.

  17. Foredune Classification and Storm Response: Automated Analysis of Terrestrial Lidar DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, some homeowners utilized dump trucks or bull-dozers to rebuild dunes in front of their homes in preparation for the...Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, Coastal Observation & Analysis Branch, 1261 Duck Rd, Duck, NC 27949, USA...integral part of coastal systems , particularly on developed coastlines where they protect property and infrastructure from storm inundation. In

  18. Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macroph...

  19. Embedding ecosystem services in coastal planning leads to better outcomes for people and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Verutes, Gregory M; Wood, Spencer A; Clarke-Samuels, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Rosenthal, Amy; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Guannel, Gregory; Toft, Jodie; Faries, Joe; Silver, Jessica M; Griffin, Robert; Guerry, Anne D

    2015-06-16

    Recent calls for ocean planning envision informed management of social and ecological systems to sustain delivery of ecosystem services to people. However, until now, no coastal and marine planning process has applied an ecosystem-services framework to understand how human activities affect the flow of benefits, to create scenarios, and to design a management plan. We developed models that quantify services provided by corals, mangroves, and seagrasses. We used these models within an extensive engagement process to design a national spatial plan for Belize's coastal zone. Through iteration of modeling and stakeholder engagement, we developed a preferred plan, currently under formal consideration by the Belizean government. Our results suggest that the preferred plan will lead to greater returns from coastal protection and tourism than outcomes from scenarios oriented toward achieving either conservation or development goals. The plan will also reduce impacts to coastal habitat and increase revenues from lobster fishing relative to current management. By accounting for spatial variation in the impacts of coastal and ocean activities on benefits that ecosystems provide to people, our models allowed stakeholders and policymakers to refine zones of human use. The final version of the preferred plan improved expected coastal protection by >25% and more than doubled the revenue from fishing, compared with earlier versions based on stakeholder preferences alone. Including outcomes in terms of ecosystem-service supply and value allowed for explicit consideration of multiple benefits from oceans and coasts that typically are evaluated separately in management decisions.

  20. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  1. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  2. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Levin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia (defined here as <1.42 ml L−1; 62.5 μM; 2 mg L−1, approx. 30% oxygen saturation develops seasonally in many estuaries, fjords, and along open coasts as a result of natural upwelling or from anthropogenic eutrophication induced by riverine nutrient inputs. Permanent hypoxia occurs naturally in some isolated seas and marine basins as well as in open slope oxygen minimum zones. Responses of benthos to hypoxia depend on the duration, predictability, and intensity of oxygen depletion and on whether H2S is formed. Under suboxic conditions, large mats of filamentous sulfide oxidizing bacteria cover the seabed and consume sulfide. They are hypothesized to provide a detoxified microhabitat for eukaryotic benthic communities. Calcareous foraminiferans and nematodes are particularly tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and may attain high densities and dominance, often in association with microbial mats. When oxygen is sufficient to support metazoans, small, soft-bodied invertebrates (typically annelids, often with short generation times and elaborate branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages.

    Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below

  3. Holocene beach buildup and coastal aeolian sand incursions off the Nile littoral cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Shtienberg, Gilad; Porat, Naomi; Bookman, Revital

    2017-04-01

    Israel's coastal plain is abundant with sand originating from the Nile littoral cell. The inland windblown loose sand has formed 3-6 km wide lobe-like sand and dune fields currently comprised of foredunes, linear and northeasterly facing transverse and parabolic dunes that are currently stabilized by vegetation. This study reviews the architecture and history of the these dune fields aiming to: (a) Date the timings of beach accretion, and sand and dune incursions. (b) Discriminate between natural and human-induced forcing factors of sand mobilization and stabilization in time and space. (c) Present a model of the dunescape development. (d) Assess scenarios of sand transport in the future charcaterized by intense human impact and climate change. Luminescence ages, radiocarbon dates and relative ages from previously published geological and archaeological reports, historical texts, together with new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages and stratigraphic and sedimentological data are analyzed. The deposition, mobilizations and preservation of the sand bodies, initially induced by the decline in sea level rise at 6-4 ka, were later controlled by historic land-use intensity and modern land-use/negligence practices. At 6 ka, beach sand buildup rapidly started. Where aeolianite ridges bordered the coast, pulses of sand with biogenic carbonate grains unconformably draped the ridges and rapidly consolidated into a distinct sandy calcarenite unit. Further east, sand sheets and low dunes partly pedogenized following their incursion, but did not cement. The water retention capacities of the sand sheets enabled the establishment of a sand-stabilizing vegetation cover that probably became an attractive environment for fuel and grazing. The growing Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine ( 2.4-1.3 ka) populations probably led to increased consumption and massive destruction of sand stabilizing vegetation, enabling sand erodibility and mobilization during winter storms. The sand

  4. Understanding human impacts to tropical coastal ecosystems through integrated hillslope erosion measurements, optical coastal waters characterization, watershed modeling, marine ecosystem assessments, and natural resource valuations in two constrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zayas, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Santiago, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Figueroa, Y.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems are an asset to many tropical island economies. In Puerto Rico, however, many invaluable coastal ecosystems are at risk due to multiple social and natural environmental stressors. To quantify the role of anthropogenic versus natural stressors, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was applied in two contrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico. The Rio Loco (RL) watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico is hydrologically modified with interbasin water transfers, hydroelectric generation, and with water extraction for irrigation and water supply. Intensive agricultural production dominates both the lower and upper portions of the basin. In contrast, the Rio Grande de Manatí (RGM) shows a natural flow regime with minor flow regulation and limited agriculture. The Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to each watershed to assess the effects of land use changes on water and sediment fluxes to coastal areas. From 1977 to 2016, forest areas increased in both watersheds due to the abandonment of farms in the mountains. However, in upper and lower RL, agricultural lands have remained active. Coffee plantations in the upper watershed contribute with high sediment loads, particularly in unpaved service roads. We hypothesize that water fluxes will be higher in the larger RGM than in RL. However, suspended sediment fluxes will be higher in the agriculturally active RL basin. A willingness-to-pay approach was applied to assess how residents from each watershed value water and coastal ecosystems revealing a general higher natural resources valuation in the RGM than in RL. Coastal ecosystems at each site revealed structural differences in benthic coral communities due to local currents influenced largely by coastal morphology. The optical properties of coastal waters are also being determined and linked to fluvial sediment fluxes. Stakeholder meetings are being held in each watershed to promote transfer of scientific insights into a sustainable coastal and

  5. Investigation of vegetation-induced drag parameterizations for natural and nature-based extreme events coastal protection in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, S.; Suckale, J.; Ferreira, C.; Arkema, K.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing intensity and frequency of extreme meteorological events around the world highlight the need for resilient coastal defenses. For more than a century, it has been recognized that coastal ecosystems such as marshes and mangroves may mitigate the damage caused by natural hazards such as storms. Aquatic vegetation can potentially attenuate waves and currents through drag forces, with strong implications for sediment transport processes and hence morphological evolution. However, although observations exist that support such a theory, an accurate quantification of the protective role of coastal ecosystems remains a standing challenge for the scientific community, which manifests itself in the large, diverse set of available empirical expressions for parameterizing the fluid-vegetation interaction. We propose a comparison of different state-of-the-art parameterizations for the effect of vegetation on hydrodynamics (particularly, the drag coefficient), with varying degrees of complexity and number of required input variables. The inter-comparison of such alternatives, when validated against field data, can lead to a modeling framework that optimizes the trade-offs between complexity, input requirements and uncertainty in the results. We focus our numerical study on storm events in the marshes and wetlands of Chesapeake Bay. We simulate the hydrodynamics via the Non-Linear Shallow Water Equations, which are in turn solved numerically through a Finite Volume scheme. The simulations are complemented by an ongoing 2-years field campaign, where we continuously collect hydrodynamic measurements such as free surface elevation and vertical velocity profiles, biophysical characteristics of the vegetation and high-resolution topo-bathymetric data of the site. Field measurements are used for calibration and validation purposes. We also investigate some implications on sediment transport processes. We expect that results from our study can support policy makers and

  6. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  7. Cycling of the main natural alpha emitters in the coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, A.O.

    1989-11-01

    A suite of natural radionuclides including 210 Pb- 210 Po was analysed in atmospheric deposition, seawater, suspended particulates and abyssal fauna from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Measurements of dry and wet atmospheric fallout show that most of the 210 Pb and 210 Po in surface seawater originates from atmospheric deposition. In surface seawater near Madeira, 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations average 2.1±0.7 and 1.5±0.7 mBq 1 -1 , respectively. 210 Pb was in excess over 226 Ra in the upper mixed layer but below 500 m the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra ratio was less than 1 due to preferential scavenging of 210 Pb by particles. Seawater profiles of 210 Po and 210 Pb indicated a well-defined maximum of 210 Po between 250-500 m. Based on activity levels measured in water and suspended particulates in the Iberian and Porcupine abyssal basins, mean residence times of 5 y and 1 y were computed for soluble 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively. A much shorter residence time of 0.6 y was computed for the particles that scavenge both radionuclides. Analysis of a variety of abyssal organisms demonstrated a wide range in whole-body 210 Po concentrations with values varying between 38 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in ascidians to 174 Bq kg -1 wet in starfish. The lowest concentrations (0.37 Bq kg -1 wet) were found in the muscle of the rattail Coryphaenoides armatus. In mesopelagic fish muscle 210 Po concentrations ranged from 0.2 Bq kg -1 wet in Aphanopus carbo to 980 Bq kg - '1 wet in the hatchet fish Argyropelecus aculeatus. In the hatchet fish a very high concentration of 7.9 kBq kg -1 wet in gonad results in a dose of 4.2 Sv y -1 to that organ. In general, the 210 Po concentrations measured in abyssal and mesopelagic species are similar to those which have been reported for coastal organisms. The large differences in 210 Po concentrations among similar species inhabiting the same water mass suggests that 210 Po levels in these organisms arise primarily from the different prey they ingest rather than by

  8. 'Building with nature' : The new Dutch approach to coastal and river works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Van Koningsveld, M.; Aarninkhof, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands has adopted a new, proactive approach to developing its extensive coastal and river works called ‘building with nature’. Rather than simply minimising or mitigating the environmental impact of harbours, navigation channels, land reclamation and flood defences, the idea is to make use

  9. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  10. Fenologia de uma comunidade de duna frontal no sul do Brasil Phenology of a foredune plant community in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou descrever os padrões fenológicos em uma comunidade de dunas costeiras em Santa Catarina (27ºS, avaliar suas relações a fatores climáticos e comparar estes padrões aos de comunidades situadas em outras latitudes na costa brasileira. O estudo foi realizado com espécies da duna frontal da Praia da Joaquina, Ilha de Santa Catarina, SC. Empregou-se um método com base em freqüência, calculando-se mensalmente a ocorrência das espécies e de suas fenofases (n=73 quadrados fixos de 1x1m. Ocorreram espécies florescendo e frutificando ao longo de todo o ano. como observado nas comunidades situadas a menores latitudes (SP: 24ºS e ES: 20ºS. O maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação ocorreu no período quente e super-úmido. De forma distinta ao que ocorre no extremo sul do Brasil (RS: 32ºS, observaram-se várias espécies em floração nos meses mais frios de inverno. Muitas destas, entretanto, com floração longa, mostraram redução em suas amplitudes de floração neste período. Isto pode sugerir certa limitação por temperaturas mais baixas e/ou refletir o déficit hídrico ocorrido neste período. Das 34 espécies monitoradas, 15 mostraram episódios de germinação, sendo estes mais freqüentes em meses de outono/inverno, com temperatura e umidade em declínio. A germinação no outono/inverno é discutida como estratégia utilizada pelas espécies de duna como forma de escapar das condições de maior temperatura e evapotranspiração no verão. Processos de rebrota foram registrados para 17 espécies, sendo também mais freqüentes no período do outono/inverno. Restrições de umidade com ocorrência de déficit hídrico afetam tanto os eventos de floração e frutificação, como os de germinação e brotamento.This study aimed to evaluate the patterns of plant phenology of a coastal sand dune in the State of Santa Catarina (27ºS. The phenological patterns were investigated in relation to

  11. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  12. Community-level response of coastal microbial biofilms to ocean acidification in a natural carbon dioxide vent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidbury, Ian; Johnson, Vivienne; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Munn, Colin B; Cunliffe, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The impacts of ocean acidification on coastal biofilms are poorly understood. Carbon dioxide vent areas provide an opportunity to make predictions about the impacts of ocean acidification. We compared biofilms that colonised glass slides in areas exposed to ambient and elevated levels of pCO(2) along a coastal pH gradient, with biofilms grown at ambient and reduced light levels. Biofilm production was highest under ambient light levels, but under both light regimes biofilm production was enhanced in seawater with high pCO(2). Uronic acids are a component of biofilms and increased significantly with high pCO(2). Bacteria and Eukarya denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile analysis showed clear differences in the structures of ambient and reduced light biofilm communities, and biofilms grown at high pCO(2) compared with ambient conditions. This study characterises biofilm response to natural seabed CO(2) seeps and provides a baseline understanding of how coastal ecosystems may respond to increased pCO(2) levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary versus secondary and anthropogenic versus natural sources of aminium ions in atmospheric particles during nine coastal and marine campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Yao, X.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, size-segregated dimethylaminium (DMA+) and trimethylaminium (TMA+) in atmospheric particles were measured during four coastal campaigns in Qingdao, China and five campaigns cruising over marginal seas of China and the northwest Pacific Ocean. The measured averages of DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-10 (the sum of chemical concentrations from 0.056 to 10 µm) during each campaign, ranged from 0.045 to 1.1 nmol m-3 and from 0.029 to 0.53 nmol m-3, respectively. Size distributions of DMA+ and TMA+ in coastal atmospheric particles suggested that primary combustion emissions featured by mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) at 0.2 µm generally yielded appreciable contributions to their observed concentrations in PM0.056-10 and sometimes dominantly contributed. In the marine atmospheres, the 0.1-0.2 µm modes of DMA+ and TMA+ also existed and sometimes dominated while they were very likely derived from primary ocean-biogenic emissions. In most of the samples during nine campaigns, secondarily-formed DMA+ and TMA+ in droplet mode with MMAD at 0.3-2 µm dominantly contributed to DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-10. Overall, our results suggested that DMA+ and TMA+ in the marine atmospheric particles overwhelmingly came from ocean biogenic sources while they were likely derived from complicated anthropogenic and natural sources at the coastal sites.

  14. Large networks of artificial radar reflectors to monitor land subsidence in natural lowlying coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Deltas, lagoons, estuaries are generally much prone to land subsidence. They are also very sensitive to land lowering due to their small elevation with respect to the mean sea level, also in view of the expected eustatic sea rise due to climate changes. Land subsidence can be presently monitored with an impressive accuracy by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on the large megacities that are often located on lowlying coastlands, e.g., Shanghai (China) on the Yangtze River delta, Dhaka (Bangladesh) on the Gange River delta, New Orleans (Louisiana) on the Mississippi river delta. Conversely, the land movements of the portions of these transitional coastlands where natural environments still persist are very challenging to be measured. The lack of anthropogenic structures strongly limits the use of PSI and the difficult accessibility caused by the presence of marshlands, tidal marshes, channels, and ponds yield traditional methodologies, such as levelling and GPS, both time-consuming and costly. In this contribution we present a unique experimental study aimed at using a large network of artificial radar reflectors to measure land subsidence in natural coastal areas. The test site is the 60-km long, 10-15 km wide lagoon of Venice, Italy, where previous PSI investigations revealed the lack of radar reflectors in large portions of the northern and southern lagoon basins (e.g., Teatini et al., 2011). A network of 57 trihedral corner reflectors (TCRs) were established between the end of 2006 and the beginning of 2007 and monitored by ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X acquisitions covering the time period from 2007 to 2011 (Strozzi et al., 2012). The application has provided general important insights on the possibility of controlling land subsidence using this approach. For example: (i) relatively small-size (from 0.5 to 1.0 m edge length) and cheap (few hundred euros) TCRs suffice to be clearly detectable from the radar sensors because of the low backscattering

  15. Building with Nature - an integrated approach for coastal zone solutions using natural, socio-economic and institutional processes

    OpenAIRE

    Wilms, T.; Goot, van der, F.; Debrot, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Building with Nature as a viable alternative to the traditional engineering approach, making the services that nature provides an integral part of the design of hydraulic infrastructure, thereby creating benefits for nature and society. In it we describe the necessary steps with which to implement aBuilding with Nature approach. Our case study in Demak, Central Java, Indonesia is used for examples to illustrate this approach and the lessons learnt on benefits and challenge...

  16. Building with Nature - an integrated approach for coastal zone solutions using natural, socio-economic and institutional processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, T.; Goot, van der F.; Debrot, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Building with Nature as a viable alternative to the traditional engineering approach, making the services that nature provides an integral part of the design of hydraulic infrastructure, thereby creating benefits for nature and society. In it we describe the necessary steps with

  17. Isotope Exchange: a Potential Mechanism Regulating the Natural and Anthropogenic Pb Isotope Budget in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.; Switzer, A.; Zhao, N.

    2016-02-01

    Two independent studies on anthropogenic Pb and Pb isotopes in coastal corals from the northern Arabian Gulf and the Singapore Straits have shown an isotopic excursion where the main Pb sources discharging to the water move to more crustal-like values, indicating that the Pb in coastal waters might exchange isotopically with crustal particulates without propotional change in concentration. To investigate this issue, Pb isotope exchange is assessed through a closed-system exchange experiment using estuarine waters collected at the Johor River mouth (discharging to the Singapore Straits). During the experiment, a known amount of NBS-981 (206Pb/207Pb=1.093) was spiked into the unfiltered Johor water (dissolved 206Pb/207Pb = 1.199) and the changing isotopic composition of the dissolved Pb was monitored. Shortly after the spike addition, dissolved Pb exhibited 206Pb/207Pb=1.178, reflecting the influence of the spike. Within the following few days, the 206Pb/207Pb in the water increased to >1.190 with limited changes of the dissolved Pb concentration. The observations in closed-system experiment agree with the isotope difference between Singapore aerosol and seawater in our 2-year-long field observations. The kinetics of isotope exchange were assessed using a simple model, which reproduced >70% of the observed Pb isotope variance. Both the close-system experiment and field measurements imply that isotope exchange can be an important mechanism for regulating the Pb and Pb isotopes in coastal waters. Investigations on the distribution of Pb and Pb isotope in estuaries and coastal waters should further assess the role of isotope exchange in ocean Pb chemistry.

  18. Low crested coastal defence structures on the Catalan coast of the Mediterranean Sea: how they compare with natural rocky shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperança Gacia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Erosion problems in coastal zones are increasingly threatening Mediterranean shores. In tourist areas such as the Catalan coast, there has been an increasing demand for the construction of low crested structures (LCS to maintain beaches for recreational purposes. We studied the composition of the biota from three LCS and compared it with that of nearby natural rocky shores. Our purpose was to assess the composition of the communities growing on the LCS at a regional scale and to explore potential patterns of community composition in LCS in relation to the nature of the surrounding coast (i.e. sand or rocky shore, distance from natural hard-bottom communities and orientation of the blocks within the structure. The communities growing on the LCS were similar to those from nearby natural shores but the diversity and the number of taxa was always lower. Sixty to 95% of the species present on natural rocky shores grew on LCS, and differences in the number of taxa between the natural and the artificial substrates increased with increasing distances between them. On the Catalan coast, LCS act as impoverished rocky shores that never become natural ‘climax’ communities.

  19. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site – Part 1. Planning and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneMarie Clements

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Magenta Shores development fronts 2.3 km of Tuggerah Beach on a formerly sand mined and landfill site in an urban growth area on the central coast of New South Wales. To increase the natural defences against storm waves and mass sand movements, the incipient foredune was retained and the parallel beach ridge landform was re-established by mimicking natural processes. Analysis of waste and resources led to a coordinated large-scale onsite re-use, recycling and waste management program that reduced landfill, transportation and natural resource requirements. Bitou bush removed from the Coastal Protection Zone was incorporated into golf course soils to improve grass growth. Leachate in the groundwater from the former landfill was diverted away from Tuggerah Lake and re-used in golf course irrigation. Upgrade of the local sewer treatment plant and installation of a public dual pipeline servicing Magenta and the adjoining township satisfied irrigation demands and provided non-potable water for the existing and expanding urban community. The sustainability challenges of the project were met through clear identification of existing environmental risks, application of scientific research, integrated team management and stakeholders’ cooperation.

  20. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  1. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of various reduced substances, such as N2 and NH+4 , N2O, Fe (II), Mn (II), H2S, inter- mediate oxidation state sulfur species like thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur, and metal sulfur complexes and CH4. These products occur along with a redox... information on hy- poxia from sediment cores. 2 Understanding the causes of coastal hypoxia Dissolved oxygen concentrations in surface waters are governed by the balance between oxygen production (i.e. through photosynthesis), consumption (e...

  2. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  3. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  4. A capital-based framework for assessing coastal and marine social–ecological dynamics and natural resource management: A case study of Penghu archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Huei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Human behavior and the environment interact reciprocally. It is necessary to understand social and ecological systems as an integrated co-evolving social–ecological system (SES) to reveal why an environment is in its current condition and how humans have impacted upon and been influenced by the dynamics of natural system. Many societies in coastal and marine SESs rely on marine natural capital for their livelihoods. They have adjusted to changes in natural capital by utilizing human-made capi...

  5. 50 Years of coastal erosion analysis: A new methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Campos, Antonio; Diaz Cuevas, Pilar; Ojeda zujar, Jose; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia

    2017-04-01

    that transect). While the proxy, the most recommended in the research literature, defined as the upper limit of the beach active profile (backshore/foredune, cliff or infrastructure limit if exists) guarantees the exclusion of uncertainties linked to either, tides regime (very important in the Atlantic sector) and any seasonal variations of the beach profile. Spatially, results show a predominance of sectors under erosion (52% -312km - for global period 1956-2011 and 42% -249 km- for most recent period of time 1977-2011), corresponding to mean retreats of 28 m and 20 m for each period respectively. Paradoxically, when incorporating the accumulative rates (positive and negative) for each period, accretional areas appear to be greater than erosional ones, as the methodology simplifies calculations and thus consider coastal erosion as two-dimensional (distances between proxies) whereas it is a three-dimensional process. Greater erosion occurs along the Mediterranean coast as well as progressive reduction of eroded and accreted sectors on behalf of an induced increment of stable sectors driven by the presence of coastal infrastructures (promenades, seawalls, and breakwater) which prevent the shoreline from migrating inland. The usability of the methodology and its integration on a web-based viewer undoubtedly offers a new opportunity of data exploitation, as combines natural and anthropogenic factors involved in coastal erosion/accretion in a simple but effective way.

  6. Community-based livelihood management in relations to natural disaster - A study on Teknaf (coastal) area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, R.

    2017-06-01

    Teknaf is an Upazila under Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh, it’s a coastal area with strong influenced by the Naaf river estuary of the Bay of Bengal. The study outlines the major livelihood groups or community in the area. It was observed that the livelihoods are severely affected by climatic and non-climatic changes. For example, the increased salinity of both soil and water has seriously affected all livelihood resources, in particular agriculture, fishery, livestock and forestry. The increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters - floods and cyclones, has made it difficult for the local people to secure their livelihood. In addition to natural factors, several anthropogenic factors remain the major form of vulnerability for the farmers, fishers and other livelihood sections of the society. This study was an exploratory research with questionnaire survey by random sampling, focus group discussion, and review secondary data. The study observed that the local people have evolved many local adaptive practices to deal with the difficult climatic conditions. Outcome of the study is capacity building of the community with in their available resource; combined crop and fish culture need to encourage; control excessive collection of Natural resources like marine fish, forest tree, alternative income generating activities for farmers & fisherman at lean season and disaster situation need to start.

  7. Natural Resource Management Problems Of Coastal Areas And Small Islands In The Aru Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantje Tjiptabudy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of Aru in the management of natural resources. 3 Last year a lot of the problems occur. This is because their licenses natural resources management provided by the government to investors who want control over land in this region, and explore them without regard to the ecosystem and the environment and indigenous people who live in it and in the end lead to conflict.

  8. Scale-dependent behavior of the foredune: Implications for barrier island response to storms and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Wernette, Phil; Weymer, Bradley A.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of storm surge on a barrier island tends to be considered from a single cross-shore dimension, dependent on the relative elevations of the storm surge and dune crest. However, the foredune is rarely uniform and can exhibit considerable variation in height and width at a range of length scales. In this study, LiDAR data from barrier islands in Texas and Florida are used to explore how shoreline position and dune morphology vary alongshore, and to determine how this variability is altered or reinforced by storms and post-storm recovery. Wavelet analysis reveals that a power law can approximate historical shoreline change across all scales, but that storm-scale shoreline change ( 10 years) and dune height exhibit similar scale-dependent variations at swash and surf zone scales (red noise at the smallest scales characteristic of diffusive systems, suggesting that it is possible that small-scale variations in dune height can be repaired through alongshore recovery and expansion if there is sufficient time between storms. However, the time required for dune recovery exceeds the time between storms capable of eroding and overwashing the dune. Correlation between historical shoreline retreat and the variance of the dune at swash and surf zone scales suggests that the persistence of the dune is an important control on transgression through island migration or shoreline retreat with relative sea-level rise.

