WorldWideScience

Sample records for natural background values

  1. Natural background radiation exposures world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The average radiation dose to the world's population from natural radiation sources has been assessed by UNSCEAR to be 2.4 mSv per year. The components of this exposure, methods of evaluation and, in particular, the variations in the natural background levels are presented in this paper. Exposures to cosmic radiation range from 0.26 mSv per year at sea level to 20 times more at an altitude of 6000 m. Exposures to cosmogenic radionuclides ( 3 H, 14 C) are relatively insignificant and little variable. The terrestrial radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, and 232 Th and the decay products of the latter two constitute the remainder of the natural radiation exposure. Wide variations in exposure occur for these components, particularly for radon and its decay products, which can accumulate to relatively high levels indoors. Unusually high exposures to uranium and thorium series radionuclides characterize the high natural background areas which occur in several localized regions in the world. Extreme values in natural radiation exposures have been estimated to range up to 100 times the average values. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Natural background approach to setting radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Federow, H.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The suggestion has often been made that an additional radiation exposure imposed on humanity as a result of some important activity such as electricity generation would be acceptable if the exposure was small compared to the natural background. In order to make this concept quantitative and objective, we propose that small compared with the natural background be interpreted as the standard deviation (weighted with the exposed population) of the natural background. This use of the variation in natural background radiation is less arbitrary and requires fewer unfounded assumptions than some current approaches to standard-setting. The standard deviation is an easily calculated statistic that is small compared with the mean value for natural exposures of populations. It is an objectively determined quantity and its significance is generally understood. Its determination does not omit any of the pertinent data. When this method is applied to the population of the United States, it suggests that a dose of 20 mrem/year would be an acceptable standard. This is comparable to the 25 mrem/year suggested as the maximum allowable exposure to an individual from the complete uranium fuel cycle

  3. Natural background radiation and population dose distribution in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.; David, M.; Sundaram, V.K.; Sunta, C.M.; Soman, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A country-wide survey of the outdoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using mailed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The salient features of the results are: (1) The air-kerma levels and the population doses in various states follow log-normal and normal distributions respectively. (2) The national average value for the air dose (air-kerma) is 775 ± 370 (1σ)μGy/y. (3) The lowest air-kerma recorded is 0.23 mGy/y at Minicoy (Laccadive Islands) and the highest is 26.73 mGy/y at Chavra (monazite areas, Kerala). (4) There are significant temporal variation s (even as high as ± 40 per cent) of the background radiation level at many locations and at least in 10 locations where radon/thoron measurements are available, these could be associated with the seasonal variations in radon/thoron levels. (5) The mail control TLDs indicate a country-wide average value of 785 ± 225 μGy/y for the air-kerma which can be considered to provide a truly national average value for the natural background radiation level in India. (6) The mean natural radiation per caput for the country works out to be 690 ± 200 (1σ) Sv/y. (7) The natural radiation per caput seems to be maximum for Andhra Pradesh (1065 ± 325 μSv/y) and minimum for Maharashtra (370 ± 80 μSv/y). (8) The population dose from the external natural background radiation is estimated to be half a million person-Sievert. (9) Assuming 1 CRP risk factor, it can be estimated that just one out of the 43 cancer deaths occurring on an average per 100,000 population in India, can be attributed to the external natural background radiation. (author). 18 refs., 13 tabs., 9 figs

  4. The natural background approach to setting radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Federow, H.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The suggestion has often been made that an additional radiation exposure imposed on humanity as a result of some important activity such as electricity generation would be acceptable if the exposure was 'small' compared to the natural background. In order to make this concept quantitative and objective, we propose that 'small compared with the natural background' be interpreted as the standard deviation (weighted with the exposed population) of the natural background. We believe that this use of the variation in natural background radiation is less arbitrary and requires fewer unfounded assumptions than some current approaches to standard-setting. The standard deviation is an easily calculated statistic that is small compared with the mean value for natural exposures of populations. It is an objectively determined quantity and its significance is generally understood. Its determination does not omit any of the pertinent data. When this method is applied to the population of the USA, it implies that a dose of 20 mrem/year would be an acceptable standard. This is closely comparable to the 25 mrem/year suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency as the maximum allowable exposure to an individual in the general population as a result of the operation of the complete uranium fuel cycle. Other agents for which a natural background exists can be treated in the same way as radiation. In addition, a second method for determining permissible exposure levels for agents other than radiation is presented. This method makes use of the natural background radiation data as a primary standard. Some observations on benzo(a)pyrene, using this latter method, are presented. (author)

  5. Geographically determined dependencies in the value of the constant natural radiation gamma-background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the assessment of the influence of natural gamma background changes on the population is discussed. It is considered that the populations in different geographic regions have adapted by evolution mechanisms to the respective unchanged (without human activities) radiation background. The background limits for each area form the 'radiation comfortable zone' which varies very much for the different geographic areas. Leaving the 'comfortable zone' leads to a triggering of adaptive mechanisms in the population including the natural selection in order to reach an equilibrium. Thus, the radiation impact exceeding the 'comfortable zone' is expected to cause harm for a part of the population which is preliminarily burden or uncapable to adapt. From this point of view the increased morbidity due to radiation factor in those cases remains hidden. As a conclusion it is pointed out that the proposed increase of the annual dose for the population might result with harmful consequences for the whole human population

  6. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH 4 , B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia–Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH 4 and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  7. Assessment of natural background radiation in one of the highest regions of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Mario; Chávez, Estefanía; Echeverría, Magdy; Córdova, Rafael; Recalde, Celso

    2018-05-01

    Natural background radiation was measured in the province of Chimborazo (Ecuador) with the following reference coordinates 1°40'00''S 78°39'00''W, where the furthest point to the center of the planet is located. Natural background radiation measurements were performed at 130 randomly selected sites using a Geiger Müller GCA-07W portable detector; these measurements were run at 6 m away from buildings or walls and 1 m above the ground. The global average natural background radiation established by UNSCEAR is 2.4 mSv y-1. In the study area measurements ranged from 0.57 mSv y-1 to 3.09 mSv y-1 with a mean value of 1.57 mSv y-1, the maximum value was recorded in the north of the study area at 5073 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.), and the minimum value was recorded in the southwestern area at 297 m.a.s.l. An isodose map was plotted to represent the equivalent dose rate due to natural background radiation. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the data of the high and low regions of the study area showed a significant difference (p < α), in addition a linear correlation coefficient of 0.92 was obtained, supporting the hypothesis that in high altitude zones extraterrestrial radiation contributes significantly to natural background radiation.

  8. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  9. Natural background radiation and population dose in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangzhi, C. (Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, BJ (China)); Ziqiang, P.; Zhenyum, H.; Yin, Y.; Mingqiang, G.

    On the basis of analyzing the data for the natural background radiation level in China, the typical values for indoor and outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation and effective dose equivalents from radon and thoron daughters are recommended. The annual effective dose equivalent from natural radiation to the inhabitant is estimated to be 2.3 mSv, in which 0.54 mSv is from terrestrial gamma radiation and about 0,8 mSv is from radon and its short-lived daughters. 55 Refs.

  10. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  11. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  12. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  13. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  14. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu; Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke.

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to γ-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, γ-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains γ-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct γ-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting γ-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural γ-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, γ-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in γ-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  15. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to {gamma}-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, {gamma}-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains {gamma}-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct {gamma}-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting {gamma}-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural {gamma}-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, {gamma}-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in {gamma}-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  16. A new possibility of separate the natural and industrial components of the ambient radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purghel, L.; Valcov, N.; Celarel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The ambient radiation background, sometimes considered as a gamma-ray background, is actually composed by a natural radiation field and an industrial radiation field, produced by nuclear facilities. This work presents a possibility to separate and to measure simultaneously both components by using the statistical discrimination method. As the statistical discrimination method is able to measure mixed radiation fields, characterized by essentially different statistical factors k = σ 2 / I (I - the mean value and σ 2 - the variance of the ionization current), this basic assumption of the method is checked, for the natural background and the gamma-ray checked, for natural background and the gamma-ray fields. The obtained value of the ratio k B / k γ = 9 has confirmed the validity of the statistical discrimination method as well as the assumption of a small contribution of the gamma-ray field to the ambient radiation background. Some estimations of the statistical uncertainties, associated with the measurement of two components of the ambient background field have been made. For a 10 liters, atmospheric pressure air - filled ionization chamber (or its equivalent, i.e. 2 liters, 5 atmospheres air -filled chamber) and a 30 s integration time constant, the minimum detectable absorbed dose rate of gamma-rays, for a 0.1 μ Gy / h natural background absorbed dose rate, is equal to 0.02 μ Gy / h. The statistical relative uncertainty of measurement for a 0.5 μ Gy / h absorbed dose rate gamma-ray field, corresponding to the admissible value of the equivalent dose rate of 0.6 μ Sv / h, for non-professional population is about 4 %. (authors)

  17. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  18. Level of natural background radiation and dose to population in Jilin Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wanxi; Chen Huiying; Ju Cuixiang; Li Fulin; Li Xianggao

    1994-01-01

    The natural background radiation in Jilin Province was measured and the population dose was estimated. The results showed that the population-weighted average value of the absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic ray ionization was 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 . The average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ radiation were 7.7 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 outdoors and 9.8 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 indoors. The average values of radon in air were 8.7 Bq·m -3 outdoors and 5.8 Bq·m -3 indoors. The average concentration of natural radionuclides U, Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K were 3.7 x 10 -2 , 2.4 x 10 -2 , 14.7 x 10 -2 and 81.5 Bq·kg -1 in food, and 2.3, 0.1, 1.1 and 0.3 Bq·L -1 in drinking water, respectively. The total annual individual average effective dose equivalent from natural background radiation was about 1.5 mSv

  19. Study on environmental background values of uranium in water of Dongting Lake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Kang Tiesheng

    1987-01-01

    Study on environmental background values in water is the base of evaluating water quality and also is the foundational work of studying the law of distribution, accumulation and transfer of the elements. Research on background values of U in water not only can understand radioactive level but also has actual significance for the general survey of U by water. In the work uranium contents were determined by fission track analytical technique in the filtered and unfiltered specimens of river water, reservoir water and spring water taken from more than one hundred sections located in Dongting Lake system and the statistical process of data were carried out by computer. The environmental background values in water of various river system were obtained and compared with the situation of home and abroad. The seasonal variety of uranium content and the level of U in reservoir, spring water and natural reserve were discussed

  20. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  1. Level of natural background radiation and dose to population in Heilongjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yicheng; Wang Lu; He Yongjiang

    1992-01-01

    The natural background radiation in Heilongjiang Province was measured and the population dose was estimated. The results showed that the population-weighted average values of the absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic ray ionization were 3.3 ± 10 -8 Gy·h -1 outdoors and 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 indoors. The average values of radon in air were 11.3 Bq·m -3 outdoors and 20.8 Bq·m -3 indoors. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides U, Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K were 6.1 x 10 -2 , 1.1 x 10 -2 , 8.4 x 10 -2 , and 68.9 Bq·kg -1 respectively in food, and 4.8 x 10 -2 , 2.0 x 10 -4 , 1.2 x 10 -2 and 4.6 x 10 -2 Bq·L -1 respectively in drinking water. The total annual individual average effective dose equivalents from natural background radiation were about 2200 μSv. Among them the contributions of cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, radon and thoron daughters exposure in air, internal exposure within the body were about 320, 630, 860, and 390 μSv, respectively

  2. Level of natural background radiation and dose to population in Zhejiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yifang; Chen Guopei; Wang Zanxin; Ma Mingqiang

    1994-01-01

    The natural background radiation in Zhejiang Province was measured and the dose to population was estimated. The results showed that the population-weighted average values of the absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic ray ionization were 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 outdoors and 2.7 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 indoors. The average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation were 9.1 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 outdoors and 14.9 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 indoors. The average values of radon in air were 17.2 Bq· -3 indoors and 12.7 Bq·m -8 outdoors. The contents of natural radionuclides in food and water were measured. The total annual individual average effective dose from natural background radiation was about 2.0 mSv. The contributions of cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation radon and thoron daughters exposure in air and internal exposure within the body were about 0.24, 0.77, 0.67 and 0.35 mSv, respectively. The annual collective effective dose to population in the province was estimated to be 8.5 x 10 4 man Sv·a -1

  3. Controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    RENA is a research programm into the controllable forms of natural background radiation, which cover the activities originating from the naturally occurring radionuclides enhanced by human intervention. In the RENA-program emphasis lays upon the policy aspects of environmental-hygienic, economical and governmental character. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  5. ON THE ADVISABILITY OF REJECTION OF SUBTRACTION OF BACKGROUND DOSIMETERS INDICATION VALUES FROM THE MEASURED VALUES OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF A-GROUP PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article contains substantiation of advisability of rejection of subtraction of background dosimeters indication values from the measured values of individual doses of occupational exposure of A-group personnel in the process of carrying out of individual dosimetry control of medical organizations stuff which was implemented in the Methodical Guideline 2.6.1.3015-12. It is shown that mentioned procedure is firstly incorrect when we deal with low doses, when the impact of natural exposure could be really considerable and secondary senseless when we deal with dose values close to the dose limit value for A-group personnel when the impact of natural exposure is much lower then the error of measurements. It is suggested to carry out the account of the impact of natural exposure into personnel average doses basing on the analysis of statistical distributions of personnel individual doses and on indications of background dosimeters. It is suggested to add the information about indications of background dosimeters into the Base of Federal Statistical Supervision № 1-DOS as it is prescribed in the Methodical Guideline 2.6.1.3015-12. This article is the respond to the article of A.I. Grigoriev published in the present issue of Journal, in which the author contests the reasonableness of this provision.

  6. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  7. Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussan, K.A.; Al-Suliman, K.M.; Wafa, N.F.

    1993-01-01

    Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF 2 Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137 Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 μR h -1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 μR h -1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

  8. Use of natural diamonds to monitor 14C AMS instrument backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.; Southon, John

    2007-01-01

    To examine one component of the instrument-based background in University of California Keck Carbon Cycle AMS spectrometer, we have obtained measurements on a set of natural diamonds pressed into sample holders. Natural diamond samples (N = 14) from different sources within rock formations with geological ages greatly in excess of 100 Ma yielded a range of currents (∼110-250 μA 12 C - where filamentous graphite typically yields ∼150 μA 12 C - ) and apparent 14 C ages (64.9 ± 0.4 ka BP [0.00031 ± 0.00002 fm] to 80.0 ± 1.1 ka BP [0.00005 ± 0.00001 fm]). Six fragments cut from a single diamond exhibited essentially identical 14 C values - 69.3 ± 0.5 ka-70.6 ± 0.5 ka BP. The oldest 14 C age equivalents were measured on natural diamonds which exhibited the highest current yields

  9. Natural radiation background in the ancient city of Palmyra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2012-01-01

    Natural radiation background has been determined for the Ancient City of Palmyra and its surrounding areas. Car-borne gamma spectrometry, indoor radon gas concentration and natural radionuclides levels in environmental samples (soil, water and plants) have been determined. Two types of dwelling were involved in this study, one with cancer cases, and the others without. The results showed that indoor radon gas concentrations and radiation exposure rates are within reported mean background levels in Syria (45 Bq m −3 and less than 0.1 μSv h −1 , respectively); no differences were noticed between the dwelling groups. In addition, the results did not indicate any relation between recorded cancers and measured natural radioactivity.

  10. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  11. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  12. The natural ecological value of wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Danielle Murphy; Kurt H. Riitters; J.E. Harvard

    2005-01-01

    In Chapters 7 through 10 of this book, we examined the social and economic benefits or values from Wilderness. In this chapter, we attempt to examine the natural ecological values of Wilderness. We define ecological value generally as the level of benefits that the space. water, minerals, biota, and all other factors that make up natural ecosystems provide to support...

  13. Naturalness as an educational value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Existentialism and postmodernism have both abandoned the idea of a human nature. Also, the idea of naturalness as a value for education has been targeted as a blind for conservative ideology. There are, however, good reasons to re-establish a sound concept of human naturalness. First of all...

  14. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death : a Dutch observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijn, Rick R.; Beek, Erik J.; van de Putte, Elise M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Nikkels, Peter G.J.; Duijst, Wilma L.J.M.; Nievelstein, Rutger Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. Objective We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. Materials and methods We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the N...

  15. Natural indoor gamma background in an urban environment of Southern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.

    1984-01-01

    A regional survey of indoor exposure to natural gamma background from terrestrial sources was performed in the urban environment of six administrative provinces of Southern Poland. 1351 dwelling houses at 144 localities were monitored using of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters. The dose rates observed indoors were between 32 and 185 nGy.h -1 and were strongly dependent on the types of building materials used in the dwellings monitored. The highest mean provincial values were found in slag and fly-ash dwellings (77-123 nGy.h -1 ), while in wooden dwellings these values were the lowest (42-51 nGy.h -1 ). Intermediate values occurred in clay brick dwellings (57-102 nGy.h -1 ), in dwellings of mixed, wooden-brick construction (60-79 nGy,h -1 ) and in dwellings made of gravel-sand prefabricates (52-68 nGy.h -1 ). The calculated mean annual per capita effective dose equivalent rates ranged between 0.2 mSv.y -1 , for the inhabitants of wooden houses, and 0.6 mSv.y -1 for those living in houses made of coal by-product prefabricates. (author)

  16. On the role of natural radiation background in the initial development of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Primak-Mirolyubov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain data on plant development under strictly controlled decreased natural radiation conditions, the experiment with radish seeds was conducted in a special chamber having a decreased natural radiation background. It has been shown that the development of seedlings in the course of the first 4-5 days in significantly delayed, and it normalizes when radiation sources, imitating the natural radiation background, are placed inside the chamber

  17. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Lin, J. W.; Sheu, R. J.; Lin, U. T.; Jiang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated 3He detector, high pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h -1 . (authors)

  18. Natural Capital - putting a value on geological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lesley

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital is a mechanism through which a value can be placed on nature allowing it to be considered alongside other assets. When the Government of the United Kingdom produced a Natural Environment White Paper (The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature) in 2012 there was no direct mention of geosites, geoheritage or geodiversity. One ambition of the Natural Environment White Paper was to stop environmental degradation and to rebuild natural capital and to value it. Whilst landscapes are mentioned in the paper geodiversity is not directly and this has been problematic for funding and recognition within the UK. Natural Capital is being used as the basis for many of the environmental reviews therefore it is essential that geodiversity can be included within this. The Natural Capital Committee defines natural capital as 'those elements of the natural environment which provide valuable goods and services to people'. In the main, these goods and services are related to ecology/biodiversity rather than to the full range of natural capital. Specifically, the values associated with abiotic nature (geodiversity) are frequently undervalued or ignored. The English Geodiversity Forum have been producing case studies as to how this might be done for different locations and this paper will present the work of this and how a value can be attributed to geodiversity. For example links to tourism and recreation within areas such as the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the Black Country proposed Geopark are easy to place a value on but it is more difficult with educational, scientific sites. Using an ecosystems services and biodiversity analogies this paper presents a framework that can be adopted for evaluation of geological sites. Defra (2015) The state of natural capital: protecting and improving natural capital for prosperity and wellbeing. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 73 pages https

  19. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-02-01

    The feasibility of calculating natural frequencies and mode shapes of major equipment in a CANDU reactor from the measurements of their response to background excitation has been studied. A review of vibration data measured at various locations in CANDU plants shows that structures responded to a combination of random and harmonic background excitation. Amplitude of measured vibration is sufficient to allow meaningful data analysis. Frequency content in the 0 to 50-Hz range, which is of interest for earthquake response, is present in some of the vibration measurements studied. Spectral techniques have been developed for determining the response function of structures from measured vibration response to background excitation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are then evaluated graphically from the frequency function plots. The methodology has been tested on a simple cantilever beam with known natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparison between the theoretical and the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes is good for the lower modes. However, better curve-fitting techniques will be required in future, especially for higher modes. Readily available equipment necessary for the measurement of background vibration in a CANDU plant (which is commercially available) has been identified. An experimental program has been proposed to verify the methodology developed in this study. Recommendations are also made to study methods to improve the accuracy of the mode shape and natural frequency prediction

  20. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities.Objectives: We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes,...

  1. Policy implications with regard to controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijningen, R.J.J. van; Bartels, J.H.M.; Ackers, J.G.; Hogeweg, B.; Rijn, H.T.U. de; Walle, F.B. de

    1988-04-01

    The RENA (Regulable forms of Natural Background radiation) has started in order to broaden the technical-scientific insights in the domain of the natural background radiation and to continue the SAWORA-study. With regard to the policy implications it has appeared to be desirable to define more detailed the environment-protectional economical and governmental aspects and to consider their mutual relationships in order to prepare a coherent programme which is directed at policy actions to be undertaken as well as at the supporting study needed. (author). 34 refs.; 3 figs.; 11 tabs

  2. Speech recognition in natural background noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Meyer

    Full Text Available In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A, reference at 1 meter at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (-8.8 dB to -18.4 dB. Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda. Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for

  3. Speech recognition in natural background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien; Dentel, Laure; Meunier, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (-8.8 dB to -18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies.

  4. Development of natural radiation model for evaluation of background radiation in radiation portal monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jin Hyung; Moon, Myung Kook [Radioisotope Research and Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In ports and airports, radiation portal monitors (RPM) are deployed to detect illicit radioactive materials. Detected gamma rays in a RPM include background radiation and radiation from a freight. As a vehicle moves through the RPM, the vehicle causes the fluctuations in the natural background radiation signal, which ranges of up to 30%. The fluctuation increases the uncertainty of detection signal and can be a cause of RPM false alarm. Therefore, it is important to evaluate background radiation as well as radiation from a container. In this paper, a natural background radiation model was developed to evaluate RPM. To develop natural background radiation model, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed and compared with experimental measurements from a RPM for {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th series, and {sup 235}U series, which are major sources of natural background radiation. For a natural radiation source, we considered a cylindrical soil volume with 300 m radius and 1 m depth, which was estimated as the maximum range affecting the RPM by MCNP6 simulation. The volume source model was converted to surface source by using MCNP SSW card for computational efficiency. The computational efficiency of the surface source model was improved to approximately 200 times better than that of the volume source model. The surface source model is composed of a hemisphere with 20 m radius in which the RPM and container are modelled. The natural radiation spectrum from the simulation was best fitted to the experimental measurement when portions of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th series, and {sup 235}U series were 0.75, 0.0636, and 0.0552 Bq·g{sup -1}, respectively. For gross counting results, the difference between simulation and experiment was around 5%. The background radiation model was used to evaluate background suppression from a 40 ft container with 7.2 m·s{sup -1} speed. In further study, background models and freight models for RPM in real container ports will be developed and applied to

  5. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  6. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  7. Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.

  8. Geostatistics as a tool to improve the natural background level definition: An application in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-11-15

    The Natural Background Level (NBL), suggested by UE BRIDGE project, is suited for spatially distributed datasets providing a regional value that could be higher than the Threshold Value (TV) set by every country. In hydro-geochemically dis-homogeneous areas, the use of a unique regional NBL, higher than TV, could arise problems to distinguish between natural occurrences and anthropogenic contaminant sources. Hence, the goal of this study is to improve the NBL definition employing a geostatistical approach, which reconstructs the contaminant spatial structure accounting geochemical and hydrogeological relationships. This integrated mapping is fundamental to evaluate the contaminant's distribution impact on the NBL, giving indications to improve it. We decided to test this method on the Drainage Basin of Venice Lagoon (DBVL, NE Italy), where the existing NBL is seven times higher than the TV. This area is notoriously affected by naturally occurring arsenic contamination. An available geochemical dataset collected by 50 piezometers was used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of arsenic in the densely populated area of the DBVL. A cokriging approach was applied exploiting the geochemical relationships among As, Fe and NH4+. The obtained spatial predictions of arsenic concentrations were divided into three different zones: i) areas with an As concentration lower than the TV, ii) areas with an As concentration between the TV and the median of the values higher than the TV, and iii) areas with an As concentration higher than the median. Following the BRIDGE suggestions, where enough samples were available, the 90th percentile for each zone was calculated to obtain a local NBL (LNBL). Differently from the original NBL, this local value gives more detailed water quality information accounting the hydrogeological and geochemical setting, and contaminant spatial variation. Hence, the LNBL could give more indications about the distinction between natural occurrence and

  9. The value of nature: Economic, intrinsic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a long standing argument that ecosystems have intrinsic value and therefore there is no need to put a price tag on Mother Nature. The concept of intrinsic value reflects the perspective that nature has value in its own right, independent of human uses. Intrinsic va...

  10. The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of natural radiation background level and population dose in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe in general the natural radiation background level in China, and based on available data present an estimated annual effective dose equivalent of the population to natural radiation that is some 2.3 mSv, of which about 0.54 mSv is from original γ radiation and about 0.8 mSv from radon and its short-lived daughters

  12. Teachers' Knowledge and Views on the Use of Learners' Socio-Cultural Background in Teaching Natural Sciences in Grade 9 Township Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavuru, Lydia; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    This article explores teachers' knowledge and views on the role of learners' socio-cultural background when teaching Natural Sciences to Grade 9 learners at three South African township schools. Within a socio-cultural framework, the research investigated how teachers accommodate learners' cultural norms and values, religion and beliefs,…

  13. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  14. An evaluation of the effect of natural background radiation on cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Jerry J.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between levels of natural background radiation and cancer incidence indicate no significant correlation. This observation is shown to be consistent with certain predicted effect levels of ionizing radiation on malignancy production (BEIR, ICRP). Other theoretical predictions on the effects of ionizing radiation indicate induction rates to be as high as 8 x 10 -3 cancers/person-rem. Assuming this factor were correct, then roughly one-half of the cancer incidence in the USA could be attributed to exposure to natural background radiation. By statistically testing various hypothetically assigned cancer induction rates against observed data, it is possible to develop a probabilistic perspective on the cause-effect relationship. Tests have been performed using normalized (by age, death rate, etc.) cancer incidence by state against levels of background radiation. This evaluation allows for the determination of the probability of observing the actual data given that the hypotheses were correct. Graphic relationships between hypothetically assigned radiation induced cancer rates vs. the probability of observing the actual incidence are developed and presented. It is shown that if the cancer induction rate were in excess of ∼10 -3 cancers/person-rem, it would be highly improbable that there would, in fact, be a lack of correlation between the rates of natural background radiation and cancer incidence. (author)

  15. Measurement of gamma natural background radiation at Chamaraja Nagar, Karnataka state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, K.M.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive elements and their radiation are ubiquitous in the environment. The Influence of radiation on living organisms is imminent and very important to study. The ocean, the mountains, the air, and our food all expose us to small amounts of natural background radiation. Cosmic rays from outer space are another large contributor of natural background radiation. Much of the earth's natural background radiation is in the form of gamma radiation, a part of which comes from outer space. Some part of cosmic ray is filtered out by the presence of earth's atmosphere, so there are natural controls for the amount of radiation that people receive. The amount of radiation received by an individual depends on altitude, latitude type of building and the building construction materials. In the present study, measurements of natural background radiation were made in the temples, schools, dwellings, and hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar area, Karnataka state, India by using environmental dosimeter technique. The results show that, absorbed dose rate of background radiations at inside schools varies from 93.96 to 120.93 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 10.62 nGyh -1 and outside schools it varies from 60.9 to 113.1 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 15.1 nGyh -1 . In temples, the absorbed dose rate varies from 104.4 to 244.91 nGyh - 1 with a standard deviation of 48.34 nGyh -1 and outside the temples it varies from 87.9 to 176.61 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 30.896 nGyh -1 . The absorbed dose rate of background radiations at dwellings in indoor varies from 94.0 to 139.2 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 16.6 nGyh -1 and in outdoor it varies from 60.9 to 118.32 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 19.41 nGyh -1 . The measurements were also carried out in dwellings on hill stations in Chamaraja Nagar district. Indoor gamma dose rate varies from 103.53 to 236.64 nGyh -1 with a standard deviation of 59.8 nGyh -1 and outdoor gamma dose rate varies from 78.3 to 119

  16. Value of information and natural resources decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the potential for information to measurably improve management has been highlighted for several decades, in recent years the “value of information” has surfaced with increasing frequency in natural resources. However, the use of this phrase belies the fact that many in natural resources have only a limited understanding about what it actually means, how to measure it, and what to do with it. We introduce and describe several forms of the value of information in a context of the management of renewable natural resources. The value of information is discussed in terms of a potential gain in value with the addition of new information, as well as a loss in value associated with the absence of information. Value metrics are developed for uncertainty about resource status as well as resource processes and responses to management. We provide a common notation for the metrics of value, and discuss linkages of the value of information to strategic approaches such as adaptive resources management and partially observable decision processes.

  17. Naturalness, value systems and perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: what is natural? And what is Nature? Are perceptions of Nature and naturalness related to perceptions of risk? This paper focuses on these aspects based on results from a Swedish representative sample (N=731), where subjects indicated e.g. the degree of naturalness of various phenomena, their views of nature, and personal life values, as well as perceptions of risk in specified contexts. The results showed a tendency to perceive as natural the phenomenon which is positively valued, i.e. what is natural is also good or desirable. Further, there were weak correlations between perceived naturalness and indicators of technological optimism, possibly indicating that persons with a more generous view of what is natural also more easily might accept change and outcomes due to human intelligence and activity. The construct of 'tampering with nature' has previously been shown to be one good predictor of perceived risk. The respondents also rated their agreement with items aimed to reflect the four 'views of nature' as suggested by Cultural Theory, i.e. nature as robust, capricious, tolerant and fragile. Nature was foremost perceived as fragile, but the main result clearly revealed that peoples' views of nature were complex and most often involved several of the suggested categories. The discussion focuses on the possible implications on environmental concern and risk perception given that Nature would develop into an undesirable type of locality. (author)

  18. Soil 137Cs background values in monsoon region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingli; Yang Hao; Wang Xiaolei; Wang Yihong; Xu Congan; Yang Jiudong; Rong Jing

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation,, which is resulted from the soil erosion, is one of the major environmental problems. It severely affects the food supplies, environmental safety and the sustainable development in China. Some areas in the monsoon region are suffering from the acute soil erosion. To find out the degree of soil erosion, the proven technique of 137 Cs tracer is definitely one of the best methods, and the key is to ascertain the accuracy of soil 137 Cs background value. The distributions of 137 Cs were explored in soil profiles by detecting the 137 Cs of soil cores from the Yimeng mountain area in Shandong Province, hills in the southern area of Jiangsu Province and Dianchi catchment in Yunnan Province, respectively. We found that the depth of 137 Cs distribution is not the same in the soils of various areas. But the 137 Cs activity shows an exponential distribution in the uncultivated soil and demonstrates a strong correlation with the soil depth, while the 137 Cs activity proves uniform in the soil plowing layer of the cultivated land. The study shows the 137 Cs background values of three areas: 1737.1 Bq/m 2 in Yimeng mountain area, 1847.6 Bq/m 2 in southern area of hills in Jiangsu, 918.0 Bq/m 2 in Dianchi catchment. The certainty of 137 Cs background value can technically support the use of 137 Cs technique to study the spatial pattern of soil erosion, deposition and the land degradation, which provides the support for the sustainable utilization of soil resource, the assessment of economical benefit and loss and the evaluation of water and soil conservation measures. (authors)

  19. Radiation levels at the boundaries of the Frascati center and natural background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Pelliccioni, M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of dosimetric controls carried out with thermoluminescent dosimeters along the boundaries of the Frascati Center since 1969 are presented. The average yearly exposure observed during the period 1969-1974 is 206mR/y, while no significant tendency is evident. In particular neither effects of accelerator shutdowns nor seasonal ones are noticed. The measurements at the boundary are also compared with measurements of natural background carried out near Frascati and in Rome, Thus we can estimate that the machine contribution to the total dose along the boundaries is equal to a small fraction of either the natural background or the general population dose limit [fr

  20. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  1. Natural background radiation induces cytogenetic radioadaptive response more effectively than occupational exposure in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfared, A.S.; Mozdarani, H.; Amiri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ramsar, a city in the northern Iran, has the highest level of natural background radiation in the world. It has been clearly shown that low doses of ionising radiation can induce resistance to subsequent higher exposures. This phenomenon is termed radioadaptive response. We have compared induction of cytogenetic radioadaptive response by High Natural Background Radiation (HNBR) in Ramsar and X-ray occupational exposure as conditioning doses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. 30 healthy control individuals, living in Ramsar but in normal background radiation areas, 15 healthy individuals from Talesh Mahalleh, a region with extraordinary high level of background radiation, and 7 X-ray radiographers working in Ramsar hospital located in normal natural background ionising radiation area were evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were prepared and exposed to challenge dose of 0 and 2 Gy. Lymphocytes were scored using analysis of metaphase, for the presence of chromosomal aberrations. An adaptive response was observed in HNBR and radiation workers groups in comparison with sham controls. A significant increase in adaptive response was observed in the HNBR group if compared with the occupationally exposed group. These findings indicate that both natural background radiation and occupational exposure could induce cytogenetic radioadaptive response and it is more significant regarding to natural background ionising radiation. (author)

  2. A novel natural environment background model for Monte Carlo simulation and its application in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sangang; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Yi; Tuo, Xianguo; Liu, Mingzhe; Yao, Fuliang; Leng, Fengqing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Cai, Ting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by modeling brief environment conditions. It uses Geant4 program to simulate decays of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th, and "4"0K in soil and obtains compositions of different-energy gamma rays in the natural environment background. The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. The model is used in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement, indicating that the natural environment background can be decreased by approximately 88%, and the Compton attenuation factor is 2.22. The simulation of anticoincidence measurement can improve the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the detection system. - Highlights: • This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by simulating decays of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th, and "4"0K in soil. • The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. • The proposed environment background model is applied to study the properties of anticoincidence detector.

  3. The nature and impact of personal values and organizational values on customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    BLOEMER, Johanna; Breugelmans, E.; Lievens, Annouk

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study reports on the nature and impact of personal values, organizational values and value congruence on customer service satisfaction. Customers from a cleaning service organizaton rated 24 values with respect to how important these values were to the organization. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that organizational values have a predominant impact on customer service satisfaction. The congruence between personal and organizational values and th...

  4. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  5. Past and present views in the approach to the problem of high natural background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastino, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    High natural background areas are of great interest because they present anomalous conditions in their geological and geochemical features and consequently in the background radiation levels. High natural background areas have been recognised as representing a valid field of investigation for assessing the effects induced by low-level exposures. Such an approach represents the first attempt to draw an environmental impact evaluation, even if focussed on a single potentially harmful parameter only. Past and current studies on High Background Radiation Areas are reviewed with special emphasis on the ongoing programs and prospectives; their significance is discussed on the basis of the sectorial approach mostly used in the environmental studies. A more complete approach is suggested based on the impact evaluation and extention to all the potentially harmful environmental factors

  6. Comparison of selection methods to deduce natural background levels for groundwater units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Passier, H.F.; Klein, J.