  9. Growth rate of diatoms in natural environment from the coastal waters of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, T.; Burhan, Z.U.N.; Munir, S.; Siddiqui, P.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Growth rate of diatoms were analyzed by 24 hours in situ incubation technique at coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Sampling was done at two stations, station A located inside the channel and station B outside the channel during February, 2006 and at the mouth of the channel during May, 2007. The diatom species dominated in the community were Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia logissima, Pleurosigma spp and Thalassiosira sp. Total community growth rate was negative -0.11d-1 in summer and -0.7 d-1 at station B but positive 0.1d-1 at station A in winter. The individual species have given positive response of growth even in the presence of grazers. During the summer months the differences observed from the winter months may have been due to differences in microzooplankton composition. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates have a large impact on the growth rates. Since these dinoflagellates feed on the large diatoms, it suggests that this is a major factor determine the growth rate of diatoms. Total diatom abundance at initial T0 and final T24 incubation periods coincided with the chlorophyll a values at station B in winter and summer seasons, but they did not display similar pattern at station A, suggesting that when the large grazers removed from the sample through prescreening the diatom growth increased. Presence of high concentration of nutrients near the coast could be one of the reasons of high growth rate at station A as compared to station B which was near off shore. (author)

  10. Isotope exchange between natural and anthropogenic Pb in the coastal waters of Singapore: exchange experiment, Kd model, and implications for the interpretation of coastal 210Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Chen, M.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from annually-banded corals and seawater samples show that marine lead (Pb) in the coastal waters of Singapore has an isotopic composition that does not match that of the anthropogenic aerosols in this region, unlike what is seen in most parts of the open ocean. The 206Pb/207Pb composition of Singaporean marine Pb is 1.18-1.20 whereas the local aerosols are 1.14-1.16. In order to explore this discrepancy further, we collected a large volume water from the Johor River estuary (flowing from Malaysia to the northern border of Singapore), added a distinct isotope spike (NBS981, 206Pb/207Pb =1.093) to an unfiltered sample, and followed the dissolved isotope composition of the mixture during the following two months. The initial dissolved Pb concentration was 18.3 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.200. "Total dissolvable" Pb released after acidification of the in the unfiltered sample was 373 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.199, indicating that there is a large particulate Pb reservoir with an isotopic composition comparable to regional crustal natural Pb. The isotope spike should have brought the dissolved 206Pb/207Pb to 1.162, but less than a day after isotope spiking, the dissolved Pb had risen to 1.181 and continued a slow increase to 1.197 over the next two months. This experiment demonstrates that Johor estuary particulate matter contains a large reservoir of exchangeable Pb that will modify the isotopic composition of deposited aeolian aerosol anthropogenic Pb. We have modeled the evolution of Pb and Pb isotopes in this experiment with a single Kd -type model that assumes that there are two or three different Pb reservoirs with different exchange time constants. This observation has implications for isotope equilibrium between high Pb/210Pb continental particles and low Pb/210Pb ocean waters - what is merely isotope equilibration may appear to be 210Pb scavenging.

  11. Nature of the Coastal Range Wedge Along the Rupture Area of the 2015, Illapel Chile Earthquake Mw 8.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, M.; Comte, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandon, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Wedge theory is usually applied to the pro-side of active subduction margins, where fold-and-thrust belts related to frontal accretion develop, but rarely to the entire wedge, where the retro-side is also relevant. We present a new 3D body wave tomographic image that combines data from the Chile-Illapel Aftershock Experiment (CHILLAX) with previous temporary seismic networks, with the aim of illuminating the nature of the wedge of the continental margin above the seismogenic part of the subducting slab. The downdip extent of the coupled part, called the S-point in the wedge theory, corresponds to the place where upper plate completely decouples from the subducting slab. This point is characterized by a Vp/Vs contrast at about 60 km depth that extends upward-and-eastward in a west-dipping ramp-like geometry. This ramp emerges about 180 km from the trench, near the topographic break related to the front of the Andean retro-side. The Coastal wedge domain is characterized by a monotonous east-dipping homocline with the older rocks of this region along the coast. The offshore region, corresponding to the pro-side, exhibits normal faulting and a very small frontal accretionary complex. Normal faulting in this region is related to rapid uplift of marine terraces since ca. 2 Ma, suggesting strong basal accretion and thus high friction on the thrust. In fact, the epicentral region of the 2015 Illapel Earthquake coincides with the highest elevations along the coast, i.e., the region with the highest slope of the margin. In this region, the lack of a continental forearc basin suggests an overlapping between the Andean and Coastal wedges. The western edge of the Andean wedge is also part of the homocline about 10 km east of the topographic boundary between both wedges, suggesting that the Coastal wedge has been deforming a part of the retro-side of the Andean wedge during the Miocene. The east-ward tilting of the retro-side was acquired mainly before the late Miocene, since at

  12. Natural and Synthetic Estrogens in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent and the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    growth and development. Many of these so-called endogenous hormones are also synthesized for use in contraceptive, veterinary , scientific, and medical...are potent steroidal hormones that are key for the normal growth and development of all vertebrates. Estrogens are naturally excreted from the body...it possible to apportion synthetic and endogenous hormone sources in complex environments. Thesis Supervisor: Philip M. Gschwend Title: Ford

  13. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    The complex exchange of fluvial, subsurface and seawater within a coastal area directly affects global biogeochemical cycles and the application of isotopic tracers, mainly natural radionuclides from U and Th series, is a powerful tool to track sources and sinks of trace elements and nutrients to this systems. The unique Ra signature applied to quantify the contribution of such fluxes is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In the U and Th natural radioactive decay series there are four radium isotopes: 223 Ra (t 1/2 = 11.4 d), 224 Ra (t 1/2 = 3.7 d), 228 Ra (t 1/2 = 5.7 y) and 226 Ra (t 1/2 = 1,600 y). Their wide range in half-lives corresponds well with the duration of many coastal processes. All these Ra isotopes derive from decay of Th parents, which are tightly bound to particles. Because Ra is mobilized in the marine environment, sediments provide a continuous source of Ra isotopes to estuarine waters at rates set by its decay constants. The Th isotope activities in the sediments and the distribution coefficient of Ra between the sediments and water determine the potential input of each Ra isotope to the water. Because 228 Ra is regenerated much faster than 226 Ra, estuaries with high 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios in the water must have a high degree of exchange with sediments on the sea bed or with groundwater draining nearby. This information is useful to elucidate the contribution of estuarine systems to the exchange of trace elements, N, P and C in the mixing zone. The combined source functions for Ra in a coastal area include riverine particulates/dissolved input, oceanic dissolved concentrations, input from sediments and groundwater. The relative significance of each of these sources is usually a function of the site-specific hydrogeology and where the samples are taken relative to the salinity gradient (extent of freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide

  14. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  15. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweed Ulva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study Ulva linza (U. linza as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples of U. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series and 40K were investigated. Radiation dose rates in U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis for U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphic DNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation in Ulva tissues.

  16. Centennial-scale human alterations, unintended natural-system responses, and event-driven mitigation within a coupled fluvial-coastal system: Lessons for collective management and long-term coastal change planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Hoagland, P.; Huang, J. C.; Canuel, E. A.; Fitzsimons, G.; Rosen, P.; Shi, W.; Fallon, A. R.; Shawler, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    On decadal to millennial timescales, human modifications of linked riparian and coastal landscapes have altered the natural transport of sediments to the coast, causing time-varying sediment fluxes to estuaries, wetlands, and beaches. This study explored the role of historical changes in land use and river/coastal engineering on patterns of coastal erosion in the coupled system comprising the Merrimack River and the Plum Island barrier beach (northern Massachusetts, USA). Recreational values of the beach, attendant impacts on the local housing market, human perceptions of future beach utilization, and collective management options were investigated. Key historical changes included the installation of dams to benefit industry and control flooding in the early 19th century; river-mouth jetties to maintain navigation and allow for the residential development of a more stable barrier in the early 20th century; and the progressive hardening of the shoreline in response to multi-decadal cyclical erosion and house losses throughout the latter 20th and 21st centuries. The tools of sedimentology, shoreline-change analysis, historic documentation, population surveys, and economic modeling were used to examine these changes and the dynamic linked responses of the natural system and human populations. We found cascading effects of human alterations to the river that changed sediment fluxes to the coastal zone, driving a need for mitigation over centennial timescales. More recently, multidecadal erosion-accretion cycles of the beach have had little impact on the housing market, which is instead more responsive to public shoreline stabilization efforts in response to short-term (plan for long-term coastal changes are associated with sea-level rise and enhanced storminess, but real-time mitigation, such as shoreline hardening, has been reactive, lacking a collective consensus for best management and a longer-term perspective for adaptation. Together, these findings suggest that

  17. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrochemistry of the natural low pH groundwater in the coastal aquifers near Beihai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Shen, Ye; Zhang, Hua; Song, Chao; Li, Jingwei; Liu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Natural weak acidic groundwater occurs in the unconfined and confined aquifers consisting of Quaternary and Neogene unconsolidated sediments near Beihai in southern Guangxi, China. Under natural conditions the groundwater has low TDS (less than 200 mg L-1) and low concentrations of trace elements (less than 100 µg L-1) with a deceasing tend in contents of the Lanthanides (rare earth elements, less than 1 µg L-1) towards higher atomic number. The groundwater ranges in pH from 3.33 to 7.0 with an average value of 5.12 (even lower than that of local rainwater, 5.88). pH values in the groundwater are a bit higher in rainy seasons than those in dry seasons and do not show significant increasing or decreasing trend with time. The average pH value in groundwater in the confined aquifers is even a bit lower than that in the unconfined aquifer. Comprehensive analyses of the groundwater environment suggest that H+ in the groundwater may be derived from dissociation of H2CO3, release of the absorbed H3O+ in clay layers and the acidity of rainwater. The H2CO3 in the groundwater may be formed by dissolution of CO2 (g). Minerals in the unconsolidated sediment are predominated by quartz with small amount of clay minerals. The sediments undergoing a long-term weathering contain low levels of soluble constitutes. Lack of alkaline substances in the groundwater system is also helpful in the accumulation of acidity of the groundwater.

  19. Natural recovery and planned intervention in coastal wetlands: Venice Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Ceoldo, Sonia; Pellegrino, Nicola; Sfriso, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak) until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations) and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  20. Mid term monitoring of heavy metals content in soils of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. La Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands, in general, and Mediterranean ones, in particular, suffer from differente anthropogenic pressures that may affect their intrinsic environmental and ecological functions. Most, if not all, Mediterranean wetlands are not natural spaces were preservation of habitat and wildlife is the only management policy achieved, bur rather their terriroty is a combination of land units with different activities and influences, such as farming, environmental protection and connectivities with urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the need of periodical monitoring is required whenever pressures and environmental health of wetlands is assessed, particularly of those processes that affect the interconnection of environmental compartiments involving water, soils and biota. In agro-ecological protected wetlands soils play and important role because they are potential sources of pollutants due to farming practices. In this case, presence of heavy metals in soils is and indicator of both environmental health and anthtopogenic direct (farming activities) and indirect (neighbour urban areas) pressures. In this work a mid term (17 year) monitoring of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in soils of coastal Mediterranean wetlands (La Albufera Natural Park, Spain) are analyzed. Two monitoring campaings were achieved in 1991 and 2008. In both cases the same 20 points were visited which were distributed in the natural park according two four different sectors of potential anthropogenic pressure and land use. At each point two soil samples were collected at differente depths (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm). The selected metals were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average concentration (mg

  1. Coastal changes in the eastern Tavoliere Plain (Apulia, Italy) during the Late Holocene: Natural or anthropic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Massimo; Simone, Oronzo

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study carried out in an area in the vicinity of Coppa Nevigata archaeological site. The settlement, inhabited from the Early Neolithic to the Iron Age, was situated on the shores of a broad lagoon extended some 40 km from the Manfredonia to the Ofanto river mouth. This lagoon evolved into a marshland (now extensively reclaimed) that, in the area near to the site, took the name of "Palude Frattarolo". The data obtained from analysis of two sediment cores were integrated with archaeological information to reconstruct a complex sequence of past environments. The evolution of a lagoon—wetland environment was traced since the Late Neolithic. Previous analysis of data from sediment cores drilled near the margin of the settlement had suggested that throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages the wetland was subjected to several rapid changes due to anthropogenic activities. In contrast two other cores, obtained in the middle of the former basin, show a progressive closing of the lagoon environment. We show that studies carried out in different sampling areas of this basin, could produce very different data. If these sites were considered separately the data could lead researchers to draw inaccurate conclusions about the past natural changes that occurred in the physical environment.

  2. Natural variability of pCO2 and pH in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal margins of the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A. J.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Newton, J.; Salisbury, J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Musielewicz, S. B.; Maenner-Jones, S.; Bott, R.; Lawrence-Slavas, N.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery that seawater chemistry is changing as a result of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, referred to as "ocean acidification", has prompted a large effort to understand how this changing chemistry will impact marine life. Changes in carbon chemistry have been documented in the open ocean; however, in dynamic coastal systems where many marine species live, ocean acidification and the natural biogeochemical variability that organisms are currently exposed to are poorly quantified. In 2010 we began equipping coastal moorings currently measuring pCO2 with pH and other biogeochemical sensors to measure ocean acidification parameters at 3 hour intervals in the surface water. Here we present the magnitude and diurnal to seasonal variability of pCO2 and pH during the first year of observations at 2 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific coastal margins of the U.S.: the Gulf of Maine and outer coast of Washington state. Both the magnitude and range of pCO2 and pH values were much greater at the coastal moorings compared to the open ocean mooring at Ocean Station Papa in the North Pacific and also varied between the two coastal mooring sites. We observed maximum pCO2 values in coastal waters exceeding predicted values for the open ocean at 2x pre-industrial CO2 levels. The range of pCO2 and pH values during this time series was approximately 4 times the range observed at open ocean mooring Papa (2007-2011 time series). In many cases, large variance was observed at short time scales, with values fluctuating more than 200 μatm pCO2 and 0.2 pH between 3-hour cycles. These types of observations are critical for understanding how ocean acidification will manifest in naturally dynamic coastal systems and for informing the experimental design of species response studies that aim to mimic carbon chemistry experienced by coastal marine organisms.

  3. Demarcation of coastal vulnerability line along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajai; Baba, M.; Unnikrishnan, A.S; Rajawat, A.S; Bhattacharya, S; Ratheesh, R.; Kurian, N.P.; Hameed, S; Sundar, D.

    Delineation of vulnerability line for coastal region due to dynamic coastal processes and natural coastal hazards is a complex task due to high regional variability and site specific coastal characteristics. A methodology is developed using...

  4. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise SndPt_05_21_22_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  5. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_31_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  6. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_23_24_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  7. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise EPamSh-2016 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  8. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_30_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  9. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_09_29_30_2011 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  10. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_29_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  11. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_06_12_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  12. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_10_12_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  13. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_20_22_2014 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers the...

  14. Validation of a short-term shoreline evolution model and coastal risk management implications. The case of the NW Portuguese coast (Ovar-Marinha Grande)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Luca; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Disperati, Leonardo; Oliveira, Eduardo R.; de Fátima Lopes Alves, Maria; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Phillips, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are fragile and dynamic environments where environmental, economic and social aspects are interconnected. While these areas are often highly urbanised, they are especially vulnerable to natural hazards (e.g. storms, floods, erosion, storm surges). Hence, high risk affects people and goods in several coastal zones throughout the world. The recent storms that hit the European coasts (Hercules, Christian and Stephanie, among others) showed the high vulnerability of these territories. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) deals with the sustainable development of coastal zones by taking into account the different aspects that affect them, including risks adaptation and mitigation. Accurate mapping of shoreline position through time and models to predict shoreline evolution play a fundamental role for coastal zone risk management. In this context, spaceborne remote sensing is fundamental because it provides synoptic and multitemporal information that allow the extraction of shorelines' proxies. These are stable coastal features (e.g. the vegetation lines, the foredune toe, etc.) that can be mapped instead of the proper shoreline, which is an extremely dynamic boundary. The use of different proxies may provide different evolutionary patterns for the same study area; therefore it is important to assess which is the most suitable, given the environmental characteristics of a specific area. In Portugal, the coastal stretch between Ovar and Marinha Grande is one of the greatest national challenges in terms of integrated management of resources and risks. This area is characterised by intense erosive processes that largely exceed the shoreline's retreat predictions made in the first Coastal Zone Management Plan, developed in 2000. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of a new model of shoreline evolution implemented in 2013 in order to check its robustness for short-term predictions. The method exploited the potentialities of the Landsat archive

  15. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  16. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  17. Coastal landuse and land cover change and transformations of Kanyakumari coast, India using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal landuse and land cover features in the South West coast of Kanyakumari are dynamically regulated due to marine and terrestrial processes and often controlling by natural and anthropogenic activities. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the decadal changes and their transformations of landuse and land cover (LULC features under Level II category of USGS-LULC Classification System using Landsat ETM+ and TM images using Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC algorithm for the period 2000–2011. The classified LULC features are categorized as beachface land cover, cultivable lands, plantation and shrub vegetation, fallow land, barren land, settlements and built-ups, water bodies, and mining area, etc. The geo-database is prepared for LULC feature class with an attributes of name, location, area and spatial distribution, etc. It shows the larger area in beachface land cover (sandy beaches, foredunes, uplands, Teri dunes (laterite and associated nearshore landforms, plantations, cultivable lands, fallows, and barren lands are converted into built-ups and it increases more than twice in the period of 10 years. Using GIS techniques, the analysis of change detection matrix reveals that the total area of 45.90 km2 in different LULC features periodically shifted or transformed from one state to another one or more states, i.e. the beachface land cover area of 1.24 km2 is encroached for built-ups and 0.63 km2 for placer mining during the decade. Meanwhile, the area of 0.21 km2 in this cover is transformed into wetlands and saltwater bodies. During the past decade, the expansion of area in the built-ups and settlements are directly proportional to the growth of population, which produces severe threat to the coastal resources. Accuracy assessment of classified images shows the overall accuracy is estimated as 81.16% and 77.52% and overall Kappa coeffient statistical values of 0.83 and 0.76 for the year 2000 and 2011 respectively

  18. Post-storm evolution a high-energy remote sandy beach backed by a high and wide coastal dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Bujan, Stéphane; Ferreira, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the high-energy meso-macrotidal remote beach of Truc Vert (SW France) was exposed to the most energetic wave conditions over at least the last 65 years with, for instance, the 2-month averaged significant wave height at the coast exceeding 3.6 m. Unprecedented beach and dune erosion was observed with the notable presence of a 700-m long localized megacusp embayment with the erosion scarp height exceeding 6 m in its centre where the dune retreat reached 30 m. Both the beach and the coastal dune eroded by about 90 m3/m within 3 months of severe storm activity, that is, a total beach-dune system sediment loss reaching 180m3/m. Beach and dune evolution after the winter 2013/2014 was inspected from March 2014 to November 2015 using bimonthly topographic surveys covering 1500+ m alongshore. 1.5 years after the winter 2014/2015, the beach-dune system did not fully recover to its pre-winter 2014/2015 level. The dune accreted by only a few m3/m while the beach accreted by an impressive amount of approximately 150m3/m, to reach a total volume that was only exceeded in 2012 within our full 10-year time series. Despite little volumetric changes, the dune showed significant morphological change through slumping and onshore wave- and wind-driven sediment transport. Seasonal natural revegetation was observed with large dune grass growth into the summer berm and within the erosion scarp with slumped clots of dune grass re-establishing their growth during the winter 2014/2015. In late 2015, the onset of morphological foredune development was observed. It is anticipated that, if Truc Vert is not exposed to a cluster of severe storms during the winter 2015/2016, the coastal dune will increase in volume within 2016 at a much higher rate than during 2015. Last but not least, starting in late 2015, the coastal dune of Truc Vert is now intensively monitored through regular 4-km long UAV photogrammetric surveys. Given that, nowadays, some scientists advocate

  19. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanpeng; Chen, Wen; Yu, Shaowen

    2018-03-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers is usually related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The results of chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai, southern China. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in seawater (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2- ), as well as the isotopic content and ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C), suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer of the coastal plain is related to seawater and that the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization has occurred in an area that is significantly influenced by land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds are identified in the shallowest confined aquifer (I) in the middle of the area (site BBW2). Leakage from this polluted confined aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the underlying confined aquifer (II). At the coastal monitoring site (BBW3), confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are heavily contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity between the upper aquifers, and the seaward movement of freshwater, prevents saltwater from encroaching the deepest confined aquifer (III). A conceptual model is presented. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for the planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources in this region.

  20. Distribution of natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah coal-fired power plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Anisa Abdullah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: A rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of the natural radionuclides in sediment around Sultan Azlan Shah Coal-Fired Power Plant coastal water area in Manjung, Perak of Malaysia was carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The concentration of radionuclides contents in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health and the environment when exposed through food chain. Furthermore, radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus and they are naturally origin undergoes radioactive decay and emits a gamma ray or subatomic particles radiated from a coal fired power plant activity that contained in raw coal, fly ash and bottom ash, where a potential risk exposed into the atmosphere. However, coal is a heat source for electric power generation and operation of a coal burning power plant is one of the sources radiation contaminations and leads to a distributes of natural radionuclides. Sediment particle is a common pollutant that settles at the bottom of body water can be degrades water quality and demanding of oxygen in the marine ecosystem. Ten points of sediment cores will be taken along the coastal area in the study. The results of present study showed the concentration of natural radionuclides 238 U and 232 Th in surface sediment samples were in the ranged between 2.47 to 3.80 mg/ kg and 8.84 to 12.49 mg/ kg respectively. Thus, based on the concentration value obtained it can be determines assessment of potential hazard and radioactivity level in the future. (author)

  1. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  2. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for characterizing natural events/processes in a coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Doke, Ryosuke; Shigehiro, Michiko; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-02-01

    The investigation methods for characterizing natural events and processes in a coastal field have been extracted on the basis of analysis of previous research. Collected information is classified into three groups according to the characteristics of natural events/processes and investigation methods. First group is the methods for evaluation of uplift, subsidence and sedimentation rates. Second group is the methods for evaluation of denudation rates. The third group is the methods for reconstruction of the climatic and sea-level changes. Study area, timeframe of the investigation, work sequences, techniques for age-determination, index and objects for characterizing natural events/processes, etc. in each research example were arranged in an 'information spread sheet'. Information on applicability of the each investigation method was extracted from information spread sheet, and was arranged in tabular form. Based on an analysis of the above information, investigation method that can be applied to a coastal region was extracted. The methods and indices are as follows: Uplift rate: the heights of marine terraces are the most important index in an upheaval region. Subsidence and sedimentation rate: the depths of strata underlying an alluvial plain are main indices in a subsidence region. Denudation rate: the features of marine terrace are main indices and the inspection of denudation processes by the use of a numerical simulation is necessary. Climate change: lacustrine deposits are main object for investigation. Sea-level change: reconstruction of relative sea-level change curve including uplift/subsidence factor and paleogeography based on acoustic exploration and the investigation of marine terraces. (author)

  3. Seasonal pattern of source and transport processes of natural and anthropic surfactants in coastal aerosol (Tuscany coast - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, Silvia; Ghedini, Costanza; Peeters, Stephane; Rottiers, Andre; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Jalba, Adriana; Dayan, Uri; Temara, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Surface active agents have been detected in coastal aerosols for decades. Their partial hydrophilicity could affect the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles. The ecological significance of surface active substances has thus been much debated, including pre-biotic processes, global climate changes by influencing optical properties and Cloud Condensation Nuclei forming ability, and in decline of coastal vegetation exposed to sea spray. Based on results obtained using non specific analytical methods (e.g., Methylene Blue coloration - MBAS), MBAS reactive surface active agents, like surfactants used in detergents, have been singled out as one of the causing factors of some of these aerosol effects. In order to increase the knowledge on the atmospheric concentration, source and distribution of surfactants, an aerosol sampling campaign was arranged at San Rossore (Pisa): a costal site located in the NW Mediterranean sea.The aerosols were collected at a distance of 500 meters from the sea, on the roof of a building at about 10 m above the sea level. A preliminary spot sampling campaign, at weekly resolution, was carried out in February-March 2006, using an Andersen 8-stages impactor. The main sampling campaign covered more than one year (from March 2007 to June 2008) and the sampling was accomplished at daily resolution by two sequential aerosol samplers operating in parallel way. The samplers were equipped with PM10 and PM2.5 sampling heads designed according to EN12341 European rule. After weighting, the filter was analysed for ionic content by ion chromatography. The concentration of the anthropogenic surfactant LAS was measured in all collected samples using specific analytical techniques (LC-MS-MS) and was compared with the MBAS signal. In the PM10 aerosol, MBAS concentration was on average 887 ng/m3 MBAS, while the LAS concentration detected in the same aerosol samples represent less than 5% of the total MBAS signal. Analysis of the temporal trends in LAS and MBAS in

  4. Coastal flood protection by a combined nature-based and engineering approach: Modeling the effects of marsh geometry and surrounding dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jeroen; Plancke, Yves; Ides, Stefaan; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-06-01

    As ecosystem-based adaptation to global change is gaining ground, strategies to protect coastal and estuarine areas from increasing flood hazards are starting to consist of natural tidal wetland conservation and restoration in addition to conventional coastal defense structures. In this study, the capacity of tidal wetlands to locally attenuate peak water levels during storm tides is analyzed using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC2D) for a 3000 ha intertidal marsh (SW Netherlands). Model results indicate that peak water level reduction largely varies between individual flooding events and between different locations in the marsh. Model scenarios with variable dike positions show that attenuation rates can be minimized by blockage and set up of water levels against dikes or other structures confining the marsh size. This blockage only affects peak water level attenuation across wetlands if the duration of the flood wave is long compared to the marsh size. A minimum marsh width of 6-10 km is required to completely avoid blockage effects for the storm tidal cases assessed in this study. If blockage does not affect flood wave propagation, variations in attenuation rates between different locations in the marsh and between tides with varying high water levels can be explained with a single relationship based on the ratio between the water volume on the marsh platform and the total water volume on the platform and in the channels. Attenuation starts to occur when this ratio exceeds 0.2-0.4 and increases from there on up to a maximum of 29 cm/km for a ratio of about 0.85. Furthermore, model scenarios with varying marsh channel depth show that marsh scale attenuation rates increase by up to 4 cm/km if the channel elevation is raised by 0.7 m on average. Conversely, marsh scale attenuation rates decrease by up to 2 cm/km for scenarios in which the channels are lowered by 0.9 m on average. The marsh platform elevation has little effect on the maximum attenuation

  5. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  6. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  7. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  8. Process-Based Evidence of Coastal Accretion Adjacent to a Natural Inlet and Ebb-Tidal Delta on the North Florida Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Olabarrieta, M.; Keough, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical mechanisms of tidal inlet accretion are difficult to document because of the episodic nature of sediment delivery to the coast from fluvial sources and the complex patterns of current magnitudes and directions arising from the interaction of nearshore waves with ebb-tidal delta bathymetry. Using monthly RTK-GPS field measurements of beach topography adjacent to a natural inlet, we document a shoreline change time series that illustrates a bi-directional, alongshore spreading pattern of accretion following an exceptionally high rainfall-discharge event in May 2009. Numerical modeling of wave set-up and nearshore currents in the vicinity of the inlet and ebb tidal delta produces depth-averaged flow velocity patterns consistent with our field observations of coastal accretion. Our results are in agreement with an accretion mechanism, proposed by other researchers, that involves sediment delivery to the margins of the ebb tidal delta during high velocity ebb flows that accompany large rainfall-discharge events, followed by onshore migration of swash bars during subsequent days to months, at a rate dependent upon the timing of nearshore wave energy delivery to the site.