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of natural background levels (NBL) for groundwater is commonly performed to serve as reference when assessing the contamination status of groundwater units. We compare various selection methods to establish NBLs using groundwater quality data forfour hydrogeologically different areas

  7. Qualitative values of radioactivity, area and volumetric: Application on phantoms (target and background)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman Al-Shakhrah, Issa [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Queen Rania Street, Amman (Jordan)], E-mail: issashak@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    The visualization of a lesion depends on the contrast between the lesion and surrounding background (T/B; (target/background) ratio). For imaging in vivo not only is the radioactivity in the target organ important, but so too is the ratio of radioactivity in the target versus that in the background. Nearly all studies reported in the literature have dealt with the surface index, as a standard factor to study the relationship between the target (tissue or organ) and the background. It is necessary to know the ratio between the volumetric activity of lesions (targets) and normal tissues (background) instead of knowing the ratio between the area activity, the volume index being a more realistic factor than the area index as the targets (tissues or organs) are real volumes that have surfaces. The intention is that this work should aid in approaching a quantitative relationship and differentiation between different tissues (target/background or abnormal/normal tissues). For the background, square regions of interest (Rios) (11x11 pixels in size) were manually drawn by the observer at locations far from the border of the plastic cylinder (simulated organ), while an isocontour region with 50% threshold was drawn automatically over the cylinder. The total number of counts and pixels in each of these regions was calculated. The relationship between different phantom parameters, cylinder (target) depth, area activity ratio (background/target, A(B/T)) and real volumetric activity ratio (background/target, V(B/T)), was demonstrated. Variations in the area and volumetric activity ratio values with respect to the depth were deduced. To find a realistic value of the ratio, calibration charts have been constructed that relate the area and real volumetric ratios as a function of depth of the tissues and organs. Our experiments show that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder (applying a threshold 50% isocontour) has a weak dependence on the activity concentrations of the

  8. Qualitative values of radioactivity, area and volumetric: Application on phantoms (target and background)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman Al-Shakhrah, Issa

    2009-01-01

    The visualization of a lesion depends on the contrast between the lesion and surrounding background (T/B; (target/background) ratio). For imaging in vivo not only is the radioactivity in the target organ important, but so too is the ratio of radioactivity in the target versus that in the background. Nearly all studies reported in the literature have dealt with the surface index, as a standard factor to study the relationship between the target (tissue or organ) and the background. It is necessary to know the ratio between the volumetric activity of lesions (targets) and normal tissues (background) instead of knowing the ratio between the area activity, the volume index being a more realistic factor than the area index as the targets (tissues or organs) are real volumes that have surfaces. The intention is that this work should aid in approaching a quantitative relationship and differentiation between different tissues (target/background or abnormal/normal tissues). For the background, square regions of interest (Rios) (11x11 pixels in size) were manually drawn by the observer at locations far from the border of the plastic cylinder (simulated organ), while an isocontour region with 50% threshold was drawn automatically over the cylinder. The total number of counts and pixels in each of these regions was calculated. The relationship between different phantom parameters, cylinder (target) depth, area activity ratio (background/target, A(B/T)) and real volumetric activity ratio (background/target, V(B/T)), was demonstrated. Variations in the area and volumetric activity ratio values with respect to the depth were deduced. To find a realistic value of the ratio, calibration charts have been constructed that relate the area and real volumetric ratios as a function of depth of the tissues and organs. Our experiments show that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder (applying a threshold 50% isocontour) has a weak dependence on the activity concentrations of the

  9. A novel natural environment background model for Monte Carlo simulation and its application in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sangang; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Yi; Tuo, Xianguo; Liu, Mingzhe; Yao, Fuliang; Leng, Fengqing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Cai, Ting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by modeling brief environment conditions. It uses Geant4 program to simulate decays of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in soil and obtains compositions of different-energy gamma rays in the natural environment background. The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. The model is used in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement, indicating that the natural environment background can be decreased by approximately 88%, and the Compton attenuation factor is 2.22. The simulation of anticoincidence measurement can improve the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the detection system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  11. Distribution characteristics of natural gamma background levels around the capital city Shillong, Meghalaya (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, B.M.; Sharma, G.K.; Rao, M.S.; Ramabhadraih, T.; Bhaskar Rao, Arjun; Bhuphang, A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite measurement of natural gamma radiation around the capital city Shillong in Meghalaya, has been carried out using GPS device and environmental survey meter. Each referenced insitu data point was validated at the site by means of simultaneous measurements of radiation levels (at 1.0 mts height) through handheld dosimeters. Collected data points on natural background levels, have been analysed and quantified in the context of preparing reference background levels in the city in order to deal with any radiological emergency that may arise in the public domain. Study reveals Gaussian distributed mean annual gamma dose of 0.77 mSv (n=53) in the range of 0.38 to 1.51 mSv. The study area, bound by the coordinates N (25.50°-25.66°, and E (91.82°-91.96°) indicates few pockets of higher average background levels, particularly towards the eastern side of study area, namely Nongmynsong, NEIGRIMS and Happy Valley. However, from the radiological safety aspects in public domain, all these reported levels are within the safety limits of prevailing environmental background. (author)

  12. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: Biophysical and perceived social values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, R C; Foote, L; Krogman, N; Pattison, J K; Wilson, M J; Bayley, S E

    2015-04-15

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values. We found higher biophysical values associated with wetlands of natural origin (both reference and agriculturally impacted). The biophysical values of stormwater wetlands and stormwater ponds were lower and indistinguishable from one another. The perceived wetland values assessed by the public differed from the observed biophysical values. This has important policy implications, as the public are not likely to perceive the loss of values associated with the replacement of natural wetlands with created stormwater management facilities. We conclude that 1) agriculturally impacted wetlands provide biophysical values equivalent to those of natural wetlands, meaning that land use alone is not a great predictor of wetland value; 2) stormwater wetlands are not a substantive improvement over stormwater ponds, relative to wetlands of natural origin; 3) stormwater wetlands are poor mimics of natural wetlands, likely due to fundamental distinctions in terms of basin morphology, temporal variation in hydrology, ground water connectivity, and landscape position; 4) these

  13. Background radiation dose and leukemia mortality in north Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1978-01-01

    In 7 prefectures in north Japan where natural environment as well as socioeconomic status are similar, the relation of natural background dose rate and death rate caused by leukemia was examined. More than 2500 deaths were recorded in the last 10 years which distributed normally throughout the entire area with a mean of 3.68 and a SD of 1.14 per 10 5 per year. There are no significant, differences in the observed values of each prefecture in spite of having different population. Natural background radiation dose rate has also a normal distribution with a mean of 8.98 μR/h and a SD of 2.12. The highest dose rate in Niigata (10.44) was significantly higher than the lowest value in Aomori (6.48) whereas the death rates caused by leukemia were not different between the both prefectures. The null hypothesis that a positive regression exists between dose rate and death rate even in the smallest dose range was not supported in north Japan. Leukemogenic effect of background radiation, if any, seems to be within a practical threshold. (auth.)

  14. Effect of background radiation shielding on natural radioactivity distribution measurement with imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Suzuki, T.; Koido, S.; Uritani, A.; Miyahara, H.; Yanagida, K.; Miyahara, J.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution images of natural radioactivity contained in various natural materials such as vegetable, animal meat and pottery work can be obtained with an imaging plate which has high sensitivity for nuclear radiations. For such very low levels of radioactivity, natural background radiations must be reduced using a shielding box. The lining, on the inside of the box, with low atomic number material such as acrylic resin is very effective in reducing electrons, β-rays and low energy X- and γ-rays emitted from the inner surface of the shielding material. Some images of natural radioactivity distribution were obtained and the radioactivity, mainly 40 K, contained in natural materials was measured by using an HPGe detector and also the imaging plate itself. (orig.)

  15. Evaluating whether nature's intrinsic value is an axiom of or anathema to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetich, John A; Bruskotter, Jeremy T; Nelson, Michael Paul

    2015-04-01

    That at least some aspects of nature possess intrinsic value is considered by some an axiom of conservation. Others consider nature's intrinsic value superfluous or anathema. This range of views among mainstream conservation professionals potentially threatens the foundation of conservation. One challenge in resolving this disparity is that disparaging portrayals of nature's intrinsic value appear rooted in misconceptions and unfounded presumptions about what it means to acknowledge nature's intrinsic value. That acknowledgment has been characterized as vacuous, misanthropic, of little practical consequence to conservation, adequately accommodated by economic valuation, and not widely accepted in society. We reviewed the philosophical basis for nature's intrinsic value and the implications for acknowledging that value. Our analysis is rooted to the notion that when something possesses intrinsic value it deserves to be treated with respect for what it is, with concern for its welfare or in a just manner. From this basis, one can only conclude that nature's intrinsic value is not a vacuous concept or adequately accommodated by economic valuation. Acknowledging nature's intrinsic value is not misanthropic because concern for nature's welfare (aside from its influence on human welfare) does not in any way preclude also being concerned for human welfare. The practical import of acknowledging nature's intrinsic value rises from recognizing all the objects of conservation concern (e.g., many endangered species) that offer little benefit to human welfare. Sociological and cultural evidence indicates the belief that at least some elements of nature possess intrinsic value is widespread in society. Our reasoning suggests the appropriateness of rejecting the assertion that nature's intrinsic value is anathema to conservation and accepting its role as an axiom. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Science teachers' worldviews and values regarding nature and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wendy P.

    According to the National Science Education Standards (1996), science educators are challenged with the goal of educating future citizens and policy makers to make informed decisions concerning socio-scientific issues. Previous science education research has not explored the influence of science teachers' personal worldviews and values in achieving this educational goal. The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary science teachers' worldviews and values as they relate to nature and environmental education in their science classrooms. The participants' descriptions of their environmental personae and their perception of its influence in their classrooms were also examined. The participants represented a purposeful sample of twelve certified secondary school science teachers who teach in a suburban Atlanta, Georgia school. The study employed an interpretive, qualitative methodology using a constant comparative, inductive analysis design to develop grounded theory. Each participant's worldview, values, and environmental personae regarding the natural world and the environment were explored using William Cobern's (2000) Nature Card Sort instrument, responses to five environmental scenarios and individual interviews that addressed each participant's interpretation of the effect that personal worldviews and values have in their science classrooms. The participants' worldviews and values were disproportionately reflective of both science and society with far more weight given to the contextual values of society rather than the constitutive values of science. Most of these teachers had strong spiritual worldviews of nature; however, these views were of a Puritanical nature rather than Aboriginal. The participants felt conflicted about the appropriate course of action in many environmental issues. Contrary to other studies conducted in this field, there were few philosophical differences between teachers in the different disciplines of science, with the exception

  17. Importance of background values in assessing the impact of heavy metals in river ecosystems: case study of Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin Grubin, Milica; Vasić, Nebojša

    2017-11-30

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how a choice of different background values may affect assessing the anthropogenic heavy metal pollution in sediments from Tisza River (Serbia). The second objective of this paper is to underline significance of using geochemical background values when establishing quality criteria for sediment. Enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were calculated using different background values. Three geochemical (average metal concentrations in continental crust, average metal concentrations in shale, and average metal concentrations in non-contaminated core sediment samples) and two statistical methods (delineation method and principal component analyses) were used for calculating background values. It can be concluded that obtained information of pollution status can be more dependent on the use of background values than the index/factor chosen. The best option to assess the potential river sediment contamination is to compare obtained concentrations of analyzed elements with concentrations of mineralogically and texturally comparable, uncontaminated core sediment samples. Geochemical background values should be taken into account when establishing quality criteria for soils, sediments, and waters. Due to complexity of the local lithology, it is recommended that environmental monitoring and assessment include selection of an appropriate background values to gain understanding of the geochemistry and potential source of pollution in a given environment.

  18. Why geodiversity matters in valuing nature's stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Jan; Gordon, John E; Gray, Murray; Hunter, Malcolm L

    2015-06-01

    Geodiversity--the variability of Earth's surface materials, forms, and physical processes-is an integral part of nature and crucial for sustaining ecosystems and their services. It provides the substrates, landform mosaics, and dynamic physical processes for habitat development and maintenance. By determining the heterogeneity of the physical environment in conjunction with climate interactions, geodiversity has a crucial influence on biodiversity across a wide range of scales. From a literature review, we identified the diverse values of geodiversity; examined examples of the dependencies of biodiversity on geodiversity at a site-specific scale (for geosites <1 km(2) in area); and evaluated various human-induced threats to geosites and geodiversity. We found that geosites are important to biodiversity because they often support rare or unique biota adapted to distinctive environmental conditions or create a diversity of microenvironments that enhance species richness. Conservation of geodiversity in the face of a range of threats is critical both for effective management of nature's stage and for its own particular values. This requires approaches to nature conservation that integrate climate, biodiversity, and geodiversity at all spatial scales. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Background activity values from the nuclear power plants at the spanish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological data obtained from gross alpha and beta measurements are exposed. Also the activity of differents long lived radionuclides from a significant number of the Cantabric coast sea biota samples is given, where the Lemoniz nuclear power plant is located, as well as those from the Mediterranean coast, where the Vandellos nuclear power plant is sitting. The activity transfer through the different steps of the food-chain in each biota sample, as well as the activity values for sediments and water are presented. Eventually, a comparatif study of the background activity values between the two coasts mentioned above, is made. Also a comparison between the preoperational and operational values for the operating Vandellos nuclear power plant is described. (author)

  20. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  1. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  2. Values in nature conservation, tourism and UNESCO World Heritage site stewardship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.; Becken, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    tourism operators, public sector managers and other stakeholders from the iconic World Heritage Site and tourism destination, Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) reveal how shifting ideologies and government policies increased pressures on nature, resulting in new alliances between stewards from...... the tourism sector and national and international organizations. These alliances were built on shared nature conservation values and successfully reduced increasing development pressures. Three distinct phases in this process emerged at the GBR, which were driven by personal values held by tourism industry...... representatives, and their recognition of tourism’s reliance on nature for business success. Changing mainstream ideologies and political values can erode World Heritage and Protected Areas, and recalibrate values – including the universal values on which World Heritage Sites depend – towards more anthropocentric...

  3. An Expression of Multiple Values: The Relationship Between Community, Landscape and Natural Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To aid political and institutional decision making in the sustainable use of natural resources the value of ecological, socio-cultural and economic assets has increasingly been communicated in terms of monetary units. Despite reliance upon natural resources, the impact of human activities has now reached a stage where cumulative losses are forcing society to re-appraise the evaluation process and how to better incorporate these values in to the decision-making process. This paper examines the attributes of value held by natural resources within ecological, socio-cultural and economic value domains from the perspective of a rural UK community. Here we reflect upon the continued primacy of monetary valuation of natural resource using two approaches, a scaled preference-based value typology and a place-based map measure. We demonstrate that the societal relationships which inform the evaluation of natural resources are both multi-faceted and hierarchical. Moreover, whilst aware of the utilitarian character of society’s relationship with natural resource, the societal value-for-natural-resource relationship is primarily expressed using social-ecological qualities. These results add weight to the call for a new approach towards natural resource evaluation and how these values contribute to the sustainability agenda. New methods of evaluation must adopt multiple values that extend beyond a solely economic-based commodification concern to encompass the human relationship with the resource itself. Wherein, a multi-faceted approach to attributing value to natural resource, set within an experiential framework, can provide a focal point for discussion and the decision-making process.

  4. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  5. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.

  6. Assessment of Natural Exposure From Some kinds of Egyptian Gypsum Using Low Background Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity of natural gypsum and gypsum derived products are examined investigated due to their importance as element of building materials and agricultural gypsum. the natural gypsum and its product may constitute an additional source of radiation exposure to workers and members of public from radiation produced by radioactive decaying. thirty natural gypsum samples from different quarries and 32 fabricated gypsum samples from commercial companies were analyzed using low background HPGe detector. the natural concentration of Ra-226, 232 Th and 40 K activities in all samples were determined in Bq/Kg dry weight. it was found that radioactivity of natural gypsum is less than the fabricated gypsum, so it can be used as agricultural gypsum. fabricated gypsum is suitable for use as an element of building material in egypt

  7. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Abbott, Joshua K.; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M. K.; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996−2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996–2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state’s 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas’ depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets. PMID:26858431

  8. Study of natural background radiation levels with special reference to the granite industries and quarries in some places of Karnataka State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.; Srilatha; Ningappa, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is present all around us which may be also called natural background radiation. It is divided into natural and anthropogenic. The sources of natural radiation are extra terrestrial (cosmic ray) radiation and terrestrial radiation; it arises due to naturally occurring radionuclides present in soil, rocks and building materials. Whereas anthropogenic radiation sources includes X rays used for medical diagnosis nuclear weapon testing nuclear power plants radioisotopes used in varies fields, other industry applications and scientific research. Out of the total radiation exposure nearly 97.7% is from natural sources and remaining 2.3% is due to artificial sources. Nature has gifted several geological material to mankind for building purposes. The granite rocks are used as building material, these rocks are quite rich in radioactive nuclides. The radiation from these nuclides are exposed to mankind and the rocks are exploited and extracted by miners to construct the buildings. Natural radiation is of importance because it accounts for the largest contributor of radiation exposure to the world population from all natural sources (UNSCEAR 2008). Understanding the magnitude of natural sources of radiation and their distribution in the living environment may help any one to develop a pragmatic approach towards radiation and its effects. This article provides a radiation levels measured in granite quarries and industries and assessment of health effects to the workers and publics of the study area. The total occupational dose to the workers is lower than ICRP recommended value and the total dose for the public is slightly higher than the global average value. There is no regulation control for the granite mining. As per the IAEA report regulatory control is needed for mining and processing of granite rocks The study area is granite region of Bangaluru rural district, Tumkur and Mysore. (author)

  9. Rousseau’s View of Human Nature and Values Education

    OpenAIRE

    TÜFENKÇİ, Semra; ÇETİN, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Rousseau considers human nature and everything arising from this nature as good as theiroriginal instances. Therefore, education should reveal the positive emotions in human nature,rather than to sculpt them. Rousseau’s thoughts in Emile, have been a great influence on theeducators, especially on the values education approaches of modern education. In this article,we examine Rousseau’s negative education approach which acknowledges that human natureis merely good; and the importance of negati...

  10. Car-borne survey of natural background gamma dose rate in Canakkale region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Arikan, I. H.; Oquz, F.; Aezdemir, T.; Yuecel, B.; Varinlioqlu, A.; Koese, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural background gamma radiation was measured along roads in the environs of Canakkale region by using a car-borne spectrometer system with a plastic gamma radiation detector. In addition, activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples from the Canakkale region were determined by using a gamma spectrometer with an HPGe detector. A total of 92 856 data of the background gamma dose rate were collected for the Canakkale region. The background gamma dose rate of the Canakkale region was mapped using ArcGIS software, applying the geostatistical inverse distance-weighted method. The average and population-weighted average of the gamma dose are 55.4 and 40.6 nGy h -1 , respectively. The corresponding average annual effective dose to the public ranged from 26.6 to 96.8 μSv. (authors)

  11. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  12. Cellular and molecular effects of natural background radiation on human population in Kerala coast, India: from chromosome ends to transcriptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Jain, Vinay; Saini, Divyalakshmi; Ghosh, Anu; Seshadri, M. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Medical Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Sandhya Kiran, P. [Ocimum Biosolutions India Limited, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    Venous blood samples of 32 male volunteers (age group 35-45 years) from different background dose groups. Factors like life style, smoking, drinking alcohol, chewing, previous exposure to radiation and medical history etc. were properly recorded. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix FlGU133 plus 2.0 chip and the expression level of 54,675 genes were obtained for each sample. In order to assess the effect of chronic natural background radiation we have categorized our samples into four groups. To derive genes that are differentially regulated between these four groups, 'Exposed group versus Control' was set up and the linear model was fitted to each gene using the expression data on samples. A fold change threshold of 1.3, 1.5 and 2.0 and an adjusted p-value threshold of 0.05 was set in the study. Analysis was done using 'limma' library of R and Genowiz.

  13. Cellular and molecular effects of natural background radiation on human population in Kerala coast, India: from chromosome ends to transcriptome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Jain, Vinay; Saini, Divyalakshmi; Ghosh, Anu; Seshadri, M.; Sandhya Kiran, P.

    2010-01-01

    Venous blood samples of 32 male volunteers (age group 35-45 years) from different background dose groups. Factors like life style, smoking, drinking alcohol, chewing, previous exposure to radiation and medical history etc. were properly recorded. Microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix FlGU133 plus 2.0 chip and the expression level of 54,675 genes were obtained for each sample. In order to assess the effect of chronic natural background radiation we have categorized our samples into four groups. To derive genes that are differentially regulated between these four groups, 'Exposed group versus Control' was set up and the linear model was fitted to each gene using the expression data on samples. A fold change threshold of 1.3, 1.5 and 2.0 and an adjusted p-value threshold of 0.05 was set in the study. Analysis was done using 'limma' library of R and Genowiz

  14. COMPARISON OF NATURAL BACKGROUND DOSE RATES FOR RESIDENTS OF THE AMARGOSA VALLEY, NV, TO THOSE IN LEADVILLE, CO, AND THE STATES OF COLORADO AND NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Moeller and L. C. Sun

    2006-01-01

    In the latter half of 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Proposed Rule (40 CFR Part 197) for establishing a dose rate standard for limiting radionuclide releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the time period from 10 4 to 10 6 years after closure. The proposed standard was based on the difference in the estimated total dose rate from natural background in the Amargosa Valley and the ''average annual background radiation'' for the State of Colorado. As defined by the USEPA, ''natural background radiation consists of external exposures from cosmic and terrestrial sources, and internal exposures from indoor exposures to naturally-occurring radon''. On the basis of its assessments, the USEPA estimated that the difference in the dose rate in the two identified areas was 3.5 mSv y -1 . The purpose of this review was to provide an independent evaluation and review of this estimate. One of the first observations was that, because site-specific dose rate measurements for the Amargosa Valley ''were not available'', the dose rates for various sources of natural background in that area, used by the USEPA in its assessment, were based on modifications of the average values for the State of Nevada. A second observation was that the conversion factor applied in estimating the dose rates due to exposures to indoor radon and its decay products was a factor of 2 higher than the currently accepted value. Further review revealed that site-specific data for many natural background sources in the Amargosa Valley were available. One particularly important observation was that about 91% of the residents of that area live in mobile homes which, due to their construction and design, have indoor radon concentrations comparable to, or less than, those outdoors. For that reason, alone, the USEPA estimate of the average dose rate for residents of the Amargosa Valley, due to indoor radon, was not valid. For purposes

  15. Measurement of the natural radiation background level of Riyadh City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident

  16. Grey-Markov prediction model based on background value optimization and central-point triangular whitenization weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun

    2018-01-01

    Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.

  17. Natural inflation: consistency with cosmic microwave background observations of Planck and BICEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural inflation is a good fit to all cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and may be the correct description of an early inflationary expansion of the Universe. The large angular scale CMB polarization experiment BICEP2 has announced a major discovery, which can be explained as the gravitational wave signature of inflation, at a level that matches predictions by natural inflation models. The natural inflation (NI) potential is theoretically exceptionally well motivated in that it is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V(φ) = Λ 4  [1 ± cos(Nφ/f)]. A tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.1 as seen by BICEP2 requires the height of any inflationary potential to be comparable to the scale of grand unification and the width to be comparable to the Planck scale. The Cosine Natural Inflation model agrees with all cosmic microwave background measurements as long as f ≥ m Pl (where m Pl  = 1.22 × 10 19  GeV) and Λ ∼ m GUT  ∼ 10 16  GeV. This paper also discusses other variants of the natural inflation scenario: we show that axion monodromy with potential V∝ φ 2/3 is inconsistent with the BICEP2 limits at the 95% confidence level, and low-scale inflation is strongly ruled out. Linear potentials V ∝ φ are inconsistent with the BICEP2 limit at the 95% confidence level, but are marginally consistent with a joint Planck/BICEP2 limit at 95%. We discuss the pseudo-Nambu Goldstone model proposed by Kinney and Mahanthappa as a concrete realization of low-scale inflation. While the low-scale limit of the model is inconsistent with the data, the large-field limit of the model is marginally consistent with BICEP2. All of the models considered predict negligible running of the scalar spectral index, and would be ruled out by a detection of running

  18. Natural radioactivity in the Dutch outdoor environment. The explanation of uncomprehended variations in the background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands and many other countries research in the field of natural radioactivity is focused on the prevention of radon in the indoor environment. However, also the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the outdoor environment is an interesting subject to be studied. The natural background radiation in the outdoor environment, in particular its variations, hinders the verification of radiation level standards, caused by human activities. An analysis of the data of the Dutch National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity (LMR) provided more insight into those variations. This article is a summary of the authors' thesis on the subject. 5 figs., 8 refs

  19. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  20. Handball coaches' perceptions about the value of working competences according to their coaching background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Borges, Mario; Rosado, Antonio; Souza, Adriano De

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value attributed to given working competences, by Portuguese handball coaches according to their coaching background, certification level, coaching experience, and level of education. A sample of 207 handball coaches responded to a questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and a scale focused on perceptions of the level of importance attributed to working competences. Data analysis included an exploratory factorial analysis applying Maximum Likelihood Factoring (MLF) and Oblimin rotation. These factors were submitted to a One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparisons to analyse coaches' perceptions according to their coaching background. A six factor solution was found where three major domains of competences were highlighted; the first one related to training and competition (e.g. planning and conducting the training, team administration in competition, annual and multi-annual planning, and coaching methodology); the second one related to social and cultural issues and management (e.g. implementation of youth sport development projects, team leadership and coach education) and the third one related to the cognitive background (meta-cognitive competences). The importance ascribed to some working competences was influenced by their coaching experience and certification level. Highly experienced and qualified coaches perceived competences of everyday practice, social, cultural and management issues related to training and competition as more important than the other coaches. This study suggests the need to consider some working competences, until now not explicitly present in the Portuguese coaching education curriculum which could enable coaches to choose the best way to practice/work in a manner that will foster and support their professional development. Key pointsThree major domains of competences were highlighted by Portuguese handball coaches. The first one related to training and competition

  1. Valuing nature's contributions to people: the IPBES approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pascual, U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available or explicitly taken into account in decision making. Identifying such diversity of values of individuals and social groups is often challenging. But not doing so can undermine the very objectives of those decisions and produce unsustainable outcomes [12]. Bet... into decision making processes are themselves value-laden [27,36]. The adopted approach to valuation depends on peoples’ par- ticular ways of thinking, their perspectives and the ways in which these influence their interaction with nature [41,42�]. These are all...

  2. Effect of substrate intake and physiological state on background 13CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Shaw, J.H.F.; Nadel, E.R.; Wolfe, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural enrichment of 13 C in energy substrates varies, and this variation must be taken into account when stable isotopic tracers are used in metabolic studies. This is conventionally accomplished by measuring background samples taken before the tracer infusion begins and subtracting these values from postinfusion values. Whereas this approach is satisfactory if no perturbation occurs between the collection of the background samples and the collection of postinfusion sample, the data presented in this paper show that any change in the metabolic state can significantly alter the background enrichment of expired CO 2 . This study not only confirmed that the introduction of natural energy sources may alter the background enrichment of CO 2 , but we also found that changes in substrate oxidation induced by different physiological states, such as exercise, can cause significant changes in expired CO 2 enrichments. Conclusions from studies in which oxidation of substrates were measured by means of a 13 C tracer but potential changes in background enrichments were not accounted for must, therefore, be reassessed

  3. On the nature of low-energy background in instruments for rentgenoradiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokhov, E.D.; Mamikonyan, S.V.; Mel'ttser, L.V.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the background radiation nature and its attenuation are one of the main techniques to decrease the sensitivity threshold of a roentgen radiometric analysis. The reasons for low-energy ''tail'' occurence are investigated in the article. It has been concluded that the low-energy ''tail'' occurence within the energy range less than 25 keV depends on a proportional counter. It has been confirmed that one of the main reasons for the low-energy ''tail'' occurence lies in photoelectron leakage from the counter sensing volume. It is shown that while determining the concentrations close to the sensitivity threshold, the elimination of radiation of the sample incident on the counter surface at an inclination angle seems to be reasonable. The test results show that the use of a collimator makes it possible to decrease the background concentration or the sensitivity threshold about 1.5 times as much

  4. Cancer occurrence in the high natural background radiation area of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan Nair, M.; Sreedevi Amma, N.; Ramachandran, T.P.; Varghese Cherian; Jayalakshmy, P.; Mani, K.S.; Boban, T.G.; Jayadevan, S.; Gangadharan, P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the health effects if any, in populations living in high background radiation areas, the Department of Atomic Energy has sanctioned a 5-year project to establish a Registry covering Karunagappally taluk. The study proposes to cover a population of about 1,00,000 persons living in high background radiation areas where the radiation levels range anywhere between 10 and 825 μR/h inside the houses; for comparison the study proposes to cover another 3,00,000 persons living in nearby normal areas where the natural radiation levels range between 6 and 200 μ R/h. The data collected so far in the first 2.5 years are presented in this paper which covers a population of about 1,10,000 persons living in three villages. No attempt is made to interpret the data at this preliminary stage. (author). 7 tabs

  5. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Robert; D'Arge, Ralph; Groot, Rudolf de; Farber, Stephen; Grasso, Monica; Hannon, Bruce; Limburg, Karin; Naeem, Shahid; O'Neill, Robert V.; Paruelo, Jose; Raskin, Robert G.; Sutton, Paul; Belt, Marjan van den

    1998-01-01

    The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$ 16-54 trillion (10 12 ) per year, with an average of US$ 33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$ 18 trillion per year

  6. The contribution of nature to people: Applying concepts of values and properties to rate the management importance of natural elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Wagner, Christian; Wallace, Ken J; Pourabdollah, Amir; Lewis, Loretta

    2016-06-15

    An important, and yet unresolved question in natural resource management is how best to manage natural elements and their associated values to ensure human wellbeing. Specifically, there is a lack of measurement tools to assess the contribution of nature to people. We present one approach to overcome this global issue and show that the preferred state of any system element, in terms of realising human values, is a function of element properties. Consequently, natural resource managers need to understand the nature of the relationships between element properties and values if they are to successfully manage for human wellbeing. In two case studies of applied planning, we demonstrate how to identify key element properties, quantify their relationships to priority human values, and combine this information to model the contribution of elements to human wellbeing. In one of the two case studies we also compared the modelling outputs with directly elicited stakeholder opinions regarding the importance of the elements for realising the given priority values. The two, largely congruent outputs provide additional support for the approach. The study shows that rating sets of elements on their relative overall value for human wellbeing, or utility, provides critical information for subsequent management decisions and a basis for productive new research. We consider that the described approach is broadly applicable within the domain of natural resource management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  8. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...

  9. Mapping of Natural Radionuclides using Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    2006-01-01

    Mapping of natural radionuclides from airborne gamma spectrometry suffer from random ”noise” in the spectra due to short measurement times. This is partly compensated for by using large volume detectors to improve the counting statistics. One method of further improving the quality of the measured...... spectra is to remove from the spectra a large fraction of this random noise using a special variant of Singular Value Decomposition: Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition. In 1997-1999 the natural radionuclides on the Danish Island of Bornholm were mapped using a combination of the standard 3...

  10. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  11. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  12. Multivariate analysis of various factors affecting background liver and mediastinal standardized uptake values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruva, Manohar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Abrar, Mohammed Labeeb; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish

    2012-01-01

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) is the most commonly used semi-quantitative PET parameter. Various response assessment criteria grade the tumor uptake relative to liver or mediastinal uptake. However various factors can affect the background SUV values. This prospective study was carried out to assess the variability of liver and mediastinal SUVs normalized to lean body mass (SUL-L, SUL-M), body surface area (SUB-L, SUB-M), and body weight (SUW-L, SUW-M) and their dependence on various factors which can affect SUV values. Eighty-eight patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT for various oncological indications were prospectively included in this study. SUVs of liver and mediastinum were calculated by ROIs drawn as suggested by Wahl, et al., in PERCIST 1.0 criteria. Multivariate linear regression analysis was done to assess for the various factors influencing the SUVs of liver and mediastinum. Factors assessed were age, sex, weight, blood glucose level, diabetic status, and uptake period. A P value less than 0.01 was considered significant. SUL-L, SUL-M, SUB-L, SUB-M, SUW-L, SUW-M were not affected significantly by age, sex, blood glucose levels, diabetic status. The uptake period had a statistically significant effect on SUL-L (P = 0.007) and SUW-L (P = 0.008) with a progressive decrease with increasing uptake time. Body weight showed a statistically significant effect on SUW-L (P = 0.001) while SUL-L and SUB-L were not dependent on weight. SUB-L was least dependent on weight (P = 0.851) when compared with SUL-L (P = 0.425). However SUL-L was also not affected statistically significantly by variations in body weight (P = 0.425). Mediastinal SUVs were not significantly affected by any of the factors. As mediastinal SUVs are not affected significantly by any of the factors, it can be considered as background when wide variations occur in uptake times or weight of the patient when comparing two PET/CT studies to evaluate response

  13. Evaluation of the natural background radiation in City Sopron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaits, T.; Divos, F.; Kavasi, N.; Boka, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In the Postgraduate School of the Faculty of Forestry of the University of West Hungary a project with the topic Research of natural radioactive isotopes in our built and natural environs is being run. Preparing this map is an organic part of this PhD research. The measurements are being made in Sopron city and in its next surroundings, trying to estimate, which dose of radiation a citizen of Sopron is exposed, according to his age and lifestyle. The measurements completely cover the built-up area of Sopron, moreover they exceed the confines, so thus they provide information about the natural areas in the vicinity of the city. In figures, the detection carried out in an area of 24 square kilometres, working with a grid mesh of 200 metres. A sodium-iodide detector was used. We have faced several anomalies while mapping. These are the following: On Main Square (Foter), Ursulin Square (Orsolya ter), Paulites Square (Palosok tere, where a higher dose can be measured, due to granite cobbles, used to cover the pavements of the squares and streets. This was confirmed by the gamma spectrometric examination of the granite stones. In these areas, a triple of the mean dose-rate of 70-90 n Sv/h in Sopron was detected. The highest values of 400 n Sv/h were detected in the cinder-covered car-park of the paint store in Koszegi Street. The total gamma activity concentration of the cinder used in the car-park was nearly 2000 Bq/kg. A triple to a quadruple of the natural level was detected in the vicinity of the chimney of the former thermal power plant and the brick factory. The detection was carried out in four directions with raising range starting by the chimneys, which has spectacularly shown, that the sedimentation of the aerosols can be tracked is a function of distance. The measurements have also shown, that there is a significant difference between dose-levels of the natural areas beyond the eastern and western edge of the city, which can be explained with the different

  14. Optimization approach of background value and initial item for improving prediction precision of GM(1,1) model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Wang; Qin Liu; Jianrong Tang; Wenbin Cao; Xiaozhong Li

    2014-01-01

    A combination method of optimization of the back-ground value and optimization of the initial item is proposed. The sequences of the unbiased exponential distribution are simulated and predicted through the optimization of the background value in grey differential equations. The principle of the new information priority in the grey system theory and the rationality of the initial item in the original GM(1,1) model are ful y expressed through the improvement of the initial item in the proposed time response function. A numerical example is employed to il ustrate that the proposed method is able to simulate and predict sequences of raw data with the unbiased exponential distribution and has better simulation performance and prediction precision than the original GM(1,1) model relatively.

  15. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  16. Modeling the Thermal Signature of Natural Backgrounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamborg, Marius

    2002-01-01

    Two measuring stations have been established the purpose being to collect comprehensive databases of thermal signatures of background elements in addition to the prevailing meteorological conditions...