  9. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  10. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  11. Analyzing anthropogenic pressures in soils of agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands in L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands, despite the importance of their environmental and ecological functions, are areas that suffer of great pressures. Most of them are produced by the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes. Socio-economic factors such as population growth and urban-industrial surfaces expansion introduce pressures on the nearby environment affecting the quality of natural and agricultural landscapes. The present research analyses interconnections among landscapes (urban, agricultural and natural) under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia, Natural Park, located in the vicinity or the urban area of the City of Valencia, Spain. It has been developed based on Environmental Forensics criteria witch attend two types of anthropogenic pressures: (1) direct, due to artificialization of soil covers that produce anthropogenic soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations throw artificial water networks (sewage and irrigation systems) and that ultimately will be identified by the presence of o emerging-pharmaceuticals contaminants in soils of the protected area. For the first case, soil sealing a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011 applying Geographical Information Systems and Landscapes Metrics were undertaken. To determine presence of emerging contaminants 15 soil samples within the Natural Park were analyzed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results show that both processes are present in the Natural Park with a clear geographical pattern. Either soil sealing or detection of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to

  12. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  13. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  14. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  15. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  16. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J. (Inst. of Marine Sciences, Zanzibar (Tanzania, United Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Estimating the cumulative effects of the nature-based tourism in a coastal dolphin population from southern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Louzao, Maite; Oro, Daniel; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Gomes, Inês; Wambua, John; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We used Markov chain models to estimate transition probabilities between behavioural states in the presence and absence of tourist boats, and assess the overall behavioural budgets. Based on these data and the tourism intensity in the area, we quantified the potential tourist boat disturbance over the period 2006-2013. Our results demonstrated that tourist boat interactions affected dolphins' behavioural budgets, with a significant decrease in the overall amount of time travelling and an increase in diving. The average duration of travelling and resting decreased significantly in the presence of boats. Although the cumulative tourism exposure was not significant for the dolphin population at their current levels, these impacts should be taken into consideration with the potential tourism growth in the area. This is particularly important if tourism reaches periods of high intensity, as we have shown that these periods could have a significant impact for the species, particularly where home-range and core areas are highly overlap by this activity. Understanding the effect of human disturbance variations from previous years may help to predict the consequences on dolphin populations, towards achieving a more ecological and economic sustainability of the activity.

  19. A portfolio approach to evaluating natural hazard mitigation policies: An Application to lateral-spread ground failure in Coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Dinitz, L.B.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Evans, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, efforts to prevent catastrophic losses from natural hazards have largely been undertaken by individual property owners based on site-specific evaluations of risks to particular buildings. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage mitigation have focused on either aggregating site-specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. This paper develops an alternative, intermediate-scale approach to regional risk assessment and the evaluation of community mitigation policies. Properties are grouped into types with similar land uses and levels of hazard, and hypothetical community mitigation strategies for protecting these properties are modeled like investment portfolios. The portfolios consist of investments in mitigation against the risk to a community posed by a specific natural hazard, and are defined by a community's mitigation budget and the proportion of the budget invested in locations of each type. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an integrated assessment of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure risk in the Watsonville, California area. Data from the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 are used to model lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility. Earth science and economic data are combined and analyzed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The portfolio model is then used to evaluate the benefits of mitigating the risk in different locations. Two mitigation policies, one that prioritizes mitigation by land use type and the other by hazard zone, are compared with a status quo policy of doing no further mitigation beyond that which already exists. The portfolio representing the hazard zone rule yields a higher expected return than the land use portfolio does: However, the hazard zone portfolio experiences a higher standard deviation. Therefore, neither portfolio is clearly preferred. The two mitigation policies both reduce expected losses

  20. How does the selection of landscape classification schemes affect the spatial pattern of natural landscapes? An assessment on a coastal wetland site in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, V; Veronico, G; Sciandrello, S; Blonda, P

    2016-06-01

    It is widely known that thematic resolution affects spatial pattern and landscape metrics performances. In literature, data dealing with this issue usually refer to a specific class scheme with its thematic levels. In this paper, the effects of different land cover (LC) and habitat classification schemes on the spatial pattern of a coastal landscape were compared. One of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system was considered as the study site, and different schemes widely used in the EU were selected and harmonized with a common thematic resolution, suitable for habitat discrimination and monitoring. For each scheme, a thematic map was produced and, for each map, 28 landscape metrics were calculated. The landscape composition, already in terms of number of classes, class area, and number of patches, changes significantly among different classification schemes. Landscape complexity varies according to the class scheme considered and its underlying semantics, depending on how the different types aggregate or split when changing class scheme. Results confirm that the selection of a specific class scheme affects the spatial pattern of the derived landscapes and consequently the landscape metrics, especially at class level. Moreover, among the classification schemes considered, EUNIS seems to be the best choice for a comprehensive representation of both natural and anthropogenic classes.

  1. Natural attenuation in a surface water channel and a coastal aquifer by monitoring presence and removal of indicator bacteria, pathogens and antibiotic resistance gene: model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciopinto, Costantino; Visino, Fabrizio; Luprano, Maria Laura; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter

    2015-04-01

    The spreading of microbial contamination into the environment, represents a very relevant problem, which leads to an increasing health concern. For this reason, it is important to identify and characterize the extent of natural depuration in water environmental particularly for reducing the presence of faecal contamination indicator bacteria, pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this study, the presence of the above reported microbial parameters was analyzed in a surface water channel and in a coastal aquifer in southern Italy (Ostuni) southern Italy, both affected by Ostuni municipal treatment plant effluents and by local run-off. Several samples were collected from surface water, flowing in channels, and from wells in our study area. In particular, the water samples were analyzed to detect 7 fecal contamination indicators (E. coli, total coliforms, Clostridium p. spores, somatic coliphages, Enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria), Salmonella spp and the presence of ARGs. The water samples were also tested for chemical constituents. Finally a mathematical model has been developed in order to simulate pathogen migration pathways in the fractured groundwater and corresponding possible mitigation of pathogens in pumping wells.

  2. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  3. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  4. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  5. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, short-lived isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms

  6. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  7. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  8. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa. The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  9. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The calculated values of life time

  10. Natural radionuclide of Po²¹⁰ in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Lubna; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-20

    Po²¹⁰ can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po²¹⁰ concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Concentration of Po²¹⁰ was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. The activities of Po²¹⁰ in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql⁻¹ whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg⁻¹. The ranges of Po²¹⁰ activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po²¹⁰ in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday⁻¹person⁻¹ and 249.30 μSvyr⁻¹ respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po²¹⁰ in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po²¹⁰ can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  11. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  13. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the water quality of the coastal waters around the South Andaman in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishnuRadhan, R.; Thresyamma, D.D.; Sarma, K.; George, G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Vethamony, P.

    coastal locations in ANI were used to evaluate the anthropogenic influence in an otherwise pristine island environment. Exceptionally low dissolved oxygen (0.7–2.0 mg/L) at the Phoenix Jetty (PJ) and mangrove site indicates hypoxic conditions. Among...

  14. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  15. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    . Thus, two important aspects are near real-time data telemetry and data assimilation modeling. It is evident that marine technologies face challenges not only in the natural scales of coastal environmental variability, but also in par ticular... fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phy toplankton blooms associated with incipient seasonal stratification, and frontal- and eddy-trapped inertial waves. Measurements of nitrate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pC0 2 ), and dissolved oxygen (DO) have...

  16. Changing Livelihoods in the Coastal Zone of the Western Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WIO) coastal region has attracted much attention by natural scientists, but research on the social, economic and cultural dimensions of coastal life and livelihoods has been limited. The vast range of interesting and important features

  17. Seasonal breaching of coastal barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuan, Thieu Quang

    2007-01-01

    Natural or unintended breaching can be catastrophic, causing loss of human lives and damage to infrastructures, buildings and natural habitats. Quantitative understand-ing of coastal barrier breaching is therefore of great importance to vulnerability as-sessment of protection works as well as to

  18. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    -energy events). Other examples include long-term monitoring of beach dynamics and evolution, examining the impact of natural hazards (surges, storms, sea-level rise) on coastal areas using GPS-linked drones to acquire repeat topographic (point clouds) surveys over inter-tidal and dune edge/back beach zones. Nearshore 3D bathymetric information generated from navigation charts, echo-sonar instruments or more recently from Satellite (LANDSAT) imagery is also highlighted as a key dataset in geomorphometry. The recent technological developments in 3D data acquisition within the coastal and marine environment now offers exciting opportunities in which to reveal how these systems function across multiple time and space scales. Whilst this can offer new insights, it also presents significant analytical challenges due to the sheer volume of data generated, the necessity of specialist personnel and software to process the data. Geomorphometry can help play a key role in this progression and take analysis within coastal science to new levels.

  19. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  20. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    /mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...... place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation...

  1. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    . The impact of natural disturbances can be reduced by protecting the coast by green shielding. The present study was carried out to understand the coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram Island (Tamil Nadu, India), using Indian Remote Sensing...

  2. Mediterranean coastal dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.

  3. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  4. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  5. Determination of sedimentation, diffusion, and mixing rates in coastal sediments of the eastern Red Sea via natural and anthropogenic fallout radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mur, Bandar A; Quicksall, Andrew N; Kaste, James M

    2017-09-15

    The Red Sea is a unique ecosystem with high biodiversity in one of the warmest regions of the world. In the last five decades, Red Sea coastal development has rapidly increased. Sediments from continental margins are delivered to depths by advection and diffusion-like processes which are difficult to quantify yet provide invaluable data to researchers. Beryllium-7, lead-210 and ceseium-137 were analyzed from sediment cores from the near-coast Red Sea near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results of this work are the first estimates of diffusion, mixing, and sedimentation rates of the Red Sea coastal sediments. Maximum chemical diffusion and particle mixing rates range from 69.1 to 380cm -2 y -1 and 2.54 to 6.80cm -2 y -1 , respectively. Sedimentation rate is constrained to approximately 0.6cm/yr via multiple methods. These data provide baselines for tracking changes in various environmental problems including erosion, marine benthic ecosystem silting, and particle-bound contaminant delivery to the seafloor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Chen, W. Ms; Yu, S., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers usually is the results of contamination related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in sea water (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO2- 4), as well as the isotopic ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C) suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer water of the coastal plain is related to seawater and the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization occurred in parts of the area, which is significantly influenced by the land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds is identified in the confined aquifer I at site BBW2. In consequence, the leakage from this polluted aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the confined aquifer II. At site BBW3, the confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are remarkably contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity with upper aquifers and seaward movement of freshwater prevents saltwater from encroaching the confined aquifer III. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for sustainable planning and management of groundwater resources in this region.

  7. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  8. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation......Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took...

  9. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  10. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.

  11. Identifying potential consequences of natural perturbations and management decisions on a coastal fishery social-ecological system using qualitative loop analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G. Martone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing for sustainable development and resource extraction requires an understanding of the feedbacks between ecosystems and humans. These feedbacks are part of complex social-ecological systems (SES, in which resources, actors, and governance systems interact to produce outcomes across these component parts. Qualitative modeling approaches offer ways to assess complex SES dynamics. Loop analysis in particular is useful for examining and identifying potential outcomes from external perturbations and management interventions in data poor systems when very little is known about functional relationships and parameter values. Using a case study of multispecies, multifleet coastal small-scale fisheries, we demonstrate the application of loop analysis to provide predictions regarding SES responses to perturbations and management actions. Specifically, we examine the potential ecological and socioeconomic consequences to coastal fisheries of different governance interventions (e.g., territorial user rights, fisheries closures, market-based incentives, ecotourism subsidies and environmental changes. Our results indicate that complex feedbacks among biophysical and socioeconomic components can result in counterintuitive and unexpected outcomes. For example, creating new jobs through ecotourism or subsidies might have mixed effects on members of fishing cooperatives vs. nonmembers, highlighting equity issues. Market-based interventions, such as ecolabels, are expected to have overall positive economic effects, assuming a direct effect of ecolabels on market-prices, and a lack of negative biological impacts under most model structures. Our results highlight that integrating ecological and social variables in a unique unit of management can reveal important potential trade-offs between desirable ecological and social outcomes, highlight which user groups might be more vulnerable to external shocks, and identify which interventions should be further tested

  12. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  13. Effects of precommercial thinning in naturally regenerated loblolly-shortleaf pine stands in the upper west gulf coastal plain: results after two growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Michael G. Shelton

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of precommercial thinning in naturally regenerated stands of southern pines have been well documented, but questions remain about how long precommercial thinning can be delayed and still be biologically and economically effective. In 2004, a precommercial thinning demonstration study was installed in naturally regenerated loblolly-shortleaf pine (...

  14. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  15. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS are being developed and used by technical specialists, stakeholder publics, and executive/policy decision makers for improving our understanding and management of coastal areas, separately and together as more organizations focus on improving the sustainability and resilience of coastal systems. Coastal systems—defined as the area of land closely connected to the sea, including barrier islands, wetlands, mudflats, beaches, estuaries, cities, towns, recreational areas, and maritime facilities, the continental seas and shelves, and the overlying atmosphere—are subject to complex and dynamic interactions among natural and human-driven processes. Coastal systems are crucial to regional and national economies, hosting valued human-built infrastructure and providing ecosystem services that sustain human well-being. This special issue of IJGI about coastal GIS presents a collection of nine papers that address many of the issues mentioned above. [...

  16. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Nature Watch: Symbiosis in Coastal Marine Communities. Neelam Pereira. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 245-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Anthropogenic and natural variability in the composition of sedimentary organic matter of the urbanised coastal zone of Montevideo (Río de la Plata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Brugnoli, E; Bergamino, L; Muniz, P; García-Rodríguez, F; Figueira, R

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to identify the different sources of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) within Montevideo coastal zone (MCZ). To this end δ 13 C, δ 15 N and C/N ratio were analysed in surface sediments and a sediment core. Sediment core analysis showed that until ~1950CE SOM was mainly marine, observing a shift towards lower δ 13 C in recent sediments, evidencing an estuarine composition. This trend was associated to the climatic variability, which exerted a major influence on the SOM composition, leading to an increased input of terrigenous material and associated anthropogenic contaminants. Surface sediments collected during different El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) phases did not show inter-annual variability in SOM composition, which was mainly marine in both eastern and western region of MCZ and estuarine in Montevideo Bay. This spatial pattern provides new insights on the dynamics and factors affecting organic matter sources available for primary consumers along the study region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  19. Exploratory drilling for natural gas in the North Sea coastal area and on the Dutch island Ameland: Starting memorandum Environmental Effect Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-09-01

    For specific large-scale projects in the Netherlands a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch) procedure is required to assess the environmental impacts of such a project. The MER procedure that starts with this memorandum aims at the organizational aspects of the title area and island. This starting memorandum is the uniform basis for the MER procedure for six exploratory or test drillings in five areas and two research areas in the North Sea coastal area and on Ameland in the concessions Noord-Friesland (NAM/MOBIL) and Groningen (NAM). In chapter two attention is paid to the area of tension in which decisions, concerning the exploratory drillings, have been or should be taken. In chapter three the targets of the exploratory drillings are formulated. In chapter four more details are given of government decisions that are under consideration and where the MER can play a direct role in the weighing process. The most efficient and effective method to execute the MER process is described in chapter five. The planned activities are listed in chapter six. Also in this chapter an overview is given of alternatives, regarding the site, the application of drilling installations and the period in which the drillings can take place. In chapter seven the possible significant environmental impacts of the test drillings are indicated. In the chapters eight and nine the procedures and the time schedule are presented as well as a list of terms and abbreviations. 8 figs., 5 tabs., 7 appendices, 6 refs

  20. Fine-scale patterns of vegetation assembly in the monitoring of changes in coastal sand-dune landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Honrado

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding dune ecosystem responses to multi-scale environmental changes can provide the framework for reliable forecasts and cost-efficient protocols for detecting shifts in prevailing coastal dynamics. Based on the hypothesis that stress and disturbance interact as primary community controls in coastal dunes, we studied the fine-scale floristic assembly of foredune vegetation, in its relation to topography, along regional and local environmental gradients in the 200 km long coastline of northern Portugal, encompassing a major biogeographic transition in western Europe. Thirty topographic profiles perpendicular to the shoreline were recorded at ten sites along the regional climate gradient, and vegetation was sampled by recording the frequency of plant species along those profiles. Quantitative topographic attributes of vegetated dune profiles (e.g. length or height exhibited wide variations relatable to differences in prevailing coastal dynamics. Metrics of taxonomic diversity (e.g. total species richness and its additive beta component and of the functional composition of vegetation were highly correlated to attributes of dune topography. Under transgressive dynamics, vegetation profiles have fewer species, increased dominance, lower turnover rates, and lower total vegetation cover. These changes may drive a decrease in structural and functional diversity, with important consequences for resistance, resilience and other ecosystem properties. Moreover, differences in both vegetation assembly (in meta-stable dunes and response to increased disturbance (in eroding dunes between distinct biogeographic contexts highlight a possible decline in facilitation efficiency under extreme physical stress (i.e. under Mediterranean climate and support the significance of functional approaches in the study of local ecosystem responses to disturbance along regional gradients. Our results strongly suggest that assessing fine-scale community assembly can

  1. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, C.; Caquet, Th.; Franquet, E.; Lagneau, C.; Lagadic, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 μg L -1 ) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 μL L -1 ) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  2. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  3. Whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, trapped in a freshwater coastal lagoon: a natural comparison of freshwater and marine influences on otolith chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Q. de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Strontium and barium incorporation into otoliths was compared between whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, collected from an entrapped freshwater population (Mirim Lagoon and a normal marine/estuarine population in southern Brazil. Chemical analysis was performed using LA-ICPMS with the objective of validating the effects of marine and freshwater environments on Sr and Ba incorporation as a basis for further investigation of marine and freshwater connectivity of M. furnieri. The freshwater population was dominated by older fish with mean ±SD age of 34±1 y, whereas the coastal samples were dominated by younger fish of 14±7 y. Comparison of strontium and barium incorporation among otolith life-history profiles indicated significantly higher barium and lower strontium for the freshwater population compared to the marine population. Furthermore, comparison of otolith material deposited in the freshwater, estuarine and marine life-history phases demonstrated clear differences among these environments. Mean concentrations of strontium and barium in otoliths of M. furnieri were respectively 710 and 112 µg g-1 for freshwater, 2069 and 16.7 µg g-1 for estuarine, and 2990 and 2.7 µg g-1 for marine life-history phases. Barium concentrations in otoliths from the freshwater population of M. furnieri appeared high relative to other freshwater species. Strontium levels across life-history profiles of marine fish increased with age from 2000 to 2900 µg g-1, possibly indicating more time spent in marine than estuarine waters with age. In contrast, for the freshwater population, strontium levels decreased during the first year of life approximately to 700 µg g-1, and remained low and stable thereafter, consistent with the early life-history occurring in an estuarine environment prior to entrapment in Mirim Lagoon. The results confirm the strong and opposite effects of marine and freshwater environments on incorporation of barium and strontium into

  4. Development of the conservation of Dutch coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    1. Traditionally, the living and nonliving natural resources of the coastal waters of The Netherlands have been exploited. Part of this exploitation took the form of embankment and reclamation to produce new agricultural land. 2. The first nature reserve within the coastal waters was established in

  5. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  6. Application of geo-spatial technologies in coastal vulnerability studies due to Sea Level Rise (SLR) along the Central Orissa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.

    This chapter emphasizes the regional and local level coastal vulnerability studies due to sea level rise and the subsequent coastal inundation along the low-lying coastal areas using the advanced geo-spatial technologies. Natural hazards...

  7. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  8. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Chennai, east coast of India using geospatial techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ArunKumar, A.; Kunte, P.D.

    . Zones of vulnerability to coastal natural hazards of different magnitude (high, medium, and low) are identified and shown on a map. Coastal regional elevation, near-shore bathymetry, and socio-economic conditions have been considered as additional...

  10. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  11. UAS-SfM for coastal research: Geomorphic feature extraction and land cover classification from high-resolution elevation and optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Emily; Lentz, Erika; Thieler, E. Robert; Farris, Amy; Weber, Kathryn; Remsen, David P.; Miner, Simon; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM) from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a) determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b) map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a) geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b) land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm) have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  12. UAS-SfM for Coastal Research: Geomorphic Feature Extraction and Land Cover Classification from High-Resolution Elevation and Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Sturdivant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  13. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hopper

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge under past (1609, current (2015, and future (2080 scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands, have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across

  14. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  15. Holocene coastal regression and facies patterns in a subtropical arid carbonate environment - The sabkha of Al-Zareq, Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Peis, Kim T.; Strohmenger, Christian J.; Pint, Anna; Rivers, John M.; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, shallow sea, which became flooded some 12,500 years ago. Current relative sea level was first reached c. 7000 to 6500 years ago, while a relative sea-level highstand of c. 2-4 m dates to around 6000-4500 years ago. Supratidal coastal sabkhas (former lagoons), stranded beach ridges and foredune sequences as well as abandoned tidal channels along the coasts of Qatar and the UAE witness this mid-Holocene peak in sea level. Regression since then triggered shoreline migration of up to several kilometers along the low-lying coasts of Qatar, for which, however, detailed reconstructions in space and time are scarce. This study presents facies changes and a scenario for the spatio-temporal evolution of the coastal area of Al Zareq in the inner Gulf of Salwa (SW Qatar), thereby also contributing to a better understanding of reservoirs that formed under arid climatic conditions. Ten vibracores (up to 8 m), two deep drillings (up to 20.5 m) and two trenches covering the entire transgression-regression cycle were investigated. In order to characterize and interpret facies types at Al-Zareq as well as to reconstruct sabkha formation in space and time, grain size and shape distribution (laser diffraction, camsizer), XRD, micro- and macrofossil contents and thin sections were analysed by applying qualitative interpretation, descriptive and multivariate statistics (PCA, MDA, end-member modelling), and RIR (XRD). Thirty-seven samples were radiocarbon dated and four samples were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Depositional environments include the following types: eolian dune and interdune (in-situ or reworked), coastal sabkha (diagenetic), saline lake (salina), protected lagoon (sand- or carbonate-dominated), beach and beach spit, tidal channel and tidal bar, as well as open lagoon (low-energy, shallow-subtidal lagoon and low-energy deeper-subtidal).

  16. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  17. Ecologically Enhancing Coastal Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Arthur, Mairi; Naylor, Larissa; Hansom, Jim; Burrows, Mike; Boyd, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Hard engineering structures continue to proliferate in the coastal zone globally in response to increasing pressures associated with rising sea levels, coastal flooding and erosion. These structures are typically plain-cast by design and function as poor ecological surrogates for natural rocky shores which are highly topographically complex and host a range of available microhabitats for intertidal species. Ecological enhancement mitigates some of these negative impacts by integrating components of nature into the construction and design of these structures to improve their sustainability, resilience and multifunctionality. In the largest UK ecological enhancement trial to date, 184 tiles (15x15cm) of up to nine potential designs were deployed on vertical concrete coastal infrastructure in 2016 at three sites across the UK (Saltcoats, Blackness and Isle of Wight). The surface texture and complexity of the tiles were varied to test the effect of settlement surface texture at the mm-cm scale of enhancement on the success of colonisation and biodiversity in the mid-upper intertidal zone in order to answer the following experimental hypotheses: • Tiles with mm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater barnacle abundances • Tiles with cm-scale geomorphic complexity will have greater species richness than mm-scale tiles. A range of methods were used in creating the tile designs including terrestrial laser scanning of creviced rock surfaces to mimic natural rocky shore complexity as well as artificially generated complexity using computer software. The designs replicated the topographic features of high ecological importance found on natural rocky shores and promoted species recruitment and community composition on artificial surfaces; thus enabling us to evaluate biological responses to geomorphic complexity in a controlled field trial. At two of the sites, the roughest tile designs (cm scale) did not have the highest levels of barnacle recruits which were

  18. National Coastal Geology Program: a plan of geologic research on coastal erosion, coastal wetlands, polluted sediments, and coastal hard-mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1990-01-01

    More than 50 percent of the U.S. population currently live within 50 miles of an ocean, Great Lake, or major estuary. According to forecasts, the concentration of people along our coastlines will continue to increase into the 21st century. In addition to residential and commercial buildings and facilities worth tens of billions of dollars, the coasts and associated wetlands are natural resources of tremendous value, with estimates in excess of $13 billion per year for commercial and recreational fisheries alone. Human activities and natural processes are stressing the coastal environment. * Each of the coastal states and island territories is suffering problems related to coastal erosion. * Deterioration of wetlands is widespread and of great public concern. * Pollutants carried by rivers or runoff are discharged directly into coastal waters and accumulate in the sediments on the sea floor, in some areas causing damage to living resources and presenting a threat to public health. * Onshore sources for hard-mineral resources, such as sand and gravel used for construction purposes, are becoming increasingly difficult to find. New sources are being sought in coastal waters. Coastal issues will become even more important into the next century if sea level is significantly influenced by climate change and other factors.

  19. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  20. Integrated strategy urged to address coastal contamination issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal bays and estuaries are well known for their intrinsic recreational and economic value, yet these ecosystems are also among our most troubled natural environments. Urban development, agriculture, and shipping are just a few examples of human activities that can cause a wide range of deleterious changes within the coastal environment. These alterations, however, occur simultaneously with cycles of natural variability such as climate change. To effectively manage coastal ecosystems, we need to be able to carefully distinguish between anthropogenic and natural causes of change.

  1. Holistic Flood Risk Assessment In Coastal Areas : The PEARL Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojinovic, Zoran; Abebe, Y.; Sanchez, A.; Medina Pena, N.; Nikolic, I.; Manojlovic, N; Makropoulos, C.; Pelling, M.; Abbott, M.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal floods are one of the most dangerous and harmful natural hazards affecting urban areas adjacent to shorelines. The present paper discusses the FP7-ENV-2013 EU funded PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastaL regions) project which brings together world leading expertise in both

  2. Scoping study on coastal squeeze in the Ayeyarwady Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.E.N.; Rutten, M.M.; Stive, M.J.F.; Wunna, S.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal squeeze is the reduction in the space of coastal habitats to operate (Phan et al, 2014) and an important cause for coastline retreat, increase in flood risk, salinity intrusion etc. Land use changes, such as deforestation and urbanization, reduce the space of natural habitats, such as

  3. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  4. A socioeconomic assessment of climate change-enhanced coastal storm hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harris, E.

    2010-12-01

    Every winter, coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest are at risk to coastal change hazards caused by extreme storm events. These storms have the potential to erode large portions of the primary foredune that may be a community’s only barrier from the ocean. Furthermore, the frequency and magnitude of significant erosion events appears to be increasing, likely due to climate-related processes such as sea level rise and increases in storm wave heights. To reduce risks posed by winter storms, it is not only important to determine the impending physical impacts but it is also necessary to explore the vulnerability of the social-ecological system in the context of these hazards. Here we assess the exposure to both annually occurring and extreme storm events at various planning timelines using a methodology that incorporates the effect of a variable and changing climate on future total water levels. To do this, we have developed a suite of climate change scenarios involving a range of projections for the wave climate, global sea level rise, and the occurrence of El Niño events through 2100. Simple geometric models are then used to conservatively determine the extent of erosion that may occur for a given combination of these climatic factors. We integrate the physical hazards with socioeconomic data using a geographic information system (GIS) in order to quantify societal vulnerability, characterized by the exposure and sensitivity of a community, which is based on the distribution of people, property, and resources. Here we focus on a 14 km stretch of dune-backed coast in northwest Oregon, from Cascade Head to Cape Kiwanda—the location of two communities that, historically, have experienced problematic storm-induced coastal change, Pacific City and Neskowin. Although both of these communities have similar exposure to coastal change hazards at the present, Neskowin is more than twice as sensitive to erosion because almost all of its residents and community

  5. Coastal Conditions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dataset developed by California Coastal Commission's Melanie Coyne by attaching names to a dynamically segmented coastline using the Department of Navigation and...

  6. Human induced coastal changes and their impact on the coastal urban landscape. The case of Heraklion, Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempis, Nikolaos; Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a vital part of human society due to sea activities. Α variety of activities and uses are present and are further developing in the coastal and marine are. Coastal ecosystems and landscape are under severe pressure due to population growth and continuous expansion of human activities and supplemented from the effects of climate change (e.g. coastal flooding, erosion). Heraklion is the largest urban center in Crete. Its suburban and coastal area receives intensive urban sprawl pressures, changing the urban landscape and resulting negative impacts on the human and natural environment. The saturation of coastal area of Heraklion creates the need for new development interventions (e.g. new marina, coastal protection, urban regeneration). This study examine the impacts of the new programmed coastal development intervention in the coastal landscape of Heraklion. A decision analytic approach was implemented, based on the need of stakeholders for the protection and further development of coastal area of Heraklion. In this direction, local authorities have proposed the realization of several development interventions which include a new marina, expansion of bathing beaches and coastal regeneration project in a large beach. The results indicate that the realization of any coastal development projects, also increases the negative effects that are related to land-sea interaction. The negative effects are a result of the interaction between different human activities but also between human activities and the environment. The development of the marina in the selected location, increases the pressure on the sea area as the navigation will increase, but also increases the pressure on land space, as traffic flows will change, creating new pressures in urban areas. The extension of bathing beaches implies larger number of bathers, thus creating greater needs for infrastructures in land area for their service. Coastal protection projects, as planned, will upgrade the

  7. Assessing Hazard Vulnerability, Habitat Conservation, and Restoration for the Enhancement of Mainland China's Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Li, Yangfan; Tang, Zhenghong; Cao, Ling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide, humans are facing high risks from natural hazards, especially in coastal regions with high population densities. Rising sea levels due to global warming are making coastal communities' infrastructure vulnerable to natural disasters. The present study aims to provide a coupling approach of vulnerability and resilience through restoration and conservation of lost or degraded coastal natural habitats to reclamation under different climate change scenarios. The integrated valuation of ecosystems and tradeoffs model is used to assess the current and future vulnerability of coastal communities. The model employed is based on seven different biogeophysical variables to calculate a natural hazard index and to highlight the criticality of the restoration of natural habitats. The results show that roughly 25% of the coastline and more than 5 million residents are in highly vulnerable coastal areas of mainland China, and these numbers are expected to double by 2100. Our study suggests that restoration and conservation in recently reclaimed areas have the potential to reduce this vulnerability by 45%. Hence, natural habitats have proved to be a great defense against coastal hazards and should be prioritized in coastal planning and development. The findings confirm that natural habitats are critical for coastal resilience and can act as a recovery force of coastal functionality loss. Therefore, we recommend that the Chinese government prioritizes restoration (where possible) and conservation of the remaining habitats for the sake of coastal resilience to prevent natural hazards from escalating into disasters.

  8. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  9. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  10. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    of coastal erosion, storm surges, coastal inundation, salination of aquifers etc. Whereas some regions already suffer today, challenges ahead seem immense with projections of sea level rise putting further pressure on our coasts. Although Denmark is normally perceived as a country with a limited....... Water is nice! There is a tendency for coastal migration, and a large part of the urbanisation and economic development is taking place in coastal regions throughout the world. This “coastal squeeze” means that we increasingly are exposing ourselves to the forces and hazards of nature in terms...... vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...

  11. Testing For Ecological Correlations between Greenhouse Gas Fluxes and their Potential Biotic Drivers in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of coastal wetlands in ameliorating the plight of climate change is well documented. Per unit area, coastal wetlands are among the largest natural carbon sinks, taking up abundant carbon dioxide (CO2) and emitting minimal methane (CH4). While the role of coastal marsh ...

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-07-01

    The complex exchange of fluvial, subsurface and seawater within a coastal area directly affects global biogeochemical cycles and the application of isotopic tracers, mainly natural radionuclides from U and Th series, is a powerful tool to track sources and sinks of trace elements and nutrients to this systems. The unique Ra signature applied to quantify the contribution of such fluxes is acquired within the subterranean estuary, a mixing zone between fresh groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. In the U and Th natural radioactive decay series there are four radium isotopes: {sup 223}Ra (t{sub 1/2} = 11.4 d), {sup 224}Ra (t{sub 1/2} = 3.7 d), {sup 228}Ra (t{sub 1/2} = 5.7 y) and {sup 226}Ra (t{sub 1/2} = 1,600 y). Their wide range in half-lives corresponds well with the duration of many coastal processes. All these Ra isotopes derive from decay of Th parents, which are tightly bound to particles. Because Ra is mobilized in the marine environment, sediments provide a continuous source of Ra isotopes to estuarine waters at rates set by its decay constants. The Th isotope activities in the sediments and the distribution coefficient of Ra between the sediments and water determine the potential input of each Ra isotope to the water. Because {sup 228}Ra is regenerated much faster than {sup 226}Ra, estuaries with high {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra activity ratios in the water must have a high degree of exchange with sediments on the sea bed or with groundwater draining nearby. This information is useful to elucidate the contribution of estuarine systems to the exchange of trace elements, N, P and C in the mixing zone. The combined source functions for Ra in a coastal area include riverine particulates/dissolved input, oceanic dissolved concentrations, input from sediments and groundwater. The relative significance of each of these sources is usually a function of the site-specific hydrogeology and where the samples are taken relative to the salinity gradient (extent of

  13. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Accommodation” e.g. raising property B “Soft engineering” /Restoration B1 Sand nourishment B2 Managed (vegetated &/ reinforced) dune B3 Managed/rehabilitated mangrove/wetland areas C “Hard engineering” & armouring C1s Seawalls (vertical / curved concrete... » ‘NO REGRET’ ADAPTATION MEASURES Coastal protection measures Adaptation measures - “Management option A1” “Accept and retreat”: repositioning infrastructure at risk; zoning/set-back lines, resettlement… Natures Valley, an excellent example...

  14. Reliability based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the loa...

  15. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Lines 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  16. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  17. Dynamic revetments for coastal erosion in Oregon : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Gravel beaches have long been recognized as one of the most efficient forms of "natural" coastal protection, and have been suggested as a form of shore protection. "Cobble berms," "dynamic revetments" or "rubble beaches" involve the construction of a...

  18. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and non-renewable resources, is one of the most vulnerable regions of ecological disturbances. A logical approach towards the development and monitoring of the coastal zone involves sustainable management of natural resources...

  19. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  20. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles for select coastal bays, Texas, 2007 (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of natural color (RGB) and color infrared (IR) ortho images from selected coastal bays of Texas. The actual project boundary located...

  1. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  2. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  3. Monitoring man's impact in the coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, A.R. Jr.; Snell, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the monitoring of man's impact in the coastal zone. Color infrared photography shows destroyed or degraded wetlands or beaches, and makes possible relevant linear or aerial measurements with aerial photography. It can also categorize the environmental impacts which have accrued as the result of completion of water development projects. Aerial photography of the Texas coastal zone illustrates the nature and degree of damage likely to occur as a result of construction or maintenance projects. It is concluded that the method of assigning realistic values to unit areas of wetlands and beaches will make it feasible to incorporate the cost of estuarine damages into the cost estimates of water development schemes

  4. Predicting coastal flooding and wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The southeastern coastal region encompasses vast areas of wetland habitat important to wildlife and other economically valuable natural resources. Located on the interface between sea and land, these wetland habitats are affected by both sea-level rise and hurricanes, and possibly by hydroperiod associated with regional climatic shifts. Increased sea level is expected to accompany global warming because of higher sea temperatures and ice melt. To help determine the effects of sea-level rise on these wetlands, USGS scientists created computer models of coastal flooding and wetland loss.

  5. Coastal mapping handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  6. Monitoring the change of coastal zones from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Le Cozannet, G.; Benveniste, J.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The world's coastal zones, where an important fraction of the world population is currently living, are under serious threat because of coastal erosion, cyclones, storms, and salinization of estuaries and coastal aquifers. In the future, these hazards are expected to increase due to the combined effects of sea level rise, climate change, human activities and population increase. The response of coastal environments to natural and anthropogenic forcing factors (including climate change) depends on the characteristics of the forcing agents, as well as on the internal properties of the coastal systems, that remain poorly known and mostly un-surveyed at global scale. To better understand changes affecting coastal zones and to provide useful information to decision makers, various types of observations with global coverage need to be collected and analysed. Observations from space appear as an important complement to existing in situ observing systems (e.g., regional tide gauge networks). In this presentation, we discuss the benefit of systematic coastal monitoring from space, addressing both observations of forcing agents and of the coastal response. We highlight the need for a global coastal sea level data set based on retracked nadir altimetry missions and new SAR technology.

  7. Microbial processes in coastal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.G.; Bauer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe the nature and range of some of the interactions that can occur between the microbiota and environmental contaminants in coastal areas. The implications of such interactions are also discussed. Pollutant types include inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, bulk organics, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and microbial pollutants. Both the effects of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons on natural microbial populations and the mitigation of contaminant effects by complexation and biodegradation are considered. Finally, several areas of emerging concerns are presented that involve a confluence of biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and applied and public health microbiology. These concerns range in relevance from local/regional to oceanic/global scales. 308 ref

  8. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  9. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  10. Using Climate Change Information in Large Scale Coastal Planning: Louisiana's 2017 Coastal Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Louisiana coast has suffered severe land loss in recent decades as human activities have exacerbated the effects of natural stressors leading to catastrophic land loss and increased flood threats to coastal communities. Planning for the future requires a recognition of climate change but also leads to the challenge of understanding how different plausible future conditions influence the outcomes of restoration and protection actions. In coastal Louisiana, the $50 billion Coastal master Plan is legislatively required to be revisited every 5 years in order to ensure that plans for the future continue to be based on the best available, but constantly evolving, scientific information. For the 2017 iteration of the Coastal Master Plan, identification of the environmental scenarios to be explored began in 2014 and included both professional judgment regarding the most important drivers of future change, as well as climate change information derived during the National Climate Assessment. The number of scenarios to be explored was limited by both available resources and the need to make the findings accessible to stakeholders and policy makers. Plausible ranges were identified for key drivers of coastal landscape change, including climatic factors such as eustatic sea-level, precipitation and evapotranspiration. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore how the coastal landscape changed in response to combinations of values, allowed agency personnel to select three scenarios against which to test the effectiveness of different restoration and protection actions. The 2017 Coastal Master Plan was then developed by exploring the response of different actions to the scenarios, and how project costs also varied depending on future conditions. Such consideration of climate change in coastal planning at the state scale is facilitated by the availability of scientifically valid information on climate change, that has already been reviewed and sourced.

  11. Environmental security of coastal seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina; Kollar, Robert; Matika, Dario

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The bottoms of the coastal seas are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. In this report an effort to identify the nature of the object on the sea bottom is presented. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive and/or chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. The inside of the first prototype of the underwater system 'Surveyor' containing neutron generator, shielding and gamma ray detector is shown in figure. The neutron generator used by the 'Surveyor' is rotated by two step motors so that different volume elements chosen by the relative position of the neutron generator and gamma ray detector could be inspected. In such a way a profile of concentrations could also be measured. The preliminary results from the laboratory tests are presented

  12. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie

    2015-06-01

    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  13. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  14. Geoscience research databases for coastal Alabama ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummell, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Effective management of complex coastal ecosystems necessitates access to scientific knowledge that can be acquired through a multidisciplinary approach involving Federal and State scientists that take advantage of agency expertise and resources for the benefit of all participants working toward a set of common research and management goals. Cooperative geostatic investigations have led toward building databases of fundamental scientific knowledge that can be utilized to manage coastal Alabama's natural and future development. These databases have been used to assess the occurrence and economic potential of hard mineral resources in the Alabama EFZ, and to support oil spill contingency planning and environmental analysis for coastal Alabama.

  15. Valuation of the marine and coastal resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark Umbreit, Federico; Santos Acevedo, Marisol

    2002-01-01

    The paper it is about the current state of the marine and coastal resources, a diagnostic is done in fisheries and aquaculture and on the cultivation of bivalve in the Colombian Caribbean; the authors mention that the use conflicts have been given by ignorance of the structure and the natural operation of highly dynamic and complex ecological systems as the marine and coastal areas, which has propitiated the accumulative environmental deterioration, incorporating elements of ecological risk permanently in the ecosystems

  16. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  18. Coastal Hazards Impacts And Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna D. Gonzales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communitys participation in the activities like the preparation and creation of historical timeline. resource and hazard mapping as well as vulnerability assessment matrix VAM are effective tools in determining hazards impacts and interventions of a certain locality. The most common hazards are typhoons saltwater intrusion floods and drought. Data were collected through focus group discussions FGDs from respondents along coastal areas. Findings revealed that natural calamities had great impact to livelihood properties and health. The damaged business operations fishing and agricultural livelihood led to loss of income likewise the sources of water were also contaminated. Planned interventions include launching of periodic education and awareness program creation of evacuation centers and relocation sites rescue centers installation of deep well water pumps and irrigation systems solid waste management drainage and sea walls construction canal rehabilitationdredging tree planting and alternative livelihood programs.

  19. Coastal ecosystems for protection against storm surge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    reservoirs. Channels, lakes, ponds and marshes distribute flood waters, whereas natural topographic depressions can store large volumes of surge water (Fig.2). Unfortunately, such settings are fast diminishing as structures are being located in reclaimed... Hazards", Spl. Vol. of IGC O.P. Varma, G.V. Rajamanickam & Eugene Wilson (eds.), Ind. Geol. Cong., 2010, pp. 135-145. 9 Coastal Ecosystems for Protection against Storm Surge Antonio Mascarenhas National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula-403004 (Goa...

  20. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  1. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  2. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...

  3. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil, fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious ...

  4. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  5. Coastal dynamics vs beach users attitudes and perceptions to enhance environmental conservation and management effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretano, Roberta; Parlagreco, Luca; Semeraro, Teodoro; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2017-10-15

    This work carries out a landscape analysis for the last 60years to compare the degree of preservation of two areas on the same Italian coastline characterized by different environmental protection levels: a National designated protected areas and a highly tourist coastal destination. The conversion of natural land-covers into human land uses were detected for protected and unprotected coastal stretches highlighting that the only establishment of a protected area is not enough to stem undesirable land-use outcomes. A survey analysis was also conducted to assess attitudes of beach users and to evaluate their perception of natural habitats, beach and coastal water quality, and coastal dynamic over time. The results of 2071 questionnaires showed that there is similarity between subjective and objective data. However, several beach users perceived a bad quality of coastal water in the legally unprotected coastal area. The implications from a planning and management perspective are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Enhancement of Coastal Ecosystem (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coastal and marine areas contain some of the world's most diverse and productive biological systems. They are sensitive to human activities, impact and interventions. Pressures on these systems are growing more intense. As rapid development and population growth continue in coastal areas increasing demands are expected on natural resources and on remaining natural habitats along the coasts. The problem is more serious in Indian context that has a 7,500 km long coastline and is facing increasing soil erosion and water pollution. The prospects of sea level rise, expected to be in the order of 8-29 cm due to the global warming by 2025, necessitates immediate measures to foster the sustainable and equitable management of the coastal wetland ecosystems. Salinity is a significant limiting factor to agricultural productivity affecting about 9 x 10/sup 8/ha, worldwide. About one-third of all irrigated land is affected by salt due to secondary salinisation and it is estimated that 50% of the arable lands will be salinised by the year 2050. The problem of salinity is most acute in the coastal regions affecting the productivity of the agricultural system. Improving or maintaining yield potential of the crops under increased salinisation is of greater significance for the future. With a view to identify and isolate novel genetic combinations offering resistance to coastal salinity, MSSRF has initiated work on mangrove species. Mangroves are salt tolerant plant communities occupying the coastal estuarine regions of the tropics. They serve as a vital link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide livelihood and ecological security for the coastal communities. MSSRF is the first institution worldwide to have undertaken modern molecular marker based analysis of mangroves. These studies have provided substantial information for developing unambiguous identification systems for individual species, elucidating nature and extent of genetic diversity at intra- and inter

  7. CoastScapes - the coastal landscape project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea has an incredible complexity of exceptional landscapes that European policies aim to preserve, improve and renewal. Among these policies stands the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM, a protocol that, in addition to conserve resources, purpose to facilitate the sustainable development of coastal areas. This document is intended to optimize and coordinate existing policies, to obtain a global view of the elements that represent a resource to be exploited in the design phase. Acknowledged the EU guidelines has been identified a model that would allow the analysis of the coasts state, and that would provide the necessary tool to implement the proposal, in the coastal area: the landscaping multidisciplinary approach. The tool chosen was the DPSIR model (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses. It has been applied this conceptual model-causal, to formulate, through the answers provided, the directives for the landscape project. It were created, with the structuring in ‘chains’ own model, the causal relationships of the main elements that characterize the coastal environment in its complexity. From this, it’s emerged the so-called critical potential of the territory, with the consequent causes and subsequent effects. The reason for the choice is not so much in the instrument, but in its purpose. The model, usually used for the VAS, can outline a landscaping strategy, which induces to conscious design choices. It was considered that the model used with the landscape approach, by its nature multidisciplinary and integrated, could provide dynamic responses. these are appropriate responses to the territorial and environmental needs, that meet the socio-economic expectations of the coastal environments.

  8. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  9. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  10. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    could then indicate whether the minerals can be exploited economically for use. If so, then the requisite permissions and licenses need to be obtained to mine the sands from the government. The sands can either be used within the country..., Australia, USA, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Norway and Malaysia. India is blessed with a long coastline of more than 7500 km, including islands. The erosion of rocks results in coastal placers such as rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite...

  11. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-03-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  12. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal erosion, storms, sea-level rise, and tsunamis all lead to inundation that puts people and communities at risk. Adapting to these coastal hazards has gained increasing attention with climate change. Instead of promoting one particular strategy such as seawalls or defending against one type of hazard, scholars and practitioners encourage a combination of existing methods and strategies to promote synergistic effects. The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on climate extremes reflects this trend in the integration of disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on the roles, compatibilities, and synergies of three coastal adaptation options - engineering, vegetation, and policy - in the case of Ocean Beach in San Francisco. Traditionally engineering approach and ecosystem conservation often have stood in opposition as hard shoreline structures destroy coastal habitats, worsen coastal erosion, divert ocean currents, and prevent the natural migration of shores. A natural migration of shores without structure translates into the abandonment of properties in the coastal zone, and is at odds with property rights and development. For example, policies of relocation, retreat, and insurance may not be popular given the concerns of infrastructure and coastal access. As such, engineering, natural defense, and policy can be more conflictual than complementary. Nonetheless, all these responses are used in combination in many locations. Complementarities and compatibilities, therefore, must be assessed when considering the necessity of engineering responses, natural defense capabilities, and policy options. In this light, the question is how to resolve the problem of mixed responses and short- and long-term interests and values, identify compatibilities, and generate synergies. In the case of Ocean Beach, recent erosions that endangered San Francisco's wastewater treatment system acted as major

  13. Coastal remote sensing – towards integrated coastal research and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available million (UNESCO, 2009). The destructive forces of storms mainly results from the impact of: ? Waves, leading to shoreline erosion ? Wind ? Flooding. Coastal areas which are low-lying and sandy are particularly vulnerable, as can be found along most... such as shoreline erosion or flooding. Coastal remote sensing, as we define it, is bridging the gap between classic terrestrial and marine remote sensing. However, to date, coastal remote sensing competency and applications are very scarce and undeveloped...

  14. Multidsciplinary Approaches to Coastal Adaptation - Aplying Machine Learning Techniques to assess coastal risk in Latin America and The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global population, currently at 7.3 billion, is increasing by nearly 230,000 people every day. As the world's population grows to an estimated 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low elevation areas, exposed to coastal hazards, is continuing to increase. In 2013, 22 million people were displaced by extreme weather events, with 37 events displacing at least 100,000 people each. Losses from natural disasters and disaster risk are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards and the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system, and its exposure to such hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Moreover, coastal risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including ill-advised urban development, income inequality, and poverty level. Our results demonstrate that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), more than half a million people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems), and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. In order to identify the population at greatest risk to coastal hazards in LAC, and in response to a growing demand for multidisciplinary coastal adaptation approaches, this study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (K-Means and Self Organizing Maps), and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks on a comparative scale. Data for more than 13,000 coastal locations in LAC were collected and allocated into three categories: (1) Coastal Hazards (including storm surge, wave energy and El Niño); (2) Geographic Exposure (including population, agriculture, and ecosystems); and (3) Vulnerability (including income inequality, infant mortality rate and malnutrition). This study identified hotspots of coastal vulnerability, the key drivers of coastal risk at each geographic location. Our results provide important

  15. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  16. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  17. Assessing the multidimensionality of coastal erosion risks: public participation and multicriteria analysis in a Mediterranean coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Elisabet; Gamboa, Gonzalo; Tàbara, J David

    2008-04-01

    The complex and multidimensional nature of coastal erosion risks makes it necessary to move away from single-perspective assessment and management methods that have conventionally predominated in coastal management. This article explores the suitability of participatory multicriteria analysis (MCA) for improving the integration of diverse expertises and values and enhancing the social-ecological robustness of the processes that lead to the definition of relevant policy options to deal with those risks. We test this approach in the Mediterranean coastal locality of Lido de Sète in France. Results show that the more adaptive alternatives such as "retreating the shoreline" were preferred by our selected stakeholders to those corresponding to "protecting the shoreline" and the business as usual proposals traditionally put forward by experts and policymakers on these matters. Participative MCA contributed to represent coastal multidimensionality, elicit and integrate different views and preferences, facilitated knowledge exchange, and allowed highlighting existing uncertainties.

  18. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  19. Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (...

  20. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  1. Coastal Forests of the Gulf of Mexico: A Description and Some Thoughts on Their Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Barrow; L. A. Johnson Randall; M. S. Woodrey; J. Cox; E. Ruelas I.; C. M. Riley; R. B. Hamilton; C. Eberly

    2005-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal forests of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the gulf. Migration routes in the gulf region are not static—they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Given the dynamic nature of migration routes, coastal forests...

  2. Coastal Modeling System Advanced Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    22 June 2012 - Day 5  Debugging and Problem solving  Model Calibration  Post-processing Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Focus of...Efficiently: • The setup process is fast and without wasted time or effort 3 Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 4 Coastal Modeling System (CMS) What...is the CMS? Integrated wave, current, and morphology change model in the Surface- water Modeling System (SMS). Why CMS? Operational at 10

  3. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  4. Monitoring Coastal Change after the Tsunami in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantanahiran, W

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused widespread devastation along the coast of Thailand, especially in Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga province. This disaster claimed more than 941 lives, with 502 other people missing when the storm surge caught the residents of this area. The coastal geomorphology was impacted by this disaster. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of the tsunami on coastal change and the recovery of coastal areas. Six time-series datasets of aerial photographs and satellite images from 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, and 2010 were compared using the Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed the effect of the tsunami on the buildings in the area. Fifty-eight point sixty-three percent of the buildings in the urban area were destroyed by the tsunami and constructions was raised to 103.60% and 197.12% between 2004 and 2010, thus indicating the recovery of the local community. Geomorphological change in Ko Kho Khao (the island) was found after the tsunami disaster, including coastal erosion and coastal deposition. The balance of nature played a major role in controlling the erosion and deposition. The coastal deposits were the highest in 2005; however, deposition was not found in 2004. The erosion rate from 2002-2003 was the highest (48.10 meter per year) and higher than 2003-2004 (39.03 meters per year), 2004-2009 (15.64 meters per year) and 2009-2010 (29.49 meters per year). The coastal area was more severe eroded than the estuary area, and severe coastal erosion caused the loss of coastal area, approximately 0.28 ha. Severe coastal erosion has been repeatedly found since 2005 in the lower part of the area, and hard structures such as concrete seawalls might have been affected by coastal erosion. In addition, extrapolation of coastal erosion at the rate of 30 meters per year showed that the lower part of Ko Kho Khao should disappear in 2015

  5. Developing a framework for monitoring coastal habitats using aerial imagery and object-based image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Anders

    Denmark contains major areas of coastal habitats, including a significant part of the European area of coastal dunes and salt marshes. The natural dynamics in coastal habitats are a prerequisite for the maintenance of their structure and biodiversity, yet very little research on the implications...... of decreased habitat dynamics exists. A valuable source of land cover changes are historical aerial imagery of which Denmark has unique datasets.This poster presents an object-based image analysis approach for mapping and monitoring af coastal habitat stucture, which integrates the high spectral resolution...