  17. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finland (latitudes 60–61: semi-natural, permanent and cultivated grassland. All have been grazed exclusively by horses for several decades. We aimed to evaluate feeding values and horses’ welfare, on the one hand, and impacts of horses on biodiversity in boreal conditions, on the other. Though there were differences among the pastures, the nutritional value of the vegetation in all three pastures met the energy and protein needs of most horse categories through the whole grazing season. Some mineral concentrations were low compared to the requirements, and supplementation of Cu, Zn and Na is needed to balance the mineral intake. Only minor injuries or health problems were observed. All metrics of biological values, as well as number of species eaten by horses, were particularly high in a semi-natural pasture compared to other pasture types. The highest ratio of species cover preferred by horses to the total cover was found in the permanent pasture, while at the regularly re-seeded pasture, there was a particularly high cover of species, indicating low biodiversity values on grassland. There was, therefore, a trade-off between the quantity of forage and biological values in pastures, but not in quality. The results provide clear indication both for the suitability of the studied pasture types to horses and for grazing of horses for biodiversity management. In each pasture type, specific management is needed to simultaneously achieve objectives of adequate

  18. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Background carbon-14 levels in UK foodstuffs, 1981-1995, based upon a 1992 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otlet, R.L.; Walker, A.J.; Fulker, M.J.; Collins, C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the current 'natural' background level is important to 14 C-related studies, especially dose assessments in the vicinity of and distant from nuclear establishments since its value must be subtracted from measured levels to determine local enhancement. Although measurements have been made world-wide to monitor the decline of the background level, from its peak in the early 1960s to the present, there exists a paucity of precise data for UK natural materials. Accordingly this study was carried out to establish an average figure for the 'natural' 14 C level in foodstuffs in 1992 from a survey of materials collected from a wide range of sites over England and Wales, using this single year value, to infill missing years prior to 1992 and to extrapolate from some years afterwards. Results are presented from the survey, and for the derived extrapolation with comparison made with measurements from other laboratories. (Author)

  20. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  1. The estimation of doses to the inhabitants arising from natural radiation source in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Hong; Morishima, H.; Wei Lvxin; Jian Yuannu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purposes is to estimate the average annual effective dose of the inhabitants and absorbed dose in some human tissues and organs arising from natural radiation sources in the High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) of Yangjiang and in the neighboring Control Area (CA). In order to provide more effective evidence for analyzing the dose-effect relationships among the cohort members in the investigated areas, authors divided the local inhabitant into different dose-groups. Methods: The authors measured the environmental gamma external radiation levels and individual accumulated doses of 5293 people in the investigated areas. The concentrations for 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in air were also surveyed. The authors estimated the internal doses of natural radionuclides based on the results obtained from measurements in food, in drinking water, in human teeth, in several human tissues, in human placenta, and in activity concentration of exhaled 222 Rn and 220 Rn of the residents living in the investigated areas. Results: The estimation of average annual effective doses in HBRA and CA based on the data of environmental measurements of radiation level respectively are 2.12 ± 0.29 mSv a -1 and 0.69 ± 0.09 mSv a -1 . The sources of higher background radiation in HBRA are mainly contributed from terrestrial gamma radiation. The estimation of average annual effective doses to the residents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products was 3.28 mSv a -1 in HBRA, while that in CA was 1.03 mSv a -1 . The values of the absorbed dose of the residents in their trachea-bronchial tree and lung in HBRA arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products are 5.40 mGy a -1 and 1.08 mGy a -1 respectively, which are about four times of the values of the absorbed dose in CA. The estimation of average annual effective doses to the inhabitants caused by 226 Ra and 228 Ra in HBRA and CA were 281.88 μSv a -1 and 84.54 μSv a -1

  2. Air-surface exchange measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over naturally enriched and background terrestrial landscapes in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Edwards

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first gaseous elemental mercury (GEM air-surface exchange measurements obtained over naturally enriched and background (−1 Hg terrestrial landscapes in Australia. Two pilot field studies were carried out during the Australian autumn and winter periods at a copper-gold-cobalt-arsenic-mercury mineral field near Pulganbar, NSW. GEM fluxes using a dynamic flux chamber approach were measured, along with controlling environmental parameters over three naturally enriched and three background substrates. The enriched sites results showed net emission to the atmosphere and a strong correlation between flux and substrate Hg concentration, with average fluxes ranging from 14 ± 1 ng m−2 h−1 to 113 ± 6 ng m−2 h−1. Measurements at background sites showed both emission and deposition. The average Hg flux from all background sites showed an overall net emission of 0.36 ± 0.06 ng m−2 h−1. Fluxes show strong relationships with temperature, radiation, and substrate parameters. A compensation point of 2.48, representative of bare soils was determined. For periods of deposition, dry deposition velocities ranged from 0.00025 cm s−1 to 0.0083 cm s−1 with an average of 0.0041 ± 0.00018 cm s−1, representing bare soil, nighttime conditions. Comparison of the Australian data to North American data suggests the need for Australian-specific mercury air-surface exchange data representative of Australia's unique climatic conditions, vegetation types, land use patterns and soils.

  3. On the Nature of the Microwave Background at the Lagrange 2 Point. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the mathematical methods of General Relativity are used to answer the following questions: if a microwave background originates from the Earth, what would be its density and associated dipole measured at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane (25 km, the COBE satellite (900 km, and the 2nd Lagrange point (1.5 million km, the position of the WMAP and PLANCK satellites? The first problem is solved via Einstein’s equations for the electromagnetic field of the Earth. The second problem is solved using the geodesic equations for light-like particles (photons which are mediators for electromagnetic radiation. We have determined that a microwave background that originates at the Earth (the Earth microwave background decreases with altitude so that the density of the energy of such a background at the altitude of the COBE orbit (900 km is 0.68 times less than that at the altitude of a U2 aeroplane. The density of the energy of the background at the L2 point is only ~1E-7 of the value detected by a U2 aeroplane or at the COBE orbit. The dipole anisotropy of the Earth microwave background, due to the rapid motion of the Earth relative to the source of another field which isn’t connected to the Earth but is located in depths of the cosmos, doesn’t depend on altitute from the surface of the Earth. Such a dipole will be the same irrespective of the position at which measurements are taken.

  4. Means of evaluation of population dose from the natural background of radiation for control of the exposure of environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensko, J.

    1974-01-01

    Given in this paper are the method and the results of calculation of the average value of the equivalent of the dose of the natural background of radiation, affecting the gonads and the bone marrow of the inhabitants of one of the regions of Poland, chosen as an example. These values weighed on a number of more important environmental factors, amounts to 78.0 mrem/years for gonads and 72.1 mrem/year for bone marrow. The value of the total population dose for the investigated region, from these sources of radiation, does not exceed 1.2 x 10 4 man-rem/year. Calculations were performed mainly on the base of the results of measurements of the exposure dose rate by a scintillation monitor from aboard an airplane, using also the numerous measurements of the dose at the height of 1 m over the earth's surface, done by means of a high-pressure ionization chamber, and the results of gamma spectrometric analysis of samples of soil. In calculations, coefficients of transformation of the exposure dose into the dose absorbed by various tissues, and the time spent indoors, were taken into consideration. For this purpose, using a proper coefficient of building screen has been suggested. This method can be used for estimating the average population dose, from the external radiation originating from natural and artificial radioactive sources, present in the environment of nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Singular value decomposition as a tool for background corrections in time-resolved XFEL scattering data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    The development of new X-ray light sources, XFELs, with unprecedented time and brilliance characteristics has led to the availability of very large datasets with high time resolution and superior signal strength. The chaotic nature of the emission processes in such sources as well as entirely novel...... detector demands has also led to significant challenges in terms of data analysis. This paper describes a heuristic approach to datasets where spurious background contributions of a magnitude similar to (or larger) than the signal of interest prevents conventional analysis approaches. The method relies...

  6. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  7. Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon-Steensma Jantsje M.

    2016-01-01

    foreland into the dike design does not automatically mean that nature values and flood protection are well integrated. Flood protection imposes rather different requirements on the extent and features of marshes than nature conservation and development. Wave damping is most effective with a high and stable marsh, while nature thrives with dynamic processes and differences in elevation. Therefore, only a design that allows natural marsh dynamics and includes different marsh zones could combine nature values with flood protection. In practice, this means a dike design with an uncertain foreland, that offers space for natural processes. The uncertainty in foreland development reduces the possible flood risk reduction. In our paper we describe the critical points of interest concerning risk reduction in this system.

  8. Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett Anthony; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Crossman, Neville David; King, Darran

    2011-02-01

    Consideration of the social values people assign to relatively undisturbed native ecosystems is critical for the success of science-based conservation plans. We used an interview process to identify and map social values assigned to 31 ecosystem services provided by natural areas in an agricultural landscape in southern Australia. We then modeled the spatial distribution of 12 components of ecological value commonly used in setting spatial conservation priorities. We used the analytical hierarchy process to weight these components and used multiattribute utility theory to combine them into a single spatial layer of ecological value. Social values assigned to natural areas were negatively correlated with ecological values overall, but were positively correlated with some components of ecological value. In terms of the spatial distribution of values, people valued protected areas, whereas those natural areas underrepresented in the reserve system were of higher ecological value. The habitats of threatened animal species were assigned both high ecological value and high social value. Only small areas were assigned both high ecological value and high social value in the study area, whereas large areas of high ecological value were of low social value, and vice versa. We used the assigned ecological and social values to identify different conservation strategies (e.g., information sharing, community engagement, incentive payments) that may be effective for specific areas. We suggest that consideration of both ecological and social values in selection of conservation strategies can enhance the success of science-based conservation planning. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  10. Water activities in Laxemar-Simpevarp. Organic field inventory, nature values classification and description of production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-10-01

    This report describes nature values, agricultural areas and forestry areas in Laxemar, for which there could be negative consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the rock. In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark as site for the repository. This report hence concerns the non-chosen Laxemar site. The report describes results from map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent of -favoured nature objects. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion. The investigation area contains a number of valuable nature habitats, but no protected areas in the form of nature reserves or Natura 2000 areas. In the investigation area 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated and classified according to their nature values. Of these nature objects, 32 consist of forest objects (including moist forests), 26 consist of wetland objects, and nine consist of surface waters (streams, lakes and ponds). The nature-value classifications of objects are primarily based on habitat rareness and worth of protection on a national scale, and their importance as habitats for rare and threatened species. None of the identified nature objects is judged to be of national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (forest objects) are judged to be of regional value (class 2), 18 objects of municipal value (class 3) and 34 objects are judged to be of local value (class 4). Most of the nature objects contain nature values that are associated to factors other than the level of the groundwater table, primarily previous land uses in the form of grazing and hay cutting. There are also values associated to valuable

  11. Wilderness values: Perspectives from non-economic social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Alan E. Watson

    2007-01-01

    The concept of “values” is one of the most widely used to characterize the human dimensions of natural resources. Yet, clearly it means many different things in different disciplines and in everyday discourse. Background information regarding values from a non-economic social science perspective is provided, with an aim towards stretching the dominant economic paradigm...

  12. Environmental background level of cosmic ray produced 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, H.; Oonishi, M.; Matsuura, H.

    1993-01-01

    The annual deposition rate of cosmogenic 22 Na has been studied at Fukui City, Japan, to obtain the current background level. The deposition rate was found to range from 0.16 to 0.22 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean value of 0.20 Bq m -2 y -1 for the years 1986-1990. The author's results agree fairly well with those observed for the years 1975-1977 in Tokyo. The 22 Na concentration in rain water was also estimated. The mean value for this period was found to be 0.09 mBq litre -1 , which is about one-third of that detected during the latter half of the 1950's. The high levels of environmental 22 Na in the 1950's are attributed to the many nuclear weapon tests conducted at that time. At present, however, the 22 Na from these weapons tests has practically decayed and the concentration in rain water has decreased to the natural background level. (Author)

  13. Marginal value of natural water in agriculture: a study in the suburbs of Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gezahegn, T.W.; Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2015-01-01

    In areas where markets for natural water are lacking, information on its marginal value can be an important tool for proper pricing to achieve efficient allocation of the resource. This article investigates the marginal value of natural water (rainwater used as a proxy) in agricultural crop

  14. Emergy Evaluation of the Natural Value of Water Resources in Chinese Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 × 104 sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 × 1011 sej/m3), and emdollar per volume (0.06 /m3). The total value of all the rivers’ water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haihe-luanhe River (11.39 × 104 sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 × 104 sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 × 104 sej/J).

  15. Th, U, Ra and rare earth element distributions in farm animal tissues from an elevated natural radiation background environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Paul; Morse, Robert; Ford, Helen; Eisenbud, Merril; Franca, E.P.; de Castro, M.B.; Lobao, Nazyo; Sachett, Ivanor; Carlos, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of elevated natural background radioactivity (the Pocos de Caldas plateau, Brazil) to assess tissue concentrations and the comparative bioavailability of isotopic Th (IV), U (IV, VI), Ra (II) and light rare earth elements (REE), i.e. La (III) and Ce (III, IV) in adult steers, pigs and chickens. The assessment of comparative bioavailability was aided by normalizing tissue concentrations to local soil concentrations, i.e. by calculating soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CRs). Mean CRs (for muscle/soil) in these animals were very similar for U, La and Th which, as a group, decreased among the farm animals sampled as (all x 10 -4 ): chicken (1) ≥ steer (0.7) ≥ pig (0.4). For 226 Ra, CRs in muscle decreased in the same order among animals although mean values were 3-5 times greater than those quoted. Much greater values and greater differences among the elements are noted for bone/soil CRs, which for all animals decreased as: Ra >> U > La=Th, indicating the order of elemental bioavailability (assuming bone to be the major retention compartment). Isotopic ratios in farm animal tissue are shown to resemble closely those in soils over which the animals forage, with few exceptions, indicating the importance of the soil component in the transfer of these elements to tissues. (author)

  16. Influence of NORMs on the natural background radiation level in petroleum-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) which are found in the Earth's crust, in the form of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and their associated radionuclides, are brought to the surface of the ground as a result of oil production processes, and are known under the name of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR). These represent a potential hazard of significant scale. 226 Ra, an α emitter, represents a potential internal radiation exposure hazard to both workers and members of the public, arising from the inhalation and ingestion of the dust produced during cleaning operations for the descaling of pipes and separator tanks. In addition to this, a higher than normal background γ exposure rate is to be observed both around and directly at the areas where the mud from the separator tanks and pipe cleaning operations was routinely dumped. Therefore, the aim of this work was to present the data on radiation levels measured in contaminated areas located near to a number of oilfields in Egypt and in Syria. The decontamination processes undertaken and the precautions necessary to ensure elimination of the possible transport mechanisms for contaminated dust into public areas by wind are presented. (orig.)

  17. Carrying capacity an approaching procedure to the economic value of natural patrimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandon M, Luis; Ochoa S, German; Ospina N, Efren

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new alternative method for valorizing the natural heritage of various economically and environmentally important ecosystems. It was conducted in the Piedras Blancas, Antioquia watershed and considered the degree of conservation of the area and its capacity for supporting humans, by means of extractive economic activities. In this way the ecosystem itself provides a natural offer of goods and services and therefore a good approximation of its economic value

  18. Implementation of a Performance Task for Developing the Value of Love of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktepe, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the love of nature performance task on the opinions and attitudes of 4th grade primary school students at the Science and Art center towards their value of love of nature. The mixed method was used by means of both quantitative and qualitative research models. The experimental group…

  19. Study of the natural radiation background affected on the human body in some areas of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Van Thanh

    2008-01-01

    The author had studied the natural radiation background in 68 districts belong 40 provinces and cities of Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. The estimated results clearly show that the average external irradiation dose levels and the average annual external radiation equivalent dose affected on the human body are 0.181± 0.0189 μSv/h and 1599 ± 171.8 μSv/year respectively, both are in normal limit; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Buon Ma Thuot city (DakLak province), Phuoc Son district (Quang Nam province), Tan An district (Long An province). The radon concentration in the human being and the average annual internal inhalation irradiation equivalent dose affected on the human beings are 26.9 ± 15.89 Bq/m 3 and 392.88 ± 231.99 μSv/year respectively; the maximums are in Nha Trang city (Khanh Hoa province), Bac Binh district (Binh Phuoc province); the minimums are in Vung Tau city (Ba Ria- Vung Tau province), Tan An district (Long An province), Rach Gia district (Kien Giang province). The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations in the cereals, foodstuffs (rice, meat, vegetables), water, earth and the average annual internal irradiation equivalent dose are 829.2 ± 38.06 Bq/kg and 229.3 ± 67.70 μSv/year respectively; the highest levels are in Phong Tho district (Lai Chau province), Dien Bien city; the lowest levels are in Dong Xoai district (Binh Phuoc province), Tan An district (Long An province). The average total annual natural radiation background effective equivalent dose level affected on the human body is 2206.9 ± 529.30 μSv/year; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Tan An district (Long An province). The 14 maps of Natural Radiation Background in several localized regions belong 40 provinces and cities of Viet Nam had been set up. These results can reserve for serviceman and public health in the both wartime and peacetime. (author)

  20. A first: U.S. natural gas wellhead value tops oil's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The value of natural gas production in the US in 1993 exceeded that of crude oil output for the first time in history. The reversal owes as much to trends in price as in production and, most recently, record frigid weather in much of the US. Another key factor is a newly revitalized, restructured gas industry operating in the most unfettered regulatory environment in recent memory. The industry's sterling performance in accommodating the surge in demand caused by the arctic cold that steamrolled across North America early in the 1993--94 winter strengthens the natural gas case for reliability. And that can only enhance the industry's prospects for adding more long term supply contracts. Looming on the immediate horizon is the prospect of an extended slump in oil prices, which could mean that natural gas dominance in US petroleum industry revenues will be short lived if low cost oil recaptures market share from gas. While that may temporarily dethrone natural gas from its new top slot, the reversal in 1993 represents what is likely to be a long term trend for the US petroleum industry

  1. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  2. Environmental Values (2-MEV and Appreciation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz X. Bogner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring the long history of empirical instruments for environmental attitude measurement, the Two Major Environmental Value model (2-MEV with its two higher order factors: Preservation (PRE and Utilization (UTL has repeatedly and independently been confirmed. PRE assesses preferences towards conservation of nature and the environment, whilst UTL measures preferences towards utilization/exploitation of nature. The latter, however, does not yet include the positive aspects of benefitting from the (enjoyable use of nature. Consequently, besides the established 2-MEV-battery, additional items from an “Appreciation of Nature” (APR scale were applied to an Irish sample of 289 secondary school students (age: M = 14.3 years. Responses to the altogether 30-item battery were applied on an oblique rotation by using the Promax procedure: UTL and PRE appeared as orthogonally related factors, APR correlated to PRE with 0.283. Based on loading scores, the item number for each subscale was further reduced to make the analysis more manageable in educational outreach sites; on those sites, where completing questionnaires may well be quite unpopular, they are very much needed for planning and fine-tuning educational programs. Therefore, extending the 2-MEV scale with an added scale for Appreciation may help: (i to judge participants’ feedback for adjusting/balancing program contents better; and (ii to promote appreciation as a successful strategy for shifting individuals away from their individual exploitative preferences.

  3. Rethinking the economic valuation of natural land : Spatial analyses of how deeply people value nature in rural areas and in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, Michiel Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    The value of natural land is not directly comparable with the value of alternative land uses with a more evident productivity in monetary terms, such as real estate or infrastructure. To overcome this problem, I analyze data that measure, with unique spatial precision, people’s appreciation for

  4. RELATION BETWEEN BACKGROUND VARIABLES, VALUES AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR can be directly influenced by individual value structures. This research aims to provide new knowledge regarding the relationship between basic human values and the public’s perception of CSR. It focuses on the values of higher education students and their views regarding a particular corporate social initiative. The study reveals that social, educational, and economic circumstances influence human values. Those values in turn influence why different students perceive CSR differently. These findings are relevant to companies as they provide a more detailed understanding of why certain consumer groups perceive certain CSR initiatives the way that they do. They also suggest that universities should increase their awareness of the importance of integrating human values and CSR in the curricula of future business managers and social leaders.

  5. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant

  6. The value of computed tomography-urography in predicting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The natural course of pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction is variable. Of those who require surgical intervention, there is no definite reliable preoperative predictor of the likely postoperative outcome. We evaluated the value of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-urography in predicting the ...

  7. Quantification of DNA repair capacity (DRC) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals from natural high background radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Seshadri, M.

    2011-01-01

    Human populations residing in the coastal areas of Kerala from Neendakara in south to Purakkad in north receive high level natural background radiation primarily due to the presence of thorium ( 232 Th) in the monazite containing beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the health effects of natural high level radiation on humans. Earlier studies from our laboratory in newborns for incidence of congenital malformations, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations failed to show any significant health or biological effects due to high level natural radiation exposure. The current study used alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay due to its sensitivity, speed, flexibility and low cost. Biological effects of low level natural radiation was studied by assessing individual's DNA Repair Capacity (DRC), which is essential for maintaining the genome integrity. DNA damage was estimated in terms of DNA strand breaks per million base pairs (SB/106 bp). In our earlier study using comet assay, DNA SBs increased with age in subjects from normal background radiation area (NBRA). However, significant inverse correlation was observed in subjects from high background radiation area (HBRA). Further, spontaneous DNA SBs in elderly subjects (? 41 years) from HBRA was significantly lower compared to the subjects from NBRA. The present study was carried out in 90 healthy adult male subjects of which, 63 subjects belonged to HBRA and 27 subjects from NBRA. The annual effective dose in HBRA subjects was 5.87 ± 4.17 mSv year-1 (Mean ± S.D., range 1.07-17.41) and in NBRA subjects was ? 1mSv year-1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from these individuals were irradiated with 4Gy of 60 Co gamma rays (1.4Gy/minute, Low dose irradiator 2000, BRIT, India) and DNA repair was assessed at 30 minutes. As the results were not normally distributed, the data were log transformed to normalize variance. Regression analysis was carried out to determine the relative

  8. Low energy background radiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Spectral distribution of background radiation at 9 locations spread all over India has been measured. Specifications of the counting set-up standardised for measurement are given. At one of the places, the background spectrum was measured with four different types of detectors. A broad peak in 60-100 keV with differing intensity and standard deviation is observed in all the spectra. In the Kalpakkam area, the peak near the seashore is observed to be more intense than away from the shore. This could be due to the presence of monazite sands on the seashore. The natural background radiation is observed to have a steep rise below 20 keV. Peak intensity is found to be independent of both the location (i.e. the source of energy) and the type of detector used for measurement. The calculated spectra due to multiple scattered radiation (with a nominal source energy of 1 MeV) through paraffin wax and the measured background spectrum with the detector shielded with 20 cm wax show good agreement above 40 keV. This shows that 80 keV hump in the natural background radiation is a property of air. The peak, therefore, in the spectra of natural background radiation is essentially a property of medium and it is independent of location or detector. (M.G.B.)

  9. Valuing natural gas power generation assets in the new competitive marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Michael Chun-Wei

    1999-10-01

    The profitability of natural gas fired power plants depends critically on the spread between electricity and natural gas prices. The price levels of these two energy commodities are the key uncertain variables in determining the operating margin and therefore the value of a power plant. The owner of a generation unit has the decision of dispatching the plant only when profit margins are positive. This operating flexibility is a real option with real value. In this dissertation I introduce the spark spread call options and illustrate how such paper contracts replicate the uncertain payoff space facing power asset owners and, therefore, how the financial options framework can be applied in estimating the value of natural gas generation plants. The intrinsic value of gas power plants is approximated as the sum of a series of spark spread call options with succeeding maturity dates. The Black-Scholes spread option pricing model, with volatility and correlation term structure adjustments, is utilized to price the spark spread options. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on the BS spread option formulation to compare different asset types. In addition I explore the potential of using compound and compound-exchange option concepts to evaluate, respectively, the benefits of delaying investment in new generation and in repowering existing antiquated units. The compound option designates an option on top of another option. In this case the series of spark spread call options is the 'underlying' option while the option to delay new investments is the 'overlying.' The compound-exchange option characterizes the opportunity to 'exchange' the old power plant, with its series of spark spread call options, for a set of new spark spread call options that comes with the new generation unit. The strike price of the compound-exchange option is the repowering capital investment and typically includes the purchase of new steam generators and combustion turbines, as well as other

  10. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  11. The calculation of absorbed dose rate in freshwater fish from high background natural radioactivity areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Pinto, C.E.C.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Areas of increased radiation may expose biota to radiation doses greater than the world averages, and depending on the magnitude of the exposure causing biota damage. The region of the municipality of Caldas, MG, BR is considered a region of increased natural radioactivity. The present work aims to evaluate the exposure of biota to natural radionuclides in the region of Caldas, MG. In order to evaluate the biota exposure in the region, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides U nat , 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 232 Th and 228 Ra were evaluated in two species of fishes: lambari (Astymax spp.) And traíra (Hoplias spp.). The dose rates of the analyzed fish were: for Astymax spp of 0.08 μGy d -1 and for Hoplias spp of 0.12 μGy∙d -1 . With these dose rate values no measurable deleterious effects are expected in the species studied

  12. Burning for conservation values: should the goal be to mimic a natural fire regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hermann; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2015-01-01

    Managers are often asked to include conservation values in forest management plans. In the upland coastal plain of the southeastern United States, fire is an important natural process and a vital land management tool. Many native ecosystems are dependent on frequent burns. It is often suggested that mimicking a natural fire regime is the best way to improve and...

  13. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  14. Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo-geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, D; Sterckeman, T

    2001-01-08

    In order to evaluate the contamination of the Dornach (Switzerland) site within the framework of the CEEM-Soil project, each participating team was allowed to take a maximum of 15 samples. The French team's sampling was organized in such a way as to answer the following questions: (i) what is the natural concentration of the soils at this site (local pedo-geochemical background content)?; (ii) what are the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contamination of the soil?; (iii) what is the depth reached by the surface contamination that is derived from atmospheric fallout?; (iv) how is the contamination spread along the longest axis of the area under study? The relationships between total Fe and the trace metals have allowed local variations in the natural pedo-geochemical background content to be detected and thus permitted the anthropogenic contamination to be estimated. There would appear to be a low level of Pb contamination over all the site investigated (an increase of the order of 5-10 mg kg(-1) on the background level), limited to the surface humus-bearing layers. There is also a significant contamination by Cu over all of the site (an increase of the order of 30-40 mg kg(-1)). This contamination has remained in the surface horizons (0-20 cm). Very high Zn and Cd concentrations have been found in the four surface (0-4 cm) and deep horizons (15-70 cm) taken under the forest and very much lower values in the samples taken from cultivated soils. The most likely explanation is an unequal inheritance between the upper part of the site (wooded with thinner very clayey soils) and the lower cultivated part of the site (with thicker less clayey soils developed in a loamy material). For various reasons, it seems unlikely that a contamination of the wooded part should be so much higher than the cultivated part due to the interception of atmospheric dust by the trees. The local pedo-geochemical background Cd and Zn content of the upper wooded part proved to be clearly higher than

  15. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 10 5 persons x a -1 ) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  16. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Naturally occurring 32 Si and low-background silicon dark matter detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, John L.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Bliss, Mary; Bunker, Raymond; Finch, Zachary S.

    2018-05-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope Si-32 represents a potentially limiting background in future dark matter direct-detection experiments. We investigate sources of Si-32 and the vectors by which it comes to reside in silicon crystals used for fabrication of radiation detectors. We infer that the Si-32 concentration in commercial single-crystal silicon is likely variable, dependent upon the specific geologic and hydrologic history of the source (or sources) of silicon “ore” and the details of the silicon-refinement process. The silicon production industry is large, highly segmented by refining step, and multifaceted in terms of final product type, from which we conclude that production of Si-32-mitigated crystals requires both targeted silicon material selection and a dedicated refinement-through-crystal-production process. We review options for source material selection, including quartz from an underground source and silicon isotopically reduced in Si-32. To quantitatively evaluate the Si-32 content in silicon metal and precursor materials, we propose analytic methods employing chemical processing and radiometric measurements. Ultimately, it appears feasible to produce silicon-based detectors with low levels of Si-32, though significant assay method development is required to validate this claim and thereby enable a quality assurance program during an actual controlled silicon-detector production cycle.

  18. Naturally occurring 32Si and low-background silicon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, John L.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Bliss, Mary; Bunker, Raymond; Finch, Zachary S.

    2018-05-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope 32Si represents a potentially limiting background in future dark matter direct-detection experiments. We investigate sources of 32Si and the vectors by which it comes to reside in silicon crystals used for fabrication of radiation detectors. We infer that the 32Si concentration in commercial single-crystal silicon is likely variable, dependent upon the specific geologic and hydrologic history of the source (or sources) of silicon "ore" and the details of the silicon-refinement process. The silicon production industry is large, highly segmented by refining step, and multifaceted in terms of final product type, from which we conclude that production of 32Si-mitigated crystals requires both targeted silicon material selection and a dedicated refinement-through-crystal-production process. We review options for source material selection, including quartz from an underground source and silicon isotopically reduced in 32Si. To quantitatively evaluate the 32Si content in silicon metal and precursor materials, we propose analytic methods employing chemical processing and radiometric measurements. Ultimately, it appears feasible to produce silicon detectors with low levels of 32Si, though significant assay method development is required to validate this claim and thereby enable a quality assurance program during an actual controlled silicon-detector production cycle.

  19. Measurement of the 36Cl deposition flux in central Japan: natural background levels and seasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Yuki; Tase, Norio; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Essential parameters for the applications of 36 Cl as a tracer in groundwater studies include the initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio, at the time of recharge, and/or the natural background deposition flux of 36 Cl in the recharge area. To facilitate the hydrological use of 36 Cl in central Japan, this study aimed to obtain a precise estimate of the long-term average local 36 Cl flux and to characterize its seasonal variability. The 36 Cl in precipitation was continuously monitored in Tsukuba, central Japan over a period of >5 years. The 36 Cl flux showed a clear seasonal variation with an annual peak during the spring, which was attributed to the seasonal variability of tropopause height. The long-term average 36 Cl flux (32 ± 2 atoms m −2 s −1 ), estimated from the measured data, was consistent with the prediction from the 36 Cl latitudinal fallout model scaled using the global mean production rate of 20 atoms m −2 s −1 . The initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio was estimated to be (41 ± 6) × 10 −15 , which is similar to that of pre-bomb groundwater in the Tsukuba Upland. An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36 Cl flux during the solar minimum. - Highlights: ► We monitored 36 Cl in precipitation in central Japan over a period of >5 years. ► The 36 Cl flux varied seasonally, with a peak in spring. ► The long-term average 36 Cl flux and the initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio were 32 ± 2 atoms m −2 s −1 and (41 ± 6) × 10 −15 , respectively. ► An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36 Cl flux during the solar minimum.

  20. Investigation of dielectric constant variations for Malaysians soil species towards its natural background dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafery, Khawarizmi Mohd; Embong, Zaidi; Khee, Yee See; Haimi Dahlan, Samsul; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Ahmad, Salawati; Kudnie Sahari, Siti; Maxwell, Omeje

    2018-01-01

    The correlation of natural background gamma radiation and real part of the complex relative permittivity (dielectric constant) for various species Malaysian soils was investigated in this research. The sampling sites were chosen randomly according to soils groups that consist of sedentary, alluvial and miscellaneous soil which covered the area of Batu Pahat, Kluang and Johor Bahru, Johor state of Malaysia. There are 11 types of Malaysian soil species that have been studied; namely Peat, Linau-Sedu, Selangor-Kangkong, Kranji, Telemong-Akob-Local Alluvium, Holyrood-Lunas, Batu Anam-Melaka-Tavy, Harimau Tampoi, Kulai-Yong Peng, Rengam-Jerangau, and Steepland soils. In-situ exposure rates of each soil species were measured by using portable gamma survey meter and ex-situ analysis of real part of relative permittivity was performed by using DAK (Dielectric Assessment Kit assist by network analyser). Results revealed that the highest and the lowest background dose rate were 94 ± 26.28 μR hr-1 and 7 ± 0.67 μR hr-1 contributed by Rengam Jerangau and Peat soil species respectively. Meanwhile, dielectric constant measurement, it was performed in the range of frequency between 100 MHz to 3 GHz. The measurements of each soils species dielectric constant are in the range of 1 to 3. At the lower frequencies in the range of 100 MHz to 600 MHz, it was observed that the dielectric constant for each soil species fluctuated and inconsistent. But it remained consistent in plateau form of signal at higher frequency at range above 600 MHz. From the comparison of dielectric properties of each soil at above 600 MHz of frequency, it was found that Rengam-Jerangau soil species give the highest reading and followed by Selangor-Kangkong species. The average dielectric measurement for both Selangor-Kangkong and Rengam-Jerangau soil species are 2.34 and 2.35 respectively. Meanwhile, peat soil species exhibits the lowest dielectric measurement of 1.83. It can be clearly seen that the pattern

  1. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, Benjamin [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Verde, Licia [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi [Dept. d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Niro, Viviana [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Tramonte, Denis [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Poulin, Vivian [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, B.P.110, Annecy-le-Vieux F-74941 (France); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effective parameters do not vary significantly when considering an arbitrary value of the particle mass, or extended cosmological models with a free effective neutrino number, dynamical dark energy or a running of the primordial spectrum tilt. We conclude that it is possible to make a robust statement about the detection of the cosmic neutrino background by CMB experiments.

  3. Ecological risk assessment: influence of texture on background concentration of microelements in soils of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    In Russia quality standards of contaminated substances values in environment consist of ecological and sanitary rate-setting. The sanitary risk assessment base on potential risk that contaminants pose to protect human beings. The main purpose of the ecological risk assessment is to protect ecosystem. To determine negative influence on living organisms in the sanitary risk assessment in Russia we use MPC. This value of contaminants show how substances affected on different part of environment, biological activity and soil processes. The ecological risk assessment based on comparison compounds concentration with background concentration for definite territories. Taking into account high interval of microelements value in soils, we suggest using statistic method for determination of concentration levels of chemical elements concentration in soils of Russia. This method is based on determination middle levels of elements content in natural condition. The top limit of middle chemical elements concentration in soils is value, which exceed middle regional background level in three times standard deviation. The top limit of natural concentration excess we can explain as anthropogenic impact. At first we study changing in the middle content value of microelements in soils of geographic regions in European part of Russia on the basis of cartographical analysis. Cartographical analysis showed that the soil of mountainous and mountain surrounding regions is enriched with microelements. On the plain territory of European part of Russia for most of microelements was noticed general direction of increasing their concentration in soils from north to south, also in the same direction soil clay content rise for majority of soils. For all other territories a clear connection has been noticed between the distribution of sand sediment. By our own investigation and data from scientific literature data base was created. This data base consist of following soil properties: texture

  4. Gamma background irradiation. Standards and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.

    1998-01-01

    The systematic deviation of the results of measuring the power of air dose absorbed from the natural gamma background radiation in Bulgaria is inadmissibly large and variable. This in turn augments the dispersion of results as well as the mean value relative to worldwide data, to an implausible level, hardly attributable to the variegated geographical relief of the country. Thus in practice local anthropogenic increases hardly lend themselves to detection and demonstration. In the Radiation Protection Standards (RPS-92) in effect in Bulgaria, and in other documents concerning the same radiation factors as well, the maximum allowable limits for the population as a whole are clearly specified on the basis of worldwide expertise along this line. As a rule these limits are being exceeded by the actually measured values, and for this reason the cited documents contain a clause stipulating that these limits do not refer to the natural radiation background and therefore the latter may be virtually ignored. Thus the basic risk factor for the population goes beyond control at levels commensurable with the officially established limits, its twofold increase inclusive. The maximum allowable limit becomes undefinable. Bearing in mind the fact that in compliance with the cited RPS-92 elimination of the technogenic ionizing radiation sources incorporated in the environment prior to 1992 is 'freezed', it is evident that exposure of the population to anthropogenic radiation becomes legally allowable in a much wider range than the one specified by world legislators. One may anticipate radiation induced health noxae for the population directly or by anthropogenic radiation stress on biocenosis. A relatively large part of the population is susceptible to the effect of low radiation doses. Presumably this contingent will augment as a result of eventual fluctuations. The casual relationship which is difficult to establish should be given due consideration in the analysis of the causes

  5. Haematological and biochemical values in horses naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Kent, J; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S; Soulsby, E J

    1984-08-18

    The concentrations of serum proteins (beta 1, beta 2, gamma, alpha 1, alpha 2 globulins and albumin) and absolute numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes were examined in 64 naturally infected horses and ponies in which the number of larvae of Strongylus vulgaris in the cranial mesenteric artery and the severity of the lesion of verminous arteritis could be determined. The horses were grouped according to the number of larvae found and the severity of the arteritis. The results demonstrated that, although some significant deviation from a random distribution occurred in certain of the values (chi 2 test), there was considerable individual variation in the values obtained for individual animals within groups and overlap of the range of values between groups. Also the number of larvae present in the artery did not necessarily accurately reflect the severity of the arterial lesion. Thus, the parameters examined could not be used reliably to estimate the intensity of infection with S vulgaris in an individual animal.

  6. World Heritage Listing of Australian Natural Sites: Tourism Stimulus and its Economic Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Wilson, Clevo

    2001-01-01

    Australia has 14 areas inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list, on the basis of their globally outstanding natural and in some cases also cultural values. Many regard listing as prestigious and believe that it acts as a signalling device like a brand name. But to what extent and in what ways does the extra prestige bestowed by this listing translate into increased economic value for listed properties? This article deals with two main aspects of World Heritage listing. First, examines the ...