  6. Native plants for effective coastal wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2 ) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems.Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences.These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus

  7. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  8. COASTAL ANALYSIS FOR Lancaster COUNTY, VIRGINIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  9. Evaluating Sea water Quality in the Coastal Zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2DTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Mohamad; Darwich, T.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development withgrowing and conflicting demands on the natural resources. Coastal zones are often subjected to irreversible land degradation and environmental deterioration. Lebanon is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin and the integrated management of the environment in the Lebanese coastal zone must be given concern. Most of the successful decisions addressing the environment protection or the elaboration of preventive measures in the coastal zone. These decisions depend on the availability of efficient simulation tools. The existence of these tools can help protecting the environment and establishing the ground for sustainable natural resources in the coastal zones. In this paper, a simulation tool called Telemac-2D TM software was used to simulate the business as usual, pessimistic, and optimistic status of the sea water quality in the coastal zone of Tripoli (North Lebanon). The coastal zone is affected by the effluents of solid and liquid wastes from Abou-Ali river. The different quality states of the coastal zone represent the normal, high, and low flow of the effluents (plume pollutants) from Abou-Ali river. In addition, it represents the variation of different factors such as wind and sea currents speed and direction. This simulation will help the decision makers to implement pre-cautious measures before a disaster takes place by assessing the quality of the sea water near the coastal zones. (author)

  10. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  11. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  12. Spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Megan; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean; Molloy, Philip; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Barrow's goldeneyes are sea ducks that winter throughout coastal British Columbia (BC). Their diet consists primarily of intertidal blue mussels, which can accumulate PAHs; accordingly, goldeneyes may be susceptible to exposure through contaminated prey. In 2014/15, we examined total PAH concentrations in mussels from undeveloped and developed coastal areas of BC. At those same sites, we used EROD to measure hepatic CYP1A induction in goldeneyes. We found higher mussel PAH concentrations at developed coastal sites. Regionally, goldeneyes from southern BC, which has relatively higher coastal development, had higher EROD activity compared to birds from northern BC. Our results suggest goldeneyes wintering in coastal BC were exposed to PAHs through diet, with higher exposure among birds wintering in coastal areas with greater anthropogenic influence. These results suggest the mussel-goldeneye system is suitable as a natural, multi-trophic-level indicator of contemporary hydrocarbon contamination occurrence and exposure useful for establishing oil spill recovery endpoints.

  13. Natural Resource Governance and the Cycle of Poverty in Fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on research from two coastal villages south of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania, this paper sets out to examine the state of natural resources governance and how it has contributed to the persistence of poverty among fishing communities. It is argued that despite the natural resources endowment of the coastal fishing ...

  14. Coastal management plan in the south of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oylum Gökkurt Baki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the environmental factors that effect to the shoreline and how they interact with tourism development. Methods: In the study, both the existing problems of the coastal area of Sinop and the probable solutions to these problems are stated. The system of the coast area of the province was examined with all details and the system was examined in 3 sections, namely anthropogenic components, natural components and tourism components. Results: Tourism which is also referred as smokeless industry provides a tremendous potential for the coastal cities. This sector is a considerable resource of income for coastal cities, so long as environmental factors are also paid attention. Otherwise, it is a mistake to expect sustainable proceeds from tourism. Coastal management is a dynamic, multi-disciplinary process. It includes a complete cycle such as collecting information, planning and decision making and the monitoring management and application, and revealing the problems for the purpose of ensuring a sustainable tourism. Conclusions: This study examines the environmental factors that have driven new approaches to shoreline management and how they interact with tourism development. Then, the integrated coastal zone management study procedure and its prospected outcomes are explained, and importance of the findings on Sinop’s integrated coastal zone management is emphasized.

  15. Shoreline changes and Coastal Flooding impacts: South Gujarat coast (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    South Gujarat coast (India) is experiencing increased coastal inundation and erosion caused by sea-level rise affecting the population, infrastructure, and environment. The area falls under low elevation coastal zone (LEZ) and its topography of the area is also making coast highly susceptible to flooding, especially at high tides and during the rainy season. As part of studies on shoreline changes field trip carried on the coastal taluka's of South Gujarat coast i.e. Surat, Navsari and Valsad shows various temporal changes is taking place at coastal belt. There are ample of studies on coastal dynamics and impacts. The study focus on spatial temporal analysis shows the vulnerable zones covering various physical elements at risk. These coastal areas are attractive in nature for all kind of economic development and growth because of availability of the water & fertile land for house hold use, fishing and transportation. On the contrary, South Gujarat coast being tectonically active; makes this region high vulnerable for any kind of infrastructure development. The region had also witnessed loss of life and property, disruptions to transport & power and incidences of epidemics during the floods of 2006 in Surat. Coastal flooding would, under these scenarios, threaten region that are home of 370,000 approx (Census, 2011) people in seven coastal taluka's of Surat, Navsari and Valsad district. Among the people residing in the region, the most vulnerable communities are fishermen, farmer and industrial labours. The wide range of infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, schools, power plants, industries and port will also be at risk. Shoreline changes are inevitably changing the characteristics of south Gujarat coast; practices and policies should be put in place to mitigate the potentially adverse impacts on environment and human settlements. Key words: sea level rise, LEZ, vulnerable, erosion, inundation, spatial temporal analysis, landuse changes.

  16. Engaging Communities Where They Are: New Hampshire's Coastal Adaptation Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C. P.; Godlewski, S.; Howard, K.; Labranche, J.; Miller, S.; Peterson, J.; Ashcraft, C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising seas are expected to have significant impacts on infrastructure and natural and cultural resources on New Hampshire's 18 mile open-ocean coastline and 235 miles of tidal shoreline. However, most coastal municipalities in NH lack financial and human resources to even assess vulnerability, let alone plan for climate change. This gap has been filled since 2010 by the NH Coastal Adaptation Workgroup (CAW), composed of 21 regional, state, and federal agencies, businesses, municipalities, academics, and NGOs that bring together stakeholders to discuss climate change challenges and collaboratively develop and implement effective coastal adaptation strategies. Our grassroot efforts serve to nurture existing and build new relationships, disseminate coastal watershed climate assessments, and tap into state, federal, and foundation funds for specific coastal adaptation projects. CAW has achieved collective impact in by connecting federal and state resources to communities by raising money and facilitating projects, translating climate science, educating community members, providing direct technical assistance and general capacity, and sharing success stories and lessons learned. Indicators of success include: 12 coastal communities improved their technical, financial, and human resources for climate adaptation; 80% of the 300 participants in the eleven CAW 'Water, Weather, Climate, and Community Workshops' have increased knowledge, motivation, and capacity to address climate adaptation; $3 million in grants to help communities with climate adaptation; winner of the 2015 EPA Region 1 Environmental Merit Award; and ongoing support for community-led adaptation efforts. In addition, the NH Climate Summit attracts over 100 participants each year, over 90% whom attest to the applicability of what they learn there. CAW also plays a central role in the Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission (established by the state legislature in 2013) to help communities and businesses prepare

  17. Inclusive development and coastal adaptiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Bavinck, M.

    Highlights •The problems of demographic concentration and climate change result in an appeal for new coastal governance strategies. •Much of the coastal zone management literature tends to take a technocratic, growth-oriented focus. •A technocratic, growth-oriented focus exacerbates the poor's

  18. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  19. Coastal environmental degradation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Partners for Sustainable Development, Hewagama, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-07-01

    The economic importance of Sri Lanka's coastal area has increased with rapid urbanization and the development of commercial harbours. The growth on this small island has resulted in unmistakable signs of environmental stress which manifests itself in the loss of natural forest cover, water pollution, degradation of rural lands and increased levels of air, water and solid waste pollution. The population is projected to reach 25 million by 2030. This will create an unprecedented demand for food, fibre energy, developable land and other natural resources. Pollution and competition for resources has already degraded about half of the shoreline which put sustainable economic development and environmental values at risk. It is estimated that 25,000 metric tonnes of waste is thrown into the oceanic waters each year. The pollutants include oil, garbage and chemicals from industries. In addition, 60 per cent of the sewage from the city of Colombo is dumped into the sea. Coral mining which supplies 90 per cent of the lime for the construction industry is leading to the destruction of reefs serving as natural barriers against tidal waves. In 1996, the government of Sri Lanka began a plan for coast erosion management in which community participation plays a vital role. A coastal conservation education project for school children is set to begin in the near future. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Concepts and theoretical specifications of a Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS): A multi-agent system for simulating coastal vulnerability towards management of coastal ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster-causing natural hazards such as floods, erosions, earthquakes or slope failures were particularly observed to be concentrated in certain geographical regions. In the Asia-pacific region, coastal ecosystems were suffering because of perennial threats driven by chronic fluctuations in climate variability (e.g., typhoons, ENSO), or by dynamically occurring events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis). Among the many people that were found prone to such a risky condition were the ones inhabiting near the coastal areas. Characteristically, aside from being located at the forefront of these events, the coastal communities have impacted the resource by the kind of behavioral patterns they exhibited, such as overdependence and overexploitation to achieve their wellbeing. In this paper, we introduce the development of an approach to an assessment of the coupled human- environment using a multi- agent simulation (MAS) model known as Coastal Vulnerability Dynamic Simulator (COVUDS). The COVUDS comprised a human- environmental platform consisting multi- agents with corresponding spatial- based dynamic and static variables. These variables were used to present multiple hypothetical future situations that contribute to the purpose of supporting a more rational management of the coastal ecosystem and their environmental equities. Initially, we present the theoretical and conceptual components that would lead to the development of the COVUDS. These consisted of the human population engaged in behavioral patterns affecting the conditions of coastal ecosystem services; the system of the biophysical environment and changes in patches brought by global environment and local behavioral variations; the policy factors that were important for choosing area- specific interventions; and the decision- making mechanism that integrates the first three components. To guide a future scenario-based application that will be undertaken in a coastal area in the Philippines, the components of the

  1. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  2. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of new economically feasible eco-friendly products from natural plants/agricultural wastes for removal of pollutants from coastal aquaculture systems is the objective of our continued research. In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the ...

  3. Genetic diversity in coastal and inland desert populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... This study compared the genetic diversity within and among six naturally growing coastal and inland populations of Peganum harmala by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Seven primers generated a total of 63 RAPD bands (loci) of which 60 (95.24%) were polymorphic across.

  4. Challenges in Coastal Spatial Data Infrastructure implementation: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idrees

    Challenges in Coastal Spatial Data Infrastructure implementation: A ... that surrounds all kinds of natural water masses such as sea, lake, or river”. Literatures stress the enormous potential social wellbeing and economic benefits of ..... marine spatial data, three characteristic problems still pose as hindrance similar to those.

  5. The role of community-based coastal conservation and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impacts fall disproportionately on the world's poorest, most marginalised communities, particularly those highly dependent on direct use of natural ... Such community-based approaches should therefore play a key role in adaptation efforts within the western Indian Ocean region, where many coastal ...

  6. Simulation of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  7. Corrosion Map for Metal Pipes in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Transportation agencies often allow metal pipes as an option for cross drains under/along roads and highways. Metal culverts can corrode over time at various rates based on their environmental conditions (e.g., corrosive nature of coastal soils, high...

  8. Editorial Changing Livelihoods in the Coastal Zone of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural scientists, but research on the social, economic and cultural dimensions of coastal life and livelihoods ... Important topics of social science research include the rapidly changing livelihood options under current .... (which usually involves the use of engines), the radius of fishing activity grows but the effort per unit area ...

  9. Coastal Flooding Hazards due to storm surges and subsidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole B.

    damage potential.Challenges are amplified in some areas due to subsidence from natural and/or anthropogenic causes. Subsidence of even a few mm/y may over time greatly impair the safety against flooding of coastal communities and must be accounted for in order to accomplish the economically most viable...

  10. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. 208 016, India. e-mail: adas wrpm@yahoo.com; bithin@iitk.ac.in. MS received 1 March 1999; revised 9 April 2001. Abstract. Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional. (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack ...

  11. Genetic diversity in coastal and inland desert populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the genetic diversity within and among six naturally growing coastal and inland populations of Peganum harmala by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Seven primers generated a total of 63 RAPD bands (loci) of which 60 (95.24%) were polymorphic across all individuals.

  12. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  13. Quantum Fingerprint-Based Air Quality Monitoring in Coastal Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coastal environments vital to our nation are strongly impacted by natural and human factors and are also sensitive to global climate change. A need exists for...

  14. A modeling approach to assess coastal management effects on benthic habitat quality: a case study on coastal defense and navigability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzoli, F.; Smolders, S.; Eelkema, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Escavarage, V.; Temmerman, S.; Meire, P.; Herman, P.; Bouma, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural coastal hydrodynamics and morphology worldwide is altered by human interventions such as embankments, shipping and dredging, which may have consequences for ecosystem functionality. To ensure long-term ecological sustainability, requires capability to predict long-term large-scale

  15. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions; La cooperation internationale pour une gestion integree de la zone cotiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique - AIEA, Vienna (Austria); Scholten, J.; Betti, M. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique (AIEA) Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-06-15

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  16. Coastal Changes Between Ayvalik and Assos During Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Curebal, Isa; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2014-05-01

    In this study, environmental issues arising from the use of coastal zone in the north of the Gulf of Edremit between Assos and Ayvalik on the west of Turkey are determined and a number of suggestions were presented. This work was supported by field observations and reviews by using Geographical information system and remote sensing technology. The region has been host to many civilizations throughout history and anthropocen. The area was subject to rapid changes in recent years. The area was studied and evaluated in four sub-sections such as Ayvalik-Gomec, Pelitköy-Akçay, Akçay-Altınoluk and Altınoluk-Assos. The destruction of the area's natural vegetation began five thousand years ago. The natural vegetation in the coastal zone was cleared and olive groves planted. Today, construction is rapidly taking over the olive growing areas. In addition to this, the coastal wetland areas and delta ecosystems are quickly disappearing and being replaced by new housing developments. In the coastal belt between Burhaniye and Küçükkuyu, the other important problems include; coastal erosion, illegal sand collection, silting up of ports, illegal construction activities, discharge of waste water, dumping of rubbish and debris, overflowing and flooding, insufficiency of irrigation systems in the coastal plains, use of ground and surface water sources which have been polluted by domestic and industrial waste, and the salt intrusion in water. The study presents recommendations for achieving patterns of usage which provide the maximum ecological, economic and social benefits and protect the existing natural features of the zone between Ayvalik and Assos.

  17. THE COMPARİSON OF THE NATURAL STANDS QUANTİTATİVE CHARACTERİSTİCS İN MANAGED AND NON-MANAGED AREAS İN CASPİAN SEA COASTAL FORESTS

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAHCHAI, Mir Mozaffar; PAYAM, Halil Barış ÖZEL and Hamid

    2013-01-01

    In this consideration the natural forest stands in managed and non-managed areas in Iran’s North forest were studied from the view point of quantitative characteristics. Inventory was done by random systematic method and with a net of 112×112 meters dimensions with sample pieces of 500 square meters. In each sample piece the quantitative characteristics of breast height sections Basal Area (B.A) and the number of trees in a hectare were considered. ANOVA was used for testing the significant d...

  18. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  19. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  20. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  2. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  3. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  4. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  5. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  6. Ocean and coastal data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Beaujardière, Jeff; Beegle-Krause, C; Bermudez, Luis; Hankin, Steven C.; Hazard, Lisa; Howlett, Eoin; Le, Steven; Proctor, Roger; Signell, Richard P.; Snowden, Derrick P.; Thomas, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We introduce data management concepts, including what we mean by "data" and its "management," sources of data, interoperability, and data geometry. We then discuss various components of a data management system. Finally, we summarize some existing ocean and coastal data management efforts. We make specific recommendations throughout the paper. We are generally optimistic that ocean and coastal data management is an interesting and solvable challenge that will provide great benefit to society.

  7. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  8. Features of the territorial planning of the sea coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Yavorska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone in Ukraine is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. Already more than 65 percent of the Ukrainian Black Sea region population lives within 30 km of the coast. Consequently, unless territory planning and careful environmental management are instituted, sharp conflicts over coastal space and resource are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will stop future social-economic development. In order to maintain and restore coastal ecosystem it was implemented law about formation of the national ecological network of Ukraine. Later were developed General Scheme for Planning of the Territory of Ukraine and regional level planning scheme but there is no especial document regulating the use of land in the coastal zone. The study of geographical conditions, economic activity, and population resettlement shows separation within the regions of several echelons of economic development in relation to the coastline. Such separation may be based on differences in intensity and types of economic use within the territory and the water area, as well as the population density on the land. These features include the following economic stripes: seaside-facade, middle, peripheral – on land, and coastal, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone – in the direction of the sea. At the same time, each economic stripe has a complex internal structure. There are several basic principles of functional zoning of the territory highlighted in the article can help to rational plan the seaside regions.

  9. Assessing the risk of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, J.; Allen, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    In coastal regions, the quality of groundwater can be compromised due to saltwater intrusion (SWI) caused by natural (sea level rise (SLR) and storm surge) and anthropogenic (pumping) hazards. The goal of this research was to develop and test an approach for assessing the risk of SWI in coastal aquifers. The Gulf Islands in British Columbia (BC) was the case study area. The vulnerability of the bedrock aquifers to SWI was assessed spatially by mapping hazards in combination with the aquifer susceptibility. Climate change related hazards, including SLR and storm surge overwash, were integrated into floodplain maps for each island using projected SLR data for 2100 in combination with estimated storm surge levels based on data collected over a forty year period. When combined with maps showing the density of pumping wells, coastal zones that may be at higher risk of SWI were identified for this particular coastal area of BC. Hazards due to pumping have the greatest influence on the vulnerability. Risk was evaluated spatially using an economic valuation of loss - here replacement of a water supply. The combination of chemical indicators of SWI and risk assessment maps are potentially useful tools for identifying areas vulnerable to SWI, and these tools can be used to improve decision-making related to monitoring and community development for coastal areas, thereby increasing resilience.

  10. Coastal Ocean Response to the Global Warming Acceleration and Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, E.; Lu, W.; Yan, X. H.; Jiang, Y.; Kidwell, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The reverse in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. Our results suggest that the global warming continued after 1998, but with a modified weaker pattern in global coastal regions.

  11. Socializing the coast: Engaging the social science of tropical coastal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Ana K.; Biedenweg, Kelly

    2017-03-01

    The broad scale and rapid rate of change in the global environment is causing some of the world's most challenging problems, such as habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity, and food insecurity. These problems are especially pressing in coastal environments in the tropics, resulting in significant impacts on human wellbeing and ecological systems across the globe. The underlying causes of marine and coastal environmental change are both anthropogenic and natural; and, while it is difficult to parse out causal linkages as either exclusively human or naturally occurring, feedbacks between drivers only exacerbate the issues. Increasingly, scholars are turning to integrated research efforts, whereby multiple disciplines are used to answer pressing questions about and find solutions for the sustainability of human life and natural ecosystems across the coastal tropics. This article leverages the recent wave of interdisciplinary research to explore the various ways in which the social sciences have successfully contributed to a more complete understanding of coastal systems across the tropics. It also identifies opportunities for research that move beyond single disciplinary approaches to coastal science. The concluding discussion suggests social science knowledge areas that are underutilized in coastal research and provides suggestions for increasing the incorporation of social science in coastal research programs.

  12. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  13. Japanese Small Type Coastal Whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Fisher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 2016 marks the 70th anniversary of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW as well as the 30th anniversary of the International Whaling Commission’s (IWC moratorium on commercial whaling. It also marks three decades of effort by Japan to overturn this ban. Its strategy to circumvent the moratorium by issuing permits to kill protected whales for scientific research is famous—even the subject of a 2014 lawsuit at the International Court of Justice. Less well known is Japan’s strategy to overturn the ban by persuading the Commission to authorise a category of commercial whaling known as Small Type Coastal Whaling (STCW that is conducted on minke and other small whales in Japanese waters but has never been regulated, or even formally recognised, by the IWC. For three decades Japan has sought STCW catch limits for four communities which it claims are still suffering distress as a result of the moratorium. While the Commission has rejected each proposal, mainly citing concerns that the commercial nature and purpose of STCW violates the moratorium, Japan has persisted, exhibiting great flexibility in its approach. Its tactics changed significantly in 2014; it no longer denied (or defended the commerciality of the hunt, but argued that it is irrelevant since it sought only a small exemption to the moratorium which would remain intact for all other populations. This is a perspective on Japan’s evolving STCW strategy and the risk that lifting, or modifying, the moratorium would pose to the conservation of whales.

  14. A Coastal Storms Intensity Scale for the Catalan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of storms on the coastal zone produces a series of high-intensity processes such as beach erosion, overwash and inundation, usually considered as coastal hazards. When these coastal hazards verify along developed/urbanized areas, could produce large damages in existing infrastructures, affect coastal uses and disturb coastal ecosystem services. The importance of these storms and induced hazards is explicit in the Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean signed in 2008 by the EU and the Mediterranean countries. This Protocol includes a specific chapter on natural hazards, where the parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures to address the effects of natural disasters. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present an intensity scale for coastal storms developed for typical conditions of the Catalan Shelf. This follows the classic works of the hurricane (Saffir-Simpson, 1971) and the Atlantic Northeast storms (Dolan-Davis, 1992) scales although adapting them to the characteristics of Mediterranean coastal wave storms. To develop such scale, wave data recorded along the Catalan coast in 5 locations covering a coastline of about 400 km have been used. Recorded wave time series cover a total time frame of about 25 years (1984-2008). The first task was to identify storms in time series, which here were defined as those events during which the significant wave height exceeded a minimum value (threshold) of 2 m during a minimum period of 6 hours. Because our interest is to use this information to help managers to deal with coastal hazards, this definition was based not just in statistical properties of time series but on physical ones, i.e. this is the minimum event producing a significant coastal response in terms of beach erosion (estimated by means of numerical modelling of beach response to storm impacts). With this, a complete storm data set for

  15. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Markovina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

  16. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  17. Coastal aquifers: Scientific advances in the face of global environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal aquifers embody the subsurface transition between terrestrial and marine systems, and form the almost invisible pathway for tremendous volumes of freshwater that flow to the ocean. Changing conditions of the earth's landscapes and oceans can disrupt the fragile natural equilibrium between fresh and saltwater that exists in coastal zones. Among these, over-abstraction of groundwater is considered the leading man-made cause of seawater intrusion. Moreover, many of the world's largest urban settings, where sources of contamination are profuse, have been built over the freshwater in coastal aquifers. Thus, coastal aquifers are important receptors of human impacts to water on Earth (Michael et al., 2017). This Special Issue on 'Investigation and Management of Coastal Aquifers' contains current scientific advances on the topic, dealing with the storage and quality of water, affected by stressors ranging in scale from point source contamination to global climate change.

  18. Toward a community coastal sediment transport modeling system: the second workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Models for transport and the long-term fate of particles in coastal waters are essential for a variety of applications related to commerce, defense, public health, and the quality of the marine environment. Examples include: analysis of waste disposal and transport and the fate of contaminated materials; evaluation of burial rates for naval mines or archaeological artifacts; prediction of water-column optical properties; analysis of transport and the fate of biological particles; prediction of coastal flooding and coastal erosion; evaluation of impacts of sea-level or wave-climate changes and coastal development; planning for construction and maintenance of navigable waterways; evaluation of habitat for commercial fisheries; evaluation of impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes in coastal conditions on recreational activities; and design of intakes and outfalls for sewage treatment, cooling systems, and desalination plants.

  19. Issues of knowledge and expertise in policy arrangements: An exploratory case study of the dynamic preservation approach to coastal management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Franke

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990, the Dutch government applies the approach of dynamic preservation to coastal management. One of the characteristics of this approach is that, compared to the old approach, more room is allowed for natural dynamic movement of sand, in order to preserve the coastline, increase coastal

  20. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of

  1. Aquifers in coastal reclaimed lands - real world assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bironne, A.; Vonhögen-Peeters, L.; Lee, W. K.; Babovic, V. M.; Vermeulen, P.; van Baaren, E.; Karaoulis, M.; Blanchais, F.; Nguyen, M.; Pauw, P.; Doornenbal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and population growth are significant concerns in coastal regions around the world, where more than 30% of the world's population reside. The numbers continue to rise as coastal areas are increasingly urbanized. Urbanization creates land shortages along the coasts, which has spurred coastal reclamation activities as a viable solution. In this study, we focus on these reclamation areas; reclaimed areas in Singapore, and in the Netherlands, and investigate the potential of these reclaimed bodies as artificial aquifers that could attenuate water shortage problems in addition to their original purpose. We compare how the reclamation methods determine the hydrogeological characteristics of these manmade aquifers. We highlight similarities in freshwater lens development in the artificial shallow aquifers under natural recharge under diverse conditions, i.e. tropical and temperate zones, using numerical models. The characteristics and responses of these aquifers with dynamic freshwater-saltwater interface are contrasted against naturally occurring coastal aquifers where equilibrium was disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Finally, we assess the risks associated with subsidence and saltwater intrusion, combining measurements and numerical models, in case these aquifers are planned for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) or Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies. Relative performances of some ASR schemes are simulated and compared in the reclaimed lands.

  2. Managing coastal environments under climate change: Pathways to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García-León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Devoy, Robert; Stanica, Adrian; Gault, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to manage vulnerable coastal systems so as to make them sustainable under present and future climates. This is interpreted in terms of the coastal functionality, mainly natural services and support for socio-economic activities. From here we discuss how to adapt for long term trends and for short terms episodic events using the DPSIR framework. The analysis is presented for coastal archetypes from Spain, Ireland and Romania, sweeping a range of meteo-oceanographic and socio-economic pressures, resulting in a wide range of fluxes among them those related to sediment. The analysis emphasizes the variables that provide a higher level of robustness. That means mean sea level for physical factors and population density for human factors. For each of the studied cases high and low sustainability practices, based on stakeholders preferences, are considered and discussed. This allows proposing alternatives and carrying out an integrated assessment in the last section of the paper. This assessment permits building a sequence of interventions called adaptation pathway that enhances the natural resilience of the studied coastal systems and therefore increases their sustainability under present and future conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coastal Seabed Mapping with Hyperspectral and Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Filipponi, F.; Cappucci, S.

    2017-12-01

    A synoptic view of the coastal seascape and its dynamics needs a quantitative ability to dissect different components over the complexity of the seafloor where a mixture of geo - biological facies determines geomorphological features and their coverage. The present study uses an analytical approach that takes advantage of a multidimensional model to integrate different data sources from airborne Hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing and in situ measurements to detect antropogenic features and ecological `tipping points' in coastal seafloors. The proposed approach has the ability to generate coastal seabed maps using: 1) a multidimensional dataset to account for radiometric and morphological properties of waters and the seafloor; 2) a field spectral library to assimilate the high environmental variability into the multidimensional model; 3) a final classification scheme to represent the spatial gradients in the seafloor. The spatial pattern of the response to anthropogenic forcing may be indistinguishable from patterns of natural variability. It is argued that this novel approach to define tipping points following anthropogenic impacts could be most valuable in the management of natural resources and the economic development of coastal areas worldwide. Examples are reported from different sites of the Mediterranean Sea, both from Marine Protected and un-Protected Areas.

  4. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  5. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf; Florin, Ann-Britt; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Mattila, Johanna; Arula, Timo; Briekmane, Laura; Brown, Elliot John; Celmer, Zuzanna; Dainys, Justas; Jokinen, Henri; Kääriä, Petra; Kallasvuo, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Lozys, Linas; Möller, Peter; Orio, Alessandro; Rohtla, Mehis; Saks, Lauri; Snickars, Martin; Støttrup, Josianne; Sundblad, Göran; Taal, Imre; Ustups, Didzis; Verliin, Aare; Vetemaa, Markus; Winkler, Helmut; Wozniczka, Adam; Olsson, Jens

    2018-05-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utilized by fish across many life history stages including spawning, juvenile development, feeding and migration. Although there is general consensus about the critical importance of these essential fish habitats (EFH) for fish production along the coast, direct quantitative evidence for their specific roles in population growth and maintenance is still scarce. Nevertheless, for some coastal species, indirect evidence exists, and in many cases, sufficient data are also available to carry out further quantitative analyses. As coastal EFH in the Baltic Sea are often found in areas that are highly utilized and valued by humans, they are subjected to many different pressures. While cumulative pressures, such as eutrophication, coastal construction and development, climate change, invasive species and fisheries, impact fish in coastal areas, the conservation coverage for EFH in these areas remains poor. This is mainly due to the fact that historically, fisheries management and nature conservation are not integrated neither in research nor in management in Baltic Sea countries. Setting joint objectives for fisheries management and nature conservation would hence be pivotal for improved protection of EFH in the Baltic Sea. To properly inform management, improvements in the development of monitoring strategies and mapping methodology for EFH are also needed. Stronger international cooperation between Baltic Sea states will facilitate improved management outcomes across ecologically arbitrary boundaries. This is especially important for successful implementation of international agreements and legislative directives such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the Marine Strategy Framework

  6. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  7. The need for sustained and integrated high-resolution mapping of dynamic coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Lillycrop, Jeff W.; Howd, Peter A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the United States' coastal zone response to both human activities and natural processes is dynamic. Coastal resource and population protection requires understanding, in detail, the processes needed for change as well as the physical setting. Sustained coastal area mapping allows change to be documented and baseline conditions to be established, as well as future behavior to be predicted in conjunction with physical process models. Hyperspectral imagers and airborne lidars, as well as other recent mapping technology advances, allow rapid national scale land use information and high-resolution elevation data collection. Coastal hazard risk evaluation has critical dependence on these rich data sets. A fundamental storm surge model parameter in predicting flooding location, for example, is coastal elevation data, and a foundation in identifying the most vulnerable populations and resources is land use maps. A wealth of information for physical change process study, coastal resource and community management and protection, and coastal area hazard vulnerability determination, is available in a comprehensive national coastal mapping plan designed to take advantage of recent mapping technology progress and data distribution, management, and collection.

  8. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  9. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert, E-mail: hondula@virginia.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, PO Box 400123, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the

  10. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the North

  11. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Dolan, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'—such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989—are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the

  12. Transport Models for Inland and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter

    This proceedings volume originates from a symposium held at Berkeley, California, in August 1980. The purpose of the symposium was to assess the ability of models to predict surface water flow and the transport of dissolved substances in natural systems. The authors were invited, after an initial call for papers, by a Scientific Committee of the International Association for Hydraulic Research.In this context, predictive modeling is limited to hydrodynamic and transport models as applied to rivers, estuaries, shallow coastal waters, lakes, and reservoirs. This is a large subject, though evidently not the whole story on predictive techniques applied to natural water bodies, and many different models are described with applications to a wide variety of natural systems. There is relatively little overlap of material between chapters. It is noteworthy that 21 out of 24 authors of the chapters are affiliated with institutions outside the United States, and many of these are from large European hydraulic laboratories. A number of the chapters summarize numerical modeling studies undertaken by these institutions and so provide the U.S. reader with valuable references to the European open literature and laboratory technical reports. The latter are not usually readily available in the United States. This bias reflects a greater willingness of European engineers to employ sophisticated hydrodynamic numerical models as tools for the solution of engineering and environmental problems of natural water bodies.

  13. Mapping air quality zones for coastal urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse; Munshed, Mohammad; Faisal, Shah; Abdullah, Meshal; Al Aseed, Athari

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones (AQZs) for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cell of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of 1-hr prognostic weather data. The difference of wind patterns in coastal and inland areas creates significantly different skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics for the annually averaged pollutant concentrations at ground level receptor points for each grid cell. Plotting the S-K data highlights grouping of sources predominantly impacted by coastal winds versus inland winds. The application of the new method is demonstrated through a case study for the nation of Kuwait by developing new AQZs to support local air management programs. The zone boundaries established by the S-K method were validated by comparing MM5 and WRF prognostic meteorological weather data used in the air dispersion modeling, a support vector machine classifier was trained to compare results with the graphical classification method, and final zones were compared with data collected from Earth observation satellites to confirm locations of high-exposure-risk areas. The resulting AQZs are more accurate and support efficient management strategies for air quality compliance targets effected by local coastal microclimates. A novel method to determine air quality zones in coastal urban areas is introduced using skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics calculated from grid concentrations results of air dispersion models. The method identifies land-sea breeze effects that can be used to manage local air

  14. The dynamics of coastal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Clifford J.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal basins are defined as estuaries, lagoons, and embayments. This book deals with the science of coastal basins using simple models, many of which are presented in either analytical form or Microsoft Excel or MATLAB. The book introduces simple hydrodynamics and its applications, from the use of simple box and one-dimensional models to flow over coral reefs. The book also emphasizes models as a scientific tool in our understanding of coasts, and introduces the value of the most modern flexible mesh combined wave-current models. Examples from shallow basins around the world illustrate the wonders of the scientific method and the power of simple dynamics. This book is ideal for use as an advanced textbook for graduate students and as an introduction to the topic for researchers, especially those from other fields of science needing a basic understanding of the basic ideas of the dynamics of coastal basins.

  15. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Isaac R.; Burnett,William C.; Godoy,José M.

    2008-01-01

    We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of 14C-, 137Cs-, and 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and...

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Collegedictaat f11a and f11b. Lecture notes, short waves, waves near shoreline, coastal formation, sediment transport by waves, coastal protection, delta coasts, muddy coasts, tidal rivers, density currents, breakwater design.

  19. Coastal Analysis Submission for Plymouth County, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  20. Coastal Analysis Submission for Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Final Draft Guidelines for Coastal Flood Hazard Analysis and Mapping for the Pacific...

  1. COASTAL STUDY, KITSAP COUNTY,WASHINGTON USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal analysis data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. Impact of aquaculture on coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    Since aquaculture is intimately linked with aquatic environmental quality, entry of pollutants to coastal waters constitutes the greatest threat to marine environmental quality and, hence, to long term viability of coastal aquaculture. Fish...

  3. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection...

  4. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  6. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting Director...

  7. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...

  8. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  9. Coastal flooding in Denmark – future outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.; Knudsen, P.; Andersen, O. B.

    2014-01-01

    the German XtremRisk approach, form the basis for projecting potential impacts of flooding due to climate change (SLR and increased storminess). Central to this impact assessment are also the evaluation of natural meteorological variability, robustness of the statistics, physical changes, local subsidence......Water loading from all directions due to river discharge, precipitation, groundwater and the sea state (i.e. mean and extreme water levels) need to be carefully considered when dealing with flooding hazards at the coast. Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal are...... Danish coastline in the transition between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The evaluation of the extreme statistics and their applicability in flooding hazard and risk management, and a presentation of the hazard and risk mapping performed through the implementation of the EU Floods Directive using...

  10. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  11. Ecology and Population Structure of Vibrionaceae in the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    populations. The members of the Vibrio genus were used as a model system because they are an important part of the bacterioplankton community and extensive...Polz, M.F. (2008) Resource partitioning and sympatric differentiation among closely related bacterioplankton . Science, 320, 1081-1085. Huq, A...Sarma-Rupavtarm, R., Distel, D.L., & Polz, M.F. (2005) Genotypic diversity within a natural coastal bacterioplankton population. Science, 307, 1311

  12. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2..., Simon J. Mason3 1 South African Weather Service, Pretoria, South Africa 2 Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa 3 International Research Institute for Climate and Society...

  14. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable

  15. Ecosystem response to human- and climate-induced environmental stress on an anoxic coastal lagoon (Etoliko, Greece) since 1930 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Brauer, Achim; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Klemt, Eckehard; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Pross, Jörg

    To better constrain the effects of anthropogenic impact on coastal wetlands with respect to natural variability, we here analyze annually laminated sediments from Etoliko lagoon (western Greece, Mediterranean Sea) spanning the last*80 years. Subdecadal- scale palynomorph (pollen and dinoflagellate

  16. Preliminary assessment of coastal erosion and local community adaptation in Sayung coastal area, central Java – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marfai, Muh Aris

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due t...

  17. Conservation of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim L. Chambers; Richard F. Keim; William H. Conner; John W. Jr. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda s. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale efforts to protect and restore coastal wetlands and the concurrent renewal of forest harvesting in cypress-tupelo swamps have brought new attention to Louisiana's coastal wetland forests in recent years. Our understanding of these coastal wetland forests has been limited by inadequate data and the lack of a comprehensive review of existing information...

  18. Microeconomic motives of land use change in coastal zone area: agent based modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; van der Veen, A.; Voinov, A.; Jakeman, A.; Rizolli, A.

    2006-01-01

    Economic growth causes growing urbanization, extension of tourist sector, infrastructure and change of natural landscape. These processes of land use change attract even more attention if they take place in coastal zone area. In that case not only the efficient allocation and preservation of natural

  19. Chapter 16 - conservation and use of coastal wetland forests in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Faulkner; Jim L. Chambers; William H. Conner; Richard F. Keim; John W. Day; Emile S. Gardiner; Melinda S. Hughes; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Craig A. Miller; J. Andrew Nyman; Gary P. Shaffer

    2007-01-01

    The natural ecosystems of coastal Louisiana reflect the underlying geomorphic processes responsible for their formation. The majority of Louisiana's wetland forests are found in the lower reaches of the Mississipp Alluvial Valley and the Deltaic Plain. The sediments, water, and energy of the Mississippi River have shaped the Deltaic Plain as natural deltas have...

  20. The impact of climate change on coastal ecosystems: chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Forbes, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we stress two important features of coasts and coastal ecosystems. First, these are dynamic systems which continually undergo adjustments, especially through erosion and re-deposition, in response to a range of processes. Many coastal ecosystems adjust naturally at a range of time scales and their potential for response is examined partly by reconstructing how such systems have coped with natural changes of climate and sea level in the geological past. Second, coasts have changed profoundly through the 20th Century due to the impacts of human development (such as urbanisation, port and industrial expansion, shore protection, and the draining and conversion of coastal wetlands), with these development-related drivers closely linked to a growing global population and economy. It remains a challenge to isolate the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise from either the natural trajectory of shoreline change, or the accelerated pathway resulting from other human-related stressors. There exists a danger of overstating the importance of climate change, or overlooking significant interactions of climate change with other drivers.

  1. Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI: A multidisciplinary risk index for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Calil

    Full Text Available As the world's population grows to a projected 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low-lying areas exposed to coastal hazards is projected to increase. Critical infrastructure and valuable assets continue to be placed in vulnerable areas, and in recent years, millions of people have been displaced by natural hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Risks related to natural hazards are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards, the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system and its exposure to such hazards. Moreover, these risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including poorly planned urban development, income inequality, and poverty. This study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (Self Organizing Maps and K-Means and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC on a comparative scale. The proposed method meets multiple objectives, including the identification of hotspots and key drivers of coastal risk, and the ability to process large-volume multidimensional and multivariate datasets, effectively reducing sixteen variables related to coastal hazards, geographic exposure, and socioeconomic vulnerability, into a single index. Our results demonstrate that in LAC, more than 500,000 people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. Hotspot locations of coastal risk, identified by the proposed Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI, contain more than 300,00 people and include: El Oro, Ecuador; Sinaloa, Mexico; Usulutan, El Salvador; and Chiapas, Mexico. Our results provide important insights into potential adaptation alternatives that could reduce the impacts of future hazards. Effective adaptation options must not only

  2. The coastal landscape of the river of silver basis for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Cendom, A.; Vila, L.

    2013-01-01

    A complex of morphogenic, ecologic and cultural factors converge in coastal landscape modelling. The goal of this research is to identify the coastal environment as a water-land interphase in the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay. The area of work is within Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, and Maldonado River, in the Maldonado Department. An integrated landscape approach is used to interpret the complex of natural areas. The knowledge of natural complex is the goal of this research using the vegetation dynamic as an expression of site condition. Cartography at scale 1:50.000, colour composition of Landsat images at scale 1:100.000 (1994), aerial photographs at scale 1:10.000 (1994), are the source of information. A methodology of three components was organized: a typology of the coastal border, scale 1:500.000, a littoral morphology analysis using maps and aerial photographs, scale 1:10.000 and the coastal landscape, scale 1:100.000. A land cover legend was organized to integrate: geomorphology, vegetation and human intervention. It has 12 classes y 4 subclasses of land cover. This information was integrated in an analysis of an ideal coastal outline that represents the ideal disposition of the landscape elements in a cross and vertical perspective. The final goal of this research is an inventory of coastal uniform sectors. The research was performed within an approach of environmental factors equilibrium, such as geomorphology, environment, biologic and anthropogenic, and natural’s process in progress. Specific and general coastal problems are identified. A conceptual coastal landscape approach, a coastal cartography and setting of landscape units are the final products

  3. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  5. Wave Overtopping at Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geeraearts, Jimmy; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The European research project CLASH (EVK3-CT-2001-00058) investigated wave overtopping at coastal structures. More specific it was to develop a generic prediction method for wave overtopping and to solve the problem of suspected scale effects. The paper summarizes the main results concerning...

  6. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  7. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  8. Aerosol extinction in coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzola, J.; Kaloshin, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2004-01-01

    The performance of electro-optical systems can be substantially affected by aerosol particles that scatter and absorb electromagnetic radiation. A few years ago, an empirical model was developed describing the aerosol size distributions in the Mediterranean coastal atmosphere near Toulon (France).

  9. Methane emissions from different coastal wetlands in New England, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    According to the IPCC, methane have 25 times warming effect than CO2, and natural wetlands contribute 20-39 % to the global emission of methane. Although most of these methane was from inland wetlands, there was still large uncertain in the methane emissions in coastal wetlands. In the past three years, we have investigated methane emissions in coastal wetlands in MA, USA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we have observed relative larger methane flux in some salt marshes than freshwater wetlands. We further detect the methane source, and found that plant activities played an important role in methane flux, for example, the growth of S. aterniflora, the dominate plants in salt marsh, could enhance methane emission, while in an fresh water wetland that was dominated by cattail, plant activity oxided methane and reduced total flux. Phragmite, an invasive plant at brackish marsh, have the highest methane flux among all coastal wetland investigated. This study indicated that coastal wetland could still emit relatively high amount of methane even under high water salinity condiations, and plant activity played an important role in methane flux, and this role was highly species-specific.

  10. Past and Future Ecosystem Change in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, P.

    2017-02-01

    The coastal zone is in a constant state of flux. Long term records of change attest to high amplitude sea level changes. Relative stability though the Late Holocene has allowed for the evolution of barrier dune systems, estuaries and coastal lakes with associated plant and faunal associations. This evolution has been interspersed with changes in the balance between climate driven changes in outflow from catchments. These interactions have been considerably disturbed through the impacts of industrialised people who have diverted and consumed water and invested in infrastructure that has impacted on river flows and the tidal prism in estuaries. This has impacted their provisioning services to humans. It has also impacted their regulating services in that development along the coastline has impacted on the resilience of the littoral zone to absorb natural climate extremes. Looking from the past we can see the pathway to the future and more easily recognise the steps needed to avoid further coastal degradation. This will increasingly need to accommodate the impacts of future climate trends, increased climate extremes and rising seas. Coastal societies would do well to identify their long term pathway to adaptation to the challenges that lie ahead and plan to invest accordingly.

  11. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  12. The natural regeneration of salt marsh on formerly reclaimed land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbutt, Angus; Wolters, Mineke

    Question: Does the vegetation of restored salt marshes increasingly resemble natural reference communities over time? Location: The Essex estuaries, southeast England. Methods: Abandoned reclamations, where coastal defences had been breached in storm events, and Current salt marsh recreation schemes

  13. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  14. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts threaten the functional integrity of coastal ecosystems around the globe. A multi-disciplinary approach towards understanding drivers, pressures and impacts in the coastal zone requires effective....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  15. Erosi Pantai, Ekosistem Hutan Bakau dan Adaptasi Masyarakat Terhadap Bencana Kerusakan Pantai Di negara Tropis (Coastal Erosion, Mangrove Ecosystems and Community Adaptation to Coastal Disasters in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Ali Akbar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji terjadinya kerusakan lingkungan pantai di negara tropis dan sebagian negara subtropis akibat perilaku manusia. Perilaku manusia yang menyebabkan kerusakan lingkungan adalah memanfaatkan sumberdaya alam pesisir tanpa memperhatikan keberlanjutan sumber daya alam dan daya dukung lingkungannya. Kerusakan lingkungan pantai yang umum terjadi di negara tropis dan sebagian subtropis adalah erosi pantai dan degradasi ekosistem hutan bakau. Kerusakan lingkungan pantai ini akibat alih fungsi lahan menjadi jaringan jalan, permukiman, lahan pertanian/ perkebunan, pertambakan, dan pertambangan pasir. Kerusakan lingkungan pantai mempengaruhi kondisi sosial ekonomi masyarakat setempat seperti hilangnya badan jalan, permukiman, lahan pertanian, dan fasilitas umum akibat abrasi pantai. Upaya penanggulangan kerusakan lingkungan pantai sebagai bagian dari adaptasi manusia mempertahankan kehidupannya berupa pembangunan pemecah gelombang (breakwaters dan rehabilitasi ekosistem hutan bakau. Upaya penanggulangan bencana tersebut tentunya membutuhkan biaya yang besar dan waktu lama daripada upaya pencegahan. Oleh karena itu, perubahan pola pikir baik pemerintah dan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan, mengelola dan melestarikan sumber daya alam perlu ditingkatkan melalui perbaikan informasi, ilmu pengetahuan, dan strategi perencanaan yang holistik. Kata kunci: erosi pantai, kerusakan ekosistem hutan bakau, alih fungsi lahan, pemecah gelombang, rehabilitasi ABSTRACT This paper aims to assess the coastal degradation in tropical and subtropical countries in part due to human behavior. Human behavior is causing coastal degradation is to utilize natural resources without regard to the sustainability of coastal natural resources and the carrying capacity of the environment. Degradation of coastal common in most tropical and subtropical countries are coastal erosion and degradation of mangrove ecosystems. This coastal degradation as a

  16. Natural resource dependence, livelihoods and development: perceptions from Kiunga, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Samoilys, M.A.; Kanyange, W.N.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous marine resource management initiatives have been implemented in East Africa over the last 15 years. However, success has been limited if poverty and natural resource health are used as indicators, although the capacity to manage marine resources has improved. This study seeks to map coastal peoples’ perceptions of marine resource use and their dependence on these resources, changes in resource status, and what effect conservation and natural resource management have had on coastal pe...

  17. The Lefkada barrier and beachrock system (NW Greece) — Controls on coastal evolution and the significance of extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Vött, Andreas; Brückner, Helmut; Grapmayer, Ralf; Handl, Mathias; Wennrich, Volker

    2012-02-01

    The Lefkada-Preveza coastal zone, NW Greece, is characterised by an active barrier system and related extensive beachrock sequences. Besides the gradual coastal processes of longshore drift and spit evolution, the presence of active tectonics and the occurrence of tsunamis have been documented in previous studies and are part of the coastal geomorphological system. In this paper, we present the results of detailed multi-proxy sedimentological and geomorphological investigations carried out along the northern part of the barrier system and in back-beach positions. Our findings suggest that extreme wave events contributed to coastal and environmental changes and involved temporary breakdown of the barrier system. Sedimentary findings suggest that one generation of event deposits may be related to the 365 AD Crete earthquake and associated tsunami. According to our results, the Lefkada coastal system formed by the interaction of both long-term, gradual and sudden, impulsive littoral geomorphodynamics. Extreme wave events are assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of the present coastline, acting as recurrent impulsive disturbances of the coastal system. Subsequently, the onset of long-term gradual coastal processes, such as longshore drift, re-established a state of natural coastal balance by re-arranging the coastal sediments.

  18. The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Davina L.; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Bilskie, Matthew V.; Alizad, Karim; Wang, Dingbao

    2015-01-01

    Coastal responses to sea level rise (SLR) include inundation of wetlands, increased shoreline erosion, and increased flooding during storm events. Hydrodynamic parameters such as tidal ranges, tidal prisms, tidal asymmetries, increased flooding depths and inundation extents during storm events respond nonadditively to SLR. Coastal morphology continually adapts toward equilibrium as sea levels rise, inducing changes in the landscape. Marshes may struggle to keep pace with SLR and rely on sediment accumulation and the availability of suitable uplands for migration. Whether hydrodynamic, morphologic, or ecologic, the impacts of SLR are interrelated. To plan for changes under future sea levels, coastal managers need information and data regarding the potential effects of SLR to make informed decisions for managing human and natural communities. This review examines previous studies that have accounted for the dynamic, nonlinear responses of hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, and marsh ecology to SLR by implementing more complex approaches rather than the simplistic “bathtub” approach. These studies provide an improved understanding of the dynamic effects of SLR on coastal environments and contribute to an overall paradigm shift in how coastal scientists and engineers approach modeling the effects of SLR, transitioning away from implementing the “bathtub” approach. However, it is recommended that future studies implement a synergetic approach that integrates the dynamic interactions between physical and ecological environments to better predict the impacts of SLR on coastal systems.

  19. Study on groundwater quality and potential use in shallow coastal East Surabaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyudi; Arief Setiyono; Onie Wiwid Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of coastal area is one of the fast growing urban area in Surabaya. Increasing in population and industrial growth have driven increasing demands for natural resources, particularly water. The objectives of this study are to identify the quality of the coastal groundwater through in situ measurement and laboratory analyses, and to find out its potential to be utilized as a source of water for coastal aquaculture. Groundwater samples from 70 sampling station have been taken from east Surabaya coastal area. Measurements of the temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the samples carried out directly in situ, and measurements of concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, sulphide, and phosphate conducted in the Environmental Laboratory of ITS. The results show that coastal groundwater in west part of the study area, in only very small area, can be used as a drinking water, and in almost all area of the east Surabaya coastal area is not permitted. In the central and south part can be utilized as a source of the coastal aquaculture, however in the north part is not potential, in the central area is medium, and in the south part is categorized as a high potential. (author)

  20. Analyzing potential effects of migration on coastal resource conservation in Southeastern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Carina; Schlüter, Achim; Fujitani, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Coastal areas are under increasing pressure from rapid human population growth, yet empirical research on the effect of migration on coastal and marine resources is scarce. We contribute to this understudied literature by conducting an original household survey in a coastal region of Southeastern Ghana. This study employs two proxies for pro-environmental behavior that have not, to our knowledge, been used in the context of coastal migration, to explicitly compare migrant and non-migrant populations. Environmental attitudes toward coastal resources and individual extraction behavior in common-pool resource (CPR) experiments have shown broad relevance in the literature to understand natural resource decision making. We found that migrants in general did not differ significantly from non-migrants in relation to their environmental attitudes or their extraction behavior in the CPR game. However, when focusing on migrant fishers only, results suggested that this subgroup was less concerned about the utilization of coastal resources than non-migrant fishers and behaved less cooperatively in the CPR experiment. These findings, though, held true only for the subgroup of fishers, and could not be found for other occupational groups. Therefore, we conclude that migrants do not per se value coastal resources less or cooperate less in CPR situations, but that socioeconomic characteristics, and particularly their occupational status and their relation to the resource, matter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 μ M in 1987 to 2.7 μ M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  2. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  3. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  4. A coastal perspective on security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  5. Recent Advances in Studies of Coastal Marsh Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Leonard, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    Limited understanding of sedimentation processes in coastal marshes is a key constraint on the management of environmental impacts associated with sea level rise, degrading quality and quantity of aquatic habitats, and downstream impacts of watershed land use. The problem is exacerbated by complex interactions among physical, ecological, and chemical variables that impact sedimentation over a large range of spatio-temporal scales. These challenges are being met by increasingly sophisticated approaches which cross-fertilize from other disciplines or go even further to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives. One example of the former has been improved precision of fine scale measurements of fluid mechanics and sediment transport over marsh plains and application of those measurements in geomorphologic and coastal engineering models. This advancement has improved our understanding of marsh dynamics at a mechanistic level, which is key for improving the predictive capabilities of wetland models. An example of a multidisciplinary approach that has become very common is the combined usage of multiple monitoring, isotopic, and palynological methods for estimating sedimentation and erosion at a site over a range of time scales. By applying such combinations, it has been possible to piece apart the relative roles of natural processes such as sea level rise and storms from human impacts such as flow constrictions, channel dredging, and sediment supply changes. Beyond improving approaches used to study marshes, past work has led to new questions about marsh morphodynamics and how coastal marshes interact with upland watersheds. With the aid of chaos theory, some recent studies have asserted that coastal marsh channels are fractal and thus must follow universal laws in common with watershed drainages and other dendritic systems. Also, where marshes exist among a mosaic of habitats on a delta, research has revealed the relative roles of watershed versus coastal processes in

  6. Coastal impacts, adaptation, and vulnerabilities: a technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Davidson, Margaret; Burkett, Virginia; Davidson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The coast has long provided communities with a multitude of benefits including an abundance of natural resources that sustain economies, societies, and ecosystems. Coasts provide natural harbors for commerce, trade, and transportation; beaches and shorelines that attract residents and tourists; and wetlands and estuaries that are critical for fisheries and water resources. Coastal ecosystems provide critical functions to cycle and move nutrients, store carbon, detoxify wastes, and purify air and water. These areas also mitigate floods and buffer against coastal storms that bring high winds and salt water inland and erode the shore. Coastal regions are critical in the development, transportation, and processing of oil and natural gas resources and, more recently, are being explored as a source of energy captured from wind and waves. The many benefits and opportunities provided in coastal areas have strengthened our economic reliance on coastal resources. Consequently, the high demands placed on the coastal environment will increase commensurately with human activity. Because 35 U.S. states, commonwealths, and territories have coastlines that border the oceans or Great Lakes, impacts to coastline systems will reverberate through social, economic, and natural systems across the U.S. Impacts on coastal systems are among the most costly and most certain consequences of a warming climate (Nicholls et al., 2007). The warming atmosphere is expected to accelerate sea-level rise as a result of the decline of glaciers and ice sheets and the thermal expansion of sea water. As mean sea level rises, coastal shorelines will retreat and low-lying areas will tend to be inundated more frequently, if not permanently, by the advancing sea. As atmospheric temperature increases and rainfall patterns change, soil moisture and runoff to the coast are likely to be altered. An increase in the intensity of climatic extremes such as storms and heat spells, coupled with other impacts of

  7. Impacts of Coastal Inundation Due to Climate Change in a CLUSTER of Urban Coastal Communities in Ghana, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kwabena Ofori-Danson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rates of sea level rise caused by global warming within the 21st century are expected to exacerbate inundation and episodic flooding tide in low-lying coastal environments. This development threatens both human development and natural habitats within such coastal communities. The impact of sea level rise will be more pronounced in developing countries where there is limited adaptation capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the expected impacts of sea level rise in three communities in the Dansoman coastal area of Accra, Ghana. Future sea level rises were projected based on global scenarios and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization General Circulation Models—CSIRO_MK2_GS GCM. These were used in the SimCLIM model based on the modified Bruun rule and the simulated results overlaid on near vertical aerial photographs taken in 2005. It emerged that the Dansoman coastline could recede by about 202 m by the year 2100 with baseline from 1970 to 1990. The potential impacts on the socioeconomic and natural systems of the Dansoman coastal area were characterized at the Panbros, Grefi and Gbegbeyise communities. The study revealed that about 84% of the local dwellers is aware of the rising sea level in the coastal area but have poor measures of adapting to the effects of flood disasters. Analysis of the likely impacts of coastal inundation revealed that about 650,000 people, 926 buildings and a total area of about 0.80 km2 of land are vulnerable to permanent inundation by the year 2100. The study has shown that there will be significant losses to both life and property by the year 2100 in the Dansoman coastal community in the event of sea level rise.