  7. Soil dioxins levels at agriculture sites and natural preserve areas of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jin-juh; Lin, Kae-Long; Chung, Jen-Chir; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2007-08-17

    In this study, agriculture soil in Taiwan has been sampled and analyzed to determine the background level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DF) in the agricultural and nature preserve areas. Another objective is to investigate relationship between soil characteristics and air deposition in Taiwan. The results indicate that in nature preserve areas the topsoil shows an extraordinary profile of PCDD/DF compared to that in the air deposition. The PCDD/DF levels of the low-contaminated agricultural soils are compatible with those of the nature preserves soils. However, in the highly-contaminated agricultural soils, there is an abrupt jump in their concentrations, 10-100 times higher. The overall I-TEQ values of the background topsoils range from 0.101 to 15.2 ng I-TEQ/kg. Near industrial/urban areas in Taiwan the PCDD/DF are slightly higher compared to those in the low concentration group. Typically, the PCDD/DF background values found in this survey fall in the 90% confidence interval and can thus, be deemed the background levels in Taiwan. Ninety-five percent of these data are below the European and American soil standard of 10 ng I-TEQ/kg d.w. The PCDD/DF profile with one neighborhood soil sample was shown no significant difference.

  8. Geochemical background of zinc, cadmium and mercury in anthropically influenced soils in a semi-arid zone (SE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Molina, J.; Tudela, M. L.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-04-01

    This work seeks to establish the geochemical background for three potentially toxic trace elements (Zn, Cd and Hg) in a pilot zone included in the DesertNet project in the province of Murcia. The studied area, known as Campo de Cartagena, Murcia (SE Spain) is an area of intensive agriculture and has been much affected over the years by anthropic activity. The zone can be considered an experimental pilot zone for establishing background levels in agricultural soils. Sixty four samples were collected and corresponded to areas subjected to high and similar agricultural activity or soils with natural vegetation, which correspond to abandoned agricultural areas. The Zn content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry and mercury content was determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Geostatistical analysis consisting of kriging and mapping was performed using the geostatistical analyst extension of ArcGIS 8.3. Zinc values ranged from 10 mg kg-1 to 151 mg kg-1, with an average value of 45 mg kg-1. Cadmium values ranged between 0.1 mg kg-1 and 0.9mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.3 mg kg-1 and mercury values ranged from 0.1 mg kg-1 to 2.3 mg kg-1, with a mean value of 0.5 mg kg-1. At a national level, the Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005 proposes toxicological and statistical approaches to establish background values. According to the statistical approach, background values consist of the median value for the selected element. The background values for Zn, Cd and Hg in the studied area were 40 mg kg-1 for Zn, 0.3 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.4 mg kg-1 for Hg.

  9. The role and value of water in natural capital restoration on the Agulhas Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helanya Fourie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Plain is a low-lying coastal area within the Cape Floristic Region. It is heavily invaded by alien vegetation that infringes upon the sustainable supply of ecosystem goods and services provided by the native fynbos vegetation. Alien clearing and natural capital restoration is expected to recover these ecosystem goods and services and in particular to increase water availability. The study conducts cost-benefit analyses to assess whether alien clearing and natural capital restoration would add value to the Agulhas Plain through sufficiently increasing the supply of marketable ecosystem goods and services. The results indicate that the costs of alien clearing and restoration cannot be justified in the absence of water as a valued commodity. Other ecosystem goods and services included have a negligible impact on justifying costs.

  10. Optimal Background Attenuation for Fielded Radiation Detection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Kaye, William R.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation detectors are often placed in positions difficult to shield from the effects of terrestrial background. This is particularly true in the case of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) systems, as their wide viewing angle and outdoor installations make them susceptible to terrestrial background from the surrounding area. A low background is desired in most cases, especially when the background noise is of comparable strength to the signal of interest. The problem of shielding a generalized RPM from terrestrial background is considered. Various detector and shielding scenarios are modeled with the Monte-Carlo N Particle (MCNP) computer code. Amounts of nominal-density shielding needed to attenuate the terrestrial background to varying degrees are given, along with optimal shielding geometry to be used in areas where natural shielding is limited, and where radiation detection must occur in the presence of natural background. Common shielding solutions such as steel plating are evaluated based on the signal to noise ratio and the benefits are weighed against the incremental cost.

  11. Pre operational background radiation monitoring around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site - a decade long experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; George, Thomas; Sundara Rajan, P.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Pandit, G.G.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-operational environmental background radiation monitoring around nuclear power plants is very important to understand baseline values existing in the site and also to identify any hot spots of naturally occurring high background radiation areas and their sources. These baseline measurements will act as a benchmark for future comparison after the reactors go into operation. The radiation measurements are continued during the operational phase of the plant and the results are compared to see whether there is any impact of the operation of the plant on the environment. A comprehensive background radiation monitoring plan has been in vogue at site from 2004 to meet this objective. This paper describes the different monitoring strategies adopted around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site and throws light on the pre operational background radiation levels in the environment

  12. Quantifying preferences for the natural world using monetary and nonmonetary assessments of value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tinch, Dugald; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Given that funds for biodiversity conservation are limited, there is a need to understand people's preferences for its different components. To date, such preferences have largely been measured in monetary terms. However, how people value biodiversity may differ from economic theory, and there is...... in an assessment of environmental preferences, although which approach is preferable depends on why one wishes to measure values for the natural world......., but showed strong associations with self-reported well-being. Both approaches are likely to reflect a combination of the environmental properties of a site and unobserved individual preference heterogeneity for the natural world. Our results suggest that either metric will deliver mutually consistent results...... axes derived from environmental psychology theories (reflection, attachment, continuity with past). The 2 metrics were broadly congruent. Participants with above-median self-reported well-being scores were willing to pay significantly higher amounts for enhancing species richness than those with below...

  13. Investigation On Natural Background Radioactivity At TanLong, Lagi, BinhThuan Residential Area On Ilmenite Deposit Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Kim Loan; Tran Van Luyen; Thai Khac Dinh

    2008-01-01

    An Ilmenite deposit zone located at TanLong, Lagi, Binh Thuan province. After the year of 2000, a new village of population has set up at this place. To estimate the effect on the human health of radioactivity accompanying with the deposit, the sand samples were collected and natural radioactive analyzed at center for nuclear techniques. The average year doses D annual , hazard radiation exposed index H ex and Radium equivalence Ra eq were calculated based on the natural radioactivities. The results show that these factors are overcome the international average as well as southern Vietnam values. (author)

  14. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  15. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  16. SU-F-T-166: On the Nature of the Background Visible Light Observed in Fiber Optic Dosimetry of Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darafsheh, A; Kassaee, A; Finlay, J [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Taleei, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The nature of the background visible light observed during fiber optic dosimetry of proton beams, whether it is due to Cherenkov radiation or not, has been debated in the literature recently. In this work, experimentally and by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we shed light on this problem and investigated the nature of the background visible light observed in fiber optics irradiated with proton beams. Methods: A bare silica fiber optics was embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms and irradiated with clinical proton beams with energies of 100–225 MeV at Roberts Proton Therapy Center. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze in detail the emission spectrum of the fiber tip across the visible range of 400–700 nm. Monte Carlo simulation was performed by using FLUKA Monte Carlo code to simulate Cherenkov light and ionizing radiation dose deposition in the fiber. Results: The experimental spectra of the irradiated silica fiber shows two distinct peaks at 450 and 650 nm, whose spectral shape is different from that of Cherenkov radiation. We believe that the nature of these peaks are connected to the point defects of silica including oxygen-deficiency center (ODC) and non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC). Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the experimental observations that Cherenkov radiation cannot be solely responsible for such a signal. Conclusion: We showed that Cherenkov radiation is not the dominant visible signal observed in bare fiber optics irradiated with proton beams. We observed two distinct peaks at 450 and 650 nm whose nature is connected with the point defects of silica fiber including oxygen-deficiency center and non-bridging oxygen hole center.

  17. Remedial action in areas of enhanced natural background radiation levels (with particular emphasis in areas with mineral sand mining residues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    In areas where individuals may receive doses from natural background sources which are higher than those received in areas of normal background radiation, it may be considered desirable that some remedial action be taken to reduce those doses. Contributions to these higher doses may be through high gamma ray fields from the ground or from the use of local building materials, the intake of food or water derived from the areas or of food covered with dust from the areas, the ingestion of dirt and the inhalation of dust, and radon or thoron. Guidelines for remedial action in areas where residues from mineral sand mining and processing have been deposited are given

  18. Background radioactivity in the monazite areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.

    1982-07-01

    External radiation exposure measurements were carried out with natural CaF 2 thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in about 2500 dwellings and on about 10.000 persons living in monazite areas of south-west coast of India. Statistical analysis of the data indicate that the values are distributed lognormally. A systematic study was carried out a Manavalakurichi plant of Indian Rare Earths Ltd. and adjoining high background areas to obtain typical average radiation exposure to different categories of workers from both occupation and non-occupation. Results of thoron measurements from the exhaled breath of plant workers are presented from which the body burden of natural thorium deposited in lungs can be estimated. An important pathway of exposure, for which children are most susceptible, is non-specific ingestion of raw sand itself. Data obtained on the radonuclide content of urinary excretion of children belonging to two age groups are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. The Majorana Low-noise Low-background Front-end Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the 76Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low- background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  20. Nature, Genetics and the Biophilia Connection: Exploring Linkages with Social Work Values and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H. Besthorn

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Social work’s notion of environment and its environmental responsibilities has always been narrowly defined. The profession has tended to either neglect natural environmental issues or accept shallow, ecological conceptualizations of nature as something other, quite separate from the human enterprise and/or outside the reach of social work activity. The Biophilia Hypothesis, first articulated by Harvard biologist E.O.Wilson in 1984, offers social work as a fundamentally different view of the person/environment construct and argues for a primary shift in the way the profession views its relationship with the natural world. This article traces the conceptual development of the Biophilic theory and reviews pivotal empirical evidence explicitly arguing for the essential Biophilic premise that humans have acquired, through their long evolutionary history, a strong genetic predisposition for nature and natural settings. It offers key insights and examples for incorporating Biophilia into social work’s values and knowledge base and how it may impact the profession’s practice strategies and techniques.

  1. Modulation of the Object/Background Interaction by Spatial Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images, functional isolation hypothesis and interactive hypothesis were proposed. Based on previous studies, the present study investigated the role of spatial frequency in the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images. In three experiments, participants reported the object, background, or both after seeing each picture for 500 ms followed by a mask. The authors found that (a backgrounds were identified more accurately when they contained a consistent rather than an inconsistent object, independently of spatial frequency; (b objects were identified more accurately in a consistent than an inconsistent background under the condition of low spatial frequencies but not high spatial frequencies; (c spatial frequency modulation remained when both objects and backgrounds were reported simultaneously. The authors conclude that object/background interaction is partially dependent on spatial frequency.

  2. Views from the Chalkface: Values of Teaching Nature of Science in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi Hong; Wong, Siu Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although the goal of developing school students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) has long been advocated, there is still a lack of research that focuses on probing how science teachers, a kind of major stakeholder in NOS instruction, perceive the values of teaching NOS. Through semi-structured interviews, this study investigated the views…

  3. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, LaTonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myerly, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borns, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  4. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  5. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  6. A geophysical tour of high background radiation areas of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, D.; Kher, R.K.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of the findings including health effects in four major high natural background areas of the world are given. Such high background areas could prove to be a radiation ecology laboratory gifted by nature and provide further insight in the relation of radiation, natural or otherwise and human health. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Influence of Nature and History of Science Courses on Value Perceptions of Elementary Science Teacher Candidates in Conceptual Dimension in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktamis, Hilal; Higde, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the changes in understanding about the nature of science (NOS) and conceptual values of 28 elementary science teacher candidates who engaged in the instruction of the nature and history of science (NHOS). A values scale was used to determine the values of science teacher candidates in six areas of the conceptual…

  8. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  9. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  10. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  11. World high background natural radiation areas: Need to protect public from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of findings on radiological measurements, radiobiological and epidemiological studies in some main world high background natural radiation (HBNR) areas such as in Brazil, China, India and Iran are presented and discussed with special regard to remediation of radiation exposure of inhabitants in such areas. The current radiation protection philosophy and recommendations applied to workers and public from operation of radiation and nuclear applications are based on the linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The inhabitants of HBNR and radon prone areas receive relatively high radiation doses. Therefore, according to the LNT concept, the inhabitants in HBNR areas and in particular those in Ramsar are considered at risk and their exposure should be regulated. The HBNR areas in the world have different conditions in terms of dose and population. In particular, the inhabitants in HBNR areas of Ramsar receive very high internal and external exposures. This author believes that the public in such areas should be protected and proposes a plan to remedy high exposure of the inhabitants of the HBNR areas of Ramsar, while maintaining these areas as they stand to establish a national environmental radioactivity park which can be provisionally called “Ramsar Research Natural Radioactivity Park” (RRNRP). The major HBNR areas, the public exposure and the need to remedy exposures of inhabitants are reviewed and discussed. - Highlights: ► Highlights of findings on studies in HBNR areas are reviewed and discussed. ► The need to protect HBNR area inhabitants and remedy public exposure is emphasized. ► A collective approach is proposed to remedy exposure of Ramsar HBNR area inhabitants. ► Relocation of HBNR area inhabitants and establishing a park at the location is proposed. ► The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed and recommendations are made

  12. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in natural Leishmania populations vary with genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Decuypere

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug-resistance in pathogens is a major global health threat. Elucidating the molecular basis of pathogen drug-resistance has been the focus of many studies but rarely is it known whether a drug-resistance mechanism identified is universal for the studied pathogen; it has seldom been clarified whether drug-resistance mechanisms vary with the pathogen's genotype. Nevertheless this is of critical importance in gaining an understanding of the complexity of this global threat and in underpinning epidemiological surveillance of pathogen drug resistance in the field. This study aimed to assess the molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity that emerges in natural parasite populations under drug treatment pressure. We studied lines of the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. donovani with differential susceptibility to antimonial drugs; the lines being derived from clinical isolates belonging to two distinct genetic populations that circulate in the leishmaniasis endemic region of Nepal. Parasite pathways known to be affected by antimonial drugs were characterised on five experimental levels in the lines of the two populations. Characterisation of DNA sequence, gene expression, protein expression and thiol levels revealed a number of molecular features that mark antimonial-resistant parasites in only one of the two populations studied. A final series of in vitro stress phenotyping experiments confirmed this heterogeneity amongst drug-resistant parasites from the two populations. These data provide evidence that the molecular changes associated with antimonial-resistance in natural Leishmania populations depend on the genetic background of the Leishmania population, which has resulted in a divergent set of resistance markers in the Leishmania populations. This heterogeneity of parasite adaptations provides severe challenges for the control of drug resistance in the field and the design of molecular surveillance tools for widespread

  13. Reference values and their application to the monitoring of occupational exposure to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    Natural uranium compounds, which enter the oxide fuel cycle offer physico-chemical characteristics dependent on their structure and their production process. These characteristics govern their biological behaviour and the degree of their radioactive and chemical toxicity. The monitoring of workers occupationnally exposed to these compounds is carried out by bioassays; in order to get the best interpretation, the resulting data must be compared to reference values. These values must be closely related to the type of contaminant and the real exposure conditions. In this report, the occupational medicine services working group has examined the possibilities of obtaining such reference values and suggests recommendations and operational values covering most situations found in routine monitoring [fr

  14. Doses arising from natural radiation sources in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Man-yin, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first reactor of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, located 30 km from Hong Kong, should become operational at the end of 1993. People in Hong Kong are more concerned with their exposures to radiation, both man-made and natural. The local environmental background radiation baseline values should be established well before 1993 so that the radiological impact of the power plant on the environment can be assessed. However, there has not been much information on these aspects. In view of the situation, the Radioisotope Unit of the University of Hong Kong has launched a series of studies with the general goal of gaining a better understanding of Hong Kong's natural background radiation and a more accurate estimate of the natural radiation exposure of the local people. The scope of the measurement programmes is described and the doses from the various sources are derived. (1 tab.)

  15. Sustainable Agriculture and Nature Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, A. B.

    * Kun en meget lille del af Danmarks areal er autentisk natur, beskyttet af Naturbeskyttelsesloven - og dette areal bliver stadig mindre på grund af lovens mulighed for at dispensere til at ændre eller nedlægge områder. Dertil kommer, at kvaliteten af de tilbageværende arealer er under stadig for...

  16. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 19-27 .... to know the shape of the ionizing radiation to determine the ionization parameter from the C II to C IV ratio. ... different shapes of the background radiation spectrum as explained in the text. The solid lines.

  17. Research, values, and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality, and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship between human and nature. This paper is concerned with the challenges...

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation indices in soil samples from the high background radiation area, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Ajithra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of natural radioactivity is very important from different points of view, especially for assessment of radiation exposure to human. In the present study, natural radionuclide concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K were measured by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector in soil samples collected from Southwest coast of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu. The radiological index parameters due to natural radionuclides such as radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, external hazard index, internal hazard index, and gamma index were calculated for the soil samples. All the calculated radiological index values are higher than world average values and the recommended safety limits. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were applied to know the relation between radionuclides and radiological parameters and to study the spatial distribution of radionuclides.

  19. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  20. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  1. Adaptive value of phenological traits in stressful environments: predictions based on seed production and laboratory natural selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brachi

    Full Text Available Phenological traits often show variation within and among natural populations of annual plants. Nevertheless, the adaptive value of post-anthesis traits is seldom tested. In this study, we estimated the adaptive values of pre- and post-anthesis traits in two stressful environments (water stress and interspecific competition, using the selfing annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. By estimating seed production and by performing laboratory natural selection (LNS, we assessed the strength and nature (directional, disruptive and stabilizing of selection acting on phenological traits in A. thaliana under the two tested stress conditions, each with four intensities. Both the type of stress and its intensity affected the strength and nature of selection, as did genetic constraints among phenological traits. Under water stress, both experimental approaches demonstrated directional selection for a shorter life cycle, although bolting time imposes a genetic constraint on the length of the interval between bolting and anthesis. Under interspecific competition, results from the two experimental approaches showed discrepancies. Estimation of seed production predicted directional selection toward early pre-anthesis traits and long post-anthesis periods. In contrast, the LNS approach suggested neutrality for all phenological traits. This study opens questions on adaptation in complex natural environment where many selective pressures act simultaneously.

  2. In vivo measurement of uranium in the human chest under high background conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.J.; Feather, J.I.

    1981-08-01

    The use of a low-background counting room was considered essential for in vivo gamma counting of uranium in the human chest. When such measurements were, however, carried out under relatively high background conditions, this necessitated a new method of analysis. It was found that a linear relationship between LnN and E exists for each individual where N is the count rate per keV and E the energy in keV, for gamma energies between 90 keV and 300 keV. The displacements from this straight line at the energy values of 90 and 186 keV then represent the contribution of the uranium present. These displacements were calibrated for natural uranium. It was possible to detect contamination levels of lower than half MPLB [af

  3. The impact of urban background on appreciation of natural environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Leila; Linzey, Michael; Byrd, Hugh; Dodd, George

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in human history, more than half of the world's population live in towns and cities. The acceleration of habitat alteration as well as modern lifestyles dramatically reduce the interaction with natural environments. To get an overview of this issue, a comparison was made between individuals who lived most of their childhoods in high-rise blocks and who experienced nature on a daily basis from living and playing in suburbia or a rural environment. Can a lack of contact with ...

  4. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The natural history of Perthes' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein

    2010-01-01

    Background The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. Patients and methods During the 5-year period 1996?2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (me...

  6. The Value of Water in Extraction of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsaite, R.; Abdalla, C.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale has increased the demand for the essential input of water in natural gas production. Increased utilization of water by the shale gas industry, and the development of water transport and storage related infrastructure suggest that the value of water is increasing where hydraulic fracturing is occurring. Few studies on the value of water in industrial uses exist and, to our knowledge, no studies of water's value in extracting natural gas from shale have been published. Our research aims to fill this knowledge gap by exploring several key dimensions of the value of water used in shale gas development. Our primary focus was to document the costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, two states located in the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation with active drilling and extraction underway. This research involved a) gathering data on the sources of and costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction b) comparing unit costs with prices and costs paid by the gas industry users of water; c) determining factors that potentially impact total and per unit costs of water acquisition for the shale gas industry; and d) identifying lessons learned for water managers and policy-makers. The population of interest was all private and public entities selling water to the shale gas industry in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Primary data were collected from phone interviews with water sellers and secondary data were gathered from state regulatory agencies. Contact information was obtained for 40 water sellers in the two states. Considering both states, the average response rate was 49%. Relatively small amounts of water, approximately 11% in West Virginia and 29% in Pennsylvania, were purchased from public water suppliers by the shale gas industry. The price of water reveals information about the value of water. The average price charged to gas companies was 6.00/1000 gallons and 7

  7. Estimation and comparison of baseline frequencies of micronuclei among the new-borns from natural high background radiation and control areas of Kerala coast in south India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Thampi, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the studies it is concluded that the elevated level of natural radiation has no significant effect of micronucleus formation in high background radiation area (HBRA) new-borns as compared to control area. It is also in agreement with the results of cytogenetic investigations on new-borns from HBRA and control area using chromosome aberration analysis method. The significance, if any, of the slightly lower micronuclei (MN) frequency observed in HBRA, is not clear at this stage. Further investigations on a larger number of new-borns from both the areas are necessary in order to draw firm conclusions. It appears that, this is the first attempt to estimate the baseline frequency of MN among the new-borns from a natural high background radiation area. (author). 9 refs

  8. Original article Values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Jaśkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the values (Schwartz’s ten basic values) and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Gdansk and Gdynia. Results The results showed that non-religious adolescents achieved higher results in the natural mode, and lower in biological-creative and religious modes. They also scored higher on universalism and self...

  9. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  10. Robustness of cosmic neutrino background detection in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Cuesta, Antonio J; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Lesgourgues, Julien; Niro, Viviana; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Poulin, Vivian; Tram, Thomas; Tramonte, Denis; Verde, Licia

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a cosmic neutrino background can be probed indirectly by CMB experiments, not only by measuring the background density of radiation in the universe, but also by searching for the typical signatures of the fluctuations of free-streaming species in the temperature and polarisation power spectrum. Previous studies have already proposed a rather generic parametrisation of these fluctuations, that could help to discriminate between the signature of ordinary free-streaming neutrinos, or of more exotic dark radiation models. Current data are compatible with standard values of these parameters, which seems to bring further evidence for the existence of a cosmic neutrino background. In this work, we investigate the robustness of this conclusion under various assumptions. We generalise the definition of an effective sound speed and viscosity speed to the case of massive neutrinos or other dark radiation components experiencing a non-relativistic transition. We show that current bounds on these effectiv...

  11. Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1 the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure; 2 the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3 compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of

  12. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  13. The Lattice-Valued Turing Machines and the Lattice-Valued Type 0 Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study a class of the natural languages called the lattice-valued phrase structure languages, which can be generated by the lattice-valued type 0 grammars and recognized by the lattice-valued Turing machines. Design/Methodology/Approach. From the characteristic of natural language, this paper puts forward a new concept of the l-valued Turing machine. It can be used to characterize recognition, natural language processing, and dynamic characteristics. Findings. The mechanisms of both the generation of grammars for the lattice-valued type 0 grammar and the dynamic transformation of the lattice-valued Turing machines were given. Originality/Value. This paper gives a new approach to study a class of natural languages by using lattice-valued logic theory.

  14. Reduction of combinatorical background in the mass spectrum of electron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonse, S.

    1992-01-01

    Among the aims of the PHENIX experiment are the identification and measurement of the properties of the ρ, ω, φ and J/ψ vector mesons that have decayed through the e + e - channel. The main obstacle to identifying vector mesons (VM) using the e + e - invariant mass, is the significant number of e + and e - from other sources, which causes a large combinatorical background in the invariant mass spectrum. The work we have done aims to reduce this background by identifying background sources through kinematical cuts and removing them along with their combinatorical effects, while at the same time preserving as much as possible of the signal, i.e. the electrons from VM decay. A measurement of electron pairs (e + and e - ) from π-π and q bar q thermal sources is also a possibility, and a clear identification of the ''easier'' vector mesons (ω, φ) will be an indication of how well the thermal measurement can be done. To determine the nature and values of the kinematical cuts we have used a computer simulation to generate particles according to predetermined phase-space (rapidity and P T ) and multiplicity distributions

  15. Estimation of the radiological background and dose assessment in areas with naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies—a case study in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring uranium geochemical anomalies, representative of the several thousand recognized in the Portuguese section of the Iberian Massif and outcropping in three target areas with a total of a few thousand square metres, were subjected to a detailed study (1:1000 scale) to evaluate the radiological health-risk on the basis of a dose assessment. To reach this goal some radioactive isotopes from the uranium, thorium and potassium radioactive series were measured in 52 samples taken from different environmental compartments: soils, stream sediments, water, foodstuff (vegetables) and air; external radiation was also measured through a square grid of 10 × 10 m, with a total of 336 measurements. The results show that some radioisotopes have high activities in all the environmental compartments as well as a large variability, namely for those of the uranium decay chain, which is a common situation in the regional geological setting. Isotopic disequilibrium is also common and led to an enrichment of several isotopes in the different pathways, as is the case of 226 Ra; maximum values of 1.76 Bq L −1 (water), 986 Bq kg −1 (soils) and 18.9 Bq kg −1 (in a turnip sample) were measured. On the basis of a realistic scenario combined with the experimental data, the effective dose from exposure to ionizing radiation for two groups of the population (rural and urban) was calculated; the effective dose is variable between 8.0 and 9.5 mSv year −1 , which is 3–4 times higher than the world average. Thus, the radiological health-risk for these populations could be significant and the studied uranium anomalies must be taken into account in the assessment of the geochemical background. The estimated effective dose can also be used as typical of the background of the Beiras uranium metalogenetic province and therefore as a “benchmark” in the remediation of the old uranium mining sites. - Highlights: ► The importance of small-sized naturally occurring uranium

  16. Along the Rio Negro: Rural and Urban Brazilian Children's Environmental Views and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated how urban and rural children who lived along a major river in Brazil understand and value their relationship with the natural environment. Forty-four Brazilian children in fifth grade were interviewed, and background of the city and village they lived in was ascertained. Each child was individually administered a…

  17. Background simulation for the COBRA-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quante, Thomas [TU Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    COBRA is a next-generation experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on {sup 116}Cd, with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV well above the highest dominant naturally occurring gamma lines. By measuring the half-life of the 0νββ decay, it is possible to clarify the nature of the neutrino as either Dirac or Majorana particle and furthermore to determine the effective Majorana mass. COBRA is currently in the demonstrator phase to study possible background contributions and gain information about the longterm stability of the used detectors. For this purpose a demonstrator array made up of 64 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors in coplanar grid configuration was designed and realised at the Gran Sasso Underground laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Simulations of the whole demonstrator setup are ongoing to reproduce the measured spectra for each detector. This is done in two steps. The first uses the Geant4 based framework VENOM for tracking and energy deposition inside each detector. Detector effects like the energy resolution and electron trapping have to be applied in the second step. The used detector geometry has to be verified against calibration measurements. This talk gives an overview of the current simulation status.

  18. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their

  19. Exploring the Triple Reciprocity Nature of Organizational Value Cocreation Behavior Using Multicriteria Decision Making Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Ming Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-dominant (S-D logic is a service science framework that is more robust than the traditional goods-dominant (G-D logic. It emphasizes the importance of operant resources and value Cocreation. This study employs social cognitive theory to explore the triple reciprocity of organizational value Cocreation behavior. Further, this study uses DEMATEL-based ANP to examine the dynamic nature of organizational value Cocreation behavior. The major results of this study can be described as follows. First, the triadic reciprocity of personal, environmental, and behavioral factors are validated. Second, the dominant influencing trends are clearly identified. From a dimensional point of view, environmental factors affect personal factors and behavioral factors, and personal factors affect behavioral factors. Similarly, in terms of organizational value Cocreation behavior, organizational identification affects altruistic behavior and knowledge-sharing behavior, and altruistic behavior affects knowledge-sharing behavior. These findings may provide helpful guidance in effectively promoting organizational value cocreation behavior, enabling organizations to leverage operant resources to their maximum potential.

  20. Geochemical approach values to the base line (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and P) for environmental studies in Montevideo coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnoli, E.; Burone, L.; Hutton, M.; Tuduri, A.; Bueno, C.; Muniz, P.; Venturini, N.; Garcia-Rodriguez, F.

    2012-01-01

    The geochemical base line values (background) represent the natural chemical concentrations (heavy metals) in sediments and soils. These are used in archaeological surveys to identify anomalies, and environmental studies of contaminated areas. In Montevideo coastal zone are explored the base line values for geochemical application and enrichment index

  1. 'Natural background' soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, S.H.; Woods, S.W.; Martin, D.A.; Casimiro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by collecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were further analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (??sl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long-unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  2. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab

  3. Exceedance probability map: a tool helping the definition of arsenic Natural Background Level (NBL) within the Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination affects worldwide shallower groundwater bodies. Starting from the actual knowledges around arsenic origin into groundwater, we know that the major part of dissolved arsenic is naturally occurring through the dissolution of As-bearing minerals and ores. Several studies on the shallow aquifers of both the regional Venetian Plain (NE Italy) and the local Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (DBVL) show local high arsenic concentration related to peculiar geochemical conditions, which drive arsenic mobilization. The uncertainty of arsenic spatial distribution makes difficult both the evaluation of the processes involved in arsenic mobilization and the stakeholders' decision about environmental management. Considering the latter aspect, the present study treats the problem of the Natural Background Level (NBL) definition as the threshold discriminating the natural contamination from the anthropogenic pollution. Actually, the UE's Directive 2006/118/EC suggests the procedures and criteria to set up the water quality standards guaranteeing a healthy status and reversing any contamination trends. In addition, the UE's BRIDGE project proposes some criteria, based on the 90th percentile of the contaminant's concentrations dataset, to estimate the NBL. Nevertheless, these methods provides just a statistical NBL for the whole area without considering the spatial variation of the contaminant's concentration. In this sense, we would reinforce the NBL concept using a geostatistical approach, which is able to give some detailed information about the distribution of arsenic concentrations and unveiling zones with high concentrations referred to the Italian drinking water standard (IDWS = 10 µg/liter). Once obtained the spatial information about arsenic distribution, we can apply the 90th percentile methods to estimate some Local NBL referring to every zones with arsenic higher than IDWS. The indicator kriging method was considered because it

  4. Participatory mapping of landscape values in a Pan-European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Fagerholm, Nora; Bieling, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Context: Human–nature interactions are reflected in the values people assign to landscapes. These values shape our understanding and actions as landscape co-creators, and need to be taken into account to achieve an integrated management of the landscape that involves civil society. Objectives......: The aim of this research was to increase the current knowledge on the most and least common landscape values perceived by local stakeholders, the patterns in the spatial distribution of values, and their connection to different socio-economic backgrounds and landscape characteristics across Europe....... Methods: The research consisted of a cross-site comparison study on how landscape values are perceived in six areas of Europe using Public Participation GIS surveys. Answers were analysed combining contingency tables, spatial autocorrelation and bivariate correlation methods, kernel densities, land cover...

  5. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222 Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  6. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  7. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  8. Implications of the difference between true and predicted breeding values for the study of natural selection and micro-evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict individual breeding values in natural populations with known pedigrees has provided a powerful tool to separate phenotypic values into their genetic and environmental components in a nonexperimental setting. This has allowed sophisticated analyses of selection, as well as

  9. Stochastic samples versus vacuum expectation values in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamis, N.C.; Tzetzias, Aggelos; Woodard, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Particle theorists typically use expectation values to study the quantum back-reaction on inflation, whereas many cosmologists stress the stochastic nature of the process. While expectation values certainly give misleading results for some things, such as the stress tensor, we argue that operators exist for which there is no essential problem. We quantify this by examining the stochastic properties of a noninteracting, massless, minimally coupled scalar on a locally de Sitter background. The square of the stochastic realization of this field seems to provide an example of great relevance for which expectation values are not misleading. We also examine the frequently expressed concern that significant back-reaction from expectation values necessarily implies large stochastic fluctuations between nearby spatial points. Rather than viewing the stochastic formalism in opposition to expectation values, we argue that it provides a marvelously simple way of capturing the leading infrared logarithm corrections to the latter, as advocated by Starobinsky

  10. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death: a Dutch observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Beek, Erik J.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Putte, Elise M. van de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Paediatrics, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Teeuw, Arianne H. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Paediatrics, Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Duijst, Wilma L.J.M. [Dutch Forensic Medical Association, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the Dutch NODO Group

    2017-10-15

    Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the NODO procedure and were therefore referred to one of the centres for the procedure. Postmortem CT was performed in all cases and skeletal survey was performed in all children ages <5 years. The cause of death was defined in a consensus meeting. We included a total of 54 children (30 boys, median age 1.1 years, and 24 girls, median age 0.8 years). A definitive cause of death was established in 38 cases. In 7 cases the cause of death could be identified on postmortem CT. In 7 cases imaging findings were clinically relevant but did not lead to a cause of death. In the remaining 40 cases postmortem CT did not add to the diagnostic workup. Our study shows that in a group of children who unexpectedly died of an assumed natural cause of death and in whom a cause of death was found at autopsy, postmortem CT detected the cause of death in a minority of cases (12.9%). In the majority of cases (74.1%) postmortem CT did not add value in diagnosing the cause of death. (orig.)

  11. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death: a Dutch observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Beek, Erik J.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A.; Putte, Elise M. van de; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Nikkels, Peter G.J.; Duijst, Wilma L.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the NODO procedure and were therefore referred to one of the centres for the procedure. Postmortem CT was performed in all cases and skeletal survey was performed in all children ages <5 years. The cause of death was defined in a consensus meeting. We included a total of 54 children (30 boys, median age 1.1 years, and 24 girls, median age 0.8 years). A definitive cause of death was established in 38 cases. In 7 cases the cause of death could be identified on postmortem CT. In 7 cases imaging findings were clinically relevant but did not lead to a cause of death. In the remaining 40 cases postmortem CT did not add to the diagnostic workup. Our study shows that in a group of children who unexpectedly died of an assumed natural cause of death and in whom a cause of death was found at autopsy, postmortem CT detected the cause of death in a minority of cases (12.9%). In the majority of cases (74.1%) postmortem CT did not add value in diagnosing the cause of death. (orig.)

  12. Nature value: the evolution of this concept Valor da natureza: a evolução desse conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Soares da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More attention has been paid to environmental matters in recent years, mainly due to the current scenario of accentuated environmental degradation. The economic valuation of nature goods can contribute to the decision-making process in environment management, generating a more comprehensive informational base. This paper aims to present, in a historic perspective, the different concepts attributed to nature goods and were related to the current predominant perspectives of nature analyses. For this purpose, this paper presents the different concepts attributed to value since the pre-classical period, when nature were viewed as inert and passive providers of goods and services, this view legitimized nature's exploration without concern over the preservation and conservation of nature. The capacity of nature to absorb the impact of human action appears to be reaching its limit, considering the irreversibility, the irreproducibility and the possibility of collapse. The appropriate method for valuing natural resources is not known, but more important than the method is to respect and incorporate the particular characteristics of the nature goods into this process. These characteristics must be valuated in order to arrive at a more consistence approach to nature value and promote sustainability.Nos últimos anos, mais atenção tem sido dada às questões ambientais, principalmente decorrente do atual cenário de acentuada degradação. A avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais pode contribuir com o processo de tomada de decisão na gestão ambiental, gerando uma importante base de informações. Neste artigo, buscou-se apresentar, em uma perspectiva histórica, os diferentes conceitos atribuídos ao valor dos recursos naturais e como eles se relacionam às perspectivas atuais de análise ambiental. Com essa finalidade, foram apresentados os conceitos atribuídos ao valor desde o período pré-clássico, quando a natureza era vista como

  13. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  15. Economic assessment of use values of near-natural forestry compared with rotational forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsalu, Dareskedar Workie; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cost-benefit analysis of converting the current rotational forestry (RF) of Norway spruce stand into near-natural forestry (NNF) of beech, based on two representative soil conditions and visitors popular case areas in Denmark, considering welfare economic values of timber......, recreation provision, and groundwater recharge. The study answers the major research question of how large the welfare economic values of recreation and groundwater benefits of the conversion are as compared with timber benefits. The net present values (NPV) of the benefits were calculated for an infinite...... time horizon at a 3 % discount rate. The results reveal that converting into NNF would result in a NPV of at least 6,832 € ha−1 from use values of recreation and water benefit on a site with good soil and a high visitor frequency, as is typical in the eastern part of Denmark. On a site in the west...