  8. Using science to strengthen our Nation's resilience to tomorrow's challenges: understanding and preparing for coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Dale L.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Dean, Teresa A.; Focazio, Michael J.; Fulton, John W.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Young, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused unprecedented damage across some of the most densely populated coastal areas of the northeastern United States. The costly, landscape-altering destruction left in the wake of this storm is a stark reminder of our Nation’s need to become more resilient as we inevitably face future coastal hazards. As our Nation recovers from this devastating natural disaster, it is clear that accurate scientific information is essential as we seek to identify and develop strategies to address trends in coastal landscape change and reduce our future vulnerability to major storm events. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received $43.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to conduct the scientific research needed to guide response, recovery, and rebuilding activities and to develop effective strategies for protecting coastal communities and resources in the future. This fact sheet describes how the USGS is combining interdisciplinary science with state-of-the-art technologies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of coastal change caused by Hurricane Sandy. By assessing coastal change impacts through research and by developing tools that enhance our science capabilities, support coastal stakeholders, and facilitate effective decision making, we continue to build a greater understanding of the processes at work across our Nation’s complex coastal environment—from wetlands, estuaries, barrier islands, and nearshore marine areas to infrastructure and human communities. This improved understanding will increase our resilience as we prepare for future short-term, extreme events as well as long-term coastal change.

  9. The hidden costs of coastal hazards: Implications for risk assessment and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunreuther, H.; Platt, R.; Baruch, S.; Bernknopf, R.L.; Buckley, M.; Burkett, V.; Conrad, D.; Davidson, T.; Deutsch, K.; Geis, D.; Jannereth, M.; Knap, A.; Lane, H.; Ljung, G.; McCauley, M.; Mileti, D.; Miller, T.; Morrow, B.; Meyers, J.; Pielke, R.; Pratt, A.; Tripp, J.

    2000-01-01

    Society has limited hazard mitigation dollars to invest. Which actions will be most cost effective, considering the true range of impacts and costs incurred? In 1997, the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment began a two-year study with a panel of experts to help develop new strategies to identify and reduce the costs of weather-related hazards associated with rapidly increasing coastal development activities.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards presents the panel's findings, offering the first in-depth study that considers the costs of coastal hazards to natural resources, social institutions, business, and the built environment. Using Hurricane Hugo, which struck South Carolina in 1989, as a case study, it provides for the first time information on the full range of economic costs caused by a major coastal hazard event. The book:describes and examines unreported, undocumented, and hidden costs such as losses due to business interruption, reduction in property values, interruption of social services, psychological trauma, damage to natural systems, and othersexamines the concepts of risk and vulnerability, and discusses conventional approaches to risk assessment and the emerging area of vulnerability assessmentrecommends a comprehensive framework for developing and implementing mitigation strategiesdocuments the human impact of Hurricane Hugo and provides insight from those who lived through it.The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards takes a structured approach to the problem of coastal hazards, offering a new framework for community-based hazard mitigation along with specific recommendations for implementation. Decisionmakers -- both policymakers and planners -- who are interested in coastal hazard issues will find the book a unique source of new information and insight, as will private-sector decisionmakers including lenders, investors, developers, and insurers of coastal property.

  10. Valuing the European 'coastal blue carbon' storage benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetti, T; Jackson, E L; Turner, R K

    2013-06-15

    'Blue' carbon ecosystems are important carbon storage providers that are currently not protected by any international mechanism, such as REDD. This study aims to contribute to raising awareness in the political domain about the 'blue' carbon issue. This analysis also provides guidance in terms of how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services adding to the debate begun by the Costanza et al. (1997) paper in Nature. Through scenario analysis we assess how human welfare benefits will be affected by changes in the European coastal blue carbon stock provision. The current extent of European coastal blue carbon has an accounting stock value of about US$180 million. If EU Environmental Protection Directives continue to be implemented and effectively enforced, society will gain an appreciating asset over time. However, a future policy reversal resulting in extensive ecosystem loss could mean economic value losses as high as US$1 billion by 2060. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  12. Payments for coastal and marine ecosystem services: prospects and principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2012-05-15

    Coastal and marine resources provide millions of impoverished people across the global South with livelihoods, and provide the world with a range of critical 'ecosystem services', from biodiversity and culture to carbon storage and flood protection. Yet across the world, these resources are fast-diminishing under the weight of pollution, land clearance, coastal development, overfishing, natural disasters and climate change. Traditional approaches to halt the decline focus on regulating against destructive practices, but to little effect. A more successful strategy could be to establish payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes, or incorporate an element of PES in existing regulatory mechanisms. Examples from across the world suggest that PES can work to protect both livelihoods and environments. But to succeed, these schemes must be underpinned by robust research, clear property rights, equitable benefit sharing and sustainable finance.

  13. Interoperability Between Coastal Web Atlases Using Semantic Mediation: A Case Study of the International Coastal Atlas Network (ICAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Lassoued, Y.; Dwyer, N.; Haddad, T.; Bermudez, L. E.; Dunne, D.

    2009-12-01

    Coastal mapping plays an important role in informing marine spatial planning, resource management, maritime safety, hazard assessment and even national sovereignty. As such, there is now a plethora of data/metadata catalogs, pre-made maps, tabular and text information on resource availability and exploitation, and decision-making tools. A recent trend has been to encapsulate these in a special class of web-enabled geographic information systems called a coastal web atlas (CWA). While multiple benefits are derived from tailor-made atlases, there is great value added from the integration of disparate CWAs. CWAs linked to one another can query more successfully to optimize planning and decision-making. If a dataset is missing in one atlas, it may be immediately located in another. Similar datasets in two atlases may be combined to enhance study in either region. *But how best to achieve semantic interoperability to mitigate vague data queries, concepts or natural language semantics when retrieving and integrating data and information?* We report on the development of a new prototype seeking to interoperate between two initial CWAs: the Marine Irish Digital Atlas (MIDA) and the Oregon Coastal Atlas (OCA). These two mature atlases are used as a testbed for more regional connections, with the intent for the OCA to use lessons learned to develop a regional network of CWAs along the west coast, and for MIDA to do the same in building and strengthening atlas networks with the UK, Belgium, and other parts of Europe. Our prototype uses semantic interoperability via services harmonization and ontology mediation, allowing local atlases to use their own data structures, and vocabularies (ontologies). We use standard technologies such as OGC Web Map Services (WMS) for delivering maps, and OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) for delivering and querying ISO-19139 metadata. The metadata records of a given CWA use a given ontology of terms called local ontology. Human or machine

  14. Overwash Processes and Foredune Ecology, Nauset Spit, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    5.2 16.1 Cakite edentula 0.9 2.8 ɘ.1 0.2 28 0.7 3.7 Euphorbia polygonifolia 0.2 0.6 ɘ.1 0.2 3 0.1 0.7 Lathymis Japonicus 1.8 5.3 0.1 1.0 24 0.6 6.9...3.9 0.4 0.9 13 0.3 5.1 Euphorbia polygonifolia 0.7 0.4 --- ...- 1 ɘ.1 0.4 Lathyrus japonicus 35.1 17.1 3.3 8.1 97 2.4 27.6 Rhus radicans 0.7 0.4 0.1... hirta x x x 22 Brassica juncee2 x x x 11 𔄁akiZe edevztula x x x x x x x x x x 100 7azrex siZicea x x 11 c-’henopodium albidum x x x x 33 C onvolvulu

  15. Investing in Natural and Nature-Based Infrastructure: Building Better Along Our Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E. Sutton-Grier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the United States’ critical infrastructure is either aging or requires significant repair, leaving U.S. communities and the economy vulnerable. Outdated and dilapidated infrastructure places coastal communities, in particular, at risk from the increasingly frequent and intense coastal storm events and rising sea levels. Therefore, investments in coastal infrastructure are urgently needed to ensure community safety and prosperity; however, these investments should not jeopardize the ecosystems and natural resources that underlie economic wealth and human well-being. Over the past 50 years, efforts have been made to integrate built infrastructure with natural landscape features, often termed “green” infrastructure, in order to sustain and restore valuable ecosystem functions and services. For example, significant advances have been made in implementing green infrastructure approaches for stormwater management, wastewater treatment, and drinking water conservation and delivery. However, the implementation of natural and nature-based infrastructure (NNBI aimed at flood prevention and coastal erosion protection is lagging. There is an opportunity now, as the U.S. government reacts to the recent, unprecedented flooding and hurricane damage and considers greater infrastructure investments, to incorporate NNBI into coastal infrastructure projects. Doing so will increase resilience and provide critical services to local communities in a cost-effective manner and thereby help to sustain a growing economy.

  16. Coastal hypoxia responses to remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W. M.; Testa, J. M.; Conley, D. J.; Gilbert, D.; Hagy, J. D.

    2009-07-01

    The incidence and intensity of hypoxic waters in coastal aquatic ecosystems has been expanding in recent decades coincident with eutrophication of the coastal zone. Because of the negative effects hypoxia has on many organisms, extensive efforts have been made to reduce the size and duration of hypoxia in many coastal waters. Although it has been broadly assumed that reductions in nutrient loading rates would reverse eutrophication and consequently, hypoxia, recent analyses of historical data from European and North American coastal systems suggest little evidence for simple linear response trajectories. We review existing data, analyses, and models that relate variations in the extent and intensity of hypoxia to changes in loading rates for inorganic nutrients and labile organic matter. We also assess existing knowledge of physical and ecological factors regulating oxygen in coastal marine waters and examine a broad range of examples where hypoxia responses to reductions in nutrient (or organic matter) inputs have been documented. Of the 22 systems identified where concurrent time series of loading and O2 were available, half displayed relatively clear and direct recoveries following remediation. We explored in detail 5 well-studied systems that have exhibited complex, non-linear responses to loading, including apparent "regime shifts." A summary of these analyses suggests that O2 conditions improved rapidly and linearly in systems where remediation focused on organic inputs from sewage plants, which were the primary drivers of hypoxia. In larger more open systems where diffuse nutrient loads are more important in fueling O2 depletion and where climatic influences are pronounced, responses to remediation tend to follow non-linear trends that may include hysteresis and time-lags. Improved understanding of hypoxia remediation requires that future studies use comparative approaches and consider multiple regulating factors including: (1) the dominant temporal scales

  17. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward a Global Classification of Coastal Anthromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli D. Lazarus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given incontrovertible evidence that humans are the most powerful agents of environmental change on the planet, research has begun to acknowledge and integrate human presence and activity into updated descriptions of the world’s biomes as “anthromes”. Thus far, a classification system for anthromes is limited to the terrestrial biosphere. Here, I present a case for the consideration and validity of coastal anthromes. Every coastal environment on Earth is subject to direct and indirect human modification and disturbance. Despite the legacy, ubiquity, and pervasiveness of human interactions with coastal ecosystems, coastal anthromes still lack formal definition. Following the original argument and framework for terrestrial anthromes, I outline a set of coastal anthrome classifications that dovetail with terrestrial and marine counterparts. Recognising coastal environments as complex and increasingly vulnerable anthropogenic systems is a fundamental step toward understanding their modern dynamics—and, by extension, realising opportunities for and limits to their resilience.

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. Demographic change in coastal fishing communities and its implications for the coastal environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietze, U; Groenewold, G; Marcoux, Alain

    2000-01-01

    ... and the deterioration of the coastal envrionment. The findings of the development dynamics of rural fishing communities "suggest that contrary to the assumed global trend, the number of coastal fishers has started to decline or stagnate in recent...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekielda, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.) [de

  12. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Coastal habitats, artificial reefs, wrecks, dumping grounds, harbor obstructions and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, coastal habitats, artificial reefs, shipwrecks, dumping grounds, and harbor obstructions. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  13. Visualizing Coastal Erosion, Overwash and Coastal Flooding in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Morse, R.; Shyka, T.

    2017-12-01

    Powerful East Coast storms and their associated storm tides and large, battering waves can lead to severe coastal change through erosion and re-deposition of beach sediment. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has modeled such potential for geological response using a storm-impact scale that compares predicted elevations of hurricane-induced water levels and associated wave action to known elevations of coastal topography. The resulting storm surge and wave run-up hindcasts calculate dynamic surf zone collisions with dune structures using discrete regime categories of; "collision" (dune erosion), "overwash" and "inundation". The National Weather Service (NWS) recently began prototyping this empirical technique under the auspices of the North Atlantic Regional Team (NART). Real-time erosion and inundation forecasts were expanded to include both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones along vulnerable beaches (hotspots) on the New England coast. Preliminary results showed successful predictions of impact during hurricane Sandy and several intense Nor'easters. The forecasts were verified using observational datasets, including "ground truth" reports from Emergency Managers and storm-based, dune profile measurements organized through a Maine Sea Grant partnership. In an effort to produce real-time visualizations of this forecast output, the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (NERACOOS) and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with NART to create graphical products of wave run-up levels for each New England "hotspot". The resulting prototype system updates the forecasts twice daily and allows users the ability to adjust atmospheric and sea state input into the calculations to account for model errors and forecast uncertainty. This talk will provide an overview of the empirical wave run-up calculations, the system used to produce forecast output and a demonstration of the new web based tool.

  14. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  15. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  16. Metals in coastal zooplanktons - A coastal living resource hazard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paimpillil, J.S.; Joseph, T.; Rejomon, G.; Gerson, V.J.

    in the organism's body and its mean concentration in the ambient water. All metal concentrations in water are reported in ug l -1 where as in zooplankton the values are reported in ug g -1 dry weight. RESULTS The copepods were the most dominant zooplankton... Visakhapatnam and off Chennai transect (Fig.l&2) The iron levels in zooplankton (50962 ppm) and in water (2.81 ppb) off Visakhapatnam were nearly twice when compared with the respective values at the coastal stations of other transects. These higher levels can...

  17. The Magnitude and Origin of Groundwater Discharge to Eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2017-10-01

    Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contributes to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters, but the role of coastal groundwater at regional to continental scales remains poorly defined due to diverse hydrologic conditions and the difficulty of tracking coastal groundwater flow paths through heterogeneous subsurface materials. We use three-dimensional groundwater flow models for the first time to calculate the magnitude and source areas of groundwater discharge from unconfined aquifers to coastal waterbodies along the entire eastern U.S. We find that 27.1 km3/yr (22.8-30.5 km3/yr) of groundwater directly enters eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters. The contributing recharge areas comprised 175,000 km2 of U.S. land area, extending several kilometers inland. This result provides new information on the land area that can supply natural and anthropogenic constituents to coastal waters via groundwater discharge, thereby defining the subterranean domain potentially affecting coastal chemical budgets and ecosystem processes.

  18. Development of an Impact-Oriented Quantitative Coastal Inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Coastal inundations are an increasing threat to the lives and livelihoods of people living in low-lying, highly-populated coastal areas. According to a World Bank Report in 2005, at least 2.6 million people may have drowned due to coastal inundation, particularly caused by storm surges, over the last 200 years. Forecasting and prediction of natural events, such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, inland flooding, and severe winter weather, provide critical guidance to emergency managers and decision-makers from the local to the national level, with the goal of minimizing both human and economic losses. This guidance is used to facilitate evacuation route planning, post-disaster response and resource deployment, and critical infrastructure protection and securing, and it must be available within a time window in which decision makers can take appropriate action. Recognizing this extreme vulnerability of coastal areas to inundation/flooding, and with a view to improve safety-related services for the community, research should strongly enhance today's forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of coastal vulnerability and risks and develop adequate prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. This paper tries to develop an impact-oriented quantitative coastal inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment to address the challenges faced by coastal communities to enhance their safety and to support sustainable development, through the improvement of coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems.

  19. The magnitude and origin of groundwater discharge to eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, Kevin; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh groundwater discharge to coastal environments contributes to the physical and chemical conditions of coastal waters, but the role of coastal groundwater at regional to continental scales remains poorly defined due to diverse hydrologic conditions and the difficulty of tracking coastal groundwater flow paths through heterogeneous subsurface materials. We use three-dimensional groundwater flow models for the first time to calculate the magnitude and source areas of groundwater discharge from unconfined aquifers to coastal waterbodies along the entire eastern U.S. We find that 27.1 km3/yr (22.8–30.5 km3/yr) of groundwater directly enters eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters. The contributing recharge areas comprised ~175,000 km2 of U.S. land area, extending several kilometers inland. This result provides new information on the land area that can supply natural and anthropogenic constituents to coastal waters via groundwater discharge, thereby defining the subterranean domain potentially affecting coastal chemical budgets and ecosystem processes.

  20. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  1. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousky, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We can expect climate change to alter the frequency, magnitude, timing, and location of many natural hazards. For example, heat waves are likely to become more frequent, and heavy downpours and flooding more common and more intense. Hurricanes will likely grow more dangerous, rising sea levels will mean more coastal flooding, and more-frequent and…

  2. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from several government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects in the area of forestry, fisheries, coastal resources and protected areas. Research support will be provided by a team based in the Cambodia CBNRM Learning Institute.

  3. Coastal Development of Daugavgrîva Island, Located Near the Gulf of Riga / Rîgas Lîèa Piekrastes Krasta Attîstîba Daugavgrîvas Salâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bçrtiòa Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

  4. An evaluative tool for rapid assessment of derelict vessel effects on coastal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Caitlin C; McDonald, Ashley; Cebrian, Just

    2018-02-01

    Derelict vessels impact coastal and estuarine habitats, fisheries resources, are aesthetically unappealing, and may be a hazard to navigation and recreation. The Government Accountability Office estimated in 2013 over 5600 derelict vessels existed throughout the coastal United States. Considering the large number of derelict vessels present in coastal areas, effective tools are needed to assess the environmental damage exerted by derelict vessels and aid in management strategies for their removal. After carefully reviewing regulations, we developed a 100-point scoring rubric (DVET) to evaluate damage by derelict vessels to natural resources with minimal field effort. The DVET's ability to rapidly assess a derelict vessel's impact on surrounding natural resources was confirmed with additional rigorous sampling and suggest environmental enhancement following vessel removal. The DVET shows promise for informing derelict vessel removal strategies, although more work is needed to quantify environmental benefits of derelict vessel removal and establish guidelines for removal prioritization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DEFORMATION EFFECTS OF DAMS ON COASTAL REGIONS USING SENTINEL-1 IW TOPS TIME SERIES: THE WEST LESVOS, GREECE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karamvasis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are vulnerable to erosion and loss by level sea rise. Subsidence caused by the reduction of fluvial sediments in coastal zones found close to dams, is another important deformation factor. Quantification of the deformation rate of coastal region is essential for natural and anthropogenic activities. The study utilizes Interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques and exploits the archive of Sentinel-1 TOPS data for the period 2014–2016. The freely available, wide ground coverage (250 × 170 km and small temporal resolution Sentinel-1 TOPS datasets are promising for coastal applications. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI methodologies are considered state-of-the-art remote sensing approaches for land deformation monitoring. The selected PSI method is the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS multitemporal InSAR technique. The study area of this study is the coastal zone of west region of Lesvos Island, Greece. The main characteristic of the area is the reduction of the fluvial sediment supply from the coastal drainage basins due to construction of dams and the abstraction of riverine sediments. The study demonstrates the potentials of the SBAS method for measuring and mapping the dynamic changes in coastal topography in terms of subsidence rates and discusses its advantages and limitations. The results show that natural and rural environments appear to have diverse ground deformation patterns.

  6. Sustainability in coastal tourism development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Marie Visbech; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Liburd, Janne J.

    2018-01-01

    Denmark’s coastlines have been protected from tourism development and construction for more than 80 years. In 2014, the Danish politicians opened up for softer regulation of the coastlines and invited proposals for tourism development projects within the hitherto protected coastal zone. The call...... explicitly requested nominations for sustainable tourism projects. A comparison between academic sustainability discourse and the approved projects suggests that tourism actors do not address sustainable tourism development as a holistic concept. Long-term perspectives are largely absent, whereas economic...... benefits are emphasized. Key findings also indicate weak political leadership in the envisaged transfer towards sustainable tourism development....

  7. Performance Indicator Framework for Evaluation of Sustainable Tourism in the Taiwan Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surrounded by the ocean, Taiwan has been increasingly developing coastal tourism projects. Concerns that negative impacts might be brought about by prosperous tourism have resulted in a recent focus on sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism involves policies that acknowledge the interdependences among the environment, the community, and the economy. The goal of sustainable tourism is to enhance and protect the environment while satisfying basic human requirements, as well as those of the contemporary and future tourism industries to improve quality of life. On the other hand, unsustainable coastal tourism might undermine the natural environment and society, resulting in air, water, and soil pollution, wildlife habitat disruption, and changes of local community cultural characteristics. Therefore, performance evaluation of coastal tourism, using an indicator framework to facilitate sustainable development and enhance the effectiveness of coastal resources exploitation, is critical. Through a literature review and expert surveys using the methods of the fuzzy Delphi method (FDM and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, this study builds a performance indicator framework and identifies the key factors affecting the sustainable development of coastal tourism in Taiwan. The results can serve as a reference for the public sector to be used for the sustainable planning and development of coastal tourism.

  8. Carbon degradation in agricultural soils flooded with seawater after managed coastal realignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sjøgaard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate change and related sea-level rise. An increasingly common solution to protect coastal areas lying below sea level is intentional flooding by "managed coastal realignment". However, the biogeochemical implications of flooding agricultural soils with seawater are still not well understood. We conducted a 1-year mesocosm experiment to investigate microbial carbon degradation processes in soils flooded with seawater. Agricultural soils were sampled on the northern coast of the island Fyn (Denmark at Gyldensteen Strand, an area that was subsequently flooded in a coastal realignment project. We found rapid carbon degradation to TCO2 1 day after experimental flooding and onwards and microbial sulfate reduction established quickly as an important mineralization pathway. Nevertheless, no free sulfide was observed as it precipitated as Fe–S compounds with Fe acting as a natural buffer, preventing toxic effects of free sulfide in soils flooded with seawater. Organic carbon degradation decreased significantly after 6 months, indicating that most of the soil organic carbon was refractory towards microbial degradation under the anoxic conditions created in the soil after flooding. During the experiment only 6–7 % of the initial soil organic carbon pools were degraded. On this basis we suggest that most of the organic carbon present in coastal soils exposed to flooding through sea-level rise or managed coastal realignment will be permanently preserved.

  9. The sustainable use of tropical coastal resources - A key conservation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdgate, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The three papers covered in this review form a series, addressing broadly the same issues in increasing detail. The paper by Carl Gustaf Lundin and Olof Linden, on 'Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource', takes a wide view of the coastal zones (the regions between the seaward margins of the continental shelves, in water depths of around 200 m and the landward edge of the coastal plains at a comparable altitude above mean sea level), and the nature of the pressures upon them. The paper by Magnus A.K. Ngoile and Chris J. Horrill, on 'Coastal ecosystems productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management', focuses very much on these same issues of use and pressure in the Eastern Africa Region. The paper by M.C.Oehman, A. Rajasuriya and O. Linden, on 'Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study' looks in some depth at the situation on three selected reef systems in the one country. All the papers address the key question of how the management of coastal resources should change, in order to avoid continuing degradation and the cost and impoverishment it is likely to bring. The three papers mentioned is published in this issue of Ambio, p. 461-480

  10. A framework for assessing risk to coastal ecosystems in Taiwan due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are rich with biodiversity and ecological functions that provide valuable ecosystem services. They are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Assessing the impacts of climate change on coastal ecosystems is crucial if we are to develop and implement strategies that minimize and mitigate these impacts. This study uses a theoretical framework that includes climatic hazards, ecosystem vulnerability, and exposure to damaging climatic events, to estimate the risks due to climate change on coastal ecosystems in Taiwan. We found that seagrass beds, algal reefs, and coral reefs in Taiwan are at high ecological risk to the future effects of sea level rise, elevated sea temperature, and ocean acidification. The responses of these highly threatened ecosystems to the effects of climate change is uncertain and depend, in part, on the type of ecosystem, its location in Taiwan, the rate at which these effects occur, and whether these impacts occur at the same time or sequentially. The coastal ecosystem risk to the adverse effects of climate change is high because they are especially vulnerable. The resistance of coastal ecosystems is linked to their complexity and maturity. Their low adaptive capacity is linked to the exploitation of their natural resources and inadequate biodiversity conservation. To minimize and mitigate the effects of climate change on high-risk areas and ecosystems ongoing monitoring programs and dynamic management will be needed. Our study is a first step toward building a framework for climate change risk assessment for the coastal ecosystems in Taiwan.