  16. Value Priorities and Behavior: Applying a Theory of Integrated Value Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Schwartz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of research on values has been to relate individual differences in value priorities to differences in attitudes, behavior and background variables. Past research most commonly adopted one of two approaches. Much research has selected a few single target values whose priorities were postulated to associate with the attitude, behavior and background variable of interest and then examined empirical relationships. Other research has been more exploratory.It has related lists of values to various other variables and then discussed the significant associations that emerge. The focus on relationships with single values make both these approaches insatisfying. My work has sought to overcome those approaches.It has derived what may be a nearly comprehensive set of different motivational types of values, recognized across cultures. Each value type is represented by a number of single values that are combined to form relatively reliable indexes of values priorities. Value systems can be treated as integrated wholes in their relations with behaviors and, thereby, encourages researches to abandom the prevailing single-values approaches. 

  17. Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Helena; Björkeholm, Patrik; Marsh, John E; Odelius, Johan; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2016-11-22

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition. Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design. Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked - and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load. Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  18. Social economical and psychological considerations in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ghiassi-nejad, M.

    2003-01-01

    X-rays and radioactivity were discovered more than 100 years ago but the need for protection against very low doses of ionizing radiation and especially different levels of natural radiation is still among the most controversial matters in radiobiology and radiation protection. According to formal reports, some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, are the inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation studied so far. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy y''-1 and the highest recorded external gamma dose rates are about 130 mGy y''-1. We have previously shown that in high background radiation areas (HBRAs), cultured human lymphocytes of the inhabitants whose cumulative radiation doses were as much as 170 times more than those of a control area when subjected to 1.5 Gy challenge dose,were significantly more radioresistant compared to the residents of the control area (Mortazavi et al. 2002a,b, Mortazavi and Karam 2002, Ghiassi-Najed et al. 2002). The people who live in these areas are usually unaware of the high levels of natural radiation in their environment. Studies performed on the residents of these areas have indicated that the effective dose of the inhabitants, in some cases, is much higher than the dose limits for occupational irradiation. Considering recent policies of ICRP regarding suggesting dose limits for exposure to natural sources of ionizing including radon, it seems that the inhabitants should become familiar with the possible risks of the exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. They should also realize that studies performed over the past years have indicated no detrimental effect. On the other hand, according to ICRP suggestions and considering the experiences in other countries, especially evacuation of the residents of contaminated areas after Chernobyl accident, setting any radiation protection regulation for the inhabitants without considering social, economic and

  19. Exploring Value Orientations toward the Human-Nature Relationship: A Comparison of Urban Youth in Minnesota, USA and Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ernst, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Research exploring urban youths' value orientations toward the human-nature relationship was conducted with 59 students from a school in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA) and 51 students from a school in Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). Quantitative findings suggest that the majority of participants in both groups shared a similar value orientation,…

  20. Climate change. Scientific background and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes briefly the natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past. It also discusses the future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  1. An approach in determining the baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of Batanes province, its implications to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Rolando Y.

    2005-01-01

    the whole Batan Island and additonal of 5 to 15 measurements that are within the one (1) kilometer radius of each town and barangay. This resulted in the production of computer-generated color-contoured maps of the individual radioelements as well as the TNR expressed in terms of exposure rate and absorbed dose rate. Results of the survey showed that the distribution of K ranged from 0.025% to 1.84%, for U from 0.18 ppm to 5.62 ppm, and for Th from 3.28 ppm to 22.45 ppm. Total natural radioactivity in terms of exposure rate ranged from 1.35 μR/h to 12.74 μR/h and in terms of absorbed dose rate, ranged from 11.7 nGy/h to 110.6 nGy/h. From these values, the averages of K, U, Th and TNR were determined for the whole Batan Island as well as for each town and barangay. This constituted the baseline data on the natural background radioactivity of Batan Island. This baseline will be crucial for the assessment of any future radioactive contamination on Batan Island. Maps showing the distribution and abundance of the naturally occurring radioelements and total natural radioactivity closely reflect the underlying geology of Batan Island. The K, U and Th averages are comparable with the world's established averages. The detertemined TNR averages for Batan Island are similarly comparable to the estimated world average terrestrial outdoor-absorbed dose rate in air. The interviews conducted with key informants who are knowledgeable on matters regarding nuclear and radiological threats and security generated an additional listing of the potential nuclear and radiological risks or threats. Their collective opinion validated the reason for the choice of Batan Island (its proximity to the southern tip Taiwan where two nuclear reactors are situated) as the site for this study. Eight (8) other areas in the country which are most likely nuclear or radiological risk areas were identified by the key informants. They expressed that the Batan baseline study should be replicated for the

  2. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898-2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Baggelaar, Paul K.; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStatistical trend analysis is applied to a 110 years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences presented here could be of interest world wide. Trendless concentration data series measured in the early years, which should bear the least anthropogenic influences, are selected to quantify the regional natural background concentration levels (NBLs) of groundwater resources at the depth of abstraction. Trends in the period 1960-2005, which contained a more homogeneous data set, are normalized to drinking water standards, mapped in planar view and cross sections, and used to identify the responsible hydrochemical processes. Seven representative trend bundles are defined by aggregation of trends for individual chemical parameters. Trend reversals due to either environmental sanitation measures or well field adaptation measures are identified by comparing significant trends obtained for two different periods within the time series. Natural background levels (NBLs) for individual PSWFs are upscaled to the national groundwater body level (as reported to EU), by aggregating them according to a PSWF typology based on a Hydrochemical System Analysis. This aggregation method groups together PSWFs that deliver waters of the same origin and similar hydrogeochemical environment. PSWFs delivering old groundwaters with a very stable quality are clearly differentiated from PSWFs pumping highly vulnerable aquifers characterized by strongly deteriorating water quality trends. Results are presented on national maps of The Netherlands with NBLs and water quality trends for selected major constituents. A normalized concentration change index (NCC) is defined and mapped to relate the quality difference between a recent survey (in 2008) and calculated NBLs, to the EU drinking water

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  4. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  5. The Changing Nature of Theory and Practice in Marketing: on the Value of Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll, Aidan; Murray, John

    1998-01-01

    Any academic discipline with a closely associated area of professional endeavour is profoundly affected by the relationship between its theory and practice. Synchrony in theory and practice adds value to the management of enterprise and to the advance of the discipline. Mindful of this assertion, this article explores the changing nature of theory and practice in marketing. It examines current trends in marketing practice which are occurring as a result of change in markets, technology and or...

  6. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  7. Background radiation levels and standards for protection from ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farai, I.

    1999-01-01

    Apart from the amount of radiation which a worker may receive while he performs his work, he is also exposed to radiation because of the nature of his environment. In other words, all individuals are subject to some irradiation even though they may not work with radioactive substances. This source of radiation exposure is often referred to as background radiation. In most environments, it is low-level and can be grouped into two natural and man-made. Background radiation provides the basis on which allowable exposure limits for workers are drawn

  8. SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF NATURE AND SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF CULTURE: INTE-GRATION TREND, PRACTICAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topic of interest : studying the expanding and deepening trend of integration of natural, technical, social and humanities fields of scientific knowledge. The point of absolute opposition between the sciences dealing with nature and those dealing with culture is subjected to criticism, the forms of integration of scientific knowledge are identified: mathematization, formalization, computerization of knowledge; philosophization/dialectization and environmentalization of the scientific knowledge. It is noted that such areas of scientific knowledge as synergetics, cybernetics, system theory, information technology, sociosynergetics, historical informatics, cliometrics, informatics for economics, evolutionary economics, human ecology, etc. Many scientific fields appear on the border between the science, technology and mathematics, and social and humanities studies, while the sharp borders between the natural sciences and cultural sciences tend to disappear, although specifics of studying the social reality still exists. Within the context of integration of sciences, comprehensive approach, synergetics, cybernetics, and mathematical model approach are analyzed. The philosophy of technology, and environmental problems, which are caused by the development of technological civilization, are studied. Practical value of integration processes in science is identified. The studied data is addressed to the specialists who are interested in the modern processes of integration of sciences, and modern issues of scientific and technical development of humanity, survival of humanity under the conditions of increasing technological understanding of the nature.

  9. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro.

    1987-01-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  10. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro

    1987-03-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them.

  11. Study of Background Rejection Systems for the IXO Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Philippe; Limousin, O.; Tatischeff, V.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific performances of the IXO mission will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. In APC, Paris, and CEA, Saclay, we got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimising in parallel the high energy detector and the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X mission. Considering that this work may be naturally extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES a R&D project on the study of background rejection systems mainly in view the IXO project. We will detail this activity in the poster.

  12. Neutron- and muon-induced background in underground physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Tomasello, V.; Pandola, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background induced by neutrons in deep underground laboratories is a critical issue for all experiments looking for rare events, such as dark matter interactions or neutrinoless ββ decay. Neutrons can be produced either by natural radioactivity, via spontaneous fission or (α, n) reactions, or by interactions initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. In all underground experiments, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron background play a crucial role for the evaluation of the total background rate and for the optimization of rejection strategies. The Monte Carlo methods that are commonly employed to evaluate neutron-induced background and to optimize the experimental setup, are reviewed and discussed. Focus is given to the issue of reliability of Monte Carlo background estimates. (orig.)

  13. Neutron- and muon-induced background in underground physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Tomasello, V. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Pandola, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Background induced by neutrons in deep underground laboratories is a critical issue for all experiments looking for rare events, such as dark matter interactions or neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay. Neutrons can be produced either by natural radioactivity, via spontaneous fission or ({alpha}, n) reactions, or by interactions initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. In all underground experiments, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron background play a crucial role for the evaluation of the total background rate and for the optimization of rejection strategies. The Monte Carlo methods that are commonly employed to evaluate neutron-induced background and to optimize the experimental setup, are reviewed and discussed. Focus is given to the issue of reliability of Monte Carlo background estimates. (orig.)

  14. Determination of exposure rates from natural background radiation in Khartoum using LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) and CaSo4: Mn TLD chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Khangi, F.A.; Shaddad, I.A.; Suliman, I.A.; El Amin, O.I.

    2002-01-01

    The exposure rates from natural background radiation - including terrestrial gamma radiation and the ionizing component of cosmic rays - were measured for the first time in the city of khartoum using two types of TLD materials: LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200) and CaSo 4 :Mn TLD chips. Measurements were performed at two sites simultaneously, one site was selected on land in the vicinity of the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, for the purposes of the measurement of the total exposure rate outdoors, while the other site was located on a buoy anchored in the Blue Nile, and was selected to measure the exposure rate due to the ionizing component of cosmic rays. The investigations were conducted for periods of between 5 and 28 days. Calibration was performed on a selected number of dosimeters to determine the exposure rates at each site. The exposure rates from the ionizing component of cosmic rays in Khartoum were found to be respectively 33 nGy.h -1 and 30 nGy.h -1 , in the measurements performed within the scope of this work using GR-200 and CaSo 4 :Mn dosimeters, while the total values for exposure on land were found to be 45 nGy.h -1 and 42 nGy.h -1 respectively. These values compare reasonably well with other national averages reported in the UNSCEAR publication. The comparison of the results for the two dosimetric materials demonstrates both the sensitivity and suitability of GR-200 for the purposes of environmental monitoring (orig.)

  15. Estimation of recreational value of Horton Plains National Park in Sri Lanka: A decision making strategy for natural resourcemanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Rathnayake

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horton Plains National Park (HPNP is an area of high biodiversity and exceptional endemism receiving high visitation (166,613 visitors in 2009, both by local and foreigners. Although, tourism causes negative impacts on the environment, environmental valuation could be used for taking decisions on natural resources management. The study shows that the recreational value of HPNP is Rs. 51.68 million rupees per year, but the total economic value could be many times higher than this. Calculations showed the maximum revenue from the park could be obtained if the entrance fee is raised to Rs. 472.00. This may however reduce the present visitor number by 65%, but it will improve the total revenue of the park by 314 %.  These differences strengthen the common argument by both officials and the public regarding insufficient allocation of man power and funds for natural resources management.Key words: wildlife, recreational value, travel cost method

  16. Natural and man-made hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in groundwater near a mapped plume, Hinkley, California—study progress as of May 2017, and a summative-scale approach to estimate background Cr(VI) concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Groover, Krishangi D.

    2018-03-22

    This report describes (1) work done between January 2015 and May 2017 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), background study and (2) the summative-scale approach to be used to estimate the extent of anthropogenic (man-made) Cr(VI) and background Cr(VI) concentrations near the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) natural gas compressor station in Hinkley, California. Most of the field work for the study was completed by May 2017. The summative-scale approach and calculation of Cr(VI) background were not well-defined at the time the USGS proposal for the background Cr(VI) study was prepared but have since been refined as a result of data collected as part of this study. The proposed summative scale consists of multiple items, formulated as questions to be answered at each sampled well. Questions that compose the summative scale were developed to address geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical constraints on Cr(VI) within the study area. Each question requires a binary (yes or no) answer. A score of 1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data consistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI); a score of –1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data inconsistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI). The areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated from the summative-scale analyses will be compared with the areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated on the basis of numerical groundwater flow model results, along with particle-tracking analyses. On the basis of these combined results, background Cr(VI) values will be estimated for “Mojave-type” deposits, and other deposits, in different parts of the study area outside the summative-scale mapped extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI).

  17. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  18. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  19. Water activities in Laxemar-Simpevarp. Organic field inventory, nature values classification and description of production land; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Ekologisk faeltinventering, naturvaerdesklassificering samt beskrivning av produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    This report describes nature values, agricultural areas and forestry areas in Laxemar, for which there could be negative consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the rock. In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark as site for the repository. This report hence concerns the non-chosen Laxemar site. The report describes results from map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent of -favoured nature objects. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion. The investigation area contains a number of valuable nature habitats, but no protected areas in the form of nature reserves or Natura 2000 areas. In the investigation area 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated and classified according to their nature values. Of these nature objects, 32 consist of forest objects (including moist forests), 26 consist of wetland objects, and nine consist of surface waters (streams, lakes and ponds). The nature-value classifications of objects are primarily based on habitat rareness and worth of protection on a national scale, and their importance as habitats for rare and threatened species. None of the identified nature objects is judged to be of national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (forest objects) are judged to be of regional value (class 2), 18 objects of municipal value (class 3) and 34 objects are judged to be of local value (class 4). Most of the nature objects contain nature values that are associated to factors other than the level of the groundwater table, primarily previous land uses in the form of grazing and hay cutting. There are also values associated to valuable

  20. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Rella, Chris W.

    2017-08-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O-H2O and δ2H-H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm-1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.). For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by -0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %-1 and -0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %-1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %-1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar %-1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  1. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  2. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m -3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m -3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  3. The Pedagogy of Science Teachers from Non-Natural Science Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Shaneka

    2017-01-01

    This is a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative, collective case study that explores the pedagogical practices of science teachers who do not hold natural science degrees. The intent of this study is to support the creation of alternative pathways for recruiting and retaining high-quality secondary science teachers in K-12 education. The…

  4. Neurobiological approaches to a better understanding of human nature and human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Hüther

    2006-04-01

    of values of connectedness to others and to nature during the period of brain maturation.

  5. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  6. Impact assessment of the effect of natural values of interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn. Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    The report describes the natural environment and its natural values in Laxemar Simpevarp, the final disposal facility's impacts on the natural environment and measures that can be taken to reduce these. Both terrestrial and aquatic environments are described. Impact on the natural environments of groundwater reduction is not discussed here but described in a separate report, together with consequences of radiation. The report shall serve as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the application according to the Environment Act

  7. Intercomparison of natural and technologically enhanced background radiation levels in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The United States Pacific Nuclear Testing Program resulted in local and regional fallout contamination of islands in the central Pacific basin, in an area which is generically known as Micronesia. Since all of the Marshall Islands are low coral islands or atolls, the natural radioactivity content of their soil is among the lowest on earth. In contrast, the high islands of the Caroline groups, to the west of the Marshalls, are characterized by volcanic soils having a significant complement of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium chains. Several field trips between 1975 and 1980 have afforded opportunities to study the natural radiation environments of the coral atolls of the Marshalls and several high islands in the Carolines. The results of these studies have indicated that significant contributions from radioactive fallout can be evaluated in-situ with relative ease on coral islands. In contrast, the higher natural radioactivity content of high island soils, as well as the greater distance of these islands from the test areas, combine to make evaluations of local fallout contributions from US Pacific tests indistinguishable from the contributions of the world-wide fallout

  8. Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banday, A.J.; Wolfendale, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In view of the importance to contemporary cosmology, and to our understanding of the Universe, of the precise nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) spectrum, we consider the effects on this spectrum of contamination by other radiation fields of both galactic and extragalactic origin. Particular attention is given to the significance of measurements of the fluctuations in the 'background' radiation detected at 10.46 GHz and we conclude that these fluctuations are of the same magnitude as those expected from galactic cosmic-ray effects. A more detailed study of the cosmic-ray induced fluctuations and measurements at higher frequencies will be needed before genuine CMB fluctuations can be claimed. (author)

  9. Climate change: Scientific background and process

    OpenAIRE

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past together with a brief synopsis likely future impacts of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. The paper also gives a briefing on the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  10. Original article Values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jaśkiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the values (Schwartz’s ten basic values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Gdansk and Gdynia. Results The results showed that non-religious adolescents achieved higher results in the natural mode, and lower in biological-creative and religious modes. They also scored higher on universalism and self-direction subscales of Schwartz’s ten basic values. The results are discussed in the light of humanistic personal ideology and terror management theory. Conclusions The cultural worldview that protects non-religious adolescents against death anxiety seems to be more rooted in humanistic and individualistic values.

  11. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deva Jayanthi, D.; Maniyan, C.G.; Perumal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  12. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  13. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography--Theoretical Background and Applications on Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The use of supercritical fluid chromatography for natural product analysis as well as underlying theoretical mechanisms and instrumental requirements are summarized in this review. A short introduction focusing on the historical development of this interesting separation technique is followed by remarks on the current instrumental design, also describing possible detection modes and useable stationary phases. The overview on relevant applications is grouped based on their basic intention, may it be (semi)preparative or purely analytical. They indicate that supercritical fluid chromatography is still primarily considered for the analysis of nonpolar analytes like carotenoids, fatty acids, or terpenes. The low polarity of supercritical carbon dioxide, which is used with modifiers almost exclusively as a mobile phase today, combined with high efficiency and fast separations might explain the popularity of supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of these compounds. Yet, it has been shown that more polar natural products (e.g., xanthones, flavonoids, alkaloids) are separable too, with the same (if not superior) selectivity and reproducibility than established approaches like HPLC or GC. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Revisiting enduring values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gorman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the nature of values in general and the nature and utility of the values of librarianship.  Delineates the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the wider world and the nature of change; also the importance of values in providing a framework for dealing with present and future change.  Stresses the centrality of the human record to societal progress, the place of the human record in cultural heritage, and the central purpose of libraries in facilitating interaction with the human record and furthering the transmission of cultural heritage.  Urges a turning away from the alien value systems of information technology, consumerism, materialism, and corporate management, and a consequent set of alliances between libraries and a wide range of cultural institutions and associations.

  16. Comparing Background and Recent Erosion Rates in Degraded Areas of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, N.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Rood, D. H.; Fontes, R. L.; Santos, A. C.; Godoy, J. M.; Bhering, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in northwestern Rio de Janeiro State where, during the last three centuries, major land-use changes took place, associated with the replacement of the original rainforest by agriculture and grazing. The combination of steep hillslopes, erodible soils, sparse vegetation, natural and human-induced fires, as well as downslope ploughing, led to an increase in surface runoff and surface erosion on soil-mantled hillslopes; together, these actions and responses caused a decline in soil productivity. In order to estimate changes in erosion rates over time, we compared erosion rates measured at different spatial and temporal scales, both background (natural) and short-term (human-induced during last few decades). Background long-term erosion rates were measured using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in the sand fraction quartz of active river channel sediment in four basins in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro State. In these basins, average annual precipitation varies from 1,200 to 1,300 mm, while drainage areas vary from 15 to 7,200 km2. Short-term erosion rates were measured in one of these basins from fallout 210Pb in soil samples collected along a hillslope transect located in an abandoned agriculture field. In this transect, 190 undisturbed soil samples (three replicates) were collected from the surface to 0.50 m depth (5 cm vertical intervals) in six soil pits. 10Be average background, basin-wide, erosion rates in the area are ~ 13 m/My; over the last decades, time-integrated (210Pb) average hillslope erosion rates are around 1450 m/Myr, with maximum values at the steepest portion of convex hillslopes of about 2000 m/Myr. These results suggest that recent hillslope erosion rates are about 2 orders of magnitude above background rates of sediment generation integrated over many millennia. This unsustainable rate of soil loss has severely decreased soil productivity eventually leading to the abandonment of farming activities in

  17. Demonstration of Cosmic Microwave Background Delensing Using the Cosmic Infrared Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Patricia; Challinor, Anthony; Sherwin, Blake D; Mak, Daisy

    2016-10-07

    Delensing is an increasingly important technique to reverse the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thus reveal primordial signals the lensing may obscure. We present a first demonstration of delensing on Planck temperature maps using the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Reversing the lensing deflections in Planck CMB temperature maps using a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz maps as a lensing tracer, we find that the lensing effects in the temperature power spectrum are reduced in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations. In particular, the characteristic sharpening of the acoustic peaks of the temperature power spectrum resulting from successful delensing is detected at a significance of 16σ, with an amplitude of A_{delens}=1.12±0.07 relative to the expected value of unity. This first demonstration on data of CIB delensing, and of delensing techniques in general, is significant because lensing removal will soon be essential for achieving high-precision constraints on inflationary B-mode polarization.

  18. Effects of variation in background mixing ratios of N2, O2, and Ar on the measurement of δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Johnson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectrometers have generally been designed to operate under conditions in which the background gas has a constant composition. However, there are a number of observational and experimental situations of interest in which the background gas has a variable composition. In this study, we examine the effect of background gas composition on a cavity ring-down spectrometer that measures δ18O–H2O and δ2H–H2O values based on the amplitude of water isotopologue absorption features around 7184 cm−1 (L2120-i, Picarro, Inc.. For background mixtures balanced with N2, the apparent δ18O values deviate from true values by −0.50 ± 0.001 ‰ O2 %−1 and −0.57 ± 0.001 ‰ Ar %−1, and apparent δ2H values deviate from true values by 0.26 ± 0.004 ‰ O2 %−1 and 0.42 ± 0.004 ‰ Ar  %−1. The artifacts are the result of broadening, narrowing, and shifting of both the target absorption lines and strong neighboring lines. While the background-induced isotopic artifacts can largely be corrected with simple empirical or semi-mechanistic models, neither type of model is capable of completely correcting the isotopic artifacts to within the inherent instrument precision. The development of strategies for dynamically detecting and accommodating background variation in N2, O2, and/or Ar would facilitate the application of cavity ring-down spectrometers to a new class of observations and experiments.

  19. Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Laszlo B. [Texas A and M University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States)], E-mail: laszlo.kish@ece.tamu.edu

    2009-03-02

    A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.

  20. Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.

    2009-01-01

    A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart

  1. Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.

    2009-03-01

    A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.

  2. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  3. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W.; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon. - Highlights: • Pollution assessment in areas with geochemical anomalies needs local reference values. • A new method for the determination of background values (BGV) was established. • Geochemical data from unpolluted samples of sediment cores were used. • Statistics and geochronology were applied to recognize unpolluted sediments. • Anthropogenically influenced samples were not considered for BGV determination. - A method including multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating is proposed for determining local background values for trace elements using analytical data form sediment cores

  4. Exploratory and spatial data analysis (EDA-SDA) for determining regional background levels and anomalies of potentially toxic elements in soils from Catorce-Matehuala, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; Castro-Larragoitia, J.; Monroy, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The threshold between geochemical background and anomalies can be influenced by the methodology selected for its estimation. Environmental evaluations, particularly those conducted in mineralized areas, must consider this when trying to determinate the natural geochemical status of a study area, quantifying human impacts, or establishing soil restoration values for contaminated sites. Some methods in environmental geochemistry incorporate the premise that anomalies (natural or anthropogenic) and background data are characterized by their own probabilistic distributions. One of these methods uses exploratory data analysis (EDA) on regional geochemical data sets coupled with a geographic information system (GIS) to spatially understand the processes that influence the geochemical landscape in a technique that can be called a spatial data analysis (SDA). This EDA-SDA methodology was used to establish the regional background range from the area of Catorce-Matehuala in north-central Mexico. Probability plots of the data, particularly for those areas affected by human activities, show that the regional geochemical background population is composed of smaller subpopulations associated with factors such as soil type and parent material. This paper demonstrates that the EDA-SDA method offers more certainty in defining thresholds between geochemical background and anomaly than a numeric technique, making it a useful tool for regional geochemical landscape analysis and environmental geochemistry studies.

  5. The value of knowing better - Losses from natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Galarraga, I.,; Garrido, A.; Interwies, E.; van Bers, C.; Vandenberghe, V.; Farinosi, F.; Foudi, S.; Görlitz, S.; Hernández-Mora, N.; Gil, M.; Grambow, C.

    2012-04-01

    In a highly emotional speech delivered last year after a series of strikes, Julia Gilbert, the Australian PM, noted that Australia has watched in horror as day after day a new chapter in natural disaster history has been written. And so did the whole world. 2011 went on to become the costliest year in terms of natural hazard losses in the recent history, with the total costs topping 380 billion US dollars. Almost a half of the insured losses were caused by a single event - the Fukushima Dai'ichi nuclear power plant accident triggered by a tsunami that followed an earthquake of MW 6.6 (Richer 9.0) magnitude. The Fukushima disaster has taught a costly lesson, once again: What you least expect, happens. The estimates of losses inflicted by natural hazards are, to put it mildly, incomplete and hardly representative of the ripple effects on regional and global economy, and the wider effects on social fabric, wellbeing and ecosystems that are notoriously difficult to monetise. The knowledge of the full magnitude of losses is not an end in itself. The economics of disasters is an emerging academic field, struggling to uncover the patterns of vulnerability to natural hazards, and provide insights useful for designing effective disaster risk reduction measures and policies. Yet the costly lessons learned are often neglected. In this paper we analyse selected significantly damaging events caused by hydrometeorological and climatologic events (floods and droughts) in four river basins/countries: Ebro/Spain, Po/Italy, Weser/Germany and Scheldt/Flanders-Belgium. Our analysis is focussed on identifying the gaps in reported damage estimates, and conducting additional original research and assessment that contribute to filling those gaps. In the case of drought, all the reference cases except the Ebro refer to the exceptionally hot and dry summer 2003. The drought event examined in the Ebro river basin is the prolonged period of deficient precipitation between 2004 and 2008. The

  6. Background noise of acoustic emission signals in sodium piping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Aoki, K.; Kuribayashi, K.; Kishi, T.; Sakakibara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Background noise measurement in the frequency range of acoustic emission (AE) signals was made on the sodium piping loops of a 50 MW steam generator test facility in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). During the dynamic characteristics test of the steam generator over a wide range of operating conditions, the background noise generated on the pipe surface was measured using wideband AE sensor externally mounted with waveguide. Data were obtained for the effect of power loads of steam generator on both amplitude and frequency spectra of background noise signals. Source and nature of background noise were established

  7. Genetic damage from low-level and natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1988-01-01

    Relevant predictions that have been made of possible low level biological effects on man are reviewed, and the estimate of genetic damage is discussed. It is concluded that in spite of a number of attempts, no clear-cut case of effects in human populations of radiation at natural levels has been demonstrated. The stability of genetic material is dynamic, with damage, repair and selection running as continuous processes. Genetic materials are well protected and are conservative in the extreme, not least because evolution by genetic adaptation is an expensive process: Substitution of one allele A 1 by another A 2 means the death of the whole A 1 population

  8. Genealogy of nature conservation: a political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjo Haila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern nature conservation is a product of post-Enlightenment modernity; I explore the heterogeneity of its conceptual and ideological background. The 19th century legacy comprises concern over human-caused extinctions; protests against excessive hunting and cruelty toward animals; utilitarian care for natural resources; and romantic sensibility concerning the value of nature for human health and spirituality. The 20th century added into conservation thinking increasing consciousness about human biospheric dependence; efforts to identify appropriate conservation targets; and most recently concern over the loss of biodiversity. The politics of nature conservation has taken shape within the framework of politics of nature, that is, choices vis-á-vis nature that have been made either as deliberate decisions on resource use or as side-effects of subsistence practices of various types. Because of tensions and conflicts with alternative ways of using nature, formulating realistic conservation policies has been a complicated task. Problems and uncertainties emerge: pursuing material aspirations of the current world society will necessarily bring about damage to ecological systems of the Earth. The way forward is to identify feasible alternatives in the midst of the tensions and ambiguities that arise, and to open up space for carrying through conservation initiatives.

  9. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  10. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  12. Comprehending the multiple 'values' of green infrastructure - Valuing nature-based solutions for urban water management from multiple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, T C; Henneberry, J; Gill, L

    2017-10-01

    The valuation of urban water management practices and associated nature-based solutions (NBS) is highly contested, and is becoming increasingly important to cities seeking to increase their resilience to climate change whilst at the same time facing budgetary pressures. Different conceptions of 'values' exist, each being accompanied by a set of potential measures ranging from calculative practices (closely linked to established market valuation techniques) - through to holistic assessments that seek to address wider concerns of sustainability. Each has the potential to offer important insights that often go well beyond questions of balancing the costs and benefits of the schemes concerned. However, the need to address - and go beyond - economic considerations presents policy-makers, practitioners and researchers with difficult methodological, ethical and practical challenges, especially when considered without the benefit of a broader theoretical framework or in the absence of well-established tools (as might apply within more traditional infrastructural planning contexts, such as the analysis of transport interventions). Drawing on empirical studies undertaken in Sheffield over a period of 10 years, and delivered in partnership with several other European cities and regions, we compare and examine different attempts to evaluate the benefits of urban greening options and future development scenarios. Comparing these different approaches to the valuation of nature-based solutions alongside other, more conventional forms of infrastructure - and indeed integrating both 'green and grey' interventions within a broader framework of infrastructures - throws up some surprising results and conclusions, as well as providing important sign-posts for future research in this rapidly emerging field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  14. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  15. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  16. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  17. Design and applications of an anticoincidence shielded low background gamma-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    1997-03-01

    A low background gamma-ray spectrometer has been constructed for measuring artificial and natural radioative isotopes. The design of the spectrometer, its properties and the application to the determination of natural radioactivity of dental ceramics are described. (orig.)

  18. Natural Covariant Planck Scale Cutoffs and the Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin-Davies, Aidan; Kempf, Achim; Martin, Robert T W

    2017-07-21

    We calculate the impact of quantum gravity-motivated ultraviolet cutoffs on inflationary predictions for the cosmic microwave background spectrum. We model the ultraviolet cutoffs fully covariantly to avoid possible artifacts of covariance breaking. Imposing these covariant cutoffs results in the production of small, characteristically k-dependent oscillations in the spectrum. The size of the effect scales linearly with the ratio of the Planck to Hubble lengths during inflation. Consequently, the relative size of the effect could be as large as one part in 10^{5}; i.e., eventual observability may not be ruled out.

  19. Combining rules, background knowledge and change patterns to maintain semantic annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Silvio Domingos; Chantal, Reynaud-Delaître; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) play a key role in enriching biomedical information in order to make it machine-understandable and shareable. This is done by annotating medical documents, or more specifically, associating concept labels from KOS with pieces of digital information, e.g., images or texts. However, the dynamic nature of KOS may impact the annotations, thus creating a mismatch between the evolved concept and the associated information. To solve this problem, methods to maintain the quality of the annotations are required. In this paper, we define a framework based on rules, background knowledge and change patterns to drive the annotation adaption process. We evaluate experimentally the proposed approach in realistic cases-studies and demonstrate the overall performance of our approach in different KOS considering the precision, recall, F1-score and AUC value of the system.

  20. Identification of backgrounds in the EDELWEISS-I dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, S. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Benoit, A. [Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, SPM-CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Berge, L. [Centre de Spectroscopie Nucleaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, bat 108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    This paper presents our interpretation and understanding of the different backgrounds in the EDELWEISS-I data sets. We analyze in detail the several populations observed, which include gammas, alphas, neutrons, thermal sensor events and surface events, and try to combine all data sets to provide a coherent picture of the nature and localization of the background sources. In light of this interpretation, we draw conclusions regarding the background suppression scheme for the EDELWEISS-II phase. (authors)

  1. Identification of backgrounds in the EDELWEISS-I dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, S. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Benoit, A. [Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, SPM-CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Berge, L. [Centre de Spectroscopie Nucleaire et de Spectroscopie de Masse, UMR 8609 IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, bat 108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents our interpretation and understanding of the different backgrounds in the EDELWEISS-I data sets. We analyze in detail the several populations observed, which include gammas, alphas, neutrons, thermal sensor events and surface events, and try to combine all data sets to provide a coherent picture of the nature and localisation of the background sources. In light of this interpretation, we draw conclusions regarding the background suppression scheme for the EDELWEISS-II phase. (authors)

  2. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  3. Influence of keeping pheasants in captivity vs. nature on the biological value of meat and its use in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Skrivanko, Mario; Posavcević, Stefica; Periskić, Marin; Bosković, Ivica; Jumić, Vlado

    2008-09-01

    The life of game birds (pheasants) in nature is coupled with a number of difficulties in all seasons of the year. This refers to finding food, breeding, laying eggs, raising the young, fleeing from their natural enemies and lack of protection from unfavorable climatic conditions. The pheasants that live in captivity--aviaries for pheasants--do not have such difficulties--they are fed regularly by quality feed for pheasants, they are protected from bad weather and natural enemies. Our research was aimed at determining the biological value of meat of pheasants grown in the two different settings--in captivity and in nature. The highest weight achieved wild pheasant males (1232.4 +/- 147.36 g). The differences between tested pheasant groups were statistically very high significant (P nutrition.