  11. A Mediterranean coastal database for assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and associated hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Claudia; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Muis, Sanne; Lincke, Daniel; Satta, Alessio; Lionello, Piero; Jimenez, Jose A; Conte, Dario; Hinkel, Jochen

    2018-03-27

    We have developed a new coastal database for the Mediterranean basin that is intended for coastal impact and adaptation assessment to sea-level rise and associated hazards on a regional scale. The data structure of the database relies on a linear representation of the coast with associated spatial assessment units. Using information on coastal morphology, human settlements and administrative boundaries, we have divided the Mediterranean coast into 13 900 coastal assessment units. To these units we have spatially attributed 160 parameters on the characteristics of the natural and socio-economic subsystems, such as extreme sea levels, vertical land movement and number of people exposed to sea-level rise and extreme sea levels. The database contains information on current conditions and on plausible future changes that are essential drivers for future impacts, such as sea-level rise rates and socio-economic development. Besides its intended use in risk and impact assessment, we anticipate that the Mediterranean Coastal Database (MCD) constitutes a useful source of information for a wide range of coastal applications.

  12. Carbon degradation in agricultural soils flooded with seawater after managed coastal realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Kamilla S.; Treusch, Alexander H.; Valdemarsen, Thomas B.

    2017-09-01

    Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate change and related sea-level rise. An increasingly common solution to protect coastal areas lying below sea level is intentional flooding by "managed coastal realignment". However, the biogeochemical implications of flooding agricultural soils with seawater are still not well understood. We conducted a 1-year mesocosm experiment to investigate microbial carbon degradation processes in soils flooded with seawater. Agricultural soils were sampled on the northern coast of the island Fyn (Denmark) at Gyldensteen Strand, an area that was subsequently flooded in a coastal realignment project. We found rapid carbon degradation to TCO2 1 day after experimental flooding and onwards and microbial sulfate reduction established quickly as an important mineralization pathway. Nevertheless, no free sulfide was observed as it precipitated as Fe-S compounds with Fe acting as a natural buffer, preventing toxic effects of free sulfide in soils flooded with seawater. Organic carbon degradation decreased significantly after 6 months, indicating that most of the soil organic carbon was refractory towards microbial degradation under the anoxic conditions created in the soil after flooding. During the experiment only 6-7 % of the initial soil organic carbon pools were degraded. On this basis we suggest that most of the organic carbon present in coastal soils exposed to flooding through sea-level rise or managed coastal realignment will be permanently preserved.

  13. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic–terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  14. Quantifying the effectiveness of shoreline armoring removal on coastal biota of Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy S; Toft, Jason D; Cordell, Jeffery R; Dethier, Megan N; Adams, Jeffrey W; Kelly, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline armoring is prevalent around the world with unprecedented human population growth and urbanization along coastal habitats. Armoring structures, such as riprap and bulkheads, that are built to prevent beach erosion and protect coastal infrastructure from storms and flooding can cause deterioration of habitats for migratory fish species, disrupt aquatic-terrestrial connectivity, and reduce overall coastal ecosystem health. Relative to armored shorelines, natural shorelines retain valuable habitats for macroinvertebrates and other coastal biota. One question is whether the impacts of armoring are reversible, allowing restoration via armoring removal and related actions of sediment nourishment and replanting of native riparian vegetation. Armoring removal is targeted as a viable option for restoring some habitat functions, but few assessments of coastal biota response exist. Here, we use opportunistic sampling of pre- and post-restoration data for five biotic measures (wrack % cover, saltmarsh % cover, number of logs, and macroinvertebrate abundance and richness) from a set of six restored sites in Puget Sound, WA, USA. This broad suite of ecosystem metrics responded strongly and positively to armor removal, and these results were evident after less than one year. Restoration responses remained positive and statistically significant across different shoreline elevations and temporal trajectories. This analysis shows that removing shoreline armoring is effective for restoration projects aimed at improving the health and productivity of coastal ecosystems, and these results may be widely applicable.

  15. Dune Morphology and Sediment Budget Responses to Varying Vegetation Cover and Restoration: Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. M.; Walker, I. J.; Pickart, A.

    2016-12-01

    This study examines morphodynamic and sedimentation responses of a stretch of coastal foredune undergoing removal of invasive vegetation (Ammophila arenaria) to restore ecosystem dynamics at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Seasonal topographic and vegetation transect surveys and historical aerial photography are analyzed to assess interannual to decadal geomorphic responses of the foredune and sediment budget changes. Relationships between sedimentation and geomorphic change are explored between dominant vegetation cover types as possible. The foredune maintained a near balanced position (+0.004 m a-1) between 1939 and 2014 across the study site. However, there is a general N to S trend from progradation to retreat of the foredune with a maximum change of +1.34 m a-1 in the northern A. arenaria dominated areas to a max retreat of -0.49 m a-1 in the southern sites with a lower and more hummocky foredune dominated by native plants. From 2004 to 2014, percent active sand surface and average aerial change of blowouts remained relatively stable across the study site, with average change values of -0.97% and +0.01% respectively. Positive statistical correlations exist between seasonal beach and foredune volume changes across all sites, yet no significant differences are observed in total volumetric change over the observation period or volume changes within beach and foredune between different vegetation cover types. Survey and aerial photography results suggest that the increased density of A. arenaria has contributed to foredune stabilization over recent decades. However, there is no observed significant difference in seasonal sand volume change in relation to differing dominant vegetation covers. Rather, strong positive correlations exist between seasonal beach volumes and foredune sedimentation, which suggests that foredune sediment budgets may be driven primarily by littoral and aeolian supply variations. Future research will explore vegetation

  16. Are coastal North Sea sediments an efficient filter for anthropogenic nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähnke, Kirstin; Deek, Astrid; Neumann, Andreas; Newham, Michael; Emeis, Kay

    2013-04-01

    Coastal oceans like the North Sea and German Bight nowadays receive very high amounts of surplus nitrogen from anthropogenic sources such as rivers or atmospheric deposition. The subsequent removal of these excess nutrient loads hence is a critical feature of coastal and marine sediments, with the strong potential to alleviate negative eutrophication phenomena. However, massive dredging of riverine and estuarine sediments and a long history of diverse anthropogenic pressures can potentially alter this natural filter function of marine/coastal sediments, and we accordingly aimed to quantify denitrification along a gradient from the Elbe River estuary to the German Bight and North Sea. In a joint approach, we measured natural and potential denitrification rates along a gradient from the Elbe estuary to the Wadden Sea and further off-shore sediments. We used both in situ and incubation techniques, aiming to quantify natural and potential rates of denitrification. Based on our data, we also tried to unravel the influence of different factors that limit denitrification. A statistical data analysis suggests that TOC and water column nitrate are main controlling factors, with surprisingly little influence of oxygen penetration depth. We find that bulk N2 production is largely fuelled by coupled nitrification-denitrification, with an equivalent of 19-43% of the Elbe River nitrate load being removed via this process in spring and summer. In contrast, the direct removal of nitrate from the water column is of subordinate role. Overall, our results show that the sedimentary filter function is only able to remove small portions of anthropogenic nitrogen entrained to the coastal North Sea along the coastal strip. An extrapolation of rates to different natural sediment types and their respective areas suggests that ~ 2-3 kt, representing 5% of the spring/summer nitrate load of the Elbe River, are removed in the near-shore region. This accordingly leaves a vast amount of surplus

  17. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M H; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin.

  18. External dose rates in coastal urban environments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    A long term activity aiming on assessing the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation is being developed at IRD/CNEN. Several research groups within IRD work in this activity, although mostly as a parallel work associated to main research lines followed by researches of the institution. One main activity is related to the raise of external gamma dose rates throughout the country. The objective of this work is to present results from recent surveys performed as part of the emergency preparedness for radiological emergencies during major public events in Brazil, such as the the World Youth Day, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013, and the Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup soccer games, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In this work, only the recent (2014) coastal urban environments measurements were included. Average kerma rates for Fortaleza is 80 ± 23 nGy/h, for Vitoria is 96 ± 33 nGy/h and for Angra dos Reis is 147 ± 16 nGy/h. These results are then compared to previous results on other coastal urban towns (Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Salvador), and with the high background coastal area of Guarapari town. (authors)

  19. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  20. Ecosystem classification for EU habitat distribution assessment in sandy coastal environments: an application in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Laura; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela; Pirone, Gianfranco; Ciaschetti, Giampiero

    2008-05-01

    Many recent developments in coastal science have gone against the demands of European Union legislation. Coastal dune systems which cover small areas of the earth can host a high level of biodiversity. However, human pressure on coastal zones around the world has increased dramatically in the last 50 years. In addition to direct habitat loss, the rapid extinction of many species that are unique to these systems can be attributed to landscape deterioration through the lack of appropriate management. In this paper, we propose to use of an ecosystem classification technique that integrates potential natural vegetation distribution as a reference framework for coastal dune EU Habitats (92/43) distribution analysis and assessment. As an example, the present study analyses the EU Habitats distribution within a hierarchical ecosystem classification of the coastal dune systems of central Italy. In total, 24 land elements belonging to 8 land units, 5 land facets, 2 land systems and 2 land regions were identified for the coastal dunes of central Italy, based on diagnostic land attributes. In central Italy, coastal dune environments including all the beach area, mobile dunes and all the fixed-dune land elements contain or could potentially hold at least one EU habitat of interest. Almost all dune slack transitions present the potentiality for the spontaneous development of EU woodlands of interest. The precise information concerning these ecosystems distribution and ecological relationships that this method produces, makes it very effective in Natura 2000 European network assessment. This hierarchical ecosystem classification method facilitates the identification of areas to be surveyed and eventually bound, under the implementation of EU Habitat directive (92/43) including areas with highly disturbed coastal dune ecosystems.

  1. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  2. Deciphering storm-event runoff behavior in a coastal plain watershed using chemical and physical hydrograph separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Austin E. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting storm-event runoff in coastal plain watersheds is challenging because of the space- and time-variable nature of different sources that contribute to stream flow. These flow vectors and the magnitude of water flux is dependent on the pre-storm soil moisture (as estimated from depth to water table) in the lower coastal plain (LCP) region.

  3. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of water intakes and outfalls.

  4. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    is a combination of material presented in the following references: Burcharth, H.F. (1992) Reliability evaluation of a structure at sea. Proceedings of the Short Course on Design and Reliability of Coastal Structures. Venice, Scuola di S. Giovanni Evangelista, 1992. 23rd International Conference on Coastal...

  5. Economic and social demands for coastal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polome, Philippe; Marzetti, S.; van der Veen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present methods and examples of economic valuation in the framework of cost–benefit analysis of coastal defense schemes. We summarize the concepts of value in economics and their application to coastal erosion defense. We describe the results of an original benefit

  6. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  7. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  8. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, "Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate" provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...... such as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located. Integrated risk assessment tools for considering the effects of climate change and related uncertainties. Presents latest insights on coastal engineering defenses. Provides integrated guidelines for setting up...

  9. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  10. Trend Analysis of Hydro-meteorological variables in the coastal area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT; This paper presents the application of Mann-Kendall trend test and Standard. Anomaly index onhydro-meteorological variables in the coastal area of Lagos state in order to determine the nature of trend and level of significance. The hydro-meteorological data such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind ...

  11. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  12. Bacterial Degradation of Nitrogenous Energetic Compounds (NEC) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Michael T; Walker, S. W; Boyd, T. J; Hamdan, L. J; Osburn, C. L

    2008-01-01

    ... rapidly metabolized in these environments. During 14 sampling events in coastal waterways from 2002 to 2007, we measured TNT mineralization rates in surface sediment and water samples that were often similar to those of other organic compounds that are transient in natural ecosystems due to their use in bacterial metabolism, such as petroleum hydrocarbons and amino acids.

  13. Effects of UV radiation on DNA photodamage and production in bacterioplankton in the coastal Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M; Snelder, E; Kop, A.J; Boelen, P.; Buma, A.G.J.; van Duyl, F.C

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on bacterioplankton. The effect of different parts of the sunlight spectrum on the leucine and thymidine incorporation and on the induction of DNA damage in natural bacterial populations in the coastal Caribbean Sea off Curacao were

  14. A modeling approach to assess coastal management effects on benthic habitat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzoli, Francesco; Smolders, Sven; Eelkema, Menno; Ysebaert, Tom; Escaravage, Vincent; Temmerman, Stijn; Meire, Patrick; Herman, Peter M.J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural coastal hydrodynamics and morphology worldwide is altered by human interventions such as embankments, shipping and dredging, which may have consequences for ecosystem functionality. To ensure long-term ecological sustainability, requires capability to predict long-term large-scale

  15. Coastal climate change in Southeast Alaska – Students aid in documenting local observations and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda E. Kruger; Adelaide Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Coastal indigenous people around the world have depended on natural resources from land and sea since time immemorial. However, assessments of potential resource change resulting from ongoing physical change, like we are experiencing today, are rare. Such summaries could increase our understanding of ecosystem dynamics and implications for important resources and could...

  16. Towards sustainable management of Louisiana's coastal wetland forests: problems, constraints, and a new beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chambers; W.H. Conner; R.F. Keim; S.P. Faulkner; J.W. Day; E.S. Gardiner; M.S. Hughes; S.L. King; K.W. McLeod; C.A. Miller; J.A. Nyman; G.P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Over 345,000 ha of forested swamps occur throughout the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Natural and anthropogenic changes in hydrology and geomorphology at local and landscape levels have reduced the productivity in many of these coastal wetland forests areas and have caused the complete loss of forest cover in some places. A summary and interpretation of the...

  17. Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms for Coastal Louisiana, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [offshore_platforms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set was originally produced by the Coastal Management Division (CMD) of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in a cooperative agreement with the...

  18. Coastal change analysis program implemented in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 1996 and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) within the Chenier Plain of coastal Louisiana. Landcover classes followed the definition of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods had to be developed as part of this study for attainment of these national classification standards. Classification method developments were especially important when classes were spectrally inseparable, when classes were part of spatial and spectral continuums, when the spatial resolution of the sensor included more than one landcover type, and when human activities caused abnormal transitions in the landscape. Most classification problems were overcome by using one or a combination of techniques, such as separating the MRB into subregions of commonality, applying masks to specific land mixtures, and highlighting class transitions between years that were highly unlikely. Overall, 1990, 1993, and 1996 classification accuracy percentages (associated kappa statistics) were 80% (0.79), 78% (0.76), and 86% (0.84), respectively. Most classification errors were associated with confusion between managed (cultivated land) and unmanaged grassland classes; scrub shrub, grasslands and forest classes; water, unconsolidated shore and bare land classes; and especially in 1993, between water and floating vegetation classes. Combining cultivated land and grassland classes and water and floating vegetation classes into single classes accuracies for 1990, 1993, and 1996 increased to 82%, 83%, and 90%, respectively. To improve the interpretation of landcover change, three indicators of landcover class stability were formulated. Location stability was defined as the percentage of a landcover class that remained as the same class in the same location at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period. Residence stability was

  19. Advancing Sustainable Development through Understanding the Coastal Environment: The Garolim Bay in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal environment worldwide is increasingly more populated and developed in recent years. As a result, the natural coastal environment which often provides habitats for various plants and animals and nursery grounds for fishes has become scarce. However, it is well-known that the natural coastal environment is important for the well-being of the ecosystem including human. In addition, it may contribute to the local economy by attracting many visitors who like to appreciate and enjoy the nature. Although there may be efforts to preserve the natural coastal environment by governments and environmental groups, there may be also needs to develop the coastal environment. In order to preserve the natural environment without sacrificing the local economy, it would be important to appreciate the unique characteristics of the coastal environment that may contribute to attracting many visitors. In this study, we discuss some unique characteristics of the coastal environment located in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea. The Garolim Bay is a semi-enclosed bay with the narrow opening of about 2 km and the length of about 20 km, and has a spring tidal range over 6 m. It is well known for vast tidal flats and healthy ecosystems that supports high productive and diverse marine lives including spotted seals. The tidal wave propagates north along the eastern Yellow Sea and currents become strong off the Garolim Bay due to the promontory effect and mixing of the water column results in cooling of surface water. Due to its characteristic offshore environment, narrow opening and abrupt turning over 120 degrees in the midst of acceleration of strong currents, the Garolim Bay presents the unique physical and geological environment resulting in characteristic physical, biological and geological features. In fact, the name of the bay `Garolim' meaning 'Dew-induced Forest', may have resulted from these unique physical and geological characteristics of the bay.

  20. Roles of coastal laboratories in the implementation of the nation`s emerging priorities for research in the coastal zone: Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, T.C. [ed.] [Maryland Univ., Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Labs.; Brooks, A.S. [ed.] [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Center for Great Lakes Studies; Clegg, J.S. [ed.] [California Univ., Bodega Bay, CA (United States). Bodega Marine Lab.] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Rapid growth in the human population and related increases in consumption, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation are serious concerns for the quality of life and national security. Global change, biological diversity, and sustainable ecosystems were identified as priority areas of research based on their importance for the advance of the fundamental knowledge needed to manage for a sustainable biosphere. Demographic trends, global climate change, and patterns of contaminant release and transport suggest that the effects of human activity on the environment and on natural resources will be especially pronounced in the coastal zone. This report presents the results of a workshop organized by the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to evaluate the changing roles of coastal laboratories and to recommend mechanisms by which the community of coastal scientists can more effectively work together and with government agencies in defining priorities and implementing research programs that are responsive to national needs. The workshop is part of an ongoing effort to facilitate more integrated approaches to environmental research and the use of scientific information for the purposes of education and environmental management in the coastal zone.

  1. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  2. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li

    2007-01-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  3. Use of Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) for Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    saltwater or freshwater) 500 Submerged aquatic vegetation 7001 Roman et al. (1990) Mudflats 3502 1 Rounded it down to 700 2 Used the average value...indicate shoreline accretion, and negative values indicate erosion. It was not possible to correct for tide height because images were not time- stamped ...vessel- induced waves 1. Riprap 2. Brick debris concrete debris 3. Concrete bulkhead 4. Stone walls 5. SAV bed 6. Jetties 1. Prevent erosion

  4. Toward an Economic Definition of Sustainable Yield for Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, J. W.; Habana, N. C.; Lander, M.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of aquifer sustainable yield has long been criticized, debated, and even disparaged among groundwater hydrologists, but policy-makers and professional water resource managers inevitably ask them for unequivocal answers to such questions as "What is the absolute maximum volume of water that could be sustainably withdrawn from this aquifer?" We submit that it is therefore incumbent upon hydrologists to develop and offer valid practical definitions of sustainable yield that can be usefully applied to given conditions and types of aquifers. In coastal aquifers, water quality—in terms of salinity—is affected by changes in the natural water budget and the volume rate of artificial extraction. In principle, one can identify a family of assay curves for a given aquifer, showing the specific relationships between the quantity and quality of the water extracted under given conditions of recharge. The concept of the assay curve, borrowed from the literature of natural-resource extraction economics, has to our knowledge not yet found its way into the literature of applied hydrology. The relationships between recharge, extraction, and water quality that define the assay curve can be determined empirically from sufficient observations of groundwater response to recharge and extraction and can be estimated from models that have been reliably history-matched ("calibrated") to such data. We thus propose a working definition of sustainable yield for coastal aquifers in terms of the capacity that ultimately could be achieved by an ideal production system, given what is known or can be assumed about the natural limiting conditions. Accordingly, we also offer an approach for defining an ideal production system for a given aquifer, and demonstrate how observational data and/or modeling results can be used to develop assay curves of quality vs. quantity extracted, which can serve as reliable predictive tools for engineers, managers, regulators, and policy

  5. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-01-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  7. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J. A.; Henriques, R.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal areas suffer degradation due to the action of the sea and other natural and human-induced causes. Topographical changes in beaches and sand dunes need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution of these natural environments. This is an important application for airborne LIDAR, and conventional photogrammetry is also being used for regular monitoring programs of sensitive coastal areas. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map and monitor sand dunes and beaches. A very light plane (SwingletCam) equipped with a very cheap, non-metric camera was used to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 5 cm. The Agisoft Photoscan software was used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. The processing, which includes automatic aerial triangulation with camera calibration and subsequent model generation, was mostly automated. To achieve the best positional accuracy for the whole process, signalised ground control points were surveyed with a differential GPS receiver. Two very sensitive test areas on the Portuguese northwest coast were analysed. Detailed DSMs were obtained with 10 cm grid spacing and vertical accuracy (RMS) ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 cm, which is very similar to the image ground resolution (3.2-4.5 cm). Where possible to assess, the planimetric accuracy of the orthoimage mosaics was found to be subpixel. Within the regular coastal monitoring programme being carried out in the region, UAVs can replace many of the conventional flights, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the quality of topographic and aerial imagery data.

  8. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology in the coastal zone. This preface provides a brief summary of each article published in the SI.

  9. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  10. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions

  11. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    not necessary mean planning for a one common nature. As exemplified by the River Aire Re-naturalization Project (2002-2015), landscape architecture might provide an alternative approach to nature restoration that is more site specific and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. In the presentation...

  12. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny L; Currin, Carolyn A; O'Brien, Colleen; Raffenburg, Craig; Davis, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  13. Extended Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for Coastal Impact Assessment: Spatial Coastal Population Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers, which were identified from existing literature, we develop coastal narratives for the five basic SSPs (SSP1-5). These narratives account for differences in coastal versus inland population development in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data. We then adjust these rates for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. The resulting global population grids depict the projected distribution of coastal population for each SSP, until the end of the 21st century, at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. These grids exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in coastal population compared to the basic SSPs. Across all SSPs, except for SSP3, coastal population peaks by the middle of the 21st century and declines afterwards. In SSP3 the coastal population grows continuously until 2100. Compared to the base year 2000 the coastal population increases considerably in all SSPs. The extended SSPs are intended to be utilised in Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (IAV) assessments as they allow for improved analysis of exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding under different physical and socioeconomic scenarios.

  14. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  15. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  16. The impact of coastal interventions: between the myth and the reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapuço, A. M.; Taborda, R.; Freitas, M. C.; Silveira, T.; Andrade, C.; Lira, C.; Pinto, C.

    2012-04-01

    The human interference within the coastal zone is usually associated with negative impacts, such as promoting or accelerating coastal erosion. This perception results from the innumerous cases worldwide where the artificialization of large stretches of coastline, with the loss of irreplaceable natural values, was unable to solve the background erosional problem. This idea, is so deeply rooted, that all human interventions at the coast are generally seen as, a priori, negative, disregarding their possible benefits. This can constitute an obstacle to an integrated coastal management approach, which should consider not only the environmental issues, but also social and economic dimensions. This work focuses on the importance of understanding how coastal interventions can upgrade the value - in a wide sense - of a coastal stretch. These interventions should rely upon not only in-deep scientific/technic knowledge of the littoral system (including the sedimentary dynamics and budget) but also consider the existing anthropic footprint. The study area comprises the Portuguese Sunshine Coast (Costa do Sol) - extending from Cascais to S. Julião da Barra - a sand starving littoral characterized by low height cliffs and narrow pocket beaches. This is a cosmopolitan coastal area with a high touristic demand. The shoreline is presently heavily engineered with coastal structures, aiming coastline protection and recreation purposes. The analysis of aerial photographs, cartographic maps and iconographic elements, from the beginning of the 20th century to the present, allowed to deduce shoreline evolution and to assess coastline artificialization, materialized by the construction of coastal promenades, short groins, seawalls and localized, short-sized, beach nourishments. From this study it was possible to identify significance changes in shoreline position, with alternating accretion and erosion episodes, but without a perceptible trend. However, it was not possible to relate

  17. Understanding and Projecting Climate and Human Impacts on Terrestrial-Coastal Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W. J.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Fennel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. Here, we describe a NASA Carbon Monitoring System project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The nature of our approach, coupling models of terrestrial and ocean ecosystem dynamics and associated carbon processes, allows for assessment of how societal and human-related land use, land use change and forestry and climate-related change affect terrestrial carbon transport as well as export of materials through watersheds to the coastal margins. Our objectives include the following: 1) Provide representation of carbon processes in the terrestrial ecosystem to understand how changes in land use and climatic conditions influence the export of materials to the coastal ocean, 2) Couple the terrestrial exports of carbon, nutrients and freshwater to a coastal biogeochemical model and examine how different climate and land use scenarios influence fluxes across the land-ocean interface, and 3) Project future changes under different scenarios of climate and human impact, and support user needs related to carbon management and other activities (e.g., water quality, hypoxia, ocean acidification). This research is providing information that will contribute to determining an overall carbon balance in North America as well as describing and predicting how human- and climate-related changes impact coastal water quality including possible effects of coastal

  18. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  19. Public participation in municipal planning as a tool for coastal management: case studies from western Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    This article analyses four main models of participation in Swedish natural resource management and assesses strengths and weaknesses of one model (participation in physical/spatial planning) based on empirical studies of coastal resource conflicts in two Swedish west coast municipalities. In comparison to other administrative and planning procedures, physical planning offers possibilities to coordinate land and water management across sectors and resources and to broaden stakeholder participation. Local influence on coastal management increases with participation beyond the statutory minimum requirements, although management frameworks and practice of participation need to be developed further. Besides educating professionals and experimenting with combinations of existing procedures, in the long run an adaptation of legislation to the requirements of integrated and sustainable coastal management will be necessary.

  20. Pigment specific in vivo light absorption of phytoplankton from estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, A.; Markager, S.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photoacclimation and adaptation to natural growth conditions on the chlorophyll a-specific in vivo absorption coefficient (a* ph) was evaluated for samples collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. Despite an overall gradient in the physio......-chemical environment from estuaries, over coastal, to oceanic waters, no clear relationships were found between a* ph and the prevailing light, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations, indicating that short-term cellular acclimation was of minor importance for the observed variability in a* ph. The clear...... decline in a* ph from oceanic, over coastal, to estuarine waters was, however, strongly correlated with an increase in cell size and intracellular chlorophyll a (chl a) content of the phytoplankton, and a reduction of photosynthetic carotenoids relative to chl a. Variations in photoprotective carotenoids...