  4. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, Neslihan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of {sup 76}Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 10{sup 25} years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Q{sub ββ} = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from {sup 214}Bi ({sup 238}U-series), {sup 208}Tl ({sup 232}Th-series), {sup 42}K (progeny of {sup 42}Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  5. Epidemiology of non-syndromic cleft lip/palate in the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of the South west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, with natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium (8-10%) and Uranium (0.3%), is a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district and is one among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand causes wide variation in dose ranging from <1 to 45 mGy/year. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation areas (NLNRA). A total of 134,178 newborns were monitored and non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP) was detected in 143 newborns (1.07%). Cleft lip with cleft palate (59.4%) was more common than cleft lip (18.2%) or Cleft palate (22.4%) alone and 11.9% had other malformation(s) together with NSCLP. There was no evidence to suggest that NSFC was significantly associated with prevailing dose level of area of mother's residence, maternal age birth, gravida, ethnicity or consanguinity

  6. Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Background Smartphone use has increased greatly at a time when concerns about society's disconnection from nature have also markedly increased. Recent research has also indicated that smartphone use can be problematic for a small minority of individuals. Methods In this study, associations between problematic smartphone use (PSU), nature connectedness, and anxiety were investigated using a cross-sectional design (n = 244). Results Associations between PSU and both nature connectedness and anxiety were confirmed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify threshold values on the Problematic Smartphone Use Scale (PSUS) at which strong associations with anxiety and nature connectedness occur. The area under the curve was calculated and positive likelihood ratios used as a diagnostic parameter to identify optimal cut-off for PSU. These provided good diagnostic ability for nature connectedness, but poor and non-significant results for anxiety. ROC analysis showed the optimal PSUS threshold for high nature connectedness to be 15.5 (sensitivity: 58.3%; specificity: 78.6%) in response to an LR+ of 2.88. Conclusions The results demonstrate the potential utility for the PSUS as a diagnostic tool, with a level of smartphone use that users may perceive as non-problematic being a significant cut-off in terms of achieving beneficial levels of nature connectedness. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  8. Environmental assessment of heavy metal and natural radioactivity in soil around a coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei Lu; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an; Wen Liu; Caifeng Zhao; Cancan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in soil around a major coal-fired power plant of Xi'an, China were determined by using XRF and gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. The measured results of heavy metals show that the mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr in the studied soil samples are higher than their corresponding background values in Shaanxi soil, while the mean concentrations of Mn, Ni and V are close to the corresponding background values. The calculated results of pollution load index of heavy metals indicate that the studied soils presented heavy metal contamination. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg -1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average of Shaanxi soil. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean values of Shaanxi. Coal combustion for energy production has affected the natural radioactivity level and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr) concentrations of soil around the coal-fired power plant. (author)

  9. Periotest values of implants placed in sockets augmented with calcium phosphosilicate putty graft: a comparative analysis against implants placed in naturally healed sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Lanka; Narayan, Tv; Kostakis, Georgios; Shukla, Sagrika

    2014-03-01

    To measure implant stability using periotest values of implants placed in sockets augmented with calcium phospho-silicate putty (CPS Putty) as compared with implant stability in naturally healed sockets. Twenty two sockets were implanted with CPS Putty immediately after extraction. The sockets were re-entered after a healing period at 5 to 6 months (average 5.3 months) for implant placement. Periotest values were recorded during implant insertion to assess primary stability. These were compared with the Periotest values of 26 implants placed in 22 patients, with naturally healed sockets. Periotest values were significantly lower in the grafted group, indicating better implant stability in sites grafted with CPS putty. Implant stability seems to be significantly higher in sockets augmented using CPS putty when compared to nongrafted sites. This suggests that socket grafting with CPS putty may enhance the quality of available bone for implantation.

  10. Input comparison of radiogenic neutron estimates for ultra-low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J.; Palladino, K. J.; Qiu, H.; Selvi, M.; Scorza, S.; Zhang, C.

    2018-04-01

    Ultra-low-background experiments address some of the most important open questions in particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics: the nature of dark matter, whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle, and does the proton decay. These rare event searches require well-understood and minimized backgrounds. Simulations are used to understand backgrounds caused by naturally occurring radioactivity in the rock and in every piece of shielding and detector material used in these experiments. Most important are processes like spontaneous fission and (α,n) reactions in material close to the detectors that can produce neutrons. A comparison study of the (α,n) reactions between two dedicated software packages is detailed. The cross section libraries, neutron yields, and spectra from the Mei-Zhang-Hime and the SOURCES-4A codes are presented. The resultant yields and spectra are used as inputs to direct dark matter detector toy models in GEANT4, to study the impact of their differences on background estimates and fits. Although differences in neutron yield calculations up to 50% were seen, there was no systematic difference between the Mei-Hime-Zhang and SOURCES-4A results. Neutron propagation simulations smooth differences in spectral shape and yield, and both tools were found to meet the broad requirements of the low-background community.

  11. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji, E-mail: vandermoura@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amartins@mtaboca.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Mineracao Taboca S.A., Presidente Figueiredo, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y{sup -1}. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  12. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y"-"1. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  13. Interstellar cyanogen and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Meyer, David M.; Hawkins, Isabel

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a recently completed effort to determine the amount of CN rotational excitation in five diffuse interstellar clouds for the purpose of accurately measuring the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). In addition, we report a new detection of emission from the strongest hyperfine component of the 2.64 mm CN rotational transition (N = 1-0) in the direction toward HD 21483. We have used this result in combination with existing emission measurements toward our other stars to correct for local excitation effects within diffuse clouds which raise the measured CN rotational temperature above that of the CMBR. After making this correction, we find a weighted mean value of T(CMBR) = 2.729 (+0.023, -0.031) K. This temperature is in excellent agreement with the new COBE measurement of 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (Mather et al., 1993). Our result, which samples the CMBR far from the near-Earth environment, attests to the accuracy of the COBE measurement and reaffirms the cosmic nature of this background radiation. From the observed agreement between our CMBR temperature and the COBE result, we conclude that corrections for local CN excitation based on millimeter emission measurements provide an accurate adjustment to the measured rotational excitation.

  14. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study.

  15. The background in the experiment Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  16. Transforming a low value coastal area into a high value natural and recreational area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zone in the Netherlands takes a very peculiar place in the discussion about sustainability in the Netherlands. Large areas are left unused and they remain low cost value areas due to the lack of progressive decision-making. These areas have a low value in economic, recreational and

  17. Cosmogenic radioberyllium and background radiation dose to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    To discover the causes of the presence of abnormal Be concentrations (anthropogenic or natural or cosmogenic source) in the area of the Kralicky Sneznik mountain massive (in the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude of about 800 m), concentrations of 7 Be and 10 Be were also assayed in selected environmental components in the years of 2005 - 2007. The 10 Be concentrations in soils (80.39x10 6 - 210.45x10 6 atom g -1 ) and activity concentrations of 7 Be in soils and wet deposition were very low (1.3 - 5.3 Bq kg -1 and 0.6 - 4.5 Bq l -1 , resp.). However, activities of 7 Be in birch leaves and grass (dry matter) reached relatively high values (up to 1000 Bq kg -1 ) and, in addition, showed out their significant seasonal growth. In the work the probable contribution of the cosmogenic 7 Be activities to background radiation dose to the general public is discussed. (authors)

  18. Method and apparatus for determining accuracy of radiation measurements made in the presence of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactivity measuring instrument, and a method related to its use, for determining the radioactivity of a sample measured in the presence of significant background radiation, and for determining an error value relating to a specific probability of accuracy of the result are presented. Error values relating to the measurement of background radiation alone, and to the measurement of sample radiation and background radiation together, are combined to produce a true error value relating to the sample radiation alone

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  20. Optimal control of soybean aphid in the presence of natural enemies and the implied value of their ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M

    2012-04-15

    By suppressing pest populations, natural enemies provide an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural ecosystems systems and potentially mitigates producers' pest control costs. Integrating natural control services into decisions about pesticide-based control has the potential to significantly improve the economic efficiency of pesticide use, with socially desirable outcomes. Two gaps have hindered the incorporation of natural enemies into pest management decision rules: (1) insufficient knowledge of pest and predator population dynamics and (2) lack of a decision framework for the economic tradeoffs among pest control options. Using a new intra-seasonal, dynamic bioeconomic optimization model, this study assesses how predation by natural enemies contributes to profit-maximizing pest management strategies. The model is applied to the management of the invasive soybean aphid, the most significant serious insect threat to soybean production in North America. The resulting lower bound estimate of the value of natural pest control ecosystem services was estimated at $84 million for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota in 2005. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Contextual Background Fusion on Perceived Value and Quality of Unclassified Terrorism Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eaneff, Charles

    2007-01-01

    ...). Simply pushing intelligence products to NTR is not enough, NTR must possess adequate contextual background in order to effectively utilize intelligence provided by the Intelligence Community (IC...

  2. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2018-04-15

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  3. Weighted Low-Rank Approximation of Matrices and Background Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Li, Xin; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We primarily study a special a weighted low-rank approximation of matrices and then apply it to solve the background modeling problem. We propose two algorithms for this purpose: one operates in the batch mode on the entire data and the other one operates in the batch-incremental mode on the data and naturally captures more background variations and computationally more effective. Moreover, we propose a robust technique that learns the background frame indices from the data and does not require any training frames. We demonstrate through extensive experiments that by inserting a simple weight in the Frobenius norm, it can be made robust to the outliers similar to the $\\ell_1$ norm. Our methods match or outperform several state-of-the-art online and batch background modeling methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  4. Accounting for the Multiple Natures of Missing Values in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Data Sets to Compare Imputation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cosmin; Gatto, Laurent; Ferro, Myriam; Bruley, Christophe; Burger, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Missing values are a genuine issue in label-free quantitative proteomics. Recent works have surveyed the different statistical methods to conduct imputation and have compared them on real or simulated data sets and recommended a list of missing value imputation methods for proteomics application. Although insightful, these comparisons do not account for two important facts: (i) depending on the proteomics data set, the missingness mechanism may be of different natures and (ii) each imputation method is devoted to a specific type of missingness mechanism. As a result, we believe that the question at stake is not to find the most accurate imputation method in general but instead the most appropriate one. We describe a series of comparisons that support our views: For instance, we show that a supposedly "under-performing" method (i.e., giving baseline average results), if applied at the "appropriate" time in the data-processing pipeline (before or after peptide aggregation) on a data set with the "appropriate" nature of missing values, can outperform a blindly applied, supposedly "better-performing" method (i.e., the reference method from the state-of-the-art). This leads us to formulate few practical guidelines regarding the choice and the application of an imputation method in a proteomics context.

  5. Natural background radiation at flight altitudes; Natuerliche Strahlenexposition in Flughoehen durch kosmische Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). FB Ionenbeschleuniger und Referenzstrahlungsfelder

    2006-12-15

    At sea level, the background radiation of about 40 nSv/h consists of about 80 percent of muons and electrons and about 0 percent of neutrons. The picture is different at an altitude of 10 km. Here, the background dose equivalent of about 5000 nSv/h (= 5 {mu}Sv/h) consists of about 60 percent of neutrons and about 25 percent of muons and electrons. Protons account for about 15 percent. This particle composition makes dosimetric measurements difficult. In addition, the energy emitted by the particles is far beyond the the measuring range of conventional radiation protection dosemeters. For these reasons, conventional dosemeters are not suited for applications in aeroplanes and such. The PTB method for measuring local dose rates uses a proportional counter whose wall consists of a tissue equivalent material and which is operated with tissue equivalent counting gas at very low pressure (about 40 hPa). (orig.)

  6. Fine-scale mapping of High Nature Value farmlands: novel approaches to improve the management of rural biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho-Santos, C.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) are defined as rural lands characterized by high levels of biodiversity and extensive farming practices. These farmlands are also known to provide important ecosystems services, such as food production, pollination, water purification and landscape recreation.

  7. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  8. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  9. Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation using COBE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This project was initiated to allow completion of the primary investigation of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (CORE) mission, and to study the implications of those findings. The Principal Investigator (PI) on this grant was also the Principal Investigator on the DIRBE team. The project had two specific goals: Goal 1: Seek improved limits upon, or detections of, the cosmic infrared background radiation using data from the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Goal 2: Explore the implications of the limits and measured values of the cosmic infrared background for energy releases in the Universe since the formation of the first luminous sources. Both of these goals have been successfully accomplished.

  10. Unique signatures of natural background radiation on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Premi

    Full Text Available The most frequently observed major consequences of ionizing radiation are chromosomal lesions and cancers, although the entire genome may be affected. Owing to its haploid status and absence of recombination, the human Y chromosome is an ideal candidate to be assessed for possible genetic alterations induced by ionizing radiation. We studied the human Y chromosome in 390 males from the South Indian state of Kerala, where the level of natural background radiation (NBR is ten-fold higher than the worldwide average, and that from 790 unexposed males as control.We observed random microdeletions in the Azoospermia factor (AZF a, b and c regions in >90%, and tandem duplication and copy number polymorphism (CNP of 11 different Y-linked genes in about 80% of males exposed to NBR. The autosomal homologues of Y-linked CDY genes largely remained unaffected. Multiple polymorphic copies of the Y-linked genes showing single Y-specific signals suggested their tandem duplication. Some exposed males showed unilocus duplication of DAZ genes resulting in six copies. Notably, in the AZFa region, approximately 25% of exposed males showed deletion of the DBY gene, whereas flanking genes USP9Y and UTY remained unaffected. All these alterations were detected in blood samples but not in the germline (sperm samples.Exposure to high levels of NBR correlated with several interstitial polymorphisms of the human Y chromosome. CNPs and enhanced transcription of the SRY gene after duplication are envisaged to compensate for the loss of Y chromosome in some cells. The aforesaid changes, confined to peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggest a possible innate mechanism protecting the germline DNA from the NBR. Genome analysis of a larger population focusing on greater numbers of genes may provide new insights into the mechanisms and risks of the resultant genetic damages. The present work demonstrates unique signatures of NBR on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India.

  11. Background radioactivity in sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    River and reservoir sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from five river stations and four reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Analyses include 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, total U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Surprisingly, there are no federal or state regulatory standards in the USA that specify how to compute background radioactivity values on sediments. Hence, the sample median (or 0.50 quantile) is proposed for this background because it reflects central data tendency and is distribution-free. Estimates for the upper limit of background radioactivity on river and reservoir sediments are made for sampled analytes using the 0.95 quantile (two-tail). These analyses also show that seven of ten analytes from reservoir sediments are normally distributed, or are normally distributed after a logarithmic or square root transformation. However, only three of ten analytes from river sediments are similarly distributed. In addition, isotope ratios for 137 Cs/ 238 Pu, 137 Cs/ 239,240 Pu, and 239,240 Pu/ 238 Pu from reservoir sediments are independent of clay content, total organic carbon/specific surface area (TOC/SSA) and cation exchange capacity/specific surface area (CEC/SSA) ratios. These TOC/SSA and CEC/SSA ratios reflect sediment organic carbon and surface charge densities that are associated with radionuclide absorption, adsorption, and ion exchange reactions on clay mineral structures. These latter ratio values greatly exceed the availability of background radionuclides in the environment, and insure that measured background levels are a maximum. Since finer-grained reservoir sediments contain larger clay-sized fractions compared to coarser river sediments, they show higher background levels for most analytes. Furthermore, radioactivity values on reservoir sediments have

  12. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  13. Cosmic microwave background probes models of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard L.; Hodges, Hardy M.; Smoot, George F.; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor-mode contribution to the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance. If the tensor mode dominates at large-angular scales, then the value of DeltaT/T predicted on 1 deg is less than if the scalar mode dominates, and, for cold-dark-matter models, bias factors greater than 1 can be made consistent with Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) DMR results.

  14. Detecting signatures of cosmological recombination and reionization in the cosmic radio background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar Narayana Rao, Udaya; Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Singh, Saurabh

    2015-08-01

    Evolution of the baryons during the Epochs of cosmological Recombination and Reionization has left traces in the cosmic radio background in the form of spectral distortions (Sunyaev & Chluba 2008 Astron. Nachrichten, 330, 657; Pritchard & Loeb 2012 Rep Prog Phys 75(8):086901). The spectral signature depends on the evolution in the ionization state in hydrogen and helium and on the spin temperature of hydrogen. These probe the physics of energy release beyond the last scattering surface at redshifts exceeding 1090 and the nature of the first sources and gas evolution down to redshift about 6. The spectral distortions are sensitive to the nature of the first stars, ultra-dwarf galaxies, accreting compact objects, and the evolving ambient radiation field: X-rays and UV from the first sources. Detection of the all-sky or global spectral distortions in the radio background is hence a probe of cosmological recombination and reionization.We present new spectral radiometers that we have purpose designed for precision measurements of spectral distortions at radio wavelengths. New antenna elements include frequency independent and electrically small fat-dipole (Raghunathan et al. 2013 IEEE TAP, 61, 3411) and monopole designs. Receiver configurations have been devised that are self-calibratable (Patra et al. 2013 Expt Astron, 36, 319) so that switching of signal paths and of calibration noise sources provide real time calibration for systematics and receiver noise. Observing strategies (Patra et al. arXiv:1412.7762) and analysis methods (Satyanarayana Rao et al. arXiv:1501.07191) have been evolved that are capable of discriminating between the cosmological signals and the substantially brighter foregrounds. We have also demonstrated the value of system designs that exploit advantages of interferometer detection (Mahesh et al. arXiv:1406.2585) of global spectral distortions.Finally we discuss how the Square Kilometer Array stations may be outfitted with precision spectral

  15. Heat kernel expansion in the background field formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Heat kernel expansion and background field formalism represent the combination of two calculational methods within the functional approach to quantum field theory. This approach implies construction of generating functionals for matrix elements and expectation values of physical observables. These are functionals of arbitrary external sources or the mean field of a generic configuration -- the background field. Exact calculation of quantum effects on a generic background is impossible. However, a special integral (proper time) representation for the Green's function of the wave operator -- the propagator of the theory -- and its expansion in the ultraviolet and infrared limits of respectively short and late proper time parameter allow one to construct approximations which are valid on generic background fields. Current progress of quantum field theory, its renormalization properties, model building in unification of fundamental physical interactions and QFT applications in high energy physics, gravitation and...

  16. Components of Insurance Firm Value and the Present Value of Liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    David F. Babbel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the relation between the market value of insurance company owners' equity and various components that contribute to that value. The effect of firm insolvency risk on each component of value is discussed in turn. One natural consequence of this analysis is a conceptual framework for estimating the value of insurance liabilities.

  17. Spectrum and isotropy of the submillimeter background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlner, D.

    1977-01-01

    Two great astronomical discoveries have most shaped our present concept of the Big Bang universe. Like the Hubble recession of the galaxies, the discovery of the 3 0 K background radiation by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 has given rise to a line of research which is still very active today. Penzias and Wilson's universal microwave background at 7 cm was immediately interpreted by R.H. Dicke's group at Princeton as coming from the primordial fireball of incandescent plasma which filled the universe for the million years or so after its explosive birth. This interpretation gives rise to two crucial predictions as to the nature of the background radiation. Its spectrum should be thermal even after having been red shifted by a factor of approximately 1000 by the expansion of the universe, and the radiation should be isotropic - assuming that the universe itself is isotropic. If the background radiation is indeed from the primordial fireball it affords us the only direct view at the very young universe. This paper deals with the spectrum and then the isotropy of the background radiation, with emphasis on high frequency or submillimeter measurements. Prospects for the future are discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  18. Deletion of groundwater from a disposal facility in Laxemar. Description of the consequences for nature values and production land; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan en slutfoervarsanlaeggning i Laxemar. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values, agriculture and forestry due to groundwater diversion from a repository at the non-chosen Laxemar site in the municipality of Oskarshamn. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface. Laxemar is a valuable area from a nature conservation point of view, primarily associated to the cultural- and forest landscape and its prior use for pasture and hay-making. Hence, these values depend on factors other than the level of the groundwater table. Except for old pastures and haymaking areas, many high nature values consist of hardwood-forest groves and old solitary deciduous trees. 67 groundwater-dependent or groundwater-favoured nature objects (wetlands, pieces of forest and surface water) are identified in the investigated area. No nature object is judged to have national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (pieces of forest) are judged to have regional value (class 2), 18 have municipal value (class 3) and 34 local value (class 4). It is judged that a drawdown of the groundwater table only would result in small consequences for the nature values of the area in its entirety. The nature objects that would be affected by the largest groundwater-table drawdown have relatively low nature values and consist of small wetlands with local value (class 4). The low nature values of these objects imply that the consequences of the groundwater diversion would be small. Nature objects with higher nature values (regional or municipal value) consist of forest key habitats and ancient pastures on previously argued land. The nature values of these objects are hence dependent on factors other than the level of the groundwater table, which implies that the consequences would be small also for these objects. The consequences would be largest

  19. On measuring the natural and environmental resource value and damages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seják, J.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 53-68 ISSN 1802-212X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : monetary valuations of nature * biotopes * natural resource injuries * quantifications Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://fzp.ujep.cz/Veda/Edice/StudiaOecologica/SO_2-2010_web.pdf

  20. Solitonic natural orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the natural amplitudes of the harmonium atom in its ground state on the confinement strength ω is thoroughly investigated. A combination of rigorous analysis and extensive, highly accurate numerical calculations reveals the presence of only one positive-valued natural amplitude ("the normal sign pattern") for all ω ≥1/2 . More importantly, it is shown that unusual, weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) corresponding to additional positive-valued natural amplitudes emerge upon sufficient weakening of the confinement. These solitonic NOs, whose shapes remain almost invariant as their radial positions drift toward infinity upon the critical values of ω being approached from below, exhibit strong radial localization. Their asymptotic properties are extracted from the numerical data and their relevance to calculations on fully Coulombic systems is discussed.

  1. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  2. Investigation of natural radiation background and assessment of its population dose in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the nationwide survey in 1984-1988 of environmental external radiation by integrating measurements, and the assessment of population doses from obtained data. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) model ETLD-80 with CaSO 4 : Dy were used. The survey was conducted in two different scales. In general survey, TLDs were distributed in whole area of every investigated provinces; and in local survey, one city and one village within each province were selected and investigated for the purpose of comparison of the natural radiation levels between the rural and urban areas. A marked characteristics was noted that the level of natural environmental radiation in south China seems to be higher than that in north China. It may be attributed to the geological difference in both parts. The annual individual average and collective effective dose equivalents to population of China from natural environmental radiation were estimated to be 780 μSv and 8.1 x 10 5 man. Sv, based on the model recommended by UNSCEAR 1988 Report

  3. Background estimation and player detection in badminton video clips using histogram of pixel values along temporal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yahui; Ma, Xiao; Gao, Xinyu; Zhou, Fangxu

    2015-12-01

    Computer vision is an important tool for sports video processing. However, its application in badminton match analysis is very limited. In this study, we proposed a straightforward but robust histogram-based background estimation and player detection methods for badminton video clips, and compared the results with the naive averaging method and the mixture of Gaussians methods, respectively. The proposed method yielded better background estimation results than the naive averaging method and more accurate player detection results than the mixture of Gaussians player detection method. The preliminary results indicated that the proposed histogram-based method could estimate the background and extract the players accurately. We conclude that the proposed method can be used for badminton player tracking and further studies are warranted for automated match analysis.

  4. Environmental values and their relationship to ecological services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Natural environments give rise to value in diverse ways for different people and groups. In this paper, I present a conceptual scheme for how different kinds of value may arise from a natural environment. I use this scheme to illustrate the different ways in which people value natural environments and to clarify the relationship between environmental values and...

  5. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non-background

  6. Making Sense of Value and Value Co-Creation in Service Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Grönroos, Christian; Voima, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    In order to further develop the logic of service, value creation, value co-creation and value have to be formally and rigorously defined, so that the nature, content and locus of value and the roles of service providers and customers in value creation can be unambiguously assessed. In the present article, following the underpinning logic of value-in-use, it is demonstrated that in order to achieve this, value creation is best defined as the customer’s creation of value-in-use. The analysis sh...

  7. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the 232 Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  8. Cosmological evolution of a brane Universe in a type 0 string background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papantonopoulos, E.; Pappa, I.

    2002-01-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of a D3-brane Universe in a type 0 string background. We follow the brane universe along the radial coordinate of the background and we calculate the energy density which is induced on the brane because of its motion in the bulk. For constant values of tachyon and dilaton an inflationary phase is appearing. For non constant values of tachyon and dilaton and for a particular range of values of the scale factor of the brane-universe, the effective energy density is dominated by a term proportional to 1/(log α) 4 indicating a slowly varying inflationary phase

  9. Radiation monitoring of soil cover of natural uranium in the Issyk-Kul province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenbaev, B.M.; Toktoeva, T.E.; Kaldibaev, B.K.; Zholbolduev, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    checking the radiation is not recommended for use as building materials.There are also slight variations in the natural radiation background in different soil types of Issyk-Kul region, probably due to the inhomogeneous distribution of natural radio-nuclides, scattered in soil, terrestrial rocks, surface, ground water and other objects of the environment. As can be seen from the data for the gray-brown soils of its value varies between 20-28 mR/h, with an average - 22 mR/h, light-brown soils - 16-26 mR/h, with an average - 22 mR/h for the mountain-valley chestnut - 21-24 mR/h, with an average of 22 mR/h, for the mountain-valley chestnut - 18-21 mR/h, with an average - 20 mR/hr, for the mountain-valley dark chestnut 17-21 mR/h, with an average - 18 mR/h. The results of measurements of natural background radiation we compiled conditional schematic map of the exposure dose of external gamma radiation in the Issyk-Kul region.

  10. Background {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake of breast-specific gamma imaging in relation to background parenchymal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute and Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Eun [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated factors that could affect background uptake of {sup 99m}Tc- methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) on normal breast by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). In addition, the impact of background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake on the diagnostic performance of BSGI was further investigated. One hundred forty-five women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent BSGI, MRI, and mammography were retrospectively enrolled. Background uptake on BSGI was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were classified into non-dense and dense breast groups according to mammographic breast density. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was rated according to BI-RADS classification. The relationship of age, menopausal status, mammographic breast density, and BPE with background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake was analyzed. Heterogeneous texture and high background uptake ratio on BSGI were significantly correlated with younger age (p < 0.001, respectively), premenopausal status (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003), dense breast (p < 0.001, respectively), and marked BPE (p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only BPE remained a significant factor for background MIBI uptake (p < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in positive predictive value (p = 0.024 and p = 0.002) as background MIBI uptake and BPE grade increased. BPE on MRI was the most important factor for background MIBI uptake on BSGI. High background MIBI uptake or marked BPE can diminish the diagnostic performance of BSGI. (orig.)

  11. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  12. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  13. Use of isotopic signature of radionuclides released from uranium mines and mills to discriminate low levels of environmental impact against natural background levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Lemaitre, N.; Bernhard, S.; Vauzelle, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In France, uranium ores have been exploited in rural areas with a low population density. The critical population group which is identified for radiological impact studies lives close to the uranium facilities, at distances from a few hundred metres to 1 kilometer. Within this range, the radioactivity of the environment is still detectable amongst the natural background. Mining companies manage surveillance networks according to strict specifications laid down by the government authorities. For active mining operations it is the exposure to daughter products of radon 222 that forms the bulk of the total effective dose. After closure of a mine and rehabilitation of the site, products such as uranium 238 and radium 226 in the water can become the major components of the total effective dose. Surveillance networks are built to allow direct measurement of the radon daughter products critical to the alpha energy and measurements of the water activities for uranium 238 and radium 226. Annual limits for the effective individual doses are given and determined by the authorities. The industry must manage effective annual doses of the order of 1 mSv. The natural exposure which is not part of the regulation is of the same order (1 mSv) as the exposure created by the industry. The results given are therefore lacking in clarity for the public. The Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants (OPRI) and ALGADE are developing methods which allow differentiation between natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. It has been recognised that for a region where mining activities have taken place, the isotopic signature of uranium, radium and radon can clearly be recognised from the same product of natural origin. In the case of radon, for example, the industry produces only radon 222 while natural emanations are composed of radon 220 and radon 222. (author)

  14. Effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Taghizade, Fateme; Namdari, Mahshid

    2018-01-01

    The masking ability of zirconia ceramics as copings is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic and to determine zirconia coping thickness cut offs for masking the backgrounds investigated. Thirty zirconia disks in 3 thickness groups of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm were placed on 9 backgrounds to measure CIELab color attributes using a spectrophotometer. The backgrounds included A1, A2, and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, nickel-chromium alloy, nonprecious gold-colored alloy, amalgam, black, and white. ΔE values were measured to determine color differences between the specimens on the A2 shade composite resin background and the same specimens on the other backgrounds. The color change (ΔE) values were compared with threshold values for acceptability (ΔE=5.5) and perceptibility (ΔE=2.6). Repeated measures ANOVA, the Bonferroni test, and 1-sample t tests were used to analyze data (α=.05). Mean ΔE values ranged between 1.44 and 7.88. The zirconia coping thickness, the background type, and their interaction affected the CIELab and ΔE values (Pmasking, the minimum thickness of a zirconia coping should be 0.4 mm for A1 and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, and nonprecious gold-colored alloy, 0.6 mm for amalgam, and 0.8 mm for nickel-chromium alloy. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural indoor gamma background in Coonoor environment of South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Mugunthamanikand, N.; Raghunath, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor natural radiation dose existing in dwellings of Coonoor have been estimated using thermoluminescent dosimeters. TLDs are displayed in indoors and are replaced after three-month period. The seasonal averages of the dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent are calculated from the measured results. Geographical and seasonal variations as well as the differences between indoor to outdoor dose rates have also been studied. Very good correlation exists between the indoor dose rates measured by LTD and environmental radiation dosimeter with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The annual effective dose equivalent to the Coonoor population due to indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 970 μSv/y for the period of 1997-1998. (author)

  16. The excess radio background and fast radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, John; Kephart, Thomas W.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE 2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background

  17. How to get relations between bedrocks and δ13C values of methane and ethane in natural gases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.; Muehle, K.

    1987-01-01

    Basing on the hypothesis that δ 13 C values of different carbon positions within biomolecules are thermodynamically controlled a model was derived to evaluate δ 13 C values of methane and ethane in the process of thermal genesis from organic matter in bedrocks. To get information about genesis and postgenetic history of a certain natural gas it is necessary to measure both, δ 13 C of methane (C 1 ) and of ethane (C 2 ), too. The isotopic composition of ethane will be nearly unchanged after genesis. In contrast to this the isotopic composition of methane can be changed drastically by molecular diffusion. Therefore δ 13 C of ethane is a well defined indicator of the genesis conditions. (author)

  18. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.; Quarto, M.; Obryk, B.; Paszkowski, M.; Celikovic, I.; Demajo, A.; Ujic, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m 3 and at about 650 Bq/m 3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m 3 . The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m 3 , with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m 3 . The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics

  19. Changing Perceptions of Forest Value and Attitudes toward Management of a Recently Established Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the main sources of conflict and understanding the relationships between protected areas and local communities are critical to conflict resolution related to protected area management. We surveyed and assessed the perceptions of local people related to forest values of the Bulong Nature Reserve (BNR, Yunnan, China, and their attitudes toward forest management of the recently-established nature reserve. Factors influencing the differences in perceptions and attitudes were investigated. Our results indicated local residents preferred the economic value of forests, and they perceived more forest values after reserve establishment than before, especially for ecological services. Interviewees believed the value of the forests have increased, and predicted that the forest will have increased importance to their livelihoods and health in the future. Nonetheless, the majority of interviewees were dissatisfied with current reserve management. Variation in these perceptions and attitudes were related to several social variables: age, gender, education, and distance from the reserve. Embedding the findings of the present study, specifically the perceptions and attitudes of local people, into management guidelines for mitigation of potential conflicts is proposed and should help managers to achieve biodiversity-related goals. This study offers new insights related to the identification of the underlying sources of conflict in forest management and provides a better understanding of the relationship between local people and protected areas. The study also contributes to the literature on forest values of indigenous populations by examining those of remote, rural populations in China.

  20. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  1. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haolong

    2017-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  2. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  3. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  4. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  5. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma - Italy and Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy); Castellano, M. G. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma - Italy (Italy); Colantoni, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica - Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Genova - Italy and INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova - Italy (Italy); Tomei, C. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma - Italy (Italy)

    2015-08-17

    The development of background-free detectors is essential for experiments searching for rare events. Bolometers, that are among the most competitive devices for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay (0νDBD) and Dark Matter interactions, suffer from the absence of techniques that allow to identify the nature of the interacting particles. This limit can be overcome by coupling the bolometer to an independent device for the measurement of the light emitted by interactions, as the combined read-out of the bolometric and light signals allows to identify and reject particles different from those of interest. CUORE, the most advanced bolometric experiment for 0νDBD searches, could disentangle the electrons produced by 0νDBD from the dangerous background due to α particles, by measuring the (tiny) Cherenkov light emitted by electrons and not by α’s. LUCIFER, a project based on ZnSe scintillating bolometers for the study of {sup 82}Se 0νDBD, would be competitive also in the search of Dark Matter interactions if equipped with light detectors that allow to distinguish and reject the background due to electrons and γ’s. These advances require cryogenic detectors characterized by noise lower than 20 eV, large active area, wide temperature range of operation, high radio-purity and ease in fabricating hundreds of channels. The CALDER collaboration aims to develop such detectors by exploiting the superb energy resolution and natural multiplexed read-out provided by Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  6. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  7. Monitoring the effectiveness of the natural anticoagulant sulodexide in pregnant women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism on the background of hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Scherbakov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to modern concepts, the occurrence of complications in utero-placental pool during pregnancy is a common cause of primary placental insufficiency, severe forms of late gestosis, recurrent miscarriage. It is obvious that the study of the nature of violations in the hemostatic system during pregnancy and the development of methods for timely correction will be the prevention of many obstetric diseases. Among the factors that affect hemostasis, thyroid hormones occupy a special place, they are able to influence not only the functional activity of platelets, but also adjust the intensity of the plasma and tissue fibrinolysis. Oppression of fibrinolytic activity is one of the pathogenetic factors of thrombosis development. The aim – to study the efficacy of natural anticoagulant sulodexide in pregnant women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism on the background of hyperhomocysteinemia. Materials and methods. The study involved 34 pregnant women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism complicated by hyperhomocysteinemia. A control group comprised 29 somatically healthy pregnant women. General clinical examination was carried out, the main indicators of all the links of the hemostatic system and the level of homocysteine were determined. Results. We determined that the main group of pregnant is characterized with chronometric and structural hypercoagulation, which manifests itself in the form of subclinical syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the pathological condition of the fetus. Addition of anticoagulant sulodexide to the standard treatment led to the significant change in indices of all the components of hemostasis in pregnant women of the main group, in particular normalization of the total capacity of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Decrease in activity of intravascular coagulation and platelet aggregation, the level of homocysteine was marked. Clinical indicators of

  8. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark. Ekologisk faeltinventering och naturvaerdesklassificering samt beskrivning av skogsproduktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  9. Distortion of the microwave background by dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Woody and Richards distortion of the microwave background has a natural explanation within the framework of the isothermal density fluctuation picture. A pregalactic generation of ''stars'' makes light and metals. The latter are able to condense into dust grains at a redshift approximately 150-225, which then absorb the starlight and reradiate it in the infrared. At the present epoch we see this emission redshifted into the millimetre range of the spectrum

  10. Excess relative risk for solid cancer mortality during prolonged exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Tao Zufan; Yuan Yongling; Zou Jianming; Cha Yongru; Jian Yuannu; Wei Luxin; Akiba, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the excess relative risk for solid cancer associated with chronically exposure to high-background natural radiation in Yangjiang area of China. Methods: Based on hamlet-specific environmental doses and sex-and age-specific occupancy factors, the authors calculated cumulative doses for each cohort member. Assuming a linear dose response relationship and using cancer mortality data for the period 1979-1995 and Poisson model, the authors estimated the excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancer. Results: The ERR per Sv of all solid cancer is estimated to be -0.11 (95% CI, -0.67, 0.69 to 95%). The corresponding figures for cancers of liver, nasopharynx, lungs and stomach are -0.99 (-1.60, 0.10), 0.10 (-1.21, 3.28), -0.68 (-1.58, 1.66) and -0.27 (-1.37, 2.69) respectively. Conclusion: The association between ERR of solid cancer and dose can not be found

  11. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  12. How could it be? calling for science curricula that cultivate morals and values towards other animals and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Marianne R.; Russell, Joshua J.

    2016-12-01

    Can science curricula truly cultivate morals and values towards nature? This is the question that is raised by Carolina Castano Rodriguez in her critique of the new Australian Science curriculum. In this response to Castano Rodriguez's paper we ask two questions relating to: the influence of curricula on the relationships of children and other animals; and other models of science education regarding animals and nature that may be more relevant, just, or caring. In responding to these questions stimulated by the reading of Castano Rodriguez's paper, we reflect on our own experiences. We note the conflict between the values depicted in the curriculum priorities and the underlying anthropocentric view that appears to be embedded in the Australian Science Curriculum and in curricula generally. With this conflict in mind we encourage educators to examine our own practices regarding how the relationships between humans and other animals are promoted. We put forward the idea of science education that responds to the shifting views of science and its applications outside the confines of the laboratory to one that encourages both ethical and political discussion that is already taking place in the community relating to the role of science and technology in our lives and the lives of other animals.

  13. The effects of noise reduction technologies on the acceptance of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Kristy Jones; Plyler, Patrick N

    2013-09-01

    Directional microphones (D-Mics) and digital noise reduction (DNR) algorithms are used in hearing aids to reduce the negative effects of background noise on performance. Directional microphones attenuate sounds arriving from anywhere other than the front of the listener while DNR attenuates sounds with physical characteristics of noise. Although both noise reduction technologies are currently available in hearing aids, it is unclear if the use of these technologies in isolation or together affects acceptance of noise and/or preference for the end user when used in various types of background noise. The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of D-Mic, DNR, or the combination of D-Mic and DNR on acceptance of noise and preference when listening in various types of background noise. An experimental study in which subjects were exposed to a repeated measures design was utilized. Thirty adult listeners with mild sloping to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss participated (mean age 67 yr). Acceptable noise levels (ANLs) were obtained using no noise reduction technologies, D-Mic only, DNR only, and the combination of the two technologies (Combo) for three different background noises (single-talker speech, speech-shaped noise, and multitalker babble) for each listener. In addition, preference rankings of the noise reduction technologies were obtained within each background noise (1 = best, 3 = worst). ANL values were significantly better for each noise reduction technology than baseline; and benefit increased significantly from DNR to D-Mic to Combo. Listeners with higher (worse) baseline ANLs received more benefit from noise reduction technologies than listeners with lower (better) baseline ANLs. Neither ANL values nor ANL benefit values were significantly affected by background noise type; however, ANL benefit with D-Mic and Combo was similar when speech-like noise was present while ANL benefit was greatest for Combo when speech spectrum noise was

  14. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  15. The correlations between natural elements (K, U, Th) concentrations and thermal neutron absorption cross-section value (Σa) for rock samples of Carpatia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swakon, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Drozdowicz, E.; Gabanska, B.; Loskiewicz, J.; Woznicka, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a study of correlations between concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and thermal neutron absorption cross section in rock samples. This knowledge of correlation should help in recognizing the expansion ways and accumulation places of the elements responsible of high thermal neutron absorption cross section in some geological environments. The correlations show the existence of connections between the thermal neutron absorption cross section value and natural radioactivity elements concentration in rocks. The results confirm the existence of correlations between natural radioactive elements concentrations (particularly thorium) and thermal neutron absorption cross - section value in some rocks. (author). 12 refs, 23 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Using the IEC standard to describe low-background detectors -- What can you expect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, R.M.; Wagner, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many measurements for environmental levels of the radioactive content require that the gamma-ray detector be low background, that is, free of any radioactive content. This is, of course, not possible, but the radioactivity in the detector must be reduced to as low a value as possible. The description or specification of the background spectrum necessary to achieve the desired results is needed. The new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard for describing the background makes the specification of the background in a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector simple, unambiguous, and related to how the detector will be used. Users and manufacturers will finally be speaking the same language on this subject. Because this standard extends the specification of the performance of an HPGe detector, there is little history available for comparison and thus no means of determining a good value. To develop a history, the background spectrum for 500 low-background HPGe ORTEC detectors were all counted in similar low-background shields. These detectors were in a variety of mechanical cryostat and endcap configurations. The continuum background is a function of energy and detector size/configuration. The peak area for the peak energies listed in the standard is a function of detector size and configuration. The results thus give practical guidance for obtaining the most appropriate low-background detector for a specific measurement problem

  17. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuestra, Clara [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  18. On the background independence of two-dimensional topological gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbimbo, Camillo

    1995-04-01

    We formulate two-dimensional topological gravity in a background covariant Lagrangian framework. We derive the Ward identities which characterize the dependence of physical correlators on the background world-sheet metric defining the gauge-slice. We point out the existence of an "anomaly" in Ward identitites involving correlators of observables with higher ghost number. This "anomaly" represents an obstruction for physical correlators to be globally defined forms on moduli space which could be integrated in a background independent way. Starting from the anomalous Ward identities, we derive "descent" equations whose solutions are cocycles of the Lie algebra of the diffeomorphism group with values in the space of local forms on the moduli space. We solve the descent equations and provide explicit formulas for the cocycles, which allow for the definition of background independent integrals of physical correlators on the moduli space.

  19. Measurement of background gamma radioactivity level in Rize and its towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, R.; Dizman, S.; Goeruer, F. K.; Okumusoglu, N. T.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides are present in various degrees in all media in the environment, including the human body itself. Only the radionuclides with half-lives comparable to the age of the earth, and their decay products and radioisotopes such as 1 37Cs, 9 0Sr from man made sources such as Chernobyl accident and nuclear tests are present in the environment. The irradiation of the human body from external sources is mainly by gamma radiation from radionuclides in the 2 38U and 2 32Th series such as 2 14 Pb, 2 28Ac and from 4 0K and 1 37Cs. The aim of this study was to measure background γ-ray activities and distributions of natural radionuclides in selected regions in Rize, such as Iyidere, Derepazari, Cayeli, Pazar, Ardesen, Findikli towns which are on the coast of Black Sea and from inland towns Ikizdere, Kalkandere, Camlihemsin and Hemsin. The geographical distribution of natural radionuclides 2 14Bi , 2 28Ac 4 0K and 1 37Cs their γ-ray activities and respective annual effective dose rates were determined using a high performance hand-held Canberra Inspector 1000 spectrometer for all of regions at various times with a week period. Surface gamma measurements (cps) and dose rate measurements show different values at different regions. The outdoor terrestrial gamma annual effective doses in air at 1 m above ground fluctuates between 0.16 to 0.55 mSv/y with an average of 0.38 mSv/y . The gamma dose rate in air due to natural radionuclides measured in Rize district in the present study have been found to be lower than the global average 0.48 mSv/y

  20. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papale

    Full Text Available An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  1. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  2. Dolphins Adjust Species-Specific Frequency Parameters to Compensate for Increasing Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles’ frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise. PMID:25853825

  3. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  4. Background level of natural radioactivities in a giant water Cherenkov detector and its surrounding environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakanoue, Masanobu; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    The KAMIOKANDE-II water Cherenkov detector for the measurement of nucleon decay and/or solar neutrino has been operating in the underground laboratory at a depth of 2,700 m.w.e. (meter water equivalent) in Kamioka mine of Gifu Prefecture. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 222 Rn as the major background sources have been measured for various kinds of rocks, mine water, mine air and high purity water used as a detector during the period from August 1986 to December 1987. The concentration levels of these radionuclides and their seasonal variation have become clear. Some of these results have provided useful informations for decreasing the background level of water Cherenkov detector. (author)

  5. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  6. Climate change - New directions for the Northeast: background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This background paper was developed in preparation for a workshop to bring forward action options to be used for developing an action plan for the consideration of the next meeting of New England Governors/ Eastern Canadian Premiers Conference in September 2001. The background paper is the product of the cooperative effort of all eleven jurisdictions. The paper examines climate science in its global and regional aspects; climate changes impacts, identifying environmental, natural resources and infrastructure issues; monitoring of emission levels and progress in reductions; policy processes, such as leadership, cooperation, emission trading and Kyoto mechanisms; mitigation action options to reduce emissions in the Northeast context, adaptation options and their effects on the natural environment, such a coastal and forestry concerns; infrastructure development; and common Northeast issues and opportunities. A series of options in each of these areas have been identified, including gaps in options. Attention is drawn to the need to consider social and ecological objectives which will become more acute as more climate change policies and programs are implemented. 45 refs

  7. Generalised extreme value distributions provide a natural hypothesis for the shape of seed mass distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Edwards

    Full Text Available Among co-occurring species, values for functionally important plant traits span orders of magnitude, are uni-modal, and generally positively skewed. Such data are usually log-transformed "for normality" but no convincing mechanistic explanation for a log-normal expectation exists. Here we propose a hypothesis for the distribution of seed masses based on generalised extreme value distributions (GEVs, a class of probability distributions used in climatology to characterise the impact of event magnitudes and frequencies; events that impose strong directional selection on biological traits. In tests involving datasets from 34 locations across the globe, GEVs described log10 seed mass distributions as well or better than conventional normalising statistics in 79% of cases, and revealed a systematic tendency for an overabundance of small seed sizes associated with low latitudes. GEVs characterise disturbance events experienced in a location to which individual species' life histories could respond, providing a natural, biological explanation for trait expression that is lacking from all previous hypotheses attempting to describe trait distributions in multispecies assemblages. We suggest that GEVs could provide a mechanistic explanation for plant trait distributions and potentially link biology and climatology under a single paradigm.

  8. Background paper on Technology Roadmaps (TRMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, E.; Phaal, R. [Institute for Manufacturing IfM, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Londo, H.M.; Wurtenberger, L.; Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    This background paper reports on the use of technology roadmaps (TRMs) related to climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies. The study is motivated by the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (CoP) request to the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) to catalyse the development and use of TRMs as facilitative tools for action on mitigation and adaptation. Having originated in industry, TRMs are now used extensively in policy settings too, however their widespread use across sectors and by different stakeholders has resulted in a lack of understanding of their real value to help catalyse cooperation towards technological solutions to the problems presented by climate change. Consequently this background paper presents (1) an overview of different TRM methods, (2) an initial analysis of gaps and barriers in existing TRMs, and (3) a review of current TRM good practices.

  9. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  10. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  11. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS): A Database of >800 Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rau, Elias M; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS). The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object ("critical object") being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral), while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1) Desire to own the object; (2) Approach/Avoid; (3) Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  12. Effects of a shade-matching light and background color on reliability in tooth shade selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Vahidi, Farhad; Janal, Malvin N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a shade-matching light (Rite-Lite-2, AdDent) and different viewing backgrounds on reliability in a test of shade tab matching. Four members of the Prosthodontic faculty matched 10 shade tabs selected for a range of shades against the shade guide. All raters were tested for color blindness and were calibrated prior to the study. Matching took place under four combinations of conditions: with operatory light or the shade-matching light, and using either a pink or a blue background. Reliability was quantified with the kappa statistic, separately for agreement of value, hue, and chroma for each shade tab. In general, raters showed fair to moderate levels of agreement when judging the value of the shade tabs, but could not agree on the hue and chroma of the stimuli. The pink background led to higher levels of agreement than the blue background, and the shade-matching light improved agreement when used in conjunction with the pink but not the blue background. Moderate levels of agreement were found in matching shade tab value. Agreement was generally better when using the pink rather than the blue background, regardless of light source. The use of the shade-matching light tended to amplify the advantage of the pink background.

  13. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working......Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...

  14. Guaranteed Unresolved Point Source Emission and the Gamma-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brown, Carolyn; Fields, Brian D.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2007-01-01

    The large majority of EGRET point sources remain without an identified low-energy counterpart, and a large fraction of these sources are most likely extragalactic. Whatever the nature of the extragalactic EGRET unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class must have a contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB). Understanding this component of the EGRB, along with other guaranteed contributions from known sources (blazars and normal galaxies), is essential if we are to use this emission to constrain exotic high-energy physics. Here, we follow an empirical approach to estimate whether the contribution of unresolved unidentified sources to the EGRB is likely to be important. Additionally, we discuss how upcoming GLAST observations of EGRET unidentified sources, their fainter counterparts, and the Galactic and extragalactic diffuse backgrounds, will shed light on the nature of the EGRET unidentified sources even without any positional association of such sources with low-energy counterparts

  15. The value of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence, biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc. with their related economic values.

  16. The calculation of absorbed dose rate in freshwater fish from high background natural radioactivity areas; Cálculo de taxa de dose absorvida em peixes de água doce de áreas de radioatividade natural aumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Moraes, S.R.; Cavalcante, J.J.V.; Pinto, C.E.C. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Areas of increased radiation may expose biota to radiation doses greater than the world averages, and depending on the magnitude of the exposure causing biota damage. The region of the municipality of Caldas, MG, BR is considered a region of increased natural radioactivity. The present work aims to evaluate the exposure of biota to natural radionuclides in the region of Caldas, MG. In order to evaluate the biota exposure in the region, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra were evaluated in two species of fishes: lambari (Astymax spp.) And traíra (Hoplias spp.). The dose rates of the analyzed fish were: for Astymax spp of 0.08 μGy d{sup -1} and for Hoplias spp of 0.12 μGy∙d{sup -1}. With these dose rate values no measurable deleterious effects are expected in the species studied.

  17. Analysis of local-scale background concentrations of methane and other gas-phase species in the Marcellus Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Douglas Goetz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Marcellus Shale is a rapidly developing unconventional natural gas resource found in part of the Appalachian region. Air quality and climate concerns have been raised regarding development of unconventional natural gas resources. Two ground-based mobile measurement campaigns were conducted to assess the impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development on local scale atmospheric background concentrations of air pollution and climate relevant pollutants in Pennsylvania. The first campaign took place in Northeastern and Southwestern PA in the summer of 2012. Compounds monitored included methane (CH4, ethane, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide, and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS measured volatile organic compounds (VOC including oxygenated and aromatic VOC. The second campaign took place in Northeastern PA in the summer of 2015. The mobile monitoring data were analyzed using interval percentile smoothing to remove bias from local unmixed emissions to isolate local-scale background concentrations. Comparisons were made to other ambient monitoring in the Marcellus region including a NOAA SENEX flight in 2013. Local background CH4 mole fractions were 140 ppbv greater in Southwestern PA compared to Northeastern PA in 2012 and background CH4 increased 100 ppbv from 2012 to 2015. CH4 local background mole fractions were not found to have a detectable relationship between well density or production rates in either region. In Northeastern PA, CO was observed to decrease 75 ppbv over the three year period. Toluene to benzene ratios in both study regions were found to be most similar to aged rural air masses indicating that the emission of aromatic VOC from Marcellus Shale activity may not be significantly impacting local background concentrations. In addition to understanding local background concentrations the ground-based mobile measurements were useful for investigating the composition of natural gas emissions in the region.

  18. A statistical background noise correction sensitive to the steadiness of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    A statistical background noise correction is developed for removing background noise contributions from measured source levels, producing a background noise-corrected source level. Like the standard background noise corrections of ISO 3741, ISO 3744, ISO 3745, and ISO 11201, the statistical background correction increases as the background level approaches the measured source level, decreasing the background noise-corrected source level. Unlike the standard corrections, the statistical background correction increases with steadiness of the background and is excluded from use when background fluctuation could be responsible for measured differences between the source and background noise levels. The statistical background noise correction has several advantages over the standard correction: (1) enveloping the true source with known confidence, (2) assuring physical source descriptions when measuring sources in fluctuating backgrounds, (3) reducing background corrected source descriptions by 1 to 8 dB for sources in steady backgrounds, and (4) providing a means to replace standardized background correction caps that incentivize against high precision grade methods.

  19. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  20. Domestic gas contribution to natural radon concentration in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, G.; Sajo B, L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique for measuring the concentration of radon in gas sold commercially for domestic use is presented. It is shown that the contribution is not significant, 5.5±1.4 (Bq/m 3 ), nevertheless it could reach in some cases significant values of intervention (200 Bq/m 3 ). The results indicate that the additional dose to which the population is exposed is approximately 26% of the natural background calculated in approximately 0,28 mSv/year. By assuming a lineal proportionality between dose and risk, the increase of the possibility of catching lethal leukemia or cancer is 16 cases for every million of population. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

  1. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode at CO2 wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.; Vaughan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between three climatologies of backscatter measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at CO2 wavelengths. These were obtained from several locations using ground-based and airborne lidar systems. All three measurement sets show similar features, specifically, a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper atmosphere (the 'background mode'). This background mode is important for the design and performance simulation of the prospective satellite sensors that rely on atmospheric aerosols as scattering targets.

  3. Stable monopole-antimonopole string background in SU(2) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole and antimonopole strings is stable, provided that the distance between the two strings is less than a critical value. The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus the magnetic confinement of color in QCD

  4. Variation of Natural Gamma Radiation in Isparta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I.

    2004-01-01

    There is always a radiation in the earth, and its level is generated primarily by galactic cosmic rays (GCR), consisting of energetic nuclei of all naturally occurring elements, interacting with atmospheric constituents, through atomic and nuclear collisions. The other sources of natural radiations are global average background radiation from terrestrial sources such as soils, rocks ete. Background radiation levels in the atmosphere vary in intensity with latitude, altitude and phase of the solar cycle. Variation of natural radiation as a function of altitude, geological structure etc has been investigated. The measurements were performed using portable radiation counter which connected to NaI(Tl) probe

  5. Measurements of Background Gamma Radiation on Some Localities of North-East Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    , G. Hodolli; , Y. Halimi; , R. Gashi; , Se. Kadiri; , B. Xhafa; , A. Jonuzaj

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of natural environmental radiations is one of the most important subjects in health physics. The main sources of background radiation are cosmic, terrestrial and cosmogenic radiation produced by reactions with cosmic rays and atmospheric nuclei. Terrestrial radiation varies in different regions in the world. Generally the background dose rate from cosmic rays depends on the latitude and altitude. The dose rate range obtained in some northeast Kosovo, the dose rate varies from ...

  6. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Budjas, D.; Schoenert, S.; Barnabe-Heider, M.; Cattadori, C.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Smolnikov, A.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Pelczar, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m 3 , 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10 -2 cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural 42 Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  7. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the Gerda 0ν β β -experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Barnabé-Heider, M.; Budjáš, D.; Cattadori, C.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-10-01

    LArGe is a Gerda low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the Gerda experiment. Similar to Gerda, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m^3, 1.4 tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to Gerda. Suppression factors of a few times 10^3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6)× 10^{-2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of Gerda Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural ^{42}Ar abundance (parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2ν β β -decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in Gerda Phase II is pursued.

  8. LArGe: active background suppression using argon scintillation for the GERDA 0νββ-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Budjas, D.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Barnabe-Heider, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cattadori, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institut for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center Kurchatov Institut, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M.; Smolnikov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Junker, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institut for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Zuzel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Jagellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m{sup 3}, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The scintillation signals are used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12 - 4.6) x 10{sup -2} cts/(keV kg year) (90 % C.L.), which is at the level of GERDA Phase I. Furthermore, for the first time we monitor the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (parallel to GERDA), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. These results show the effectivity of an active liquid argon veto in an ultra-low background environment. As a consequence, the implementation of a liquid argon veto in GERDA Phase II is pursued. (orig.)

  9. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds.

  10. MDS G(N) fast differentiation between natural and artificial gamma radiation with a new class of mobile instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.; Bottcher, J.

    2009-01-01

    A State-of-the-Art tool used for detecting and tracking artificial gamma radiation out of a helicopter or a vehicle is the MDS G(N) - Mobile Detection System. A highly sensitive scintillation detector detects a significant artificial gamma radiation on the ground even if the helicopter is travelling at high speed. The GPS-aided system visualizes the measured values on a moveable map displayed on the screen of a notebook every second. The colours of the continuously entered points do represent adjustable alarm thresholds. This way, location and intensity of an unknown radioactive source or a radioactive contamination can be determined very quickly. The NBR-technology (Natural Background Rejection) which is used here leads to expressive measurement results differentiating between artificial and natural gamma radiation. Additional He-3 detectors allow simultaneously the detection of neutrons. The NBR principle - developed by Thermo Scientific - stands out for its very short response times. Thus, artificial radiation can be detected reliably within seconds - even when the unit is operated by untrained staff. Unlike traditional analytic measuring techniques, the NBR method is able to detect artificial radiation sources hidden or strongly shielded gamma sources clearly from the natural background radiation. The measuring range from 1 nSv/h to 20 ?Sv/h and is extended to 1 Sv/h with a Geiger Mueller counting tube. The sensitivity amounts to max. 20000 cps (referred to 1 ?Sv/h for Cs-137). The NBR- technique is well-proven and tested for: tracking hidden radiation sources, even such ones with low activity or which are shielded, detection of artificial radiation portions in the range of the natural background, reliably measuring the ambient equivalent dose rate in the range of the natural background, fast detection of artificial radioactivity out of helicopters and vehicles.(author)

  11. Estimating natural background groundwater chemistry, Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Phillip L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Walker, Bruce M.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Quane, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    This 2 1/2 day field trip will present an overview of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project whose objective was to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry at the Questa molybdenum mine, New Mexico. Because of intense debate among stakeholders regarding pre-mining groundwater chemistry standards, the New Mexico Environment Department and Chevron Mining Inc. (formerly Molycorp) agreed that the USGS should determine pre-mining groundwater quality at the site. In 2001, the USGS began a 5-year, multidisciplinary investigation to estimate pre-mining groundwater chemistry utilizing a detailed assessment of a proximal natural analog site and applied an interdisciplinary approach to infer pre-mining conditions. The trip will include a surface tour of the Questa mine and key locations in the erosion scar areas and along the Red River. The trip will provide participants with a detailed understanding of geochemical processes that influence pre-mining environmental baselines in mineralized areas and estimation techniques for determining pre-mining baseline conditions.

  12. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  13. Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Reneman; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; K.W. Douma; Remko Soer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were;

  14. Application of cone beam computed tomography gray scale values in the diagnosis of cysts and tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarfa Nasim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have unveiled that in CBCT the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value that is used in determining the pathologic lesion. Gray value is to assess the density or quality of bone and the density varies depending on radiation attenuation. CBCT gray values are considered approximate values and its measurement allows differentiation of soft tissue and fluid with that of hard tissue. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the application of CBCT gray scale value of cysts and tumors to assess the difference of bony changes and to determine the significance in diagnosing the contents of the lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patient clinically diagnosed either with cysts or tumors over a period of 18 months were included in the study. The gray scale reading was taken and radiological diagnosis was made which was further compared with the histopathological report of cysts and tumors. Results: CBCT gray scale value was found to be effective and superior to conventional radiographic tool and more useful in diagnosing the nature of cysts and tumors pre-operatively. Conclusion: CBCT gray value can be considered as a major tool in diagnosis of cyst and tumor and other soft or hard tissue lesion without any microscopic evaluation. CBCT gray scale measurement is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of lytic lesion of jaw.

  15. 儒家心性论的医德教育价值%Values of Confucianism Mind-nature Theory for Medical Ethics Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳琳; 张艳清

    2017-01-01

    As a core element of the Confucianism,mind-nature theory is full of the essence of Confucian mor-al education and has a profound influence on the Chinese national morality education.Confucianism mind-nature theory which takes Confucius and Mencius as representatives,after the continuous development of the future genera-tions,has been formed a complete ideological system.Confucianism mind-nature theory highly affirms the values of moral and unifies the values of life and moral.This article,by exploring the moral resources of Confucianism mind-nature theory,rethinks the ideas of contemporary ethics education and expounds how to enhance the effect of medical ethics education.%作为儒家学说核心内容之一的“心性论”思想,饱含着儒家德育思想的精髓,对中华民族道德教育影响深远.以孔孟为代表人物的儒家心性论历经后世的不断发展与完善,已经形成了一个完备的理论体系.儒家心性论高度肯定道德的价值,把人生价值与道德价值统一起来.通过挖掘其中的道德资源,来反思当代德育理念、提升医德教育效果.

  16. The Pedestrian Detection Method Using an Extension Background Subtraction about the Driving Safety Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Noriaki; Date, Kei; Tokumaru, Masataka; Imanishi, Shigeru

    In recent years, the traffic accident occurs frequently with explosion of traffic density. Therefore, we think that the safe and comfortable transportation system to defend the pedestrian who is the traffic weak is necessary. First, we detect and recognize the pedestrian (the crossing person) by the image processing. Next, we inform all the drivers of the right or left turn that the pedestrian exists by the sound and the image and so on. By prompting a driver to do safe driving in this way, the accident to the pedestrian can decrease. In this paper, we are using a background subtraction method for the movement detection of the movement object. In the background subtraction method, the update method in the background was important, and as for the conventional way, the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update were identical. That is, the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update was a fixation value, and the fine tuning which corresponded to the environment change of the weather was difficult. Therefore, we propose the update method of the background image that the estimated mistake is difficult to be amplified. We experiment and examines in the comparison about five cases of sunshine, cloudy, evening, rain, sunlight change, except night. This technique can set separately the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update processing which suited the environmental condition of the weather and so on. Therefore, the fine tuning becomes possible freely in the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update. Because the setting of the parameter which suited an environmental condition becomes important to minimize mistaking percentage, we examine about the setting of a parameter.

  17. A low-background Micromegas detector for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Andriamonje, Samuel A; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Kousouris, K; Papaevangelou, T; Zachariadou, K

    2004-01-01

    A micropattern low-background detector based on the Micromegas technology has been designed and constructed for the CERN Axion Search experiment CAST. The detector is made of low natural radioactivity materials and has a two-dimensional readout with X-Y strip structure. It is operated with an Argon/Isobutane (95%/5%) mixture and is controlled by a VME data acquisition system. The detector is sensitive to photons in the energy range of 1-10 keV, it has a linear response, excellent stability and a very good energy resolution (14% FWHM at 5.9 keV). This device has been in stable operation since October 2002, taking data during the running periods of the CAST experiment. At the end of summer 2003, the detector was upgraded with a flash ADC readout of the grid signal to further improve its background rejection capability. The currently achieved background rate under normal operation is about 2.0 multiplied by 10 **-**5 events/keV/cm**2/s with better than 85% software efficiency.

  18. Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Background: Colorants derived from natural sources look set to overtake synthetic colorants in market value as manufacturers continue to meet the rising demand for clean label ingredients-particularly in food applications. Many ascomycetous fungi naturally synthesize and secrete pigments and thus...... has not yet been examined in detail. In addition, 4 out of the 10 chemotaxonomically selected promising Penicillium strains were shown to produce extracellular pigments in the liquid media using a solid support indicating future cell factory possibilities for polyketide natural food colorants....... provide readily available additional and/or alternative sources of natural colorants that are independent of agro-climatic conditions. With an appropriately selected fungus; using in particular chemotaxonomy as a guide, the fungal natural colorants could be produced in high yields by using the optimized...

  19. Target vs. background discrimination using multispectral data in 1.5-14.5 micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliandro, Santo; Panizza, Marco; Castelli, Paola

    1987-01-01

    LOWTRAN V model calculations are compared to experimental spectral background radiance and spectral transmittance data in the 1.5 to 14.5-micron band, in order to identify the most important parameters affecting the discrimination of targets from background. Attention is accordingly given to the IR energy emitted by a reference plate at different values of temperature and emissivity vs various previously investigated backgrounds. Targets at near-ambient temperature are also considered.

  20. Health values and prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, J R; Lenert, L A

    1999-01-01

    Health values are important components of medical decisions. Experimental data suggest that people value health in complex and dynamic ways. Prospect theory is a descriptive theory of choice that may accurately characterize how people assign values to health states. The authors first provide background on prospect theory and how it can be applied to health values. Next, they review the relevant health research and find mixed support for prospect theory. Last, they discuss implications of prospect theory for cost-effectiveness analysis. The application of prospect theory to health deserves further research because it may help clarify the link between health and values.

  1. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  2. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  3. Direct measurements of the spectrum of the near-millimeter cosmic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of the cosmic background radiation peaks at 6 cm -1 and falls rapidly at higher frequencies. The experimental determination of this simple but important fact has had a long and troubled history. It remained in doubt long after the nature of the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the spectrum was firmly established. In this review the author describes the experimental difficulties which have plagued cosmic background measurements at and beyond the peak in the spectrum. A critical evaluation of the present status of the field is then given. (Auth.)

  4. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg -1 of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg -1 of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site

  5. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointurier, F. E-mail: fabien.pointurier@cea.fr; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg{sup -1} of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg{sup -1} of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site.

  6. Does using the ecosystem services concept provoke the risk of assigning virtual prices instead of real values to nature? Some reflections on the benefit of ecosystem services for planning and policy consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Christine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This forum article intends to discuss the question if using the ecosystem services concept in planning, management and decision-making can impair nature conservation objectives by hiding the intrinsic values of nature through overemphasizing monetary aspects in environmental assessments. The conclusion is drawn that using ecosystem services in a holistic social-ecological system understanding would help to overcome justified criticisms of a too narrow perspective on the real values of nature.

  7. Values of natural and human-made wetlands: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghermandi, A.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Brander, L.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The values of goods and services provided by wetland ecosystems are examined through a meta-analysis of an expanded database of wetland value estimates and with a focus on human-made wetlands. This study extends and improves upon previous meta-analyses of the wetland valuation literature in terms of

  8. The value of tax shields with a fixed book-value leverage ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The value of tax shields depends only on the nature of the stochastic process of the net increases of debt. The value of tax shields in a world with no leverage cost is the tax rate times the current debt plus the present value of the net increases of debt. We develop valuation formulae for a company that maintains a fixed book-value leverage ratio and show that it is more realistic than to assume, as Miles-Ezzell (1980) do, a fixed market-value leverage ratio. We also show that Miles-Ezzell ...

  9. Methodological requirements on the spatial representativeness of heavy metal background values in top-soils; Methodische Anforderungen an die Flaechenrepraesentanz von Hintergrundwerten in Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermann, J.; Duewel, O.; Fuchs, M.; Gaebler, H.E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Gehrt, E.; Hindel, R.; Schneider, J. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Country-wide application of site-specific soil data for derivation and spatial transfer of inherent background values requires that the sampled sites are adequately representative with regards to soil substrate and land use. An approach to determine the pedo-regional representativeness is pursued which bases on site-specific soil data and spatial information. Site-specific soil data have been put together from different sources (soil data from federal institutions and institutions of the federal states (Bundeslaender)) taking into account aspects of data harmonization and minimum requirements. In order to harmonize data from different sources a comparison of real total versus aqua regia soluble contents is presented based on linear regression modeling. Spatial informations are given by a developed small-scale (1:1.000.000) digital map of soil parent materials (MPM 1000) and additional informations about the dominant and concomitant soil textures. Concerning the principle land use as a second spatial information, a map of land use cover has been compiled on a scale of 1:1.000.000 (LUC 1000) based on the CORINE landcover. Based on the site-specific data that are presently country-wide available heavy metal background values in topsoils can be estimated for 67% of the area of the Federal Republic if pedo-regional and land use related representativeness is taken into account. The presented algorithm has been examplary applicated on Lower Saxony as one of the federal states. Based on similar criteria, for about 47% on the area of Lower Saxony heavy metal background values in topsoils can be estimated with profile informations given by the Lower Saxony Soil Information System (NIBIS). (orig.) [German] Die Berechnung von laenderuebergreifenden Hintergrundwerten anorganischer Spurenstoffe in Oberboeden und ihre flaechenhafte Darstellung setzt eine massstabsabhaengig hinreichende Repraesentanz unter Substrat- und Nutzungsaspekten voraus. Hierzu wird ein pragmatischer Ansatz

  10. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds. (paper)

  11. Background radiation in the Sydney metropolitan area scientific reality and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Very little information if any, is available to the public about the ubiquitous nature of low-level background radiation -both from terrestrial and cosmic sources - in our highly urbanised or predominantly agrarnian societies. Public perception has naively accepted that the combustion of precious oxygen by air breathing engines is both natural and societally acceptable. Little thought has been given to the fact that on the one planet known to be able to sustain life based on oxygen, this is a recipe for disaster. On the other hand, since the evolution or creation of our universe, billions of tonnes of radioactive material within the crust of planet earth together with radiation from the thermonuclear powers station of the solar system, the sun, have sustained life, assisted in its evolution and, through photosynthesis and energy deposition, have ensured its propagation. In this on-going student project, employing wide-band, sensitive scintillation radiation detectors, careful statistical analysis and an understanding of the physics of radium-uranium decay chain and the production of radon gas and its daughter products, fluctuation in the radiation fields of large cities is clearly demonstrated. The work is usually carried out by the author and his final year thesis and students have great educational value for the public, civic authorities, school teachers, the media and political decision makers

  12. Depression in the barrio: An analysis of the risk and protective nature of cultural values among Mexican American substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Yolanda R; Torres, Luis R; Stotts, Angela L; Ren, Yi; Sampson, Mcclain; Klawans, Michelle R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-07

    Understanding the effect of cultural values on depression and how social networks influence these relationships may be important in the treatment of substance-using, Mexican American populations. Latino cultural values, familismo, personalismo, fatalismo, and machismo, may be associated with depression among Latinos. The current study identified the association of traditional Latino values on depressive symptomatology among a sample of Mexican American heroin injectors. A cross-sectional research design and field-intensive outreach methodology were utilized to recruit 227 Mexican American men. Participants were categorized into depressed and nondepressed groups. Relations among cultural values and depression were examined using logistic regression. Findings indicate that drug-using men with higher familismo and fatalismo scores are protected against depressive symptomatology. Relations between familismo and depression seem to be moderated by having a drug use network. In addition, findings reveal that age is inversely related to depressive symptomatology. Young Mexican American heroin users who do not ascribe to traditional Latino values may be highly associated with depression and therefore more vulnerable to riskier drug use behaviors. Moreover, drug-using social networks may affect the protective nature of certain cultural values. Further research is needed to identify whether culturally tailored treatments can cultivate these values while simultaneously undermining the effect of substance-using social networks in order to reduce depression symptoms among this group of high-risk substance users.

  13. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of 238 U and 232 Th, and 40 K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for 40 K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The 40 K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and 40 K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurpbk@rediffmail.com.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  15. The Core Values that Support Health, Safety, and Well-being at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Gerard I.J.M.; Scheppingen, Arjella R. van; Bos, Evelien H.; Dijkman, Anja; Starren, Annick

    2013-01-01

    Background Health, safety, and well-being (HSW) at work represent important values in themselves. It seems, however, that other values can contribute to HSW. This is to some extent reflected in the scientific literature in the attention paid to values like trust or justice. However, an overview of what values are important for HSW was not available. Our central research question was: what organizational values are supportive of health, safety, and well-being at work? Methods The literature was explored via the snowball approach to identify values and value-laden factors that support HSW. Twenty-nine factors were identified as relevant, including synonyms. In the next step, these were clustered around seven core values. Finally, these core values were structured into three main clusters. Results The first value cluster is characterized by a positive attitude toward people and their “being”; it comprises the core values of interconnectedness, participation, and trust. The second value cluster is relevant for the organizational and individual “doing”, for actions planned or undertaken, and comprises justice and responsibility. The third value cluster is relevant for “becoming” and is characterized by the alignment of personal and organizational development; it comprises the values of growth and resilience. Conclusion The three clusters of core values identified can be regarded as “basic value assumptions” that underlie both organizational culture and prevention culture. The core values identified form a natural and perhaps necessary aspect of a prevention culture, complementary to the focus on rational and informed behavior when dealing with HSW risks. PMID:24422174

  16. Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimcik, C.

    1988-01-01

    A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)

  17. Radiation dose in the high background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa, E P; Jojo, P J; Vaidyan, V K; Anilkumar, S; Eappen, K P

    2012-03-01

    A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala to define the natural gamma-radiation levels. One hundred and forty seven soil samples from high-background radiation areas and five samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analysed for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K by gamma-ray spectroscopy. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also measured using a survey meter. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to vary from 17 to 3081 Bq kg(-1), 54 to 11976 Bq kg(-1) and BDL (67.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 216 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the study area. Such heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to the deposition phenomenon of beach sand soil in the region. Radium equivalent activities were found high in several locations. External gamma dose rates estimated from the levels of radionuclides in soil had a range from 49 to 9244 nGy h(-1). The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil samples.

  18. Quantitation in planar renal scintigraphy: which μ value should be used?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, E.; Jeanguillaume, C.; Galle, P.; Prigent, A.

    1999-01-01

    The attenuation coefficient value μ used by different authors for quantitation in planar renal scintigraphy varies greatly, from the theoretical value of 0.153 cm -1 (appropriate for scatter-free data) down to 0.099 cm -1 (empirical value assumed to compensate for both scatter and attenuation). For a 6-cm-deep kidney, such variations introduce up to 30% differences in absolute measurement of kidney activity. Using technetium-99m phantom studies, we determined the μ values that would yield accurate kidney activity quantitation for different energy windows corresponding to different amounts of scatter, and when using different image analysis approaches similar to those used in renal quantitation. With the 20% energy window, it was found that the μ value was strongly dependent on the size of the region of interest (ROI) and on whether background subtraction was performed: the μ value thus varied from 0.119 cm -1 (loose ROI, no background subtraction) to 0.150 cm -1 (kidney ROI and background subtraction). When using data from an energy window that could be considered scatter-free, the μ value became almost independent of the image analysis scheme. It is concluded that: (1) when performing background subtraction, which implicitly reduces the effect of scatter, the μ value to be used for accurate quantitation is close to the theoretical μ value; (2) if the acquired data were initially corrected for scatter, the appropriate μ value would then be the theoretical μ value, whatever the image analysis scheme. (orig.)

  19. An Overview of Natural Gas Conversion Technologies for Co-Production of Hydrogen and Value-Added Solid Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Vanessa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krause, Theodore R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This report was prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Congressional Appropriation language to support research on carbon-free production of hydrogen using new chemical processes that utilize natural gas to produce solid carbon and hydrogen. The U.S. produces 9-10 million tons of hydrogen annually with more than 95% of the hydrogen produced by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas. SMR is attractive because of its high hydrogen yield; but it also converts the carbon to carbon dioxide. Non-oxidative thermal decomposition of methane to carbon and hydrogen is an alternative to SMR and produces CO2-free hydrogen. The produced carbon can be sold as a co-product, thus providing economic credit that reduces the delivered net cost of hydrogen. The combination of producing hydrogen with potentially valuable carbon byproducts has market value in that this allows greater flexibility to match the market prices of hydrogen and carbon. That is, the higher value product can subsidize the other in pricing decisions. In this report we highlight the relevant technologies reported in the literature—primarily thermochemical and plasma conversion processes—and recent research progress and commercial activities. Longstanding technical challenges include the high energetic requirements (e.g., high temperatures and/or electricity requirements) necessary for methane activation and, for some catalytic processes, the separation of solid carbon product from the spent catalyst. We assess current and new carbon product markets that could be served given technological advances, and we discuss technical barriers and potential areas of research to address these needs. We provide preliminary economic analysis for these processes and compare to other emerging (e.g., electrolysis) and conventional (e.g., SMR) processes for hydrogen production. The overarching conclusion of this study is that the cost of hydrogen can be potentially

  20. Towards the development of a research methodology for studying the nature of value co-creation in internet-driven businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    building through the development and testing of hypotheses. It is important, therefore, to seek the development of a research methodology that would be able to combine the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches to studying the nature of value co-creation. The present paper...... of the different types of interactions between end users, the firm and the value network. Although very useful, such an approach misses the advantages of an empirically driven quantitative approach that would be able to benefit from larger size samples of firms and that could be more appropriate for theory...... suggests a way of how is this to be done by providing a first attempt to identify the main research steps of such methodology. It provides some preliminary results on the key components of value co-creation between firms and end uses or customers based on the application of web search and Principal...

  1. Effect of natural West African phosphates on phosphorus uptake by Agrostis and on isotopically dilutable phosphorus (L-value) in five tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichot, J.; Truong, B.; Beunard, P.

    1979-01-01

    Six natural West African phosphates are compared with a weak Tunisian phosphate and triple superphosphate in five types of tropical soil. The study consists of a pot experiment using Agrostis as the test plant, over several cuttings, in order to evaluate the uptake of phosphorus by plants and the isotopically dilutable phosphorus of the soil (L-value). The results show that there are very great differences between phosphates from the points of view of speed and degree of solubilization and that the L-value is a good criterion for assessing these differences. (author)

  2. Groundwater chemical baseline values to assess the Recovery Plan in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Martínez, S; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2016-01-15

    The two most exploited aquifers in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin are being monitored in the framework of the Integrated Environmental Sanitation Plan that implements the Basin Authority, Autoridad de Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo. In this context, this work identifies the groundwater chemical types and the natural processes behind them; determines spatial and temporal changes; establishes ranges of variation for chemical components, and proposes concentration values for the upper limit of the natural chemical background. A total of 1007 samples from three aquifer-layers (Upper Aquifer, top and bottom of Puelche Aquifer) have been studied. As concrete guidelines for practical determination of baseline values are not available in the region, the methodology used follows the proposals of European projects which assessed European water directives. The groundwater composition is very stable in terms of both chemical facies and mineralization degree, and the changes observed in the dry and wet periods analysed are subtle in general. Most of the groundwater is Na-HCO3 type, except a few samples that are Ca-HCO3, Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl types. The Ca-HCO3 waters are the result of calcium carbonate dissolution, Na-HCO3 waters result from cation exchange and carbonate dissolution, while in the Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl waters, mixing with connate and with encroached old marine water from the underlying and overlying sediments are the most relevant processes. The proposed values for the upper limit of the natural background consider the influence of geology and Holocene marine ingressions in the baseline of coastal groundwater. This study allowed to know the initial chemical conditions of the groundwater system of the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin and to establish the reference from which Basin Authority can start to evaluate trends and monitor the recovery plan. At the same time, it sets a precedent for future studies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontova, Elena A.; Mamontov, Alexander A.; Tarasova, Eugenia N.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu.; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  4. Assessment of genetically significant doses to the Sofia population from natural gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M.

    1977-01-01

    Genetically significant dose to the population of Sofia city was assessed within a program covering larger urban communities in the country. Measurements were made of gamma background exposure rates in the gonadal region. Gonad doses were estimated using a screening factor of 0.73. Based on statistical data for total number of inhabitants and number of people of reproductive age, and on the mean annual gonad doses derived, calculations were made of genetically significant dose to the Sofia population. Base-line data were thus provided for an assessment of extra radiation dose resulting from occupational radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Langholz, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models.

  6. Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes

  7. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  8. Distribution of selected natural radionuclides in soil of the district Ziar nad Hronom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Slovakia like a part of a difficult geological structure of the Western Carpathians is a typical place with a different field of radioactivity. The district Ziar nad Hronom belongs to regions which are characteristic by their high values of radioactivity in comparison with Slovakia. It is due to a geological background which is mostly compound from neovulcanites. In this area were measurement concentrations of uranium-238, thorium- 232 and potassium-40. Consequently, these values were shown by maps which reflect distribution of chosen radionuclides. Sequential research was focus on demographic processing. There turned out that in this area is increased number of deaths in particular due to malignancies. This fact can be affected by natural radionuclides which exist in this area. (authors)

  9. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  10. Background outdoor radiation dose to inhabitants around Narwapahar mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.S.; Jha, V.N.; Topno, R.; Dandpat, B.L.; Patnaik, R.I.; Kumar, R.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Mining of uranium ore due to their inherent radiological characteristics may lead to release radionuclides into the environment. Monitoring of radiological parameters in the villages surrounding the mining areas are of significant concern for the evaluation of public exposure. The monitoring objectives will include the natural distribution of radionuclides in the environment as well as contribution of the source (mine), if any. Radon and its short lived progeny present in the environment contributes maximum natural background radiation dose due to inhalation. Apart from this, terrestrial radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th series and 40 K) present in trace level in earth crust are significant contributor of external exposure in the environment. The variation in the levels of these radionuclides depends on the geological strata of the area. Measured radiological parameters are comparable to the global average variation of exposure level due to these natural sources. Statistical treatment of the database reveals that the variation in radon and gamma level is natural and contribution of mining activities at the site is insignificant. The same is attributed to natural uranium mineralization of Singhbhum shear zone. Apart from this, seasonal variation in radon profile is globally reported

  11. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.; Komarov, E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies carried out in various countries and by the World Health Organization on health effects of exposure of populations to high levels of natural background radiation result in observations of different significance. There are indications of changes in chromosome aberration rate; Down's syndrome has been observed to be possibly related to radiation exposure; malignant neoplasms in bone apparently correspond to high concentrations of 226 Ra in drinking water. Although various researchers have looked for them, effects have not been demonstrated regarding cancer mortality (other than malignant neoplasms involving bone), gross congenital abnormalities, fertility index, growth and development, hereditary disease (other than the possibility of Down's syndrome), infant mortality, longevity, multiple births, sex ratio, or spontaneous abortion rate. On the basis of reported data clear quantitative conception of the risk of low-level radiation from natural sources could not be developed and feasibility studies of further epidemiological programmes should be organized. The possibility of reducing the collective population dose from natural sources could be further explored and a basis for necessary legal action on establishment of standards for possible sources of natural radiation, such as building materials, fertilizers, natural gas and water, might be developed. (author)

  12. HEART ELECTRICAL AXIS Α ANGLE VALUES DISTRIBUTION IN PATIENTS, UNDERGOING PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Voronenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 52 patients (24 male and 28 female aged 71 ± 8 years, underwent permanent pacemaker implantation were included in the study. Analysis of heart electrical axis (HEA α angle values distribution was carried out in three dimensions in patience before and after pacemaker (PM implantation. The data processed in Microsoft Excel with calculation of the average and it’s standard deviation. Significance of differences in data before and after PM implantation was assessed using Friedman ANOVA test and Kendall concordance coefficient. It was found, that α angle values distribution in patients with implanted PM is transformed from a unimodal to bimodal on the permanent cardiac pacing background. It’s assumed, that α angle changes resulting due to right ventricular electrode positioning options during PM implantation. Clarification of the nature of this change requires a special study.

  13. EFFECTS OF NATURAL ORIFICE SECRETIONS IN PERITONEAL CAVITY IN THE BACKGROUND OF NATURAL ORIFICE TRANSLUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY (NOTES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES is a new form of minimally invasive surgery which eliminates traditional skin incisions by accessing internal body cavities through natural orifices. In our experimental animal study, we compared the incidences intraperitoneal abscess formation , culture swab of peritoneal cavity positive for organism, intraperitoneal adhesion formation and mean adhesion score before and after lavaging the portal of entry of albino rat , i.e. transgastric and transvaginal. On vaginal route as a portal of entry into peritoneal cavity , on the 7th day , 66% rats developed abscesses , 88% rats had culture swab positive and 88% rats developed intraperitoneal adhesion (grade - 2 before any cleansing of vaginal cavity with antiseptic solution . Now after lavage with povidone iodine solution, only 11% developed abscesses , 22% were peritoneal swab culture positive and 33% had interbowel and parietal adhesion of (grade 0 - 1. On 21 st day , the complication observed was adhesion formation in pre lavage group of 66% incidence and 16% after vaginal lavage. The incidence of complications were reduced significantly after lavage with antiseptic solution as shown by p values (p<0.01 for abscess formation, p< 0.01 for culture positivity and p< 0.01 for adhesions formation. Also the mean adhesion scoring was significantly reduced (p <0.02 after vaginal lavage on the 7 th day. Gastric route as the portal of entry into the peritoneal cavity, again the same variables were compared on the 7th and the 21st day , but wash was given with antibiotic solution (Cefazolin. On the 7th day , 44% had abscesses, 77% were culture positive and 66% had adhesions (Grade 1 - 2 before gastric lavage with antibiotic solution . After wash of stomach, 11% were culture positive and 44% developed adhesions (Grade 0 - 1. Here, abscess formation (p<0.02 and mean adhesion scoring (p<0.05 were significantly reduced after stomach wash. On the 21st day

  14. Motion of photons in a gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Huang, Chao-Guang; Zhao, Zhi-Chao

    2017-09-01

    Photon motion in a Michelson interferometer is re-analyzed in terms of both geometrical optics and wave optics. The classical paths of the photons in the background of a gravitational wave are derived from the Fermat principle, which is the same as the null geodesics in general relativity. The deformed Maxwell equations and the wave equations of electric fields in the background of a gravitational wave are presented in a flat-space approximation. Both methods show that even the envelope of the response of an interferometer depends on the frequency of a gravitational wave, but it is almost independent of the frequency of the mirror’s vibrations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207, 11375203, 11690022, 11675182) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Multi-waveband Gravitational Wave Universe” (XDB23040000)

  15. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  16. On the ghost-induced instability on de Sitter background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrick; Salles, Filipe de O.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2018-03-01

    It is known that the perturbative instability of tensor excitations in higher derivative gravity may not take place if the initial frequency of the gravitational waves is below the Planck threshold. One can assume that this is a natural requirement if the cosmological background is sufficiently mild, since in this case the situation is qualitatively close to the free gravitational wave in flat space. Here, we explore the opposite situation and consider the effect of a very far from Minkowski radiation-dominated or de Sitter cosmological background with a large Hubble rate, e.g., typical of an inflationary period. It turns out that, then, for initial Planckian or even trans-Planckian frequencies, the instability is rapidly suppressed by the very fast expansion of the Universe.

  17. Radiological Background and Working Conditions During Unshipping of Phosphorite at The Port Varna West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.; Todorov, P.

    2010-01-01

    Varna is the biggest Bulgarian city at the Black sea coast. Closely to Varna is located the chemical industry complex of Devnia. For the needs of the fertilizers producing plant is used phosphorite delivered at the nearby port Varna West. The main types of phosphorite handled there are Letfallah III from Syria and African Sky from Morocco. During the un shipping the workers are exposed to the natural radioactivity of the mineral. From the made analysis is clear that the delivered mineral has higher natural radioactivity than the allowance. The volume concentration of natural uranium (99.274% U-238) at the breathing air is also above the limit concentration. Regarding to the limit for a year uranium input by the respiratory system, the measured values are vastly above the limit concentration. The other parameters like γ background in air (μGy/h), β and α surface activity (β and α particles/min/cm 2 ) and the hidden energy (MeV/l) have considerably no influence for the overtaxing of the staff. As a result of the measurements is clear that the main radiological parameter is the radionuclide input by the respiratory system and only like dust. It is really important that the correlation between the total inhaled dusts to its respiratory fraction is between 30-70%. On the basis data have to be taken adequate safety measurements for protection of workers health.

  18. Value-based management in the public sector: more value for the taxpayers´ money? A danish case and the background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    2006-01-01

    Can value-based management in the public sector lead to improvements in efficiency in the daily operations and improvements in the quality of the pubic services? This is discussed in the article. And the answer is yes!...

  19. Pengaruh Faktor Individual Wisatawan dan Kinerja Bauran Pemasaran terhadap Nilai Jasa Pariwisata Alam (The Effect of Individual Tourist and the Mixed Marketing to Services Value on Nature-Based Tourism Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Purnomo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perum Perhutani, an Indonesian State Owned Forest Company has been developed nature-based tourism services(a tourism services based on nature or environment services since 1978. Ecotourism is considered as potentialalternative answering the change of paradigm of forest products which had been ignoring forest resourcesproduct as part of the forest products. However, these ecotourism objects have not been optimally managed yet.This research was conducted by the use of descriptive and verificative methods. Structural Equation Modelingwas employed as tool analyses in order to determine proper modeling approach and its solution.  The researchresults showed that internal, external individual factors, and mixed marketing performance gave a significantinfluence to the tourism service value.  A deeper analysis revealed that among the aspects, mixed marketingperformance which was consisted of product, price, place, promotion, people, physical evidence, and processshowed the most significant effect to the tourism service value.  In the other side, the results also showed that themost dominant factor that causing tourist hedonism was services value incrementy. The analyses finally showed thatthe increasing tourist hedonism through the offering a superior service value will  form a superior customer value.Keywords: nature-based tourism, individual factors, services marketing value, mixed marketing, hedonism

  20. Background determination for the neutron-neutron scattering experiment at the reactor YAGUAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzichka, A.Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Furman, W.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Krylov, A.R. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Levakov, B.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Lyzhin, A.E. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Chernukhin, Yu.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Kandiev, Ya.Z. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Crawford, B.E. [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Stephenson, S.L. [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States)]. E-mail: sstephen@gettysburg.edu; Tornow, W. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The motivation and design is outlined for the experiment to measure the neutron-neutron singlet scattering length directly with thermal neutrons at the pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A statistical accuracy of 3% can be reached, though achieving the goal of an overall accuracy of 3-5% for the nn-scattering length depends on the background level. Possible sources of background are discussed in depth and the results of extensive modeling of the background are presented. Measurements performed at YAGUAR to test these background calculations are described. The experimental results indicate an anticipated background level up to 30% relative to the expected nn effect at the maximal energy burst of the reactor. The conclusion is made that the nn experiment at YAGUAR is feasible to produce the first directly measured value for the neutron-neutron scattering length.

  1. Value-based recruitment in midwifery: do the values align with what women say is important to them?

    OpenAIRE

    Callwood, Alison; Cooke, Debbie; Allan, Helen T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss theoretical conceptualisation and definition of values and values-based recruitment in the context of women’s views about what they would like from their midwife. \\ud \\ud Background: Values-based recruitment received headline status in the UK government’s response to pervasive deficiencies in compassionate care identified in the health service. Core values which aim to inform service user’s experience are defined in the National Health Service Constitution but clarity about wh...

  2. The Values of Tourism in the Area (Valley) of Drenica

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , B. Bajraktari; , S. Bulliqi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work ‘The values of tourism in the area of Drenica’ is to present the natural touristic values of this part of Kosovo, because this area has natural tourist values such as: Drenica River, Cave of Pjetershtica, Cave of Baica, Cave of Kishnareka, mineral resource in Poklek, as well as natural spring of Baica, etc. These are potential values for the development of tourism in this area, whereas if there is a promotion of these values, the number of visitors would increas. This ...

  3. Using background knowledge for picture organization and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Yuri

    1997-01-01

    A picture knowledge base management system is described that is used to represent, organize and retrieve pictures from a frame knowledge base. Experiments with human test subjects were conducted to obtain further descriptions of pictures from news magazines. These descriptions were used to represent the semantic content of pictures in frame representations. A conceptual clustering algorithm is described which organizes pictures not only on the observable features, but also on implicit properties derived from the frame representations. The algorithm uses inheritance reasoning to take into account background knowledge in the clustering. The algorithm creates clusters of pictures using a group similarity function that is based on the gestalt theory of picture perception. For each cluster created, a frame is generated which describes the semantic content of pictures in the cluster. Clustering and retrieval experiments were conducted with and without background knowledge. The paper shows how the use of background knowledge and semantic similarity heuristics improves the speed, precision, and recall of queries processed. The paper concludes with a discussion of how natural language processing of can be used to assist in the development of knowledge bases and the processing of user queries.

  4. Quantifying the value of investing in distributed natural gas and renewable electricity systems as complements: Applications of discounted cash flow and real options analysis with stochastic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen

    2016-01-01

    One energy policy objective in the United States is to promote the adoption of technologies that provide consumers with stable, secure, and clean energy. Recent work provides anecdotal evidence of natural gas (NG) and renewable electricity (RE) synergies in the power sector, however few studies quantify the value of investing in NG and RE systems together as complements. This paper uses discounted cash flow analysis and real options analysis to value hybrid NG-RE systems in distributed applications, focusing on residential and commercial projects assumed to be located in the states of New York and Texas. Technology performance and operational risk profiles are modeled at the hourly level to capture variable RE output and NG prices are modeled stochastically as geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) stochastic processes to capture NG price uncertainty. The findings consistently suggest that NG-RE hybrid distributed systems are more favorable investments in the applications studied relative to their single-technology alternatives when incentives for renewables are available. In some cases, NG-only systems are the favorable investments. Understanding the value of investing in NG-RE hybrid systems provides insights into one avenue towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, given the important role of NG and RE in the power sector. - Highlights: • Natural gas and renewable electricity can be viewed as complements. • We model hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems at the hourly level. • We incorporate variable renewable power output and uncertain natural gas prices. • Hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems can be valuable investments.

  5. Studying the muon background component in the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Dennis

    2013-03-28

    The reactor anti-neutrino experiment Double Chooz (DC) will measure the third neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} with very high precision. This mixing angle is connected to fundamental questions in particle physics beyond the current Standard Model. In DC neutrinos are detected via the Inverse Beta Decay reaction, which provides a clean signal distinguishable from most backgrounds. However, as neutrino interactions in the detector are very rare and an interfering muon background is present, a proper understanding and reduction of this background is mandatory. This is crucial because muons create fast neutrons and βn-emitters which lead to background capable of mimicking the neutrino interaction in the detector. This thesis covers different analysis topics related to the cosmic ray muon background at the DC far site. The thesis covers the identification of muons, the applied rejection technique and the determination of the muon rate at DC far site. Utilizing the muon rejection cuts of the neutrino analysis a muon rate of 13 s{sup -1} in the Inner Detector (ID) and of 46 s{sup -1} in the Inner Muon Veto (IV) was found. The efficiency of the IV to identify and reject cosmic ray muons was measured and a value greater than 99.97% has been found. The stability of the determined muon rates was examined and a seasonal modulation was found, compatible with a variation of the temperature profile of the atmosphere over the year. The parameter describing the strength between the relationship of temperature and muon rate change, the effective temperature coefficient was obtained: αT=0.39±0.01(stat.)±0.02(syst.). This gave the opportunity to measure the atmospheric kaon to pion ratio with the DC far detector which was found to be r(K/π)=0.14±0.06. Additional variations of muon rate with surface pressure were found and the barometric coefficient describing this effect was measured as βp=-0.59±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) permille /mbar. Another central theme of this work was

  6. Studying the muon background component in the Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The reactor anti-neutrino experiment Double Chooz (DC) will measure the third neutrino mixing angle θ 13 with very high precision. This mixing angle is connected to fundamental questions in particle physics beyond the current Standard Model. In DC neutrinos are detected via the Inverse Beta Decay reaction, which provides a clean signal distinguishable from most backgrounds. However, as neutrino interactions in the detector are very rare and an interfering muon background is present, a proper understanding and reduction of this background is mandatory. This is crucial because muons create fast neutrons and βn-emitters which lead to background capable of mimicking the neutrino interaction in the detector. This thesis covers different analysis topics related to the cosmic ray muon background at the DC far site. The thesis covers the identification of muons, the applied rejection technique and the determination of the muon rate at DC far site. Utilizing the muon rejection cuts of the neutrino analysis a muon rate of 13 s -1 in the Inner Detector (ID) and of 46 s -1 in the Inner Muon Veto (IV) was found. The efficiency of the IV to identify and reject cosmic ray muons was measured and a value greater than 99.97% has been found. The stability of the determined muon rates was examined and a seasonal modulation was found, compatible with a variation of the temperature profile of the atmosphere over the year. The parameter describing the strength between the relationship of temperature and muon rate change, the effective temperature coefficient was obtained: αT=0.39±0.01(stat.)±0.02(syst.). This gave the opportunity to measure the atmospheric kaon to pion ratio with the DC far detector which was found to be r(K/π)=0.14±0.06. Additional variations of muon rate with surface pressure were found and the barometric coefficient describing this effect was measured as βp=-0.59±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) permille /mbar. Another central theme of this work was the extrapolation

  7. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  8. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  9. Links Between Net Present Value and Shareholder Value from a Business Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Illés

    2012-01-01

    One of the oft-quoted theorems of finance is that decision making based on net present value will lead to the maximisation of shareholder value. The study analyses the reality background of this theorem within the disciplinary borders of business economics. Since finance is based directly on the bases of microeconomics, the study touches upon the presentation of the different disciplinary frames of business economics and microeconomics. The paper demonstrates that the economic content of shar...

  10. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  11. The value of earth observations: methods and findings on the value of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Richardson, Leslie A.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Newman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from Earth observation systems are used extensively in managing and monitoring natural resources, natural hazards, and the impacts of climate change, but the value of such data can be difficult to estimate, particularly when it is available at no cost. Assessing the socioeconomic and scientific value of these data provides a better understanding of the existing and emerging research, science, and applications related to this information and contributes to the decision making process regarding current and future Earth observation systems. Recent USGS research on Landsat data has advanced the literature in this area by using a variety of methods to estimate value. The results of a 2012 survey of Landsat users, a 2013 requirements assessment, and 2013 case studies of applications of Landsat imagery are discussed.

  12. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  13. The world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs) revisited: A broad overview of the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    The residents of the world's high background natural radiation areas (HBNRAs), such as Ramsar (in Iran), Guarapari (in Brazil), Orissa and Kerala (in India) and Yangjiang (in China) have lived in these areas for generations under extraordinary radiation fields. The failure of earlier epidemiological studies to report any substantial increase in cancer incidence in HBNRAs has raised some controversy regarding the validity of the linear no-threshold hypothesis. This paper reviews some of the most recent studies of HBNRAs with the intent of stimulating greater research interest in the dosimetric, epidemiological and radiobiological issues related to the world's HBNRAs and proposes solutions to the challenges facing HBNRA studies. This paper may serve as a useful reference for some of the harder-to-find literature. - Highlights: • Some of the challenging issues of HBNRAs have not been resolved. • A literature review of the most recent studies of HBNRAs has been conducted. • An overview of some of the challenging issues and viable solutions are presented

  14. Do Values Drive the Plan? Investigating the Nature and Role of Organizational Values in University Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robin Alison

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning is a common practice at higher education institutions. Furthermore, it is assumed that identifying organizational values is an essential part of the planning process. Values are often construed as foundational elements of strategic thinking that serve to "drive the plan". However, there is little conceptual or applied…

  15. Areas with increased natural radioactivity. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1990-03-01

    When studying possible health effects of environmental radioactivity to man, areas of high natural radiation background are especially valuable. The classical and most investigated areas with this respect in the world are the monazite sand regions on the beaches of the States of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in South-India. Indian scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) have investigated possible health effects to man by the high natural background radiation in this area since about thirty years. As a remarkable result of the epidemiological studies, no significant genetical radiation damage effects within a collective of about seventythousand investigated persons could be observed. When studying lung cancer risks as a function of natural radiation exposure in the region of relatively low doses, the central problem is, how to extrapolate from the high doses of uranium miners to zero doses. Since the relative number of lung cancer is too small and does not exceed the statistical noise level, no significant experimental approval could be made until today. Therefore, one has to rely mainly on three different hypothesis, among which one cannot make an experimental decision at the moment. Hypothesis I (linear extrapolation) is the most pessimistic one, which denies the existence of repair mechanisms. Hypethesis II (threshold behaviour) is more realistic and considers repair mechanisms. Hypothesis III (hormesis effect) assumes positive health effects at lower radiation doses because of the proved existence of repair mechanisms in the living human cell and their stimulation by irradiation. In possible agreement with hypothesis III, within the last few years several authors in different areas of the world with higher natural radiation background have observed a significant decrease of lung cancer risk with increasing natural radiation background. The authors of this report are demonstrating this behaviour for India with their sets of data. (orig./MG)

  16. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  17. Existence of dark matter with observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation substantiates three conservation laws of classical physics and all principles of quantum mechanics as creates the value of Planck’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical data indicate a presence of dark matter (DM) in the space, what is necessary for explanation of observed dynamics of the galaxies within Newtonian mechanics. DM, at its very low density (∼10-26kg/m3), constitutes main part of the matter in the Universe, 10 times the mass of all visible cosmic bodies. No doubt, namely properties of DM, which fills space, must determine its physical properties and fundamental physical laws. Taking into account observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), whose energy is ∼90% of all cosmic radiation, and understanding that this radiation is produced by DM motion, conservation laws of classical physics and principles of quantum mechanics receive their materialistic substantiation. Thus, CMBR high homogeneity and isotropy (∼10-4), and hence the same properties of DM (and space) justify momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, respectively, according to E. Noether's theorems. CMBR has black body spectrum at ∼2.7K with maximum wavelength ∼1.9·10-3m, what allows calculate the value of mechanical action produced by DM thermal motion (∼7·10-34 J·s). This value corresponds well to the Planck’s constant, which is the mechanical action too, what gives materialistic basis for all principles of quantum mechanics. Obtained results directly confirm the reality of DM existence, and show that CMBR is an observed display of DM thermal motion. Understanding that namely from DM occur known creation of electron-positron pairs as contrarily rotating material vortexes (according to their spins) let substantiate positron nature of ball lightning what first explains all its observed specific properties.

  18. Phase I Final Report: Ultra-Low Background Alpha Activity Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    In certain important physics experiments that search for rare-events, such as neutrino or double beta decay detections, it is critical to minimize the number of background events that arise from alpha particle emitted by the natural radioactivity in the materials used to construct the experiment. Similarly, the natural radioactivity in materials used to connect and package silicon microcircuits must also be minimized in order to eliminate ''soft errors'' caused by alpha particles depositing charges within the microcircuits and thereby changing their logic states. For these, and related reasons in the areas of environmental cleanup and nuclear materials tracking, there is a need that is important from commercial, scientific, and national security perspectives to develop an ultra-low background alpha counter that would be capable of measuring materials' alpha particle emissivity at rates well below 0.00001 alpha/cm 2 /hour. This rate, which corresponds to 24 alpha particles per square meter per day, is essentially impossible to achieve with existing commercial instruments because the natural radioactivity of the materials used to construct even the best of these counters produces background rates at the 0.005 alpha/cm 2 /hr level. Our company (XIA) had previously developed an instrument that uses electronic background suppression to operate at the 0.0005 0.005 alpha/cm 2 /hr level. This patented technology sets up an electric field between a large planar sample and a large planar anode, and fills the gap with pure Nitrogen. An alpha particle entering the chamber ionizes the Nitrogen, producing a ''track'' of electrons, which drift to the anode in the electric field. Tracks close to the anode take less than 10 microseconds (us) to be collected, giving a preamplifier signal with a 10 us risetime. Tracks from the sample have to drift across the full anode-sample gap and produce a 35 us risetime signal. By analyzing the preamplifier signals with a digital signal

  19. Socialcultural background of formation of classical metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of philosophy has shaped ideas about its nature and aims that were laid in ancient metaphysics, but have been substantially amended by civilizational change. Socialcultural background of philosophy became trends that began to emerge in late medieval culture has particularly flourished there during modern times. Sphere of existence is important for the development of any spiritual phenomenon. For metaphysics it is the idea of humanity, acting as a kind of cultural protest against the domination of religion. This caused criticism of the medieval way of life and thinking. The idea of human revival based on spirit of antiquity has grounded. Disclaimer theological philosophy medieval variant type is as opposed to free philosophizing, coupled with poetry and literature, University dogmatic philosophy. There were a «rediscovery» of Plato, Aristotle reinterpretation. Philosophers explored a problem of human emotions and relationships, considering the person as a whole being, which is inherent in the mind, which cannot be considered without bodily desires and emotions. Change of the values awakened activity of the human person, led its transformation settings concerning himself and the surrounding world. Thus objectively obtained expression and ideological embodiment of civilization in a need of a new type of man - to a much greater extent compared to medieval activity, initiative, freedom, rationality, responsibility. Under the influence of such attitudes changes within religion gradually took place. Through the efforts of thinkers like Luther, Calvin, Munzer there were laid ideas of the Reformation that go far beyond its borders, gaining general cultural nature. The Church was increasingly losing control over everyday human existence. Gradually standards of a free, relaxed life became conventional; requirements of the body, «earthly» spirit demands fulfilling played a huge role. Thought and Culture of the Renaissance reflects

  20. Energy futures project : backgrounder for consultation sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.

    2006-05-01

    The National Energy Board periodically publishes a long-term energy and demand report as part of an ongoing monitoring program. The next report is planned for release in 2007. This background document provided background information to ensure that consultation participants have a common understanding of key issues to be addressed during the cross-country consultations that have been planned before the release of the final version of the report. An outline of the proposed analytical approach was presented, as well as details of major assumptions and scenario storylines. Scenario themes included: economic, energy and environmental sustainability; a security-focused world shaped by war and civil strife; and strong global economic growth fueled by the rapid growth of the Chinese and Indian economies. A methodology overview was provided as well as a reference case. Issues related to energy supply included oil; natural gas liquids; natural gas; and electricity. Issues related to energy demand included the residential sector; the commercial sector; the industrial sector; and the transportation sector. Historical trends and forecasts were outlined using the macroeconomic variable of interest. Supply, demand, and supporting infrastructure across all energy forms within a North American and global context were considered. The impact of environmental management strategies were reviewed, as well as the role of the government in shaping policies. It was concluded that the purpose of the final report is to serve as a standard of references for parties interested in Canadian energy issues and trends as well as to inform decision makers of key risks and uncertainties facing the energy future.9 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Nature Identical Prosody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    ; such as low naturalness (DiSyn) and dependence on huge amounts of background data (UnitSyn). We present a hybrid model based on high-level speech data. As preliminary tests show, prosodic models combining DiSyn style at the phone level with UnitSyn style at the supra-segmental levels may approach Unit...

  2. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 48-A Vorovsky, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Wieser, A. [GSF, Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Ingolstaedter Landstr (Germany); Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M. [ZAO, Closed Corporation ' Company GEOSPETSECOLOGIA' (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for

  3. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A.; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Wieser, A.; Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N.; Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M.

    2006-01-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for teeth older

  4. Dynamical Properties of Discrete-Time Background Neural Networks with Uniform Firing Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a discrete-time background network with uniform firing rate and background input is investigated. The conditions for stability are firstly derived. An invariant set is then obtained so that the nondivergence of the network can be guaranteed. In the invariant set, it is proved that all trajectories of the network starting from any nonnegative value will converge to a fixed point under some conditions. In addition, bifurcation and chaos are discussed. It is shown that the network can engender bifurcation and chaos with the increase of background input. The computations of Lyapunov exponents confirm the chaotic behaviors.

  5. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  6. Lifetime value in business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on lifetime value assessment and its implementation and application in business processes. The lifetime value is closely connected to customer relationship management. The paper presents results of three consecutive researches devoted to issues of customer relationship management. The first two from 2008 and 2010 were conducted as quantitative ones; the one from 2009 had qualitative nature. The respondents were representatives of particular companies. The means for data collection was provided by ReLa system. We will focus on individual attributes of lifetime value of a customer, and relate them to approaches of authors mentioned in introduction. Based on the qualitative research data, the paper focuses on individual customer lifetime value parameters. These parameters include: the cost to the customer relationship acquisition and maintenance, profit generated from a particular customer, customer awareness value, the level of preparedness to adopt new products, the value of references and customer loyalty level. For each of these parameters, the paper provides specific recommendations. Moreover, it is possible to learn about the nature of these parameter assessments in the Czech environment.

  7. Non-critical Poincare invariant bosonic string backgrounds and closed string tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Gomez, Cesar; Hernandez, Lorenzo

    2001-01-01

    A new family of non critical bosonic string backgrounds in arbitrary space-time dimension D and with ISO(1,D-2) Poincare invariance are presented. The metric warping factor and dilaton agree asymptotically with the linear dilaton background. The closed string tachyon equation of motion enjoys, in the linear approximation, an exact solution of 'kink' type interpolating between different expectation values. A renormalization group flow interpretation, based on a closed string tachyon potential of type -T 2 e -T , is suggested

  8. Background approximation in automatic qualitative X-ray-fluorescent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, J.; Tsanov, T.; Stefanov, R.; Jordanov, N.; Paunov, M.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical method of finding the dependence of the background intensity (Isub(bg) on the wavelength is proposed, based on the approximation of the experimentally found values for the background in the course of an automatic qualitative X-ray fluorescent analysis with pre-set curve. It is assumed that the dependence I(lambda) will be well approximated by a curve of the type Isub(bg)=(lambda-lambda sub(o)sup(fsub(1)(lambda))exp[fsub(2)(lambda)] where fsub(1) (lambda) and f 2 (lambda) are linear functions with respect to the sought parameters. This assumption was checked out on a ''pure'' starch background, in which it is not known beforehand which points belong to the background. It was assumed that the dependence I(lambda) can be found from all minima in the spectrum. Three types of minima has been distinguished: 1. the lowest point between two well-solved X-ray lines; 2. a minimum obtained as a result of statistical fluctuations of the measured signal; 3. the lowest point between two overlapped lines. The minima strongly deviating from the background are removed from the obtained set. The sum-total of the remaining minima serves as a base for the approximation of the dependence I(lambda). The unknown parameters are determined by means of the LSM. The approximated curve obtained by this method is closer to the real background than the background determined by the method described by Kigaki Denki, as the effect of all recorded minima is taken into account. As an example the PbTe spectrum recorded with crystal LiF 220 is shown graphically. The curve well describes the background of the spectrum even in the regions in which there are no minima belonging to the background. (authors)

  9. Natural occurring radioactivity in Palmyra and its surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Raja, G.; Hushari, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Issa, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